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Support to the War on Terrorism and Homeland Security

 

Make no mistake:  despite the battles we have won in Afghanistan, we remain a nation at war.

George J. Tenet,
Director of Central Intelligence,
Testimony Before the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, February 6, 2002

The Intelligence Community provided critical support to the Global War on Terrorism, Operation ENDURING FREEDOM, and Homeland Security. New lines of communication and collaboration were opened between the IC and the Law Enforcement and Counterintelligence Communities. The IC built upon longstanding foreign partnerships and established new partnerships to aid in the War on Terrorism. All elements of the IC brought greater emphasis to issues of counterterrorism and homeland security, focusing on producing actionable intelligence and timely warning in support of military forces and law enforcement.

 

Countering al-Qa'ida and the Worldwide Terrorist Threat

  • Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) officers worked with foreign intelligence services to detain more than 2,900 al-Qa'ida operatives and associates in over 90 countries. A CIA recruit provided intelligence on an al-Qa'ida operative who was planning an impending terrorist operation using shoes to conceal weapons. This report resulted in the issuance of an FAA warning prior to the incident on Flight AA63 and the arrest of alleged "shoe-bomber" Richard Reid.
  • CIA officers and Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) agents supported the Greek National Police arrest of Alexandros Yiotopoulos, the founder of the 17 November terrorist organization. Following that arrest, the Air Force Office of Special Investigations (AFOSI), FBI, Greek National Police, and New Scotland Yard initiated a joint investigation. The investigation focused on determining the identities of the group's members and why they carried out assassinations and other terrorist attacks against US Air Force and Army personnel. Safehouses used by 17 November contained weapons, rockets, grenades, communications equipment, and other evidentiary items. To date, the Greek National Police have arrested fourteen individuals and trial preparations are underway in Athens. FBI, CIA, AFOSI and Greek Police are collaborating to close out one murder and three attempted murder investigations. 
  • CIA supported the Greek Government in preparations to provide security at the 2004 Olympic Games by training government officials and analyzing the terrorist challenge in the region.
  • CIA, with FBI and the Department of Defense (DoD), devised a campaign of coordinated raids on several al-Qa'ida-affiliated nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) that led to the indictment and arrest of at least one group leader.
  • The Treasury Department played a major role in targeting and dismantling terrorist financial networks through such mechanisms as the inter-agency Foreign Terrorist Asset Tracking group, the international Financial Action Task Force, and others. Treasury's Operation GREEN QUEST, which drew upon the expertise of the US Customs Service (USCS), the Internal Revenue Service, the Secret Service, the FBI, and other agencies including the CIA, investigated terrorist financing. Treasury's Office of International Affairs worked with other countries to maintain and expand international efforts to choke off terrorist funds. The Office of Foreign Assets Control worked with other federal, state, local and international entities to implement a strong regime of blocking actions, fund freezes, and other initiatives to derail terrorist financing structures.
  • Treasury's Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) operated as an information conduit between law enforcement and financial institutions to disseminate information relating to suspected terrorists and money launderers. FinCEN established a secure network to permit, among other things, the filing of Bank Secrecy Act reports over the Internet, and to put this information into law enforcement databases.
  • The FBI's Terrorist Financing Operations Section, created during FY 2002, participated in the effort to target NGOs believed to provide financial support to known foreign terrorist organizations and affiliated terrorist cells. The joint efforts targeting al Barakaat, the Holy Land Foundation for Relief and Development, the Global Relief Foundation, and the Benevolence International Foundation resulted in the execution of numerous search warrants and the disruption of the fund-raising and money remittance operations of these organizations. Financial investigations of these entities have revealed that approximately $200 million in contributions passed through these organizations each year.
  • In the aftermath of the 11 September terrorist attacks, every Department of State Bureau of Intelligence and Research (State/INR) office added terrorism to their regular portfolios in ways that enabled State/INR to continue to provide global coverage while uncovering and examining terrorist-related developments in every country and region. State/INR continued to manage and maintain the TIPOFF database of known and suspected terrorists. Efforts were made to increase the information available in the database and make this information available to other agencies. This has contributed to improved interagency information sharing. 
  • US Central Command (USCENTCOM) implemented a collaborative capability through the Joint Worldwide Intelligence Communications System (JWICS) to support the Global War on Terrorism by:

    • Establishing over 1,600 information work space accounts to increase information sharing.
    • Enabling the coordination of time-sensitive targeting and collection requirements.
    • Providing greater situational awareness to USCENTCOM Headquarters, components, supported Combatant Commands, other intelligence organizations, and 43 coalition partners.

  • The Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI) conducted all-source analysis on al-Qa'ida maritime logistics networks in the Middle East, East Africa, and the Mediterranean and developed extensive intelligence on the companies, ships, individuals, organizations, and infrastructure involved in legitimate and illicit maritime activities. A wide range of products was published on terrorist-related shipping, including the daily locations of ships suspected of supporting terrorist groups.  
  • In the aftermath of the attacks on New York and Washington, the National Intelligence Council (NIC) brought together outside experts and members of the US Intelligence Community for a series of sessions aimed at mitigating surprise in the wake of the 11 September attacks and identifying potential new or emerging terrorist threats.
  • Following the overthrow of the Taliban and the convening of an international conference on the political reconstruction of Afghanistan, the NIC coordinated analysis from across the Intelligence Community on the prospects for the country during its transitional administration.
  • The NIC sponsored a conference that examined the impact of events in Afghanistan since
    11 September on a variety of regional actors, including Russia, Iran, Turkey, India, Europe, Pakistan, and Central Asian states. The conference brought together government and outside experts to exchange views on this issue. The NIC produced an unclassified report, Afghanistan and Regional Dynamics after 11 September, summarizing the discussions.
  • In response to the 11 September attacks, the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Counter Intelligence (OCI) and Office of Defense Nuclear Counter Intelligence (ODNCI) formed the Headquarters Counterterrorism Team to evaluate and respond to potential threats of terrorism against DOE facilities, personnel, and information. The CT Team regularly disseminated to field personnel intelligence reporting that detailed any terrorist threats to, or interest in, DOE facilities and personnel.
  • The National Security Agency (NSA) increased hiring to maintain a heightened operations tempo, accelerated development and implementation of advanced analytic tools and systems, and bought and built better processing systems—all of which enable NSA to "hunt" for the Nation's adversaries. After the 11 September attacks, NSA received approximately 83,000 resumes and hired 820 new full-time employees in FY2002. NSA also utilized the largest number of retired NSA civilians in its history, bringing thousands of years of experience across a wide range of technical and analytical areas to bear in the war on terrorism.

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Operation ENDURING FREEDOM

  • The Joint Captured Materiel Exploitation Center (JCMEC) supported the theater commander in Afghanistan by providing technical intelligence for force protection issues raised by the soldiers in the field. The JCMEC also satisfied national intelligence requirements by collecting foreign materiel from the theater and transporting the materiel back to the United States for detailed exploitation. The JCMEC recovered foreign materiel estimated to be worth $40M, and the in-theater teams have helped recover additional materiel to satisfy IC and explosive ordnance disposal requirements.
  • DIA, as the Intelligence Community lead for document exploitation, in collaboration with CIA, NSA, and FBI, established an Intelligence Community Document Exploitation Center as the primary exploitation node outside the Afghan theater of operations for all captured documents related to the Global War on Terrorism. The center has the capability to scan, screen, and process high volumes of original documents as well as those copied from magnetic media.
  • As Afghan detainees were moved to Guantanamo Bay, the Defense HUMINT Service (DHS) deployed the first interrogation team to support the activities of US Southern Command's Joint Task Force-170 at Camp X-Ray. A six-person team reported within 48 hours and assessed the first 158 detainees. The team produced over 1,000 intelligence reports.
  • DIA printed more than 75,000 copies of country handbooks on Afghanistan for deployed forces engaged in Operation ENDURING FREEDOM; received, processed, and posted 68,570 HUMINT intelligence information reports, with 25,000 digitized linked enclosures; and, in 72 hours, rapidly reformatted and disseminatedgeospatial operational supportpackages for tactical operations. These packageswere used to track and monitorpotential escape routesof al-Qa'ida troops and leaders.
  • National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) analysts have been deployed throughout the USCENTCOM area of responsibility for Operation ENDURING FREEDOM. NIMA provided environmental assessments on troop deployment areas and addressed such humanitarian issues as the location and movement of refugees and displaced persons within Afghanistan and surrounding countries.
  • USCENTCOM and DIA developed and provided precise targeting information on al-Qa'ida and Taliban facilities and forces. This information was used by combined military strike assets during Operations ANACONDA and ENDURING FREEDOM.
  • NIMA provided extensive targeting support and conducted battle damage assessments in support of Operation ENDURING FREEDOM. NIMA analysts created critical geospatial intelligence databases for key areas affected by the war on terrorism. They analyzed the activities of al-Qa'ida and the Taliban and provided assessments of installations and equipment associated with key Taliban ground force units. 
  • CIA worked with the military services throughout Operation ENDURING FREEDOM to deny Usama Bin Laden and al-Qa'ida the use of Afghanistan as a terrorist sanctuary. CIA provided force-protection support and intelligence that was used in planning for military counterterrorism operations, transported US and NATO forces into combat areas during Operation ANACONDA, deployed modified Global Positioning Systems to identify al-Qa'ida and Taliban locations, supported rescue operations, and established a supply pipeline and coordinated the delivery of weapons and ammunition into Afghanistan.
  • CIA's assessments of the military strength of Taliban and Northern Alliance forces was used to plan battles and assess enemy strength, as well as to plan the successive phases of the military campaign.
  • The Joint Staff Director for Intelligence, the DIA J2, established the Global War on Terrorism/Operation ENDURING FREEDOM Intelligence Task Force to provide actionable intelligence for combat operations in Afghanistan.
  • In response to Operations NOBLE EAGLE and ENDURING FREEDOM, DIA initiated the largest reserve mobilization in the history of the agency. DIA mobilized over 500 intelligence officers and enlisted specialists to locations across the country and around the world to take part in the Global War on Terrorism.
  • NSA deployed civilian and military analysts worldwide in support of Operation ENDURING FREEDOM.
  • The Defensive Information Operations Group at NSA provided round-the-clock monitoring of USCENTCOM unencrypted (and, therefore, vulnerable to intercept by unauthorized persons) communications, strengthening operational security for ENDURING FREEDOM activities. Using feedback and recommendations from NSA's monitoring, USCENTCOM reduced its sensitive information disclosure rate 90 percent in three months. 

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Mustering for Homeland Security

  • The DCI created the Office of Associate DCI for Homeland Security to serve as the IC focal point on issues of intelligence support to homeland security.
  • On October 30, 2001, the President directed the creation of the Foreign Terrorism Tracking Task Force (FTTTF) within the Department of Justice under the administrative control of the FBI Counterterrorism Division. The mission of the FTTTF is to keep foreign terrorists and their supporters out of the United States by providing critical and timely information related to entry denial and removal as well as the identification and location of known and suspected terrorists. During FY2002, the FTTTF was involved in a number of specific projects to fill gaps in existing efforts relating to foreign terrorists and their supporters. The FTTTF engaged in projects to:

    • Maintain a unified, unclassified Consolidated Tracking List.
    • Identify foreign terrorists and their supporters who have entered undetected or seek to enter the United States or its territories.
    • Detect indications of violations of criminal or immigration law which would permit exclusion, detention, or deportation of such individuals.
    • Co-locate critical law enforcement, intelligence, and open source data for analysis and decisionmaking support.

  • Following the terrorist attacks of 11 September, FBI compiled what became known as the Project Lookout Watch List. Subsequently, FBI established a permanent Terrorism Watch List (TWL) to serve as the single, integrated listing of individuals of investigative interest that will be accessible throughout the Law Enforcement and Intelligence Communities. The TWL is a compendium of names based on information identified through FBI investigations, IC and DoD reporting, as well as information provided by cooperating foreign governments. The TWL will assist both the intelligence and the law enforcement communities in their investigations of terrorist groups and individuals and alert IC officers and law enforcement agents should a person of interest in a terrorism matter be encountered by another agency.
  • DIA analysts exploited documents found in Afghanistan and developed additional insight into the infrastructure of al-Qa'ida's biological warfare (BW) efforts. These analysts worked with counterproliferation, counterterrorism and special investigative elements of the FBI to support the monitoring and neutralization of potential scientific contributors to that al-Qa'ida BW infrastructure. Additionally, DIA's Biological and Chemical On-line Repository of Technical Holdings (BACWORTH) database has assisted FBI and other law enforcement personnel in understanding BW and CW threats. For example, BACWORTH has provided FBI with data related to anthrax lethal doses and has served as the foundation of law enforcement's own BW and CW databases.
  • DIA addressed chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and missile (CBRN&M) threats through multi-layered analysis of national-level proliferation networks. The multi-layered analysis approach has been expanded to include sub-national and terrorist entities, and is involved in identifying vulnerabilities plus points-of-leverage-and-influence in foreign CBRN&M programs. Assessments helped identify attempts by non-state groups to obtain CBRN&M equipment and their associated technologies, and helped to identify linkages that could be exploited to stop those transactions.
  • As an outgrowth of its leadership in the intelligence community in the forecasting of future technology impacts related to global security trends, DIA created the Disruptive Technology Innovative Partnership (DTIP) with participation from the UK, Canada and Australia as well as all elements of the US Intelligence Community. DTIP will provide integrated forecasts of foreign state and non-state capabilities stemming from innovative applications of both mature and emerging technologies.  DTIP's focused on terrorism-related issues and it is working with officials at DoD, Homeland Security (Critical Infrastructures), Law Enforcement, Finance/Banking, and Transportation to focus on potential targets, attack modes, and attack means. Additionally, DTIP works with the primary intelligence producers to broaden and sharpen collection requirements.
  • DIA prepared a special assessment of the cyber threat to National Airspace System networks at the request of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). DIA also participated in the Network Security Information Exchange, a partnership of government, industry and network security professionals that promotes exchanges of information to enhance computer network and public telephone switched network security and improve critical infrastructure protection. This is a key security issue because much of the DoD information infrastructure rides on the public switched network.
  • The Air Force Eagle Eyes program, introduced in FY2002, represents a new awareness methodology, where AFOSI draws upon the entire Air Force military and civilian community to detect and deter terrorism. Eagle Eyes conveys raw information that does not meet formal reporting standards but is deemed to be of interest. As an outgrowth of the Eagle Eyes program, the AFOSI Homeland Security Analysis Office published a weekly product entitled Eagle Vision, a compilation of articles analyzing Homeland Security threat information which also served as a liaison tool to help bridge the gap between the DoD Counterintelligence (CI) community and local law enforcement.
  • ONI began assessing the probability of terrorists using ships as a means of delivering WMD that could be detonated or designed to release toxic chemicals or biological agents. ONI evaluated over 40 hazardous chemicals identified by the US Coast Guard (USCG) to determine their potential for explosion, fire, or toxic release. Based on a model developed by ONI, the Coast Guard can quickly evaluate the threat posed by these chemicals and has taken increased precautions prior to permitting ships containing hazardous materials to enter US ports.
  • Over 1,000 Navy Reserve intelligence personnel were mobilized for active participation in the war on terrorism. Mobilized Navy Reserve Intelligence personnel who are skilled in analysis of merchant marine shipping activities provided valuable support to US port and harbor security operations. Additionally, many analysts provided direct intelligence support to border patrol efforts, counterdrug operations, and counterterrorism activities.
  • The USCG Intelligence Program provided the Joint Interagency Task Force—Counterterrorism (JITF-CT) a dedicated maritime threat analysis cell that supports Homeland Security. As the JITF-CT maritime security element, this cell researched, analyzed, and produced finished intelligence products addressing maritime-related threats of concern to US intelligence and law enforcement officials. 
  • The USCG Intelligence Program, DIA, and NIMA are enhancing situational awareness of the Captains of the Port (the senior Coast Guard officers assigned to US ports) with commercial high-resolution satellite imagery of maritime areas of interest.
  • CIA initiated collaboration with medical officers from the White House, the Capitol, NSA, FBI, Department of State (DoS) and the Department of Health and Human Services Office of Emergency Preparedness to coordinate a US Government response to the potential threat of chemical and biological warfare. On the local level, in Virginia CIA also initiated information sharing meetings with the Arlington County-based National Medical Response Team and Fairfax County emergency medical personnel.
  • CIA provided information to interagency teams responsible for security at the 2002 Salt Lake City Winter Olympics. 
  • CIA briefed the President and his Cabinet on the worldwide smallpox threat, providing analysis that is helping to drive the US Government smallpox vaccination policy. A series of technical assessments on smallpox provided to senior policymakers helped determine the USposition on worldwide destruction of smallpox virus.
  • CIA officers, in collaboration with the National Science Foundation, formed an intragovernmental committee to formalize cooperation in the genetic sequencing of pathogens that could be used as biological weapons. A National Interagency Genomics Sciences Coordinating Committee was established to guide the interagency sequencing work.
  • The NIC provided extensive briefings on the development of biological weapons capabilities by potential adversaries—particularly important after the anthrax attacks in the United States—and also briefed on cyber threats to the United States. The NIC coordinated an Intelligence Community assessment that focused on the threats and individual capabilities posed by terrorist use of cyber space.
  • NSA established a Homeland Security Support Office to develop and coordinate NSA's Homeland Security Strategy and to identify SIGINT and information assurance capabilities, products and services for supporting the National Homeland Security Strategy. The new support office immediately detailed people to the Office of Homeland Security (OHS), the staff of the newly created Associate DCI for Homeland Security, and the FTTTF. NSA also provided secure communications connectivity for these organizations.
  • NSA responded to standing requirements for reporting threat and warning information to the Office of Homeland Security. NSA not only disseminated end product reporting to Homeland Security elements, but also implemented procedures to telephonically tip-off high-priority information before formal publication. This tip-off mechanism ensured that senior officials received perishable information as quickly as possible.
  • NSA's Interagency Operations Security (OPSEC) Support Staff (IOSS) provided OPSEC training and information to federal, state, and local first responders. In support of the Salt Lake City Olympics, NSA OPSEC personnel trained officials on operations security and developed an OPSEC video for the public, which was played at the Olympic venues and on inbound commercial aircraft. The IOSS returned to Utah in May 2002 to host the largest ever (over 600 attendees) National OPSEC Conference and Exhibition. For the first time, a public safety track was added to reach out to first responders who were attending their first OPSEC conference.
  • NSA completed a study of threats to information systems, including several focused directly on Homeland Security issues. For example, a specific threat assessment was completed for the FAA on the National Airspace System.


NIMA applied its traditional foreign analysis capabilities to the domestic challenge. In addition, NIMA has tailored its processes and products to respond to the unique needs of the responder community and domestic federal agencies.

  • NIMA researched and verified the 25 most dangerous chemical facilities in the United States for the OHS and produced a graphic depicting their locations. This graphic was briefed to the members of the Cabinet, including the Environmental Protection Agency Administrator.
  • NIMA produced force protection graphics for 50 airports in the United States at the request of the OHS. These graphics identified the locations of water treatment plants, ordnance storage, fuel storage, control towers, water towers, communications towers, perimeter fences, overrun areas, entry control points, and guard towers, including vulnerable points of entry.  NIMA also provided aeronautical graphics and imagery reviews for over 5,000 airfields in the United States at the request of the White House Situation Room for Presidential visits, the National Security Council, and the OHS. 
  • NIMA supported the FBI and US Secret Service for the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City, Utah, by providing security graphics for all event locations, images of the event locations, different line of sight analysis, elevation terrain analysis, and three-dimensional (3D) modeling.  NIMA provided similar support at Milwaukee, Wisconsin, for the 2002 Major League Baseball All-Star Game; Boise, Idaho, at the National Governors' Conference; and New Orleans, Louisiana, for the National Football League Super Bowl XXXVI.
  • NIMA, in partnership with CIA, developed the Blast Modeling Prototype system to provide photo-realistic 3D visualization and structural blast analysis for vulnerability assessment and threat analysis used in predicting structural collapse and other damage levels when a catastrophic event occurs. The success of the prototype ensured structural damage could be translated and animated in the context of photo-recognizable 3D site models to support analysis and decisionmaking.
  • The DOE Information and Special Technologies Support Program (ISTP) supported multiple nation-wide counterterrorism investigations under the authority of the FBI. The ISTP contributed materially to these investigations using a combination of expert personnel in the field and advanced analysis of network-based indicators gathered through the Inquiry Management and Analytical Capability program—which indicates potentially hostile cyber activity against selected DOE and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA).
  • The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (BATF) within the Treasury Department initiated an inspection program for explosives licensees and permittees located within a 50-mile radius of all major metropolitan areas. This effort determines whether there have been any recent thefts or losses of explosives, any unusual activities, or suspicious purchases that may be related to any events that may have occurred or, more importantly, any future acts that are planned.
  • The FBI's Joint Terrorism Task Force (JTTF) Program broadened interagency liaison and communications, eliminating duplication of effort, and combined federal, state, and local law enforcement resources in the fight against terrorism. During FY2002, the FBI established JTTFs in 21 field offices and now has a JTTF in each of its 56 field offices. In addition, the FBI established a new National JTTF (NJTTF) at FBI Headquarters to improve collaboration and information sharing with other agencies. The NJTTF currently has representation from 26 federal agencies and two state and local law enforcement officials. IC representatives in the NJTTF include CIA, DIA, DOE, State/INR, and US Coast Guard.  BATF also participates.
  • BATF expanded its electronic links to the IC and initiated protocols for transmitting classified terrorism-related intelligence from BATF Headquarters to field investigative elements. This link includes access to DoS and DoD classified data processing systems. NSA established a permanent detail position within the BATF Intelligence Division to provide BATF with real-time access to classified intelligence coverage and national security information relevant to BATF's counterterrorism.
  • The National Reconnaissance Office, under the direction of the DCI, sponsored the IC-based Law Enforcement Working Group (LEWG). LEWG brings together representatives from federal law enforcement and IC organizations to focus on the appropriate and legal uses of technologies and data collected by the IC and DoD in support of law enforcement operations.  This initiative forms a bridge between the Law Enforcement and the Intelligence Communities while protecting the equities of each in relation to sources, methods, and potential grand jury information.
  • The US Secret Service (USSS) Intelligence Division continued to work with the Intelligence Community and law enforcement entities to investigate and evaluate all intelligence issues relative to executive protection. The USSS has agents assigned to the FBI's National Joint Terrorism Task Force office, as well as to the CIA. The USSS has representatives on the Counterterrorism Security Group of the National Security Council, the NSC-CSG Counter-Terrorism International training Focus Group, and working groups for the OHS. The USSS also has detailees on its staff from a number of IC agencies, including NSA and NIMA.
  • Immediately following the 11 September terrorist attacks, the DCI initiated daily intelligence briefings for the Commissioner of the US Customs Service. These briefings focus on threats to homeland security and threats to US interests abroad. The briefings provide the Commissioner with current threat information giving a clear understanding of the terrorist threat facing the USCS at the border of the United States. Customs used this information to determine the response to counter specific threats.
  • The USCS began posting its Daily Border Security Incident Reports to CT-LINK, an all-source interagency database containing intelligence on terrorists and extremist groups maintained by the Intelligence Community.  
  • The DCI hosted several US Customs Intelligence analysts and special agents on-site as full-time representatives to several interagency centers, including the Counterterrorism Center.  This facilitated the rapid exchange of intelligence critical to the Customs law enforcement mission, and provided the IC valuable feedback to augment and refine its intelligence collection and analysis. NSA had an on-site representative at the USCS to facilitate the rapid movement and sharing of information between agencies. This daily support proved to be extremely valuable, especially in coordinating time-sensitive information.
  • The IC Chief Information Officer Executive Council endorsed an integrated secure architecture plan to support Homeland Security. The architecture will interconnect organizations operating at the Top Secret, Secret, and Sensitive but Unclassified levels seamlessly as the appropriate secure guard technologies become available. Procedures were adopted to provide direct access to sensitive intelligence information by non-intelligence federal offices involved in the effort. To date, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Interior, the OHS, and the Transportation Security Agency have been connected to the Community Top Secret networks. In addition, the Intelink Management Office established secure connectivity among DoD, Intelligence Community, DoS, and Justice Department and other law enforcement networks to improve information sharing and collaboration among those communities.

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Posted: Apr 30, 2007 05:40 PM
Last Updated: Jan 03, 2012 12:54 PM