Africa :: Sudan
  • Introduction :: Sudan
  • Background:

    Military regimes favoring Islamic-oriented governments have dominated national politics since independence from Anglo-Egyptian co-rule in 1956. Sudan was embroiled in two prolonged civil wars during most of the remainder of the 20th century. These conflicts were rooted in northern economic, political, and social domination of largely non-Muslim, non-Arab southern Sudanese. The first civil war ended in 1972 but another broke out in 1983. Peace talks gained momentum in 2002-04 with the signing of several accords. The final North/South Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), signed in January 2005, granted the southern rebels autonomy for six years followed by a referendum on independence for Southern Sudan. The referendum was held in January 2011 and indicated overwhelming support for independence. South Sudan became independent on 9 July 2011. Sudan and South Sudan have yet to fully implement security and economic agreements signed in September 2012 relating to the normalization of relations between the two countries. The final disposition of the contested Abyei region has also to be decided.

    Following South Sudan's independence, conflict broke out between the government and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North in Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile states (together known as the Two Areas), and has resulted in 1.1 million internally displaced persons or severely affected persons needing humanitarian assistance. A separate conflict broke out in the western region of Darfur in 2003, displacing nearly 2 million people and causing thousands of deaths. Fighting in both the Two Areas and Darfur between government forces and opposition has largely subsided, however the civilian populations are affected by low-level violence including inter-tribal conflict and banditry, largely a result of weak rule of law. The UN and the African Union have jointly commanded a Darfur peacekeeping operation (UNAMID) since 2007. Peacekeeping troops have struggled to address insecurity in Darfur and have increasingly become targets for attacks by armed groups. Sudan also has faced refugee influxes from neighboring countries, primarily Ethiopia, Eritrea, Chad, Central African Republic, and South Sudan. Armed conflict, poor transport infrastructure, and denial of access by both the government and armed opposition have impeded the provision of humanitarian assistance to affected populations.

  • Geography :: Sudan
  • Location:
    north-eastern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Egypt and Eritrea
    Geographic coordinates:
    15 00 N, 30 00 E
    Map references:
    Africa
    Area:
    total: 1,861,484 sq km
    land: NA
    water: NA
    country comparison to the world: 17
    Area - comparative:
    slightly less than one-fifth the size of the US
    Land boundaries:
    total: 6,819 km
    border countries (7): Central African Republic 174 km, Chad 1403 km, Egypt 1276 km, Eritrea 682 km, Ethiopia 744 km, Libya 382 km, South Sudan 2158 km

    note: Sudan-South Sudan boundary represents 1 January 1956 alignment; final alignment pending negotiations and demarcation; final sovereignty status of Abyei region pending negotiations between Sudan and South Sudan

    Coastline:
    853 km
    Maritime claims:
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 18 nm
    continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
    Climate:
    hot and dry; arid desert; rainy season varies by region (April to November)
    Terrain:
    generally flat, featureless plain; desert dominates the north
    Elevation:
    mean elevation: 568 m
    elevation extremes: 0 m lowest point: Red Sea
    3042 highest point: Jabal Marrah
    Natural resources:
    petroleum; small reserves of iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold; hydropower
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 100% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 15.7% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.2% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 84.2% (2011 est.)
    forest: 0% (2011 est.)
    other: 0% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    18,900 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution:
    with the exception of a ribbon of settlement that corresponds to the banks of the Nile, northern Sudan, which extends into the dry Sahara, is sparsely populated; more abundant vegetation and broader access to water increases population distribution in the south extending habitable range along nearly the entire border with South Sudan; sizeable areas of population are found around Khartoum, southeast between the Blue and White Nile Rivers, and througout South Darfur
    Natural hazards:
    dust storms and periodic persistent droughts
    Environment - current issues:

    water pollution; inadequate supplies of potable water; water scarcity and periodic drought; wildlife populations threatened by excessive hunting; soil erosion; desertification; deforestation; loss of biodiversity

     

    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note:
    the Nile is Sudan's primary water source; its major tributaries, the White Nile and the Blue Nile, meet at Khartoum to form the River Nile which flows northward through Egypt to the Mediterranean Sea
  • People and Society :: Sudan
  • Population:
    43,120,843 (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    Nationality:
    noun: Sudanese (singular and plural)
    adjective: Sudanese
    Ethnic groups:
    unspecified Sudanese Arab (approximately 70%), Fur, Beja, Nuba, Fallata
    Languages:
    Arabic (official), English (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, Fur
    Religions:
    Sunni Muslim, small Christian minority
    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 43.07% (male 9,434,634 /female 9,136,951)
    15-24 years: 20.22% (male 4,459,335 /female 4,259,341)
    25-54 years: 29.8% (male 6,236,954 /female 6,612,593)
    55-64 years: 3.93% (male 876,614 /female 819,048)
    65 years and over: 2.98% (male 688,391 /female 596,982) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 81.6 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 75.4 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 6.3 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 15.9 (2015 est.)
    Median age:
    total: 17.9 years
    male: 17.7 years
    female: 18.1 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 214
    Population growth rate:
    2.93% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    Birth rate:
    34.2 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    Death rate:
    6.7 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    Net migration rate:
    -4.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    Population distribution:
    with the exception of a ribbon of settlement that corresponds to the banks of the Nile, northern Sudan, which extends into the dry Sahara, is sparsely populated; more abundant vegetation and broader access to water increases population distribution in the south extending habitable range along nearly the entire border with South Sudan; sizeable areas of population are found around Khartoum, southeast between the Blue and White Nile Rivers, and througout South Darfur
    Urbanization:
    urban population: 34.6% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 3.17% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population:
    5.534 million KHARTOUM (capital), 834,000 Nyala (2018)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 1.1 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 1.19 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Maternal mortality rate:
    311 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 44.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 49.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 38.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 65.8 years (2018 est.)
    male: 63.7 years (2018 est.)
    female: 68.1 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 177
    Total fertility rate:
    4.85 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    Contraceptive prevalence rate:
    12.2% (2014)
    Health expenditures:
    8.4% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    Physicians density:
    3.06 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
    Hospital bed density:
    0.8 beds/1,000 population (2013)
    Drinking water source:
    improved: urban: 66% of population (2012 est.)
    rural: 50.2% of population (2012 est.)
    total: 55.5% of population (2012 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 34% of population (2012 est.)
    rural: 49.8% of population (2012 est.)
    total: 44.5% of population (2012 est.)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved: urban: 43.9% of population (2012 est.)
    rural: 13.4% of population (2012 est.)
    total: 23.6% of population (2012 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 56.1% of population (2012 est.)
    rural: 86.6% of population (2012 est.)
    total: 76.4% of population (2012 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    0.2% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    51,000 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    2,600 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    Major infectious diseases:
    degree of risk: very high (2016)
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever (2016)
    vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and Rift Valley fever (2016)
    water contact diseases: schistosomiasis (2016)
    animal contact diseases: rabies (2016)
    respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis (2016)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
    6.6% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
    33% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    Education expenditures:
    2.2% of GDP (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 170
    Literacy:
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
    total population: 75.9% (2015 est.)
    male: 83.3% (2015 est.)
    female: 68.6% (2015 est.)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 7 years (2013)
    male: 7 years (2013)
    female: 7 years (2013)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
    total: 20% (2009 est.)
    male: 16% (2009 est.)
    female: 32% (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
  • Government :: Sudan
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: Republic of the Sudan
    conventional short form: Sudan
    local long form: Jumhuriyat as-Sudan
    local short form: As-Sudan
    former: Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, Democratic Republic of the Sudan
    etymology: the name "Sudan" derives from the Arabic "bilad-as-sudan" meaning "Land of the Black [peoples]"
    Government type:
    presidential republic
    Capital:
    name: Khartoum
    geographic coordinates: 15 36 N, 32 32 E
    time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    Administrative divisions:
    18 states (wilayat, singular - wilayah); Blue Nile, Central Darfur, East Darfur, Gedaref, Gezira, Kassala, Khartoum, North Darfur, North Kordofan, Northern, Red Sea, River Nile, Sennar, South Darfur, South Kordofan, West Darfur, West Kordofan, White Nile
    Independence:
    1 January 1956 (from Egypt and the UK)
    National holiday:
    Independence Day, 1 January (1956)
    Constitution:
    history: previous 1998; latest adopted 6 July 2005, effective 9 July 2005 (interim constitution) (2017)
    amendments: proposed by the National Legislature or by the president of the republic; passage requires submission of the proposal to the Legislature at least two months prior to consideration, approval by at least three-quarters majority vote in both houses of the Legislature, and assent by the president; amended 2015 (2017)
    International law organization participation:
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; withdrew acceptance of ICCt jurisdiction in 2008
    Citizenship:
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Sudan
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
    Suffrage:
    17 years of age; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: President Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October 1993); First Vice President BAKRI Hassan Salih (since 3 December 2013); Second Vice President Osman Yousif KIBIR (since 9 September 2018); Prime Minister Mutaz MUSA Abdullah Salim (since 10 September 2018); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October 1993); First Vice President BAKRI Hassan Salih (since 3 December 2013); Second Vice President Osman Yousif KIBIR (since 9 September 2018); Prime Minister Mutaz MUSA Abdullah Salim (since 9 September 2018)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president; note - the NCP dominates al-BASHIR's cabinet
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed; last held on 13-16 April 2015 (next to be held in 2020); prime minister appointed by the president; note - the position of prime minister was reinstated in December 2016 as a result of the 2015-16 national dialogue process, and President al-BASHIR appointed BAKRI Hassan Salih to the position on 2 March 2017
    election results: Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR reelected president; percent of vote - Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (NCP) 94.1%, other (15 candidates) 5.9%
    Legislative branch:
    description: bicameral National Legislature consists of:
    Council of States or Majlis al-Wilayat (54 seats; members indirectly elected by the state legislatures; members serve 6-year tems)
    National Assembly or Majlis Watani (426 seats; 213 members directly elected in state-level, single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 128 for women only directly elected by national-level, closed party-list proportional representation vote, and 85 directly elected by national-level, party-list proportional representation vote; members serve 6-year terms)
    elections:
    National Assembly - last held on 13-15 April 2015 (next to be held in 2021)
    election results:
    percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NCP 323, DUP 25, Democratic Unionist Party 15, other 44, independent 19
    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: National Supreme Court (consists of 70 judges organized into panels of 3 judges and includes 4 circuits that operate outside the capital); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 justices including the court president); note - the Constitutional Court resides outside the national judiciary
    judge selection and term of office: National Supreme Court and Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president of the republic upon the recommendation of the National Judicial Service Commission, an independent body chaired by the chief justice of the republic and members including other judges and judicial and legal officials; Supreme Court judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed for 7 years
    subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; other national courts; public courts; district, town, and rural courts
    Political parties and leaders:
    Democratic Unionist Party or DUP [Jalal al-DIGAIR]
    Democratic Unionist Party [Muhammad Uthman al-MIRGHANI]
    Federal Umma Party [Dr. Ahmed Babikir NAHAR]
    Muslim Brotherhood or MB
    National Congress Party or NCP [Umar Hassan al-BASHIR]
    National Umma Party or NUP [Saddiq al-MAHDI]
    Popular Congress Party or PCP [Hassan al-TURABI]
    Reform Movement Now [Dr. Ghazi Salahuddin al-ATABANI]Sudan National Front [Ali Mahmud HASANAYN]
    Sudanese Communist Party or SCP [Mohammed Moktar Al-KHATEEB]
    Sudanese Congress Party or SCoP [Ibrahim Al-SHEIKH]
    Umma Party for Reform and Development
    Unionist Movement Party or UMP
    International organization participation:
    ABEDA, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, CAEU, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Mohamed ATTA al-Moula Abbas (since July 2018)
    chancery: 2210 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 338-8565
    FAX: [1] (202) 667-2406
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Steven KOUTSIS (since July 2016)
    embassy: Sharia Ali Abdul Latif Street, Khartoum
    mailing address: P.O. Box 699, Kilo 10, Soba, Khartoum; APO AE 09829
    telephone: [249] 18702-2000
    FAX: [249] 18702-2547
    Flag description:
    three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with a green isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; colors and design based on the Arab Revolt flag of World War I, but the meanings of the colors are expressed as follows: red signifies the struggle for freedom, white is the color of peace, light, and love, black represents the people of Sudan (in Arabic 'Sudan' means black), green is the color of Islam, agriculture, and prosperity
    National symbol(s):
    secretary bird; national colors: red, white, black, green
    National anthem:
    name: "Nahnu Djundulla Djundulwatan" (We Are the Army of God and of Our Land)
    lyrics/music: Sayed Ahmad Muhammad SALIH/Ahmad MURJAN

    note: adopted 1956; originally served as the anthem of the Sudanese military

  • Economy :: Sudan
  • Economy - overview:

    Sudan has experienced protracted social conflict, civil war, and, in July 2011, the loss of three-quarters of its oil production due to the secession of South Sudan. The oil sector had driven much of Sudan's GDP growth since 1999. For nearly a decade, the economy boomed on the back of rising oil production, high oil prices, and significant inflows of foreign direct investment. Since the economic shock of South Sudan's secession, Sudan has struggled to stabilize its economy and make up for the loss of foreign exchange earnings. The interruption of oil production in South Sudan in 2012 for over a year and the consequent loss of oil transit fees further exacerbated the fragile state of Sudan’s economy. Ongoing conflicts in Southern Kordofan, Darfur, and the Blue Nile states, lack of basic infrastructure in large areas, and reliance by much of the population on subsistence agriculture, keep close to half of the population at or below the poverty line.

    Sudan was subject to comprehensive US sanctions, which were lifted in October 2017. Sudan is attempting to develop non-oil sources of revenues, such as gold mining and agriculture, while carrying out an austerity program to reduce expenditures. The world’s largest exporter of gum Arabic, Sudan produces 75-80% of the world’s total output. Agriculture continues to employ 80% of the work force.

    Sudan introduced a new currency, still called the Sudanese pound, following South Sudan's secession, but the value of the currency has fallen since its introduction. Khartoum formally devalued the currency in June 2012, when it passed austerity measures that included gradually repealing fuel subsidies. Sudan also faces high inflation, which reached 47% on an annual basis in November 2012 but fell to about 35% per year in 2017.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $177.4 billion (2017 est.)
    $174.9 billion (2016 est.)
    $169.8 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 71
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $45.82 billion (2017 est.) (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    1.4% (2017 est.)
    3% (2016 est.)
    1.3% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 177
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $4,300 (2017 est.)
    $4,400 (2016 est.)
    $4,400 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 174
    Gross national saving:
    12.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
    13.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
    12.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 77.3% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 5.8% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 18.4% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 0.6% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 9.7% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -11.8% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 39.6% (2017 est.)
    industry: 2.6% (2017 est.)
    services: 57.8% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    cotton, groundnuts (peanuts), sorghum, millet, wheat, gum Arabic, sugarcane, cassava (manioc, tapioca), mangoes, papaya, bananas, sweet potatoes, sesame seeds; animal feed, sheep and other livestock
    Industries:
    oil, cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar, soap distilling, shoes, petroleum refining, pharmaceuticals, armaments, automobile/light truck assembly, milling
    Industrial production growth rate:
    4.5% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    Labor force:
    11.92 million (2007 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 80%
    industry: 7%
    services: 13% (1998 est.)
    Unemployment rate:
    19.6% (2017 est.)
    20.6% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 184
    Population below poverty line:
    46.5% (2009 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: 26.7% (2009 est.)
    highest 10%: 26.7% (2009 est.)
    Budget:
    revenues: 8.48 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 13.36 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    18.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    -10.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 213
    Public debt:
    121.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
    99.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    Fiscal year:
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    32.4% (2017 est.)
    17.8% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 223
    Commercial bank prime lending rate:
    13% (31 December 2017 est.)
    12.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    Stock of narrow money:
    $18.82 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $11.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    Stock of broad money:
    $18.82 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $11.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    Stock of domestic credit:
    $28.7 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $20.22 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    Market value of publicly traded shares:

    NA

    Current account balance:
    -$4.811 billion (2017 est.)
    -$4.213 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 182
    Exports:
    $4.1 billion (2017 est.)
    $3.094 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    Exports - partners:
    UAE 55.5%, Egypt 14.7%, Saudi Arabia 8.8% (2017)
    Exports - commodities:
    gold; oil and petroleum products; cotton, sesame, livestock, peanuts, gum Arabic, sugar
    Imports:
    $8.22 billion (2017 est.)
    $7.48 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    Imports - commodities:
    foodstuffs, manufactured goods, refinery and transport equipment, medicines, chemicals, textiles, wheat
    Imports - partners:
    UAE 12.7%, Egypt 10.6%, India 10.5%, Turkey 10.2%, Japan 7.6%, Saudi Arabia 6%, Germany 4.6% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $198 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $168.3 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 177
    Debt - external:
    $56.05 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $51.26 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
    $25.47 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    Exchange rates:
    Sudanese pounds (SDG) per US dollar -
    6.72 (2017 est.)
    6.14 (2016 est.)
    6.14 (2015 est.)
    6.03 (2014 est.)
    5.74 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Sudan
  • Electricity access:
    population without electricity: 24.7 million (2013)
    electrification - total population: 35% (2013)
    electrification - urban areas: 63% (2013)
    electrification - rural areas: 21% (2013)
    Electricity - production:
    13.99 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    Electricity - consumption:
    12.12 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    Electricity - exports:
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 203
    Electricity - imports:
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 205
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    3.437 million kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    44% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 188
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    51% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    6% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    Crude oil - production:
    102,300 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    Crude oil - exports:
    19,540 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    Crude oil - imports:
    9,440 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    5 billion bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    94,830 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    112,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    8,541 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    24,340 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    Natural gas - production:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 201
    Natural gas - consumption:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 202
    Natural gas - exports:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 190
    Natural gas - imports:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 193
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    84.95 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    16.03 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
  • Communications :: Sudan
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 143,280 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 28,644,139 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 77 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    Telephone system:
    general assessment: well-equipped system by regional standards and being upgraded; cellular communications started in 1996 and have expanded substantially with wide coverage of most major cities (2016)
    domestic: consists of microwave radio relay, cable, fiber optic, radiotelephone communications, tropospheric scatter, and a domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations; teledensity exceeeds 75 telephones per 100 persons (2016)
    international: country code - 249; linked to the EASSy and FLAG fiber-optic submarine cable systems; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Arabsat (2016)
    Broadcast media:
    the Sudanese Government directly controls TV and radio, requiring that both media reflect government policies; TV has a permanent military censor; a private radio station is in operation (2007)
    Internet country code:
    .sd
    Internet users:
    total: 10,284,260 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 28% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions:
    total: 31,082 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
  • Transportation :: Sudan
  • National air transport system:
    number of registered air carriers: 6 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 25 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 496,178 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 13,161,592 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    ST (2016)
    Airports:
    74 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 16 (2013)
    over 3,047 m: 2 (2013)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 10 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2013)
    under 914 m: 2 (2013)
    Airports - with unpaved runways:
    total: 58 (2013)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 17 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 28 (2013)
    under 914 m: 12 (2013)
    Heliports:
    6 (2013)
    Pipelines:
    156 km gas, 4070 km oil, 1613 km refined products (2013)
    Railways:
    total: 7,251 km (2014)
    narrow gauge: 5,851 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)
    1400 0.600-m gauge for cotton plantations
    country comparison to the world: 31
    Roadways:
    total: 11,900 km (2000)
    paved: 4,320 km (2000)
    unpaved: 7,580 km (2000)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    Waterways:
    4,068 km (1,723 km open year-round on White and Blue Nile Rivers) (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    Merchant marine:
    total: 17 (2017)
    by type: general cargo 1, other 16 (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    Ports and terminals:
    major seaport(s): Port Sudan
  • Military and Security :: Sudan
  • Military expenditures:
    2.83% of GDP (2016)
    2.36% of GDP (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    Military branches:
    Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF): Land Forces, Navy (includes Marines), Sudanese Air Force (Sikakh al-Jawwiya as-Sudaniya), Rapid Support Forces, Popular Defense Forces (2016)
    Military service age and obligation:
    18-33 years of age for male and female compulsory or voluntary military service; 1-2 year service obligation; a requirement that completion of national service was mandatory before entering public or private sector employment has been cancelled (2012)
  • Transnational Issues :: Sudan
  • Disputes - international:
    the effects of Sudan's ethnic and rebel militia fighting since the mid-20th century have penetrated all of the neighboring statesChad wishes to be a helpful mediator in resolving the Darfur conflict, and in 2010 established a joint border monitoring force with Sudan, which has helped to reduce cross-border banditry and violenceas of April 2017, more than 610,000 Sudanese refugees are being hosted in the Central African Republic, Chad, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, and South SudanSudan, in turn, is hosting about 507,000 refugees, including more than 375,000 from South SudanSudan accuses South Sudan of supporting Sudanese rebel groupsSudan claims but Egypt de facto administers security and economic development of the Halaib region north of the 22nd parallel boundaryperiodic violent skirmishes with Sudanese residents over water and grazing rights persist among related pastoral populations along the border with the Central African RepublicSouth Sudan-Sudan boundary represents 1 January 1956 alignment, final alignment pending negotiations and demarcationfinal sovereignty status of Abyei Area pending negotiations between South Sudan and Sudan
    Refugees and internally displaced persons:
    refugees (country of origin): 103,176 (Eritrea), 8,502 (Chad), 6,997 (Syria) (2016), 764,400 (South Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2018)
    IDPs: 2.072 million (civil war 1983-2005; ongoing conflict in Darfur region; government and rebel fighting along South Sudan border; inter-tribal clashes) (2017)
    Trafficking in persons:
    current situation: Sudan is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children who are subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; Sudanese women and girls, particularly those from rural areas or who are internally displaced, or refugees are vulnerable to domestic servitude in country, as well as domestic servitude and sex trafficking abroad; migrants from East and West Africa, South Sudan, Syria, and Nigeria smuggled into or through Sudan are vulnerable to exploitation; Ethiopian, Eritrean, and Filipina women are subjected to domestic servitude in Sudanese homes, and East African and possibly Thai women are forced into prostitution in Sudan; Sudanese children continue to be recruited and used as combatants by government forces and armed groups
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Sudan does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government increased its efforts to publically address and prevent trafficking, established a national anti-trafficking council, and began drafting a national action plan against trafficking; the government acknowledges cross-border trafficking but still denies the existence of forced labor, sex trafficking, and the recruitment of child soldiers domestically; law enforcement and judicial officials struggled to apply the national anti-trafficking law, often relying on other statutes with lesser penalties; authorities did not use systematic procedure to identify victims or refer them to care and relied on international organizations and domestic groups to provide protective services; some foreign victims were penalized for unlawful acts committed as a direct result of being trafficked, such as immigration or prostitution violations (2015)