Europe :: Slovenia
  • Introduction :: Slovenia
  • Background:
    The Slovene lands were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the latter's dissolution at the end of World War I. In 1918, the Slovenes joined the Serbs and Croats in forming a new multinational state, which was named Yugoslavia in 1929. After World War II, Slovenia was one of the republics in the restored Yugoslavia, which, though communist, soon distanced itself from the Soviet Union and spearheaded the Non-Aligned Movement. Dissatisfied with the exercise of power by the majority Serbs, the Slovenes succeeded in establishing their independence in 1991 after a short 10-day war. Historical ties to Western Europe, a growing economy, and a stable democracy have assisted in Slovenia's postcommunist transition. Slovenia acceded to both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004; it joined the euro zone and the Schengen zone in 2007.
  • Geography :: Slovenia
  • Location:
    south Central Europe, Julian Alps between Austria and Croatia
    Geographic coordinates:
    46 07 N, 14 49 E
    Map references:
    total: 20,273 sq km
    land: 20,151 sq km
    water: 122 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 155
    Area - comparative:
    slightly smaller than New Jersey
    Area comparison map: Area comparison map
    Land boundaries:
    total: 1,211 km
    border countries (4): Austria 299 km, Croatia 600 km, Hungary 94 km, Italy 218 km
    46.6 km
    Maritime claims:
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    Mediterranean climate on the coast, continental climate with mild to hot summers and cold winters in the plateaus and valleys to the east
    a short southwestern coastal strip of Karst topography on the Adriatic; an alpine mountain region lies adjacent to Italy and Austria in the north; mixed mountains and valleys with numerous rivers to the east
    mean elevation: 492 m
    lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
    highest point: Triglav 2,864 m
    Natural resources:
    lignite, lead, zinc, building stone, hydropower, forests
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 22.8% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 8.4% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 1.3% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 13.1% (2011 est.)
    forest: 62.3% (2011 est.)
    other: 14.9% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    60 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution:
    a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations; pockets in the mountainous northwest exhibit less density than elsewhere
    Natural hazards:
    flooding; earthquakes
    Environment - current issues:
    air pollution from road traffic, domestic heating (wood buring), power generation, and industry; water pollution; biodiversity protection
    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note:
    despite its small size, this eastern Alpine country controls some of Europe's major transit routes
  • People and Society :: Slovenia
  • Population:
    2,102,678 (July 2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 148
    noun: Slovene(s)
    adjective: Slovenian
    Ethnic groups:
    Slovene 83.1%, Serb 2%, Croat 1.8%, Bosniak 1.1%, other or unspecified 12% (2002 est.)
    Slovene (official) 91.1%, Serbo-Croatian 4.5%, other or unspecified 4.4%, Italian (official, only in municipalities where Italian national communities reside), Hungarian (official, only in municipalities where Hungarian national communities reside) (2002 census)
    Catholic 57.8%, Muslim 2.4%, Orthodox 2.3%, other Christian 0.9%, unaffiliated 3.5%, other or unspecified 23%, none 10.1% (2002 est.)
    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 14.84% (male 160,134/female 151,960)
    15-24 years: 9.01% (male 98,205/female 91,318)
    25-54 years: 40.73% (male 449,930/female 406,395)
    55-64 years: 14.19% (male 148,785/female 149,635)
    65 years and over: 21.23% (male 192,420/female 253,896) (2020 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 55.9
    youth dependency ratio: 23.6
    elderly dependency ratio: 32.3
    potential support ratio: 3.1 (2020 est.)
    Median age:
    total: 44.9 years
    male: 43.4 years
    female: 46.6 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    Population growth rate:
    0.01% (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    Birth rate:
    8.7 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 212
    Death rate:
    10.3 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    Net migration rate:
    1.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    Population distribution:
    a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations; pockets in the mountainous northwest exhibit less density than elsewhere
    urban population: 55.1% of total population (2020)
    rate of urbanization: 0.56% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030: PDF
    Major urban areas - population:
    286,000 LJUBLJANA (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.11 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
    total population: 1 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth:
    29.1 years (2014 est.)
    Maternal mortality rate:
    7 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 1.7 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 1.8 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 1.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 228
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 81.4 years
    male: 78.5 years
    female: 84.4 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    Total fertility rate:
    1.59 children born/woman (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 188
    Drinking water source:
    improved: urban: 100% of population
    rural: 100% of population
    total: 100% of population
    unimproved: urban: 0% of population
    rural: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
    Current Health Expenditure:
    8.2% (2017)
    Physicians density:
    3.09 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
    Hospital bed density:
    4.5 beds/1,000 population (2017)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved: urban: 100% of population
    rural: 100% of population
    total: 100% of population
    unimproved: urban: 0% of population
    rural: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    <.1% (2018 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    <1000 (2017 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    <100 (2018 est.)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
    20.2% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    Education expenditures:
    4.8% of GDP (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    definition: NA
    total population: 99.7%
    male: 99.7%
    female: 99.7% (2015)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 17 years
    male: 17 years
    female: 18 years (2016)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
    total: 8.8%
    male: 8.3%
    female: 9.6% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135
  • Government :: Slovenia
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: Republic of Slovenia
    conventional short form: Slovenia
    local long form: Republika Slovenija
    local short form: Slovenija
    former: People's Republic of Slovenia, Socialist Republic of Slovenia
    etymology: the country's name means "Land of the Slavs" in Slovene
    Government type:
    parliamentary republic
    name: Ljubljana
    geographic coordinates: 46 03 N, 14 31 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    etymology: likely related to the Slavic root "ljub", meaning "to like" or "to love"; by tradition, the name is related to the Slovene word "ljubljena" meaning "beloved"
    Administrative divisions:

    201 municipalities (obcine, singular - obcina) and 11 urban municipalities (mestne obcine, singular - mestna obcina)

    municipalities: Ajdovscina, Ankaran, Apace, Beltinci, Benedikt, Bistrica ob Sotli, Bled, Bloke, Bohinj, Borovnica, Bovec, Braslovce, Brda, Brezice, Brezovica, Cankova, Cerklje na Gorenjskem, Cerknica, Cerkno, Cerkvenjak, Cirkulane, Crensovci, Crna na Koroskem, Crnomelj, Destrnik, Divaca, Dobje, Dobrepolje, Dobrna, Dobrova-Polhov Gradec, Dobrovnik/Dobronak, Dolenjske Toplice, Dol pri Ljubljani, Domzale, Dornava, Dravograd, Duplek, Gorenja Vas-Poljane, Gorisnica, Gorje, Gornja Radgona, Gornji Grad, Gornji Petrovci, Grad, Grosuplje, Hajdina, Hoce-Slivnica, Hodos, Horjul, Hrastnik, Hrpelje-Kozina, Idrija, Ig, Ilirska Bistrica, Ivancna Gorica, Izola/Isola, Jesenice, Jezersko, Jursinci, Kamnik, Kanal, Kidricevo, Kobarid, Kobilje, Kocevje, Komen, Komenda, Kosanjevica na Krki, Kostel, Kozje, Kranjska Gora, Krizevci, Krsko, Kungota, Kuzma, Lasko, Lenart, Lendava/Lendva, Litija, Ljubno, Ljutomer, Log-Dragomer, Logatec, Loska Dolina, Loski Potok, Lovrenc na Pohorju, Luce, Lukovica,

    Majsperk, Makole, Markovci, Medvode, Menges, Metlika, Mezica, Miklavz na Dravskem Polju, Miren-Kostanjevica, Mirna, Mirna Pec, Mislinja, Mokronog-Trebelno, Moravce, Moravske Toplice, Mozirje, Muta, Naklo, Nazarje, Odranci, Oplotnica, Ormoz, Osilnica, Pesnica, Piran/Pirano, Pivka, Podcetrtek, Podlehnik, Podvelka, Poljcane, Polzela, Postojna, Prebold, Preddvor, Prevalje, Puconci, Race-Fram, Radece, Radenci, Radlje ob Dravi, Radovljica, Ravne na Koroskem, Razkrizje, Recica ob Savinji, Rence-Vogrsko, Ribnica, Ribnica na Pohorju, Rogaska Slatina, Rogasovci, Rogatec, Ruse, Selnica ob Dravi, Semic, Sevnica, Sezana, Slovenska Bistrica, Slovenske Konjice, Sodrazica, Solcava, Sredisce ob Dravi, Starse, Straza, Sveta Ana, Sveta Trojica v Slovenskih Goricah, Sveti Andraz v Slovenskih Goricah, Sveti Jurij ob Scavnici, Sveti Jurij v Slovenskih Goricah, Sveti Tomaz, Salovci, Sempeter-Vrtojba, Sencur, Sentilj, Sentjernej, Sentjur, Sentrupert, Skocjan, Skofja Loka, Skofljica, Smarje pri Jelsah, Smarjeske Toplice, Smartno ob Paki, Smartno pri Litiji, Sostanj, Store, Tabor, Tisina, Tolmin, Trbovlje, Trebnje, Trnovska Vas, Trzic, Trzin, Turnisce, Velika Polana, Velike Lasce, Verzej, Videm, Vipava, Vitanje, Vodice, Vojnik, Vransko, Vrhnika, Vuzenica, Zagorje ob Savi, Zalec, Zavrc, Zelezniki, Zetale, Ziri, Zirovnica, Zrece, Zuzemberk

    urban municipalities: Celje, Koper-Capodistria, Kranj, Ljubljana, Maribor, Murska Sobota, Nova Gorica, Novo Mesto, Ptuj, Slovenj Gradec, Velenje

    25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)
    National holiday:
    Independence Day/Statehood Day, 25 June (1991)
    history: previous 1974 (preindependence); latest passed by Parliament 23 December 1991
    amendments: proposed by at least 20 National Assembly members, by the government, or by petition of at least 30,000 voters; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly; referendum required if agreed upon by at least 30 Assembly members; passage in a referendum requires participation of a majority of eligible voters and a simple majority of votes cast; amended several times, last in 2015
    International law organization participation:
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Slovenia; both parents if the child is born outside of Slovenia
    dual citizenship recognized: yes, for select cases
    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years, the last 5 of which have been continuous
    18 years of age, 16 if employed; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: President Borut PAHOR (since 22 December 2012)
    head of government: Prime Minister Janez JANSA (since 13 March 2020)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, elected by the National Assembly
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second consecutive term); election last held on 22 October with a runoff on 12 November 2017 (next election to be held by November 2022); following National Assembly elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually nominated prime minister by the president and elected by the National Assembly
    election results: Borut PAHOR is reelected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Borut PAHOR (independent) 47.1%, Marjan SAREC (Marjan Sarec List) 25%, Romana TOMC (SDS) 13.7%, Ljudmila NOVAK (NSi) 7.2%, other 7%; percent of vote in second round - Borut PAHOR 52.9%, Marjan SAREC 47.1%; Janez JANSA (SDS) elected prime minister on 3 March 2020, National Assembly vote - 52-31
    Legislative branch:
    description: bicameral Parliament consists of:
    National Council or Drzavni Svet (40 seats; members indirectly elected by an electoral college to serve 5-year terms); note - the Council is primarily an advisory body with limited legislative powers
    National Assembly or Drzavni Zbor (90 seats; 88 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 2 directly elected in special constituencies for Italian and Hungarian minorities by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms)
    National Council - last held on 22 November 2017 (next to be held in 2022)
    National Assembly - last held on 3 June 2018 (next to be held no later than 2022)
    election results:
    National Council - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition - men 36, women 4, percent of women 10%
    National Assembly - percent of vote by party - SDS 24.9%, LMS 12.7%, SD 9.9%, SMC 9.8%, Levica 9.3%, NSi 7.1%, Stranka AB 5.1%, DeSUS 4.9%, SNS 4.2%, other 12.1%; seats by party - SDS 25, LMS 13, SD 10, SMC 10, Levica 9, NSi 7, Stranka AB 5, DeSUS 5, SNS 4, Italian and Hungarian minorities 2; composition - men 68, women 22, percent of women 24.4%; note - total Parliament percent of women 20%
    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the court president and 37 judges organized into civil, criminal, commercial, labor and social security, administrative, and registry departments); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president, vice president, and 7 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president and vice president appointed by the National Assembly upon the proposal of the Minister of Justice based on the opinions of the Judicial Council, an 11-member independent body elected by the National Assembly from proposals submitted by the president, attorneys, law universities, and sitting judges; other Supreme Court judges elected by the National Assembly from candidates proposed by the Judicial Council; Supreme Court judges serve for life; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the National Assembly from nominations by the president of the republic; Constitutional Court president selected from among its own membership for a 3-year term; other judges elected for single 9-year terms
    subordinate courts: county, district, regional, and high courts; specialized labor-related and social courts; Court of Audit; Administrative Court
    Political parties and leaders:
    Democratic Party of Pensioners of Slovenia or DeSUS [Aleksandra PIVEC]
    List of Marjan Sarec or LMS [Marjan SAREC]
    Modern Center Party or SMC [Miro CERAR]
    New Slovenia or NSi [Matej TONIN]
    Party of Alenka Bratusek or Stranka AB [Alenka BRATUSEK] (formerly Alliance of Social Liberal Democrats or ZSD and before that Alliance of Alenka Bratusek or ZaAB)
    Slovenian Democratic Party or SDS [Janez JANSA]
    Slovenian National Party or SNS [Zmago JELINCIC Plemeniti]
    Social Democrats or SD [Dejan ZIDAN]
    The Left or Levica [Luka MESEC] (successor to United Left or ZL)
    International organization participation:
    Australia Group, BIS, CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA (cooperating state), EU, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    Ambassador Stanislav VIDOVIC (since 21 July 2017)
    chancery: 2410 California Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 386-6601
    FAX: [1] (202) 386-6633
    consulate(s) general: Cleveland (OH)
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Lynda C. BLANCHARD (since 29 August 2019)
    telephone: [386] (1) 200-5500
    embassy: Presernova 31, 1000 Ljubljana
    mailing address: American Embassy Ljubljana, US Department of State, 7140 Ljubljana Place, Washington, DC 20521-7140
    FAX: [386] (1) 200-5555
    Flag description:
    three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red, derive from the medieval coat of arms of the Duchy of Carniola; the Slovenian seal (a shield with the image of Triglav, Slovenia's highest peak, in white against a blue background at the center; beneath it are two wavy blue lines depicting seas and rivers, and above it are three six-pointed stars arranged in an inverted triangle, which are taken from the coat of arms of the Counts of Celje, the prominent Slovene dynastic house of the late 14th and early 15th centuries) appears in the upper hoist side of the flag centered on the white and blue bands
    National symbol(s):
    Mount Triglav; national colors: white, blue, red
    National anthem:
    name: "Zdravljica" (A Toast)
    lyrics/music: France PRESEREN/Stanko PREMRL

    note: adopted in 1989 while still part of Yugoslavia; originally written in 1848; the full poem, whose seventh verse is used as the anthem, speaks of pan-Slavic nationalism

  • Economy :: Slovenia
  • Economy - overview:

    With excellent infrastructure, a well-educated work force, and a strategic location between the Balkans and Western Europe, Slovenia has one of the highest per capita GDPs in Central Europe, despite having suffered a protracted recession in the 2008-09 period in the wake of the global financial crisis. Slovenia became the first 2004 EU entrant to adopt the euro (on 1 January 2007) and has experienced a stable political and economic transition.


    In March 2004, Slovenia became the first transition country to graduate from borrower status to donor partner at the World Bank. In 2007, Slovenia was invited to begin the process for joining the OECD; it became a member in 2012. From 2014 to 2016, export-led growth, fueled by demand in larger European markets, pushed annual GDP growth above 2.3%. Growth reached 5.0% in 2017 and is projected to near or reach 5% in 2018. What used to be stubbornly high unemployment fell below 5.5% in early 2018, driven by strong exports and increasing consumption that boosted labor demand. Continued fiscal consolidation through increased tax collection and social security contributions will likely result in a balanced government budget in 2019.


    Prime Minister CERAR’s government took office in September 2014, pledging to press ahead with commitments to privatize a select group of state-run companies, rationalize public spending, and further stabilize the banking sector. Efforts to privatize Slovenia’s largely state-owned banking sector have largely stalled, however, amid concerns about an ongoing dispute over Yugoslav-era foreign currency deposits.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $71.23 billion (2017 est.)
    $67.84 billion (2016 est.)
    $65.77 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 99
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $48.87 billion (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    5% (2017 est.)
    3.1% (2016 est.)
    2.3% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $34,500 (2017 est.)
    $32,900 (2016 est.)
    $31,900 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 58
    Gross national saving:
    26.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
    24.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
    23.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 52.6% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 18.2% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 18.4% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 1.1% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 82.3% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -72.6% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 1.8% (2017 est.)
    industry: 32.2% (2017 est.)
    services: 65.9% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    hops, wheat, coffee, corn, apples, pears; cattle, sheep, poultry
    ferrous metallurgy and aluminum products, lead and zinc smelting; electronics (including military electronics), trucks, automobiles, electric power equipment, wood products, textiles, chemicals, machine tools
    Industrial production growth rate:
    8.6% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    Labor force:
    959,000 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 145
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 5.5%
    industry: 31.2%
    services: 63.3% (2017 est.)
    Unemployment rate:
    6.6% (2017 est.)
    8% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    Population below poverty line:
    13.9% (2016 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: 3.8%
    highest 10%: 20.1% (2016)
    revenues: 21.07 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 21.06 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    43.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    0% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    Public debt:
    73.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
    78.6% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: defined by the EU's Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities: currency and deposits, securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives, and loans; general government sector comprises the central, state, local government, and social security funds

    country comparison to the world: 44
    Fiscal year:
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    1.4% (2017 est.)
    -0.1% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    Current account balance:
    $3.475 billion (2017 est.)
    $2.461 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    $32.14 billion (2017 est.)
    $27.65 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    Exports - partners:
    Germany 18.9%, Italy 10.7%, Austria 7.4%, Croatia 7.1%, France 4.8%, Poland 4.2%, Hungary 4.2% (2017)
    Exports - commodities:
    manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, food
    $30.38 billion (2017 est.)
    $25.95 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    Imports - commodities:
    machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, chemicals, fuels and lubricants, food
    Imports - partners:
    Germany 16.5%, Italy 13.5%, Austria 9.3%, Turkey 5.8%, Croatia 4.8%, China 4.5% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $889.9 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $853 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    Debt - external:
    $46.3 billion (31 January 2017 est.)
    $48.2 billion (31 January 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    Exchange rates:
    euros (EUR) per US dollar -
    0.885 (2017 est.)
    0.903 (2016 est.)
    0.9214 (2015 est.)
    0.885 (2014 est.)
    0.7634 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Slovenia
  • Electricity access:
    electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
    Electricity - production:
    15.46 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    Electricity - consumption:
    13.4 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    Electricity - exports:
    7.972 billion kWh (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    Electricity - imports:
    8.359 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    3.536 million kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    37% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 174
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    20% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    34% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    9% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    Crude oil - production:
    5 bbl/day (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    Crude oil - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 194
    Crude oil - imports:
    0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 196
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 196
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 202
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    52,140 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    29,350 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    93,060 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    Natural gas - production:
    8 million cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    Natural gas - consumption:
    906.1 million cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    Natural gas - exports:
    2.832 million cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    Natural gas - imports:
    906.1 million cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    NA cu m (2017 est.)
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    14.37 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
  • Communications :: Slovenia
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 694,709
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 33 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 2,465,857
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 117 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    Telecommunication systems:
    general assessment: well-developed telecommunications infrastructure; four mobile network operators; increase in Internet community demanding e-govt., e-commerce and e-health; govt. funds to improve broadband to more municipalities; high mobile penetration rate and therefore retaining customers with bundled products; regulatory intervention has improved telecommunications; trials for use of 5G; FttP to 90% of population by 2020 (2020)
    domestic: fixed-line 33 per 100 and mobile-cellular 117 per 100 teledensity (2018)
    international: country code - 386 (2016)
    note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
    Broadcast media:
    public TV broadcaster, Radiotelevizija Slovenija (RTV), operates a system of national and regional TV stations; 35 domestic commercial TV stations operating nationally, regionally, and locally; about 60% of households are connected to multi-channel cable TV; public radio broadcaster operates 3 national and 4 regional stations; more than 75 regional and local commercial and non-commercial radio stations
    Internet country code:
    Internet users:
    total: 1,676,445
    percent of population: 79.75% (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions:
    total: 612,737
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 29 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
  • Military and Security :: Slovenia
  • Military and security forces:
    Slovenian Armed Forces (Slovenska Vojska, SV): structured as a combined Force Command with air, land, logistical, maritime, support, and training components (2019)
    Military expenditures:
    1.04% of GDP (2019 est.)
    1.01% of GDP (2018)
    0.98% of GDP (2017)
    1.01% of GDP (2016)
    0.93% of GDP (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    Military and security service personnel strengths:
    the Slovenian Armed Forces have approximately 7,000 active duty troops, including ground, air, and maritime elements (June 2020)
    Military equipment inventories and acquisitions:
    the inventory of the Slovenian Armed Forces is a mix of Soviet-era and limited quantities of more modern Western equipment; since 2010, it has received weapons systems from Finland, Russia, and the US (2019 est.)
    Military deployments:
    230 Kosovo (NATO) (June 2020)
    Military service age and obligation:
    18-25 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished in 2003 (2013)
  • Transportation :: Slovenia
  • National air transport system:
    number of registered air carriers: 2 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 35 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,130,637 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 1,349,442 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    S5 (2016)
    16 (2020)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 9 (2020)
    over 3,047 m: 1
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
    914 to 1,523 m: 3
    under 914 m: 3
    Airports - with unpaved runways:
    total: 7 (2020)
    914 to 1,523 m: 4
    under 914 m: 3
    1155 km gas, 5 km oil (2017)
    total: 1,229 km (2014)
    standard gauge: 1,229 km 1.435-m gauge (503 km electrified) (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    total: 38,985 km (2012)
    paved: 38,985 km (includes 769 km of expressways) (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    (some transport on the Drava River) (2012)
    Merchant marine:
    total: 8
    by type: other 8 (2019)
    country comparison to the world: 161
    Ports and terminals:
    major seaport(s): Koper
  • Transnational Issues :: Slovenia
  • Disputes - international:

    since the breakup of Yugoslavia in the early 1990s, Croatia and Slovenia have each claimed sovereignty over Piran Bay and four villages, and Slovenia has objected to Croatia's claim of an exclusive economic zone in the Adriatic Sea; in 2009, however Croatia and Slovenia signed a binding international arbitration agreement to define their disputed land and maritime borders, which led Slovenia to lift its objections to Croatia joining the EU; in June 2017 the arbitration panel issued a ruling on the border that Croatia has not implemented; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Slovenia has implemented the strict Schengen border rules to curb illegal migration and commerce through southeastern Europe while encouraging close cross-border ties with Croatia; Slovenia continues to impose a hard border Schengen regime with Croatia, which joined the EU in 2013 but has not yet fulfilled Schengen requirements

    Refugees and internally displaced persons:

    note:  516,394 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015-September 2020); migration through the Western Balkans has decreased significantly since March 2016; Slovenia is predominantly a transit country and hosts approximately 300 asylum seekers as of the end of June 2018

    Illicit drugs:
    minor transit point for cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western Europe, and for precursor chemicals