Central America :: Panama
  • Introduction :: Panama
  • Background:
    Explored and settled by the Spanish in the 16th century, Panama broke with Spain in 1821 and joined a union of Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela - named the Republic of Gran Colombia. When the latter dissolved in 1830, Panama remained part of Colombia. With US backing, Panama seceded from Colombia in 1903 and promptly signed a treaty with the US allowing for the construction of a canal and US sovereignty over a strip of land on either side of the structure (the Panama Canal Zone). The Panama Canal was built by the US Army Corps of Engineers between 1904 and 1914. In 1977, an agreement was signed for the complete transfer of the Canal from the US to Panama by the end of the century. Certain portions of the Zone and increasing responsibility over the Canal were turned over in the subsequent decades. With US help, dictator Manuel NORIEGA was deposed in 1989. The entire Panama Canal, the area supporting the Canal, and remaining US military bases were transferred to Panama by the end of 1999. An ambitious expansion project to more than double the Canal's capacity - by allowing for more Canal transits and larger ships - was carried out between 2007 and 2016.
    PANAMA SUMMARY: PDF
  • Geography :: Panama
  • Location:
    Central America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Pacific Ocean, between Colombia and Costa Rica
    Geographic coordinates:
    9 00 N, 80 00 W
    Map references:
    Central America and the Caribbean
    Area:
    total: 75,420 sq km
    land: 74,340 sq km
    water: 1,080 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 119
    Area - comparative:
    slightly smaller than South Carolina
    Land boundaries:
    total: 687 km
    border countries (2): Colombia 339 km, Costa Rica 348 km
    Coastline:
    2,490 km
    Maritime claims:
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm or edge of continental margin
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    Climate:
    tropical maritime; hot, humid, cloudy; prolonged rainy season (May to January), short dry season (January to May)
    Terrain:
    interior mostly steep, rugged mountains with dissected, upland plains; coastal plains with rolling hills
    Elevation:
    mean elevation: 360 m
    elevation extremes: 0 m lowest point: Pacific Ocean
    3475 highest point: Volcan Baru
    Natural resources:
    copper, mahogany forests, shrimp, hydropower
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 30.5% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 7.3% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 2.5% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 20.7% (2011 est.)
    forest: 43.6% (2011 est.)
    other: 25.9% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    321 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution:
    population is concentrated towards the center of the country, particularly around the Canal, but a sizeable segment of the populace also lives in the far west around David; the eastern third of the country is sparsely inhabited
    Natural hazards:
    occasional severe storms and forest fires in the Darien area
    Environment - current issues:
    water pollution from agricultural runoff threatens fishery resources; deforestation of tropical rain forest; land degradation and soil erosion threatens siltation of Panama Canal; air pollution in urban areas; mining threatens natural resources
    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
    Geography - note:
    strategic location on eastern end of isthmus forming land bridge connecting North and South America; controls Panama Canal that links North Atlantic Ocean via Caribbean Sea with North Pacific Ocean
  • People and Society :: Panama
  • Population:
    3,800,644 (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    Nationality:
    noun: Panamanian(s)
    adjective: Panamanian
    Ethnic groups:
    mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 65%, Native American 12.3% (Ngabe 7.6%, Kuna 2.4%, Embera 0.9%, Bugle 0.8%, other 0.4%, unspecified 0.2%), black or African descent 9.2%, mulatto 6.8%, white 6.7% (2010 est.)
    Languages:
    Spanish (official), indigenous languages (including Ngabere (or Guaymi), Buglere, Kuna, Embera, Wounaan, Naso (or Teribe), and Bri Bri), Panamanian English Creole (similar to Jamaican English Creole; a mixture of English and Spanish with elements of Ngabere; also known as Guari Guari and Colon Creole), English, Chinese (Yue and Hakka), Arabic, French Creole, other (Yiddish, Hebrew, Korean, Japanese)

    note: many Panamanians are bilingual

    Religions:
    Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant 15%
    Demographic profile:

    Panama is a country of demographic and economic contrasts. It is in the midst of a demographic transition, characterized by steadily declining rates of fertility, mortality, and population growth, but disparities persist based on wealth, geography, and ethnicity. Panama has one of the fastest growing economies in Latin America and dedicates substantial funding to social programs, yet poverty and inequality remain prevalent. The indigenous population accounts for a growing share of Panama's poor and extreme poor, while the non-indigenous rural poor have been more successful at rising out of poverty through rural-to-urban labor migration. The government's large expenditures on untargeted, indirect subsidies for water, electricity, and fuel have been ineffective, but its conditional cash transfer program has shown some promise in helping to decrease extreme poverty among the indigenous population.

    Panama has expanded access to education and clean water, but the availability of sanitation and, to a lesser extent, electricity remains poor. The increase in secondary schooling - led by female enrollment - is spreading to rural and indigenous areas, which probably will help to alleviate poverty if educational quality and the availability of skilled jobs improve. Inadequate access to sanitation contributes to a high incidence of diarrhea in Panama's children, which is one of the main causes of Panama's elevated chronic malnutrition rate, especially among indigenous communities.

    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 26.13% (male 506,953 /female 486,129)
    15-24 years: 16.84% (male 326,207 /female 313,894)
    25-54 years: 40.35% (male 776,395 /female 757,008)
    55-64 years: 8.11% (male 152,894 /female 155,353)
    65 years and over: 8.57% (male 149,415 /female 176,396) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 54.8 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 43.1 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 11.7 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 8.5 (2015 est.)
    Median age:
    total: 29.5 years
    male: 29 years
    female: 29.9 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    Population growth rate:
    1.24% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    Birth rate:
    17.6 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    Death rate:
    5 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 195
    Net migration rate:
    -0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    Population distribution:
    population is concentrated towards the center of the country, particularly around the Canal, but a sizeable segment of the populace also lives in the far west around David; the eastern third of the country is sparsely inhabited
    Urbanization:
    urban population: 67.7% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 2.06% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population:
    1.783 million PANAMA CITY (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Maternal mortality rate:
    94 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 9.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 10.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 8.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 78.9 years (2018 est.)
    male: 76.1 years (2018 est.)
    female: 81.9 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    Total fertility rate:
    2.28 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    Contraceptive prevalence rate:
    62.8% (2013)
    Health expenditures:
    8% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    Physicians density:
    1.59 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
    Hospital bed density:
    2.3 beds/1,000 population (2013)
    Drinking water source:
    improved: urban: 97.7% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 86.6% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 94.7% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 2.3% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 11.4% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 5.3% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved: urban: 83.5% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 58% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 75% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 16.5% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 42% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 25% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    1% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    25,000 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    <1000 (2017 est.)
    Major infectious diseases:
    degree of risk: intermediate (2016)
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea (2016)
    vectorborne diseases: dengue fever (2016)

    note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus

    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
    22.7% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
    3.9% (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    Education expenditures:
    3.2% of GDP (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    Literacy:
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
    total population: 95% (2015 est.)
    male: 95.7% (2015 est.)
    female: 94.4% (2015 est.)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 13 years (2013)
    male: 12 years (2013)
    female: 13 years (2013)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
    total: 11.5% (2016 est.)
    male: 9% (2016 est.)
    female: 16% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
  • Government :: Panama
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: Republic of Panama
    conventional short form: Panama
    local long form: Republica de Panama
    local short form: Panama
    etymology: according to tradition, the name derives from a former indigenous fishing village and its nearby beach that were called "Panama" meaning "an abundance of fish"
    Government type:
    presidential republic
    Capital:
    name: Panama City
    geographic coordinates: 8 58 N, 79 32 W
    time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    Administrative divisions:
    10 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 3 indigenous regions* (comarcas); Bocas del Toro, Chiriqui, Cocle, Colon, Darien, Embera-Wounaan*, Herrera, Guna Yala*, Los Santos, Ngobe-Bugle*, Panama, Panama Oeste, Veraguas
    Independence:
    3 November 1903 (from Colombia; became independent from Spain on 28 November 1821)
    National holiday:
    Independence Day (Separation Day), 3 November (1903)
    Constitution:
    history: several previous; latest effective 11 October 1972 (2018)
    amendments: proposed by the National Assembly, by the Cabinet, or by the Supreme Court of Justice; passage requires approval by one of two procedures: 1) absolute majority vote of the Assembly membership in each of three readings and by absolute majority vote of the next elected Assembly in a single reading without text modifications; 2) absolute majority vote of the Assembly membership in each of three readings, followed by absolute majority vote of the next elected Assembly in each of three readings with text modifications, and approval in a referendum; amended several times, last in 2004; note - in May 2018, President VARELA began the process to amend the constitution (2018)
    International law organization participation:
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    Citizenship:
    citizenship by birth: yes
    citizenship by descent only: yes
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    Suffrage:
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: President Juan Carlos VARELA (since 1 July 2014); Vice President Isabel de SAINT MALO de Alvarado (since 1 July 2014); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Juan Carlos VARELA (since 1 July 2014); Vice President Isabel de SAINT MALO de Alvarado (since 1 July 2014)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
    elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by simple majority popular vote for a 5-year term; president eligible for a single non-consecutive term); election last held on 4 May 2014 (next to be held in 2019)
    election results: Juan Carlos VARELA elected president; percent of vote - Juan Carlos VARELA (PP) 39.1%, Jose Domingo ARIAS (CD) 31.4%, Juan Carlos NAVARRO (PRD) 28.2%, other 1.3%
    Legislative branch:
    description: unicameral National Assembly or Asamblea Nacional (71 seats; 45 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies - populous towns and cities - by proportional representation vote and 26 directly elected in single-seat constituencies - outlying rural districts - by plurality vote; members serve 5-year terms)
    elections: last held on 4 May 2014 (next to be held in May 2019)
    election results: percent of vote by party - CD 33.7%, PRD 31.5%, Panamenista Party 20%, MOLIRENA 7.2%, PP 3.3%, other 1%, independent 3%; seats by party - PRD 30, CD 25, Panamenista 12, MOLIRENA 2, PP 1, independent 1

    note: an alliance between the Panamenista Party and Democratic Revolutionary Party (PRD) fractured after the 2014 election, but a loose coalition composed of Panamenista and moderate PRD and CD legislators generally work together to support the president’s agenda

    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (consists of 9 magistrates and 9 alternates and divided into civil, criminal, administrative, and general business chambers)
    judge selection and term of office: magistrates appointed by the president for staggered 10-year terms
    subordinate courts: appellate courts or Tribunal Superior; Labor Supreme Courts; Court of Audit; circuit courts or Tribunal Circuital (2 each in 9 of the 10 provinces); municipal courts; electoral, family, maritime, and adolescent courts
    Political parties and leaders:
    Democratic Change or CD [Romulo ROUX]
    Democratic Revolutionary Party or PRD [Benicio ROBINSON]
    Nationalist Republican Liberal Movement or MOLIRENA [Francisco "Pancho" ALEMAN]
    Panamenista Party [Jose Luis "Popi" VARELA Rodriguez] (formerly the Arnulfista Party)
    Popular Party or PP [Juan Carlos ARANGO Reese] (formerly Christian Democratic Party or PDC)
    International organization participation:
    BCIE, CAN (observer), CD, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, SICA, UN, UNASUR (observer), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Emanuel Arturo GONZALEZ-REVILLA Lince (since 18 September 2014)
    chancery: 2862 McGill Terrace NW, Washington, DC 20007
    telephone: [1] (202) 483-1407
    FAX: [1] (202) 483-8413
    consulate(s) general: Houston, Miami, Long Beach (CA), New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, Tampa, Washington DC
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant), Charge d'Affairs Roxanne CABRAL (since 9 March 2018)
    embassy: Edificio 783, Avenida Demetrio Basilio Lakas Panama, Apartado Postal 0816-02561, Zona 5, Panama City
    mailing address: American Embassy Panama, Unit 0945, APO AA 34002; American Embassy Panama, 9100 Panama City PL, Washington, DC 20521-9100
    telephone: [507] 317-5000
    FAX: [507] 317-5445 (2018)
    Flag description:
    divided into four, equal rectangles; the top quadrants are white (hoist side) with a blue five-pointed star in the center and plain red; the bottom quadrants are plain blue (hoist side) and white with a red five-pointed star in the center; the blue and red colors are those of the main political parties (Conservatives and Liberals respectively) and the white denotes peace between them; the blue star stands for the civic virtues of purity and honesty, the red star signifies authority and law
    National symbol(s):
    harpy eagle; national colors: blue, white, red
    National anthem:
    name: "Himno Istmeno" (Isthmus Hymn)
    lyrics/music: Jeronimo DE LA OSSA/Santos A. JORGE

    note: adopted 1925

  • Economy :: Panama
  • Economy - overview:

    Panama's dollar-based economy rests primarily on a well-developed services sector that accounts for more than three-quarters of GDP. Services include operating the Panama Canal, logistics, banking, the Colon Free Trade Zone, insurance, container ports, flagship registry, and tourism and Panama is a center for offshore banking. Panama's transportation and logistics services sectors, along with infrastructure development projects, have boosted economic growth; however, public debt surpassed $37 billion in 2016 because of excessive government spending and public works projects. The US-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement was approved by Congress and signed into law in October 2011, and entered into force in October 2012.

    Future growth will be bolstered by the Panama Canal expansion project that began in 2007 and was completed in 2016 at a cost of $5.3 billion - about 10-15% of current GDP. The expansion project more than doubled the Canal's capacity, enabling it to accommodate high-capacity vessels such as tankers and neopanamax vessels that are too large to traverse the existing canal. The US and China are the top users of the Canal.

    Strong economic performance has not translated into broadly shared prosperity, as Panama has the second worst income distribution in Latin America. About one-fourth of the population lives in poverty; however, from 2006 to 2012 poverty was reduced by 10 percentage points.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $104.1 billion (2017 est.)
    $98.82 billion (2016 est.)
    $94.12 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 83
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $61.84 billion (2017 est.) (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    5.4% (2017 est.)
    5% (2016 est.)
    5.8% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $25,400 (2017 est.)
    $24,500 (2016 est.)
    $23,700 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 80
    Gross national saving:
    38.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
    39.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
    36.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 45.6% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 10.7% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 42.9% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 3% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 41.9% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -44.2% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 2.4% (2017 est.)
    industry: 15.7% (2017 est.)
    services: 82% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    bananas, rice, corn, coffee, sugarcane, vegetables; livestock; shrimp
    Industries:
    construction, brewing, cement and other construction materials, sugar milling
    Industrial production growth rate:
    6.3% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    Labor force:
    1.633 million (2017 est.)

    note: shortage of skilled labor, but an oversupply of unskilled labor

    country comparison to the world: 129
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 17%
    industry: 18.6%
    services: 64.4% (2009 est.)
    Unemployment rate:
    6% (2017 est.)
    5.5% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    Population below poverty line:
    23% (2015 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: 38.9% (2014 est.)
    highest 10%: 38.9% (2014 est.)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index:
    50.7 (2014 est.)
    56.1 (2003)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    Budget:
    revenues: 12.43 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 13.44 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    20.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 152
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    -1.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    Public debt:
    37.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
    37.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    Fiscal year:
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    0.9% (2017 est.)
    0.7% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    Commercial bank prime lending rate:
    7.52% (31 December 2017 est.)
    7.53% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    Stock of narrow money:
    $8.347 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $8.249 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    Stock of broad money:
    $8.347 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $8.249 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    Stock of domestic credit:
    $51.05 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $46.41 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    Market value of publicly traded shares:
    $12.54 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    $10.68 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $8.348 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    Current account balance:
    -$3.036 billion (2017 est.)
    -$3.16 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 176
    Exports:
    $15.5 billion (2017 est.)
    $14.7 billion (2016 est.)

    note: includes the Colon Free Zone

    country comparison to the world: 76
    Exports - partners:
    US 18.9%, Netherlands 16.6%, China 6.5%, Costa Rica 5.4%, India 5.1%, Vietnam 5% (2017)
    Exports - commodities:
    fruit and nuts, fish, iron and steel waste, wood
    Imports:
    $21.91 billion (2017 est.)
    $20.51 billion (2016 est.)

    note: includes the Colon Free Zone

    country comparison to the world: 73
    Imports - commodities:
    fuels, machinery, vehicles, iron and steel rods, pharmaceuticals
    Imports - partners:
    US 24.4%, China 9.8%, Mexico 4.9% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $2.703 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $3.878 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    Debt - external:
    $91.53 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $83.81 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
    $56.7 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $50.62 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
    $11.38 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $10.71 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    Exchange rates:
    balboas (PAB) per US dollar -
    1 (2017 est.)
    1 (2016 est.)
    1 (2015 est.)
    1 (2014 est.)
    1 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Panama
  • Electricity access:
    population without electricity: 300,000 (2013)
    electrification - total population: 91% (2013)
    electrification - urban areas: 94% (2013)
    electrification - rural areas: 80% (2013)
    Electricity - production:
    10.6 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    Electricity - consumption:
    8.708 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    Electricity - exports:
    139 million kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    Electricity - imports:
    30 million kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    3.4 million kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    36% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 175
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 161
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    51% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    13% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    Crude oil - production:
    0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 184
    Crude oil - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    Crude oil - imports:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 180
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    0 bbl (1 January 2018)
    country comparison to the world: 180
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 188
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    146,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    66 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    129,200 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    Natural gas - production:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 182
    Natural gas - consumption:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 186
    Natural gas - exports:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    Natural gas - imports:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 171
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 180
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    26.08 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
  • Communications :: Panama
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 603,638 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 16 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 5,977,641 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 159 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    Telephone system:
    general assessment: domestic and international facilities well-developed (2015)
    domestic: mobile-cellular telephone subscribership has increased rapidly (2015)
    international: country code - 507; landing point for the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1), the MAYA-1, and PAN-AM submarine cable systems that together provide links to the US and parts of the Caribbean, Central America, and South America; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); connected to the Central American Microwave System (2015)
    Broadcast media:
    multiple privately owned TV networks and a government-owned educational TV station; multi-channel cable and satellite TV subscription services are available; more than 100 commercial radio stations (2007)
    Internet country code:
    .pa
    Internet users:
    total: 2,000,833 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 54% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions:
    total: 446,076 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 12 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
  • Transportation :: Panama
  • National air transport system:
    number of registered air carriers: 4 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 103 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 12,018,103 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 121,567,075 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    HP (2016)
    Airports:
    117 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 57 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 1 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2017)
    914 to 1,523 m: 20 (2017)
    under 914 m: 30 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways:
    total: 60 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 8 (2013)
    under 914 m: 51 (2013)
    Heliports:
    3 (2013)
    Pipelines:
    128 km oil (2013)
    Railways:
    total: 77 km (2014)
    standard gauge: 77 km 1.435-m gauge (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    Roadways:
    total: 15,137 km (2010)
    paved: 6,351 km (2010)
    unpaved: 8,786 km (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    Waterways:
    800 km (includes the 82-km Panama Canal that is being widened) (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    Merchant marine:
    total: 8,052 (2017)
    by type: bulk carrier 2665, container ship 617, general cargo 1293, oil tanker 809, other 2668 (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 2
    Ports and terminals:
    major seaport(s): Balboa, Colon, Cristobal
    container port(s) (TEUs): Balboa (2,831,893), Colon (3,258,381) (2016)
  • Military and Security :: Panama
  • Military branches:
    no regular military forces; Panamanian Public Security Forces (subordinate to the Ministry of Public Security), comprising the National Police (PNP), National Air-Naval Service (SENAN), National Border Service (SENAFRONT) (2013)
    Military - note:
    on 10 February 1990, the government of then President ENDARA abolished Panama's military and reformed the security apparatus by creating the Panamanian Public Forces; in October 1994, Panama's National Assembly approved a constitutional amendment prohibiting the creation of a standing military force but allowing the temporary establishment of special police units to counter acts of "external aggression"
  • Transnational Issues :: Panama
  • Disputes - international:
    organized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia operate within the remote border region with Panama
    Refugees and internally displaced persons:
    refugees (country of origin): 15,614 (Colombia) (2016), 60,699 (Venezuela) (economic and political crisis; includes Venezuelans who have claimed asylum or have received alternative legal stay) (2018)
    Illicit drugs:
    major cocaine transshipment point and primary money-laundering center for narcotics revenue; money-laundering activity is especially heavy in the Colon Free Zone; offshore financial center; negligible signs of coca cultivation; monitoring of financial transactions is improving; official corruption remains a major problem