East Asia/Southeast Asia :: Timor-Leste
  • Introduction :: Timor-Leste
  • Background:

    The Portuguese began to trade with the island of Timor in the early 16th century and colonized it in mid-century. Skirmishing with the Dutch in the region eventually resulted in an 1859 treaty in which Portugal ceded the western portion of the island. Imperial Japan occupied Portuguese Timor from 1942 to 1945, but Portugal resumed colonial authority after the Japanese defeat in World War II. East Timor declared itself independent from Portugal on 28 November 1975 and was invaded and occupied by Indonesian forces nine days later. It was incorporated into Indonesia in July 1976 as the province of Timor Timur (East Timor). An unsuccessful campaign of pacification followed over the next two decades, during which an estimated 100,000 to 250,000 people died. In an August 1999 UN-supervised popular referendum, an overwhelming majority of the people of Timor-Leste voted for independence from Indonesia. However, in the next three weeks, anti-independence Timorese militias - organized and supported by the Indonesian military - commenced a large-scale, scorched-earth campaign of retribution. The militias killed approximately 1,400 Timorese and forced 300,000 people into western Timor as refugees. Most of the country's infrastructure, including homes, irrigation systems, water supply systems, and schools, and nearly all of the country's electrical grid were destroyed. On 20 September 1999, Australian-led peacekeeping troops deployed to the country and brought the violence to an end. On 20 May 2002, Timor-Leste was internationally recognized as an independent state.

    In 2006, internal tensions threatened the new nation's security when a military strike led to violence and a breakdown of law and order. At Dili's request, an Australian-led International Stabilization Force (ISF) deployed to Timor-Leste, and the UN Security Council established the UN Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste (UNMIT), which included an authorized police presence of over 1,600 personnel. The ISF and UNMIT restored stability, allowing for presidential and parliamentary elections in 2007 in a largely peaceful atmosphere. In February 2008, a rebel group staged an unsuccessful attack against the president and prime minister. The ringleader was killed in the attack, and most of the rebels surrendered in April 2008. Since the attack, the government has enjoyed one of its longest periods of post-independence stability, including successful 2012 elections for both the parliament and president and a successful transition of power in February 2015. In late 2012, the UN Security Council ended its peacekeeping mission in Timor-Leste and both the ISF and UNMIT departed the country.

  • Geography :: Timor-Leste
  • Location:
    Southeastern Asia, northwest of Australia in the Lesser Sunda Islands at the eastern end of the Indonesian archipelago; note - Timor-Leste includes the eastern half of the island of Timor, the Oecussi (Ambeno) region on the northwest portion of the island of Timor, and the islands of Pulau Atauro and Pulau Jaco
    Geographic coordinates:
    8 50 S, 125 55 E
    Map references:
    Southeast Asia
    Area:
    total: 14,874 sq km
    land: 14,874 sq km
    water: 0 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 160
    Area - comparative:
    slightly larger than Connecticut
    Land boundaries:
    total: 253 km
    border countries (1): Indonesia 253 km
    Coastline:
    706 km
    Maritime claims:
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
    Climate:
    tropical; hot, humid; distinct rainy and dry seasons
    Terrain:
    mountainous
    Elevation:
    0 m lowest point: Timor Sea, Savu Sea, and Banda Sea
    2963 highest point: Foho Tatamailau
    Natural resources:
    gold, petroleum, natural gas, manganese, marble
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 25.1% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 10.1% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 4.9% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 10.1% (2011 est.)
    forest: 49.1% (2011 est.)
    other: 25.8% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    350 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution:
    most of the population concentrated in the western third of the country, particularly around Dili
    Natural hazards:
    floods and landslides are common; earthquakes; tsunamis; tropical cyclones
    Environment - current issues:
    air pollution and deterioration of air quality; greenhouse gas emissions; water quality, scarcity, and access; land and soil degradation; forest depletion; widespread use of slash and burn agriculture has led to deforestation and soil erosion; loss of biodiversity
    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note:
    Timor comes from the Malay word for "east"; the island of Timor is part of the Malay Archipelago and is the largest and easternmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands; the district of Oecussi is an exclave separated from Timor-Leste proper by Indonesia
  • People and Society :: Timor-Leste
  • Population:
    1,321,929 (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    Nationality:
    noun: Timorese
    adjective: Timorese
    Ethnic groups:
    Austronesian (Malayo-Polynesian) (includes Tetun, Mambai, Tokodede, Galoli, Kemak, Baikeno), Melanesian-Papuan (includes Bunak, Fataluku, Bakasai), small Chinese minority
    Languages:
    Tetun Prasa 30.6%, Mambai 16.6%, Makasai 10.5%, Tetun Terik 6.1%, Baikenu 5.9%, Kemak 5.8%, Bunak 5.5%, Tokodede 4%, Fataluku 3.5%, Waima'a 1.8%, Galoli 1.4%, Naueti 1.4%, Idate 1.2%, Midiki 1.2%, other 4.5%

    note: data represent population by mother tongue; Tetun and Portuguese are official languages; Indonesian and English are working languages; there are about 32 indigenous languages

    Religions:
    Roman Catholic 97.6%, Protestant/Evangelical 2%, Muslim 0.2%, other 0.2% (2015 est.)
    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 40.44% (male 274,881 /female 259,736)
    15-24 years: 20.46% (male 137,363 /female 133,128)
    25-54 years: 30.13% (male 191,290 /female 206,973)
    55-64 years: 5.02% (male 33,047 /female 33,325)
    65 years and over: 3.95% (male 25,086 /female 27,100) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 90.3 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 83.7 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 6.6 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 15.2 (2015 est.)
    Median age:
    total: 19.1 years
    male: 18.5 years
    female: 19.7 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 202
    Population growth rate:
    2.32% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    Birth rate:
    32.9 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    Death rate:
    5.8 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 174
    Net migration rate:
    -3.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 182
    Population distribution:
    most of the population concentrated in the western third of the country, particularly around Dili
    Urbanization:
    urban population: 30.6% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 3.35% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population:
    281,000 DILI (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 0.93 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth:
    22.1 years (2009/10 est.)

    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

    Maternal mortality rate:
    215 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 33.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 36.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 31 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 68.7 years (2018 est.)
    male: 67.1 years (2018 est.)
    female: 70.4 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    Total fertility rate:
    4.67 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    Contraceptive prevalence rate:
    26.1% (2016)
    Health expenditures:
    1.5% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 192
    Physicians density:
    0.08 physicians/1,000 population (2011)
    Hospital bed density:
    5.9 beds/1,000 population (2010)
    Drinking water source:
    improved: urban: 95.2% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 60.5% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 71.9% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 4.8% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 39.5% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 28.1% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved: urban: 69% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 26.8% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 40.6% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 31% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 73.2% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 59.4% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    NA
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    NA
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    NA
    Major infectious diseases:
    degree of risk: very high (2016)
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever (2016)
    vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria (2016)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
    3.8% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 190
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
    37.7% (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 2
    Education expenditures:
    7.5% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    Literacy:
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
    total population: 67.5% (2015 est.)
    male: 71.5% (2015 est.)
    female: 63.4% (2015 est.)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 13 years (2010)
    male: 14 years (2010)
    female: 13 years (2010)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
    total: 21.8% (2013 est.)
    male: 25.1% (2013 est.)
    female: 16.7% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
  • Government :: Timor-Leste
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste
    conventional short form: Timor-Leste
    local long form: Republika Demokratika Timor Lorosa'e [Tetum]; Republica Democratica de Timor-Leste [Portuguese]
    local short form: Timor Lorosa'e [Tetum]; Timor-Leste [Portuguese]
    former: East Timor, Portuguese Timor
    etymology: timor" derives from the Indonesian and Malay word "timur" meaning "east"; "leste" is the Portuguese word for "east", so "Timor-Leste" literally means "Eastern-East"; the local [Tetum] name "Timor Lorosa'e" translates as "East Rising Sun

    note: pronounced TEE-mor LESS-tay

    Government type:
    semi-presidential republic
    Capital:
    name: Dili
    geographic coordinates: 8 35 S, 125 36 E
    time difference: UTC+9 (14 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    Administrative divisions:
    12 municipalities (municipios, singular municipio) and 1 special adminstrative region* (regiao administrativa especial); Aileu, Ainaro, Baucau, Bobonaro (Maliana), Covalima (Suai), Dili, Ermera (Gleno), Lautem (Lospalos), Liquica, Manatuto, Manufahi (Same), Oe-Cusse Ambeno* (Pante Macassar), Viqueque

    note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)

    Independence:
    20 May 2002 (from Indonesia); note - 28 November 1975 was the date independence was proclaimed from Portugal; 20 May 2002 was the date of international recognition of Timor-Leste's independence from Indonesia
    National holiday:
    Restoration of Independence Day, 20 May (2002)Proclamation of Independence Day, 28 November (1975)
    Constitution:
    history: drafted 2001, approved 22 March 2002, entered into force 20 May 2002 (2018)
    amendments: proposed by Parliament and parliamentary groups; consideration of amendments requires at least four-fifths majority approval by Parliament; passage requires two-thirds majority vote by Parliament and promulgation by the president of the republic; passage of amendments to the republican form of government and the flag requires approval in a referendum (2018)
    International law organization participation:
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    Citizenship:
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Timor-Leste
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
    Suffrage:
    17 years of age; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: President Francisco GUTERRES (since 20 May 2017); note - the president plays a largely symbolic role but is the commander in chief of the military and is able to veto legislation, dissolve parliament, and call national elections
    head of government: Prime Minister Taur Matan RUAK (since 22 June 2018); note - President GUTERRES dissolved parliament because of an impasse over passing the country's budget on 26 January 2018, with then Prime Minister Mari ALKATIRI assuming the role of caretaker prime minister until a new prime minister was appointed
    cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister and appointed by the president
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 20 March 2017 (next to be held in 2022); following parliamentary elections, the president appoints the leader of the majority party or majority coalition as the prime minister
    election results: Francisco GUTERRES elected president; percent of vote - Francisco GUTERRES (FRETILIN) 57.1%, Antonio DA CONCEICAO (PD) 32.5%, Jose Luis GUTERRES (Frenti-Mudanca) 2.6%, Jose NEVES (independent) 2.3%, Luis Alves TILMAN (independent) 2.2%, other 3.4%
    Legislative branch:
    description: unicameral National Parliament (65 seats; members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)
    elections: last held on 12 May 2018 (next to be held in July 2023)
    election results: percent of vote by party - AMP - 49.6%, FRETILIN 34.2%, PD 8.1%, DDF 5.5%, other 2.6%; seats by party - AMP 34, FRETILIN 23, PD 5, DDF 3
    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: Supreme Court of Justice (consists of the court president and NA judges)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president appointed by the president of the republic from among the other court judges to serve a 4-year term; other Supreme Court judges appointed - 1 by the Parliament and the others by the Supreme Council for the Judiciary, a body presided by the Supreme Court president and includes mostly presidential and parliamentary appointees; other Supreme Court judges appointed for life
    subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Administrative, Tax, and Audit Court; district courts; magistrates' courts; military courts

    note: the UN Justice System Programme, launched in 2003 in 4 phases through 2018, is helping strengthen the country's justice system; the Programme is aligned with the country's long-range Justice Sector Strategic Plan, which includes legal reform

    Political parties and leaders:
    Alliance for Change and Progress or AMP [Xanana GUSMAO] (alliance includes CNRT, KHUNTO, PLP)
    Democratic Development Forum or DDF
    Democratic Party or PD
    Frenti-Mudanca [Jose Luis GUTERRES]
    Kmanek Haburas Unidade Nasional Timor Oan or KHUNTO
    National Congress for Timorese Reconstruction or CNRT [Kay Rala Xanana GUSMAO]
    People's Liberation Party or PLP [Taur Matan RUAK]
    Revolutionary Front of Independent Timor-Leste or FRETILIN [Mari ALKATIRI]
    International organization participation:
    ACP, ADB, AOSIS, ARF, ASEAN (observer), CPLP, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PIF (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WMO
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Domingos Sarmento ALVES (since 21 May 2014)
    chancery: 4201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 504, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 966-3202
    FAX: [1] (202) 966-3205
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Kathleen FITZPATRICK (since 19 January 2018)
    embassy: Avenida de Portugal, Praia dos Coqueiros, Dili
    mailing address: US Department of State, 8250 Dili Place, Washington, DC 20521-8250
    telephone: (670) 332-4684
    FAX: (670) 331-3206
    Flag description:
    red with a black isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) superimposed on a slightly longer yellow arrowhead that extends to the center of the flag; a white star - pointing to the upper hoist-side corner of the flag - is in the center of the black triangle; yellow denotes the colonialism in Timor-Leste's past, black represents the obscurantism that needs to be overcome, red stands for the national liberation struggle; the white star symbolizes peace and serves as a guiding light
    National symbol(s):
    Mount Ramelau; national colors: red, yellow, black, white
    National anthem:
    name: "Patria" (Fatherland)
    lyrics/music: Fransisco Borja DA COSTA/Afonso DE ARAUJO

    note: adopted 2002; the song was first used as an anthem when Timor-Leste declared its independence from Portugal in 1975; the lyricist, Francisco Borja DA COSTA, was killed in the Indonesian invasion just days after independence was declared

  • Economy :: Timor-Leste
  • Economy - overview:

    Since independence in 1999, Timor-Leste has faced great challenges in rebuilding its infrastructure, strengthening the civil administration, and generating jobs for young people entering the work force. The development of offshore oil and gas resources has greatly supplemented government revenues. This technology-intensive industry, however, has done little to create jobs in part because there are no production facilities in Timor-Leste. Gas is currently piped to Australia for processing, but Timor-Leste has expressed interest in developing a domestic processing capability.

    In June 2005, the National Parliament unanimously approved the creation of the Timor-Leste Petroleum Fund to serve as a repository for all petroleum revenues and to preserve the value of Timor-Leste's petroleum wealth for future generations. The Fund held assets of $16 billion, as of mid-2016. Oil accounts for over 90% of government revenues, and the drop in the price of oil in 2014-16 has led to concerns about the long-term sustainability of government spending. Timor-Leste compensated for the decline in price by exporting more oil. The Ministry of Finance maintains that the Petroleum Fund is sufficient to sustain government operations for the foreseeable future.

    Annual government budget expenditures increased markedly between 2009 and 2012 but dropped significantly through 2016. Historically, the government failed to spend as much as its budget allowed. The government has focused significant resources on basic infrastructure, including electricity and roads, but limited experience in procurement and infrastructure building has hampered these projects. The underlying economic policy challenge the country faces remains how best to use oil-and-gas wealth to lift the non-oil economy onto a higher growth path and to reduce poverty.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $7.426 billion (2017 est.)
    $7.784 billion (2016 est.)
    $7.391 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 166
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $2.775 billion (2017 est.) (2017 est.)

    note: non-oil GDP

    GDP - real growth rate:
    -4.6% (2017 est.)
    5.3% (2016 est.)
    4% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 216
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $6,000 (2017 est.)
    $6,400 (2016 est.)
    $6,200 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 164
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 33% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 30% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 10.6% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 0% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 78.4% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -52% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 9.1% (2017 est.)
    industry: 56.7% (2017 est.)
    services: 34.4% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    coffee, rice, corn, cassava (manioc, tapioca), sweet potatoes, soybeans, cabbage, mangoes, bananas, vanilla
    Industries:
    printing, soap manufacturing, handicrafts, woven cloth
    Industrial production growth rate:
    2% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    Labor force:
    286,700 (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 164
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 41%
    industry: 13%
    services: 45.1% (2013)
    Unemployment rate:
    4.4% (2014 est.)
    3.9% (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    Population below poverty line:
    41.8% (2014 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: 27% (2007)
    highest 10%: 27% (2007)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index:
    31.9 (2007 est.)
    38 (2002 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    Budget:
    revenues: 300 million (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 2.4 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    10.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 213
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    -75.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 222
    Public debt:
    3.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
    3.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 206
    Fiscal year:
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    0.6% (2017 est.)
    -1.3% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    Commercial bank prime lending rate:
    13.29% (31 December 2017 est.)
    14.05% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    Stock of narrow money:
    $563.3 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $464.1 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    Stock of broad money:
    $563.3 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $464.1 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 171
    Stock of domestic credit:
    -$213 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    -$212 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    Market value of publicly traded shares:

    NA

    Current account balance:
    -$284 million (2017 est.)
    -$544 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    Exports:
    $16.7 million (2017 est.)
    $18 million (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 214
    Exports - commodities:
    oil, coffee, sandalwood, marble

    note: potential for vanilla exports

    Imports:
    $681.2 million (2017 est.)
    $558.6 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 192
    Imports - commodities:
    food, gasoline, kerosene, machinery
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $544.4 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $437.8 million (31 December 2015 est.)

    note: excludes assets of approximately $9.7 billion in the Petroleum Fund (31 December 2010)

    country comparison to the world: 150
    Debt - external:
    $311.5 million (31 December 2014 est.)
    $687 million (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 184
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
    (31 December 2009 est.)
    Exchange rates:

    the US dollar is used

  • Energy :: Timor-Leste
  • Electricity access:
    population without electricity: 744,032 (2012)
    electrification - total population: 42% (2012)
    electrification - urban areas: 78% (2012)
    electrification - rural areas: 27% (2012)
    Electricity - production:
    0 kWh NA (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 219
    Electricity - consumption:
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 218
    Electricity - exports:
    0 kWh (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 207
    Electricity - imports:
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 209
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    600 kW NA (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 215
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    0% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 215
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 194
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 204
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    100% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 1
    Crude oil - production:
    40,320 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    Crude oil - exports:
    62,060 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    Crude oil - imports:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 203
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 203
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 207
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    3,500 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 186
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 208
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    3,481 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 182
    Natural gas - production:
    5.776 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    Natural gas - consumption:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 205
    Natural gas - exports:
    5.776 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    Natural gas - imports:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 199
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    200 billion cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    533,400 Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 184
  • Communications :: Timor-Leste
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 2,364 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 210
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 1,546,624 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 120 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    Telephone system:
    general assessment: rudimentary service in urban and some rural areas, which is expanding with the entrance of new competitors (2016)
    domestic: system suffered significant damage during the violence associated with independence; limited fixed-line services; mobile-cellular services have been expanding and are now available in urban and most rural areas (2016)
    international: country code - 670; international service is available (2016)
    Broadcast media:
    7 TV stations (2 nationwide satellite coverage; 3 terrestrial coverage, mostly in Dili; 2 cable) and 21 radio stations (3 nationwide coverage) (2017)
    Internet country code:
    .tl
    Internet users:
    total: 318,373 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 25.2% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions:
    total: 3,346 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 182
  • Transportation :: Timor-Leste
  • Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    4W (2016)
    Airports:
    6 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 176
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 2 (2013)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
    Airports - with unpaved runways:
    total: 4 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)
    under 914 m: 2 (2013)
    Heliports:
    8 (2013)
    Roadways:
    total: 6,040 km (2005)
    paved: 2,600 km (2005)
    unpaved: 3,440 km (2005)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    Ports and terminals:
    major seaport(s): Dili
  • Military and Security :: Timor-Leste
  • Military expenditures:
    2.56% of GDP (2015)
    2.12% of GDP (2014)
    2.42% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    Military branches:
    Timor-Leste Defense Force (Falintil-Forcas de Defesa de Timor-L'este, Falintil (F-FDTL)): Army, Navy (Armada) (2013)
    Military service age and obligation:
    18 years of age for voluntary military service; 18-month service obligation; no conscription but, as of May 2013, introduction of conscription was under discussion (2013)
  • Transnational Issues :: Timor-Leste
  • Disputes - international:
    three stretches of land borders with Indonesia have yet to be delimited, two of which are in the Oecussi exclave area, and no maritime or Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) boundaries have been established between the countriesmaritime boundaries with Indonesia remain unresolvedin 2018, Australia and Timor-Leste signed a permanent maritime border treaty, scrapping a 2007 development zone and revenue sharing arrangement between the countries
    Trafficking in persons:
    current situation: Timor-Leste is a source and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; Timorese women and girls from rural areas are lured to the capital with promises of legitimate jobs or education prospects and are then forced into prostitution or domestic servitude, and other women and girls may be sent to Indonesia for domestic servitude; Timorese family members force children into bonded domestic or agricultural labor to repay debts; foreign migrant women are vulnerable to sex trafficking in Timor-Leste, while men and boys from Burma, Cambodia, and Thailand are forced to work on fishing boats in Timorese waters under inhumane conditions
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Timor-Leste does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; in 2014, legislation was drafted but not finalized or implemented that outlines procedures for screening potential trafficking victims; law enforcement made modest progress, including one conviction for sex trafficking, but efforts are hindered by prosecutors’ and judges’ lack of expertise in applying anti-trafficking laws effectively; the government rescued two child victims with support from an NGO but did not provide protective services (2015)
    Illicit drugs:
    NA