Central America and Caribbean :: TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO
  • Introduction :: TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO

  • First colonized by the Spanish, the islands came under British control in the early 19th century. The islands' sugar industry was hurt by the emancipation of the slaves in 1834. Manpower was replaced with the importation of contract laborers from India between 1845 and 1917, which boosted sugar production as well as the cocoa industry. The discovery of oil on Trinidad in 1910 added another important export. Independence was attained in 1962. The country is one of the most prosperous in the Caribbean thanks largely to petroleum and natural gas production and processing. Tourism, mostly in Tobago, is targeted for expansion and is growing. The government is coping with a rise in violent crime.
  • Geography :: TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO

  • Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Venezuela
    11 00 N, 61 00 W
    Central America and the Caribbean
    total: 5,128 sq km
    land: 5,128 sq km
    water: 0 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 174
    slightly smaller than Delaware
    0 km
    362 km
    measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: 200 nm or to the outer edge of the continental margin
    tropical; rainy season (June to December)
    mostly plains with some hills and low mountains
    mean elevation: 83 m
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
    highest point: El Cerro del Aripo 940 m
    petroleum, natural gas, asphalt
    agricultural land: 10.6%
    arable land 4.9%; permanent crops 4.3%; permanent pasture 1.4%
    forest: 44%
    other: 45.4% (2011 est.)
    70 sq km (2012)
    population on Trinidad concentrated in the western half of the island; on Tobago in the southern half
    outside usual path of hurricanes and other tropical storms
    water pollution from agricultural chemicals, industrial wastes, and raw sewage; oil pollution of beaches; deforestation; soil erosion
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Pitch Lake, on Trinidad's southwestern coast, is the world's largest natural reservoir of asphalt
  • People and Society :: TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO

  • 1,218,208 (July 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 160
    noun: Trinidadian(s), Tobagonian(s)
    adjective: Trinidadian, Tobagonian
    East Indian 35.4%, African 34.2%, mixed - other 15.3%, mixed African/East Indian 7.7%, other 1.3%, unspecified 6.2% (2011 est.)
    English (official), Caribbean Hindustani (a dialect of Hindi), French, Spanish, Chinese
    Protestant 32.1% (Pentecostal/Evangelical/Full Gospel 12%, Baptist 6.9%, Anglican 5.7%, Seventh-Day Adventist 4.1%, Presbyterian/Congretational 2.5%, other Protestant 0.9%), Roman Catholic 21.6%, Hindu 18.2%, Muslim 5%, Jehovah's Witness 1.5%, other 8.4%, none 2.2%, unspecified 11.1% (2011 est.)
    0-14 years: 19.29% (male 119,651/female 115,348)
    15-24 years: 11.88% (male 75,402/female 69,333)
    25-54 years: 45.56% (male 289,244/female 265,808)
    55-64 years: 12.61% (male 76,601/female 77,056)
    65 years and over: 10.65% (male 56,550/female 73,215) (2017 est.)
    total dependency ratio: 43.2
    youth dependency ratio: 29.8
    elderly dependency ratio: 13.5
    potential support ratio: 7.4 (2015 est.)
    total: 35.5 years
    male: 35 years
    female: 36 years (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    -0.2% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 213
    12.7 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    8.8 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    -5.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 197
    population on Trinidad is concentrated in the western half of the island, on Tobago in the southern half
    urban population: 8.3% of total population (2017)
    rate of urbanization: -83% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    PORT-OF-SPAIN (capital) 34,000 (2014)
    at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
    total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
    63 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    total: 23 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 24.4 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 21.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    total population: 72.9 years
    male: 69.9 years
    female: 75.9 years (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    1.71 children born/woman (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 170
    5.9% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    1.18 physicians/1,000 population (2007)
    2.7 beds/1,000 population (2012)
    improved:
    urban: 95.1% of population
    rural: 95.1% of population
    total: 95.1% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 4.9% of population
    rural: 4.9% of population
    total: 4.9% of population (2015 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 91.5% of population
    rural: 91.5% of population
    total: 91.5% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 8.5% of population
    rural: 8.5% of population
    total: 8.5% of population (2015 est.)
    1.2% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    11,000 (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    <500 (2016 est.)
    note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
    32.3% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 99%
    male: 99.2%
    female: 98.7% (2015 est.)
    total number: 1,201
    percentage: 1% (2006 est.)
    total: 8.4%
    male: 7.4%
    female: 9.9% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
  • Government :: TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO

  • conventional long form: Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
    conventional short form: Trinidad and Tobago
    etymology: explorer Christopher COLUMBUS named the larger island "La Isla de la Trinidad" (The Island of the Trinity) on 31 July 1498 on his third voyage; the tobacco grown and smoked by the natives of the smaller island or its elongated cigar shape may account for the "tobago" name, which is spelled "tobaco" in Spanish
    parliamentary republic
    name: Port of Spain
    geographic coordinates: 10 39 N, 61 31 W
    time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    9 regions, 3 boroughs, 2 cities, 1 ward
    regions: Couva/Tabaquite/Talparo, Diego Martin, Mayaro/Rio Claro, Penal/Debe, Princes Town, Sangre Grande, San Juan/Laventille, Siparia, Tunapuna/Piarco
    borough: Arima, Chaguanas, Point Fortin
    cities: Port of Spain, San Fernando
    ward: Tobago
    31 August 1962 (from the UK)
    Independence Day, 31 August (1962)
    previous 1962; latest 1976; amended many times, last in 2007 (2016)
    English common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    citizenship by birth: yes
    citizenship by descent: yes
    dual citizenship recognized: yes
    residency requirement for naturalization: 8 years
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Anthony CARMONA (since 18 March 2013)
    head of government: Prime Minister Keith ROWLEY (since 9 September 2015)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed from among members of Parliament
    elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by an electoral college of selected Senate and House of Representatives members for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 15 February 2013 (next to be held by February 2018); the president usually appoints the leader of the majority party in the House of Representatives as prime minister
    election results: Anthony CARMONA (independent) elected president; electoral college vote - 100%
    description: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (31 seats; 16 members appointed by the ruling party, 9 by the president, and 6 by the opposition party; members serve 5-year terms;) and the House of Representatives (41 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms)
    note: Tobago has a unicameral House of Assembly (16 seats; 12 assemblymen directly elected by simple majority vote and 4 appointed councillors - 3 on the advice of the chief secretary and 1 on the advice of the minority leader; members serve 4-year terms)
    elections: House of Representatives - last held on 7 September 2015 (next to be held in 2020)
    election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote - PNM 51.7%, People's Partnership coalition 46.6% (UNC 39.6%, COP 6.0%, other 1.0%), other 1.7%; seats by party - PNM 23, UNC 17, COP 1
    highest resident court(s): Supreme Court of the Judicature (consists of a chief justice for both the Court of Appeal with 12 judges and the High Court with 24 judges); note - Trinidad and Tobago can file appeals beyond its Supreme Court to the Caribbean Court of Justice, with final appeal to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice appointed by the president after consultation with the prime minister and the parliamentary leader of the opposition; other judges appointed by the Judicial Legal Services Commission, headed by the chief justice and 5 members with judicial experience; all judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement normally at age 65
    subordinate courts: Courts of Summary Criminal Jurisdiction; Petty Civil Courts; Family Court
    Congress of the People or COP
    People's National Movement or PNM [Keith ROWLEY]
    People's Partnrship [Kamla PERSAD-BISSESSAR] (coalition includes UNC, COP, TOP, National Joint Action Committee)
    National Joint Action Committee or NJAC [Kwasi MUTEMA]
    Tobago Organization of the People or TOP [Ashworth JACK]
    United National Congress or UNC [Kamla PERSAD-BISSESSAR]
    Jamaat-al Muslimeen [Yasin ABU BAKR]
    ACP, AOSIS, C, Caricom, CDB, CELAC, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club (associate), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Anthony Wayne Jerome PHILLIPS-SPENCER (since 27 June 2016)
    chancery: 1708 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
    telephone: [1] (202) 467-6490
    FAX: [1] (202) 785-3130
    consulate(s) general: Miami, New York
    chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires John W. MCINTYRE (since 20 January 2017)
    embassy: 15 Queen's Park West, Port of Spain
    mailing address: P. O. Box 752, Port of Spain
    telephone: [1] (868) 622-6371 through 6376
    FAX: [1] (868) 822-5905
    red with a white-edged black diagonal band from the upper hoist side to the lower fly side; the colors represent the elements of earth, water, and fire; black stands for the wealth of the land and the dedication of the people; white symbolizes the sea surrounding the islands, the purity of the country's aspirations, and equality; red symbolizes the warmth and energy of the sun, the vitality of the land, and the courage and friendliness of its people
    scarlet ibis (bird of Trinidad), cocrico (bird of Tobago), Chaconia flower; national colors: red, white, black
    name: "Forged From the Love of Liberty"
    lyrics/music: Patrick Stanislaus CASTAGNE
    note: adopted 1962; song originally created to serve as an anthem for the West Indies Federation; adopted by Trinidad and Tobago following the Federation's dissolution in 1962
  • Economy :: TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO

  • Trinidad and Tobago relies on its energy sector for much of its economic activity, and has one of the highest per capita incomes in Latin America. Economic growth between 2000 and 2007 averaged slightly over 8% per year, significantly above the regional average of about 3.7% for that same period; however, GDP has slowed down since then, contracting during 2009-12, making small gains in 2013 and contracting again in 2014-16. Trinidad and Tobago is buffered by considerable foreign reserves and a sovereign wealth fund that equals about one-and-a-half times the national budget, but the country is in a recession and the government faces the dual challenge of gas shortages and a low price environment.
    Energy production and downstream industrial use dominate the economy. Oil and gas typically account for about 40% of GDP and 80% of exports but less than 5% of employment. Trinidad and Tobago is home to one of the largest natural gas liquefaction facilities in the Western Hemisphere. Trinidad and Tobago produces about nine times more natural gas than crude oil on an energy equivalent basis with gas contributing about two-thirds of energy sector government revenue. The US is the country’s largest trading partner, accounting for 28% of its total imports and taking 48% of its exports.
    Economic diversification is a longstanding government talking point, and Trinidad and Tobago has much potential due to its stable, democratic government and its educated, English speaking workforce. The country is also a regional financial center with a well-regulated and stable financial system. Other sectors the Government of Trinidad and Tobago has targeted for increased investment and projected growth include tourism, agriculture, information and communications technology, and shipping. Unfortunately, a host of other factors, including low labor productivity, inefficient government bureaucracy, and corruption, have hampered economic development.
    $43.55 billion (2016 est.)
    $45.9 billion (2015 est.)
    $46.17 billion (2014 est.)
    note: data are in 2016 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 111
    $20.97 billion (2016 est.)
    -5.1% (2016 est.)
    -0.6% (2015 est.)
    -0.6% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 214
    $31,900 (2016 est.)
    $33,700 (2015 est.)
    $34,100 (2014 est.)
    note: data are in 2016 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 59
    8.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
    11.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
    11.7% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    household consumption: 59.5%
    government consumption: 17.5%
    investment in fixed capital: 11.6%
    investment in inventories: 0.6%
    exports of goods and services: 47.9%
    imports of goods and services: -37.1% (2016 est.)
    agriculture: 0.5%
    industry: 13.9%
    services: 85.6% (2016 est.)
    cocoa, dasheen, pumpkin, cassava, tomatoes, cucumbers, eggplant, hot pepper, pommecythere, coconut water, poultry
    petroleum and petroleum products, liquefied natural gas, methanol, ammonia, urea, steel products, beverages, food processing, cement, cotton textiles
    -5% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 194
    615,000 (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    agriculture: 3.4%
    industry: 11.5%
    services: 84.7% (2015 est.)
    4% (2016 est.)
    3.5% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    20% (2014 est.)
    lowest 10%: NA%
    highest 10%: NA%
    revenues: $7.311 billion
    expenditures: $9.369 billion (2016 est.)
    32.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    -9% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 199
    51.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
    49.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    1 October - 30 September
    3.4% (2016 est.)
    4.7% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 148
    6.75% (04 March 2016 est.)
    6.75% (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    8.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
    8.2% (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    $6.805 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $7.241 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    $16.81 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $16.76 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    $8.662 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $9.217 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    $177.4 million (31 December 2015 est.)
    $171.6 million (31 December 2014 est.)
    $170 million (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    -$1.161 billion (2016 est.)
    -$225 million (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    $7.264 billion (2016 est.)
    $8.166 billion (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    petroleum and petroleum products, liquefied natural gas, methanol, ammonia, urea, steel products, beverages, cereal and cereal products, cocoa, fish, preserved fruits, cosmetics, household cleaners, plastic packaging
    US 39.2%, Argentina 9.3% (2016)
    $7.398 billion (2016 est.)
    $7.9 billion (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    mineral fuels, lubricants, machinery, transportation equipment, manufactured goods, food, chemicals, live animals
    US 33.4%, Russia 13.3%, Gabon 12.4%, China 6.1% (2016)
    $9.394 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $10.38 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    $7.917 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $6.826 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    $382.9 million (31 December 2014 est.)
    $311.7 million (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    $1.266 billion (2014 est.)
    $2.061 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    Trinidad and Tobago dollars (TTD) per US dollar -
    6.71 (2016 est.)
    6.38 (2015 est.)
    6.4 (2014 est.)
    6.4 (2013 est.)
    6.39 (2012 est.)
  • Energy :: TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO

  • population without electricity: 12,452
    electrification - total population: 99.8%
    electrification - urban areas: 100%
    electrification - rural areas: 99% (2012)
    9.3 billion kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    9.1 billion kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    0 kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    0 kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    2.353 million kW (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    100% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 196
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 205
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    78,630 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    30,800 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    78,340 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    700 million bbl (1 January 2016 es)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    139,200 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    56,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    113,800 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    31,630 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    41.59 billion cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    24.67 billion cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    17.41 billion cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    0 cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 192
    325.7 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    48 million Mt (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
  • Communications :: TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO

  • total subscriptions: 272,072
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 22 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    total: 2.123 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 174 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 152
    general assessment: excellent international service; good local service
    domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity over 190 telephones per 100 persons
    international: country code - 1-868; submarine cable systems provide connectivity to US and parts of the Caribbean and South America; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Barbados and Guyana (2016)
    16 TV networks (11 commercial, 5 non-commercial), 2 of which are state-owned that broadcast on multiple stations; 9 TV subscription service providers (cable and satellite); 19 radio networks, 1 state-owned, broadcast over about 35 stations (2016)
    .tt
    total: 846,000
    percent of population: 69.2% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
  • Transportation :: TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO

  • number of registered air carriers: 1
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 17
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 2,617,842
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 43,198,176 mt-km (2015)
    9Y (2016)
    4 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 187
    total: 2
    over 3,047 m: 1
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
    total: 2
    914 to 1,523 m: 1
    under 914 m: 1 (2013)
    condensate 257 km; condensate/gas 11 km; gas 1,567 km; oil 587 km (2013)
    total: 9,592 km
    paved: 5,524 km
    unpaved: 4,068 km (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    total: 4
    by type: passenger 1, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 1
    registered in other countries: 2 (unknown 2) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    major seaport(s): Point Fortin, Point Lisas, Port of Spain, Scarborough
    oil terminal(s): Galeota Point terminal
    LNG terminal(s) (export): Port Fortin
  • Military and Security :: TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO

  • 1.12% of GDP (2016)
    0.88% of GDP (2015)
    0.72% of GDP (2014)
    0.8% of GDP (2013)
    0.66% of GDP (2012)
    Trinidad and Tobago Defense Force (TTDF): Trinidad and Tobago Army, Coast Guard, Air Guard, Defense Force Reserves (2010)
    18-25 years of age for voluntary military service (16 years of age with parental consent); no conscription; Trinidad and Tobago citizenship and completion of secondary school required (2012)
  • Transnational Issues :: TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO

  • Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago abide by the April 2006 Permanent Court of Arbitration decision delimiting a maritime boundary and limiting catches of flying fish in Trinidad and Tobago's EEZ; in 2005, Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago agreed to compulsory international arbitration under UN Convention on the Law of the Sea challenging whether the northern limit of Trinidad and Tobago's and Venezuela's maritime boundary extends into Barbadian waters; Guyana has expressed its intention to include itself in the arbitration, as the Trinidad and Tobago-Venezuela maritime boundary may also extend into its waters
    current situation: Trinidad and Tobago is a destination, transit, and possible source country for adults and children subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor; women and girls from Venezuela, the Dominican Republic, Guyana, and Colombia have been subjected to sex trafficking in Trinidad and Tobago’s brothels and clubs; some economic migrants from the Caribbean region and Asia are vulnerable to forced labor in domestic service and the retail sector; the steady flow of vessels transiting Trinidad and Tobago’s territorial waters may also increase opportunities for forced labor for fishing; international crime organizations are increasingly involved in trafficking, and boys are coerced to sell drugs and guns; corruption among police and immigration officials impedes anti-trafficking efforts
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Trinidad and Tobago does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; anti-trafficking law enforcement efforts decreased from the initiation of 12 prosecutions in 2013 to 1 in 2014; the government has yet to convict anyone under its 2011 anti-trafficking law, and all prosecutions from previous years remain pending; the government sustained efforts to identify victims and to refer them for care at NGO facilities, which it provided with funding; the government failed to draft a national action plan as mandated under the 2011 anti-trafficking law and did not launch a sufficiently robust awareness campaign to educate the public and officials (2015)
    transshipment point for South American drugs destined for the US and Europe; producer of cannabis