US national interests require the Intelligence Community to maintain worldwide vigilance on the foreign threats to our citizens, both civilian and military, infrastructure, and allies. In addition, we also seek to inform policymakers of opportunities to advance US foreign policy objectives.
This portion of the Annual Report lists program accomplishments by strategic priority, region of the world, transnational issue, and by discipline.
The following countries are considered strategic priorities by US policymakers.
- US-Sino Summits. CIA provided a daily intelligence summary and other intelligence support before and during the October 1997 visit to Washington by President Jiang and during President Clinton's visit to China in June 1998.
- Technology Transfer. CIA supported the investigation by the Select Committee on US National Security and Military/Commercial Concerns with the People's Republic of China.
- Arrest of a 10 Member Illegal Network in Miami, Florida. A three year investigation by the FBI and other US Government entities culminated in the arrest of 10 members of an illegal network in Miami, Florida, on September 12, 1998. This network was engaged in the collection of information from a variety of targets in the south Florida area, including information related to political and humanitarian activities by Cuban American organizations; the operation of US military installations; and, other US Government functions. As a result of this investigation three members of the Cuban Mission to the United Nations in New York were expelled during December 1998, for actions related to this network.
- Caspian and Iranian Energy Issues. CIA provided technical support and detailed analysis to support critical policy decisions on Caspian and Iranian energy issues.
- Expand Open Source Coverage. CIA increased coverage of the Iranian regions by adding Iranian regional publications to open source coverage, which resulted in a 50-percent increase in production.
- Famine Assessment. CIA provided an assessment of the extent of famine in North Korea through the use of both a multidisciplinary, all-source methodology and a mortality model.
- Dependence on Western Financial Assistance. DIA's analysis of the impact of Russia's financial crisis on its weapons of mass destruction (WMD) programs revealed increasing dependence on Western financial assistance to dismantle nuclear and chemical weapons. This information continued funding for WMD programs and will be used by senior US policymakers to evaluate Russia's future requests for financial assistance.
- Analytical Surge. CIA surged to provide additional coverage during two Russian Government shakeups and President Clinton's meeting with President Yeltsin.
- Translations Improvements. CIA launched a pilot program to improve the quality and timeliness of translations from Russian press.
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The following accomplishments include more than one region of the world.
- Specialized Operational Support. DOE continued to maintain an on-call capability to rapidly identify and provide unique expertise/technologies to support federal agencies' varied missions, for example: addressing the specialized needs of the Joint Staff, Special Technologies Program (STP) coordinated a quick-turnaround technical solution to a US European Command requirement for remotely interrupting broadcasts aimed at disrupting the United Nations (UN) peace efforts in Bosnia; supported US military forces in Europe with personnel and equipment to detect surface and sub-surface anomalies; supported the Department of State's Construction Accreditation Program with the deployment of personnel and specialized equipment to assist survey teams; and provided DOE laboratory equipment/personnel for the real-time, onsite, recording/data capture of Iraqi missile launches in support of UN weapons inspections; and coordinated a quick response capability to modify a device for a sensitive operation.
- Foreign Landmine Warfare. The National Ground Intelligence Center (NGIC) continues to develop extensive data bases and maintain technical expertise on foreign landmine warfare. In addition, NGIC analysts conduct site surveys of affected countries, provide technical assessments and recommendations for mine-clearing programs, and train others to identify and remove landmines. Mines kill or maim about 26,000 people yearly, and some form of landmine threat exists in most countries where US forces are likely to deploy.
- Atlantic Intelligence Command's Joint Reserve Intelligence Program. The Atlantic Intelligence Command's joint reserve intelligence program provided over 70 man-years of support across all functional areas and increased overall Command production by 33 percent. Reserve Components have been completely integrated into command operations and are assigned to duties such as watch standing, exercise augmentation, joint expeditionary warfare support package production, planning for the evacuation of noncombatants from worldwide trouble spots, and preparing coastal landing beach studies.
- Imagery Analysis. NIMA imagery analysis routinely assessed disposition and capabilities of ground, air, navy, electronic, and missile military forces, indications of war, civil unrest, counterinsurgency operations, threats to US citizens and interests, and compliance with peace agreements.
- Disaster Response. NIMA imagery continues to respond to both domestic and international disasters caused by fires, floods, tropical storms, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and oil or toxic materials spills.
- Environmental Assessments. NIMA worked with military medical planners to assess the impact of environmental conditions on US military contingency plans at selected sites where significant toxic materials have been openly discharged.
- Foreign Policy Topics. State INR sponsored 96 seminars and conferences on a wide range of key foreign policy topics, including briefings for 33 new Ambassadors. These activities enabled top State Department policy makers and Intelligence Community analysts to tap the expertise of more than 700 non-US government experts, including academics, business people, journalists, and representatives of international organizations. These activities provide new information, explore emerging issues, suggest policy options, supplement in-house expertise, and bring non- US government perspectives and experience to bear on important policy and intelligence issues. Conferences in 1998 focused on such topics as Albania and Kosovo, Russia's regions, emerging infectious diseases, and the international financial crisis.
- Support Surge. CIA surged to support policymakers dealing with new crises in Subsaharan Africa and Southeast Asia.
- CIA Coverage. CIA reported on global financial crisis, and provided early warning about new risks, and alternative scenario analysis.
- Bosnia. CIA provided support, analysis, and operational capability in response to key intelligence needs in Bosnia.
- Assessment of Latin America and Caribbean. The US Southern Command published the Intelligence Assessment of Latin America and the Caribbean, which is the first comprehensive 10-year assessment of the future of military, political, economic, and social conditions of each country and sub-region.
- Crisis Intervention. The NIC's annual report on Global Humanitarian Emergencies provided valuable analytic support to civilian and military decisionmakers responsible for planning crisis intervention in Central Africa.
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The intelligence community is increasingly called upon to respond to growing transnational
threats, particularly organized crime, drug trafficking, and terrorism.
International Organized Crime
Presidential Decision Directive 42 (PDD-42) dated 22 October 1995, recognizes that international criminal enterprises move vast sums of illicitly derived money through the world's financial systems, buy and sell narcotics and arms, and smuggle aliens, nuclear materials, and weapons of mass destruction. The Intelligence Community (IC) targets all aspects of international criminal organizations from the leadership structure to the organization's activities. Below are several activities being accomplished by the IC in response to the directive:
- Crime Groups. The Crime and Narcotics Center (CNC) broke new analytic ground in several key areas, to include the emerging power of crime groups in the Balkans, the former Soviet Union, and Asia.
- Targeting Money. CNC established a Criminal Financial Flows Branch to provide intelligence support targeting the international flow of illicit money.
- Organized Crime Branch Established. CNC established an Organized Crime Branch to produce strategic intelligence in support of implementation of the President's International Crime Control Strategy. The branch focuses on identifying and evaluating organized criminal activity that affects US national security and economic interests.
- Organized Crime. CNC deepened cooperation with the Intelligence Community and law enforcement agencies on the threat of organized crime.
- Combating International Organized Crime. NIMA provides some support to combating international organized crime. This support is principally involved in managing imagery collection requirements for law enforcement agencies.
The IC addresses the international portions of the President's 1998 National Drug Control Policy: shielding America's air, land, and sea frontiers from the drug threat and disrupting foreign drug operations. Interdiction operations also produce intelligence that can be used domestically against trafficking organizations. International supply-reduction programs not only decrease the volume of illegal drugs reaching our shores, they also attack international criminal organizations, and honor our international drug-control commitments. The US supply-reduction strategy seeks to:
To meet the growing challenge of terrorism, the President signed PDD-62 in May 1998 which creates a new and more systematic approach to fighting the terrorist threat. Countering terrorism requires day-to-day coordination within the US Government and close cooperation with other governments and international organizations. The intelligence community directly supports these efforts.
- Security and Protection. The Counterterrorist Center (CTC) provided intelligence and analysis to meet policymaker interest in enhancing the security of US facilities and protecting US persons from terrorist threats.
- Terrorist Groups. CTC continued to assess the capabilities and intentions of key terrorist groups worldwide: their organization, infrastructure, leadership, support and financial networks, weapons acquisitions, capabilities, and operational intent to attack US facilities and personnel.
- Targeting Terrorists. CTC cooperated with US law enforcement in targeting terrorists and their support groups.
- Tasking Based on Terrorist Concerns. CTC continued meeting with policymakers and their staffs in formal and informal sessions to ascertain their terrorist concerns in order to task CIA intelligence collectors and analysts.
- Acquisition of Surface-to-Air Missiles by a Terrorist Group. The GDIP reported a Third World HUMINT source obtained information that a hand-held infrared guided missile had been recovered by terrorists following a gun battle with Army personnel. In light of a subsequent downing of government aircraft by the terrorists, this reporting confirms that at least one terrorist organization possesses surface-to-air missiles.
- Conference on Disease and Diplomacy. CMA in collaboration with State Department, the NIC sponsored a conference on "Disease and Diplomacy," examining the implications of this transnational threat for US foreign policy.
- Intelligence Support on TWA Flight 800. CIA provided support to the TWA Flight 800 investigation led by the FBI by using "sound propagation analysis" methodology to determine which portion of the flight was seen by key eyewitnesses.
- Explosive Sweeps. CIA provided K-9 Explosive Ordnance Disposal assistance to Fairfax County and Vienna Police Departments to support explosive sweeps being conducted for the Kasi trial in Fairfax.
- Gathering Information. FBI reported the official US counterterrorism policy is based on several prime tenets, to include: making no concessions to terrorists; placing economic, diplomatic, and occasionally military pressure on state sponsors of terrorism; exploiting all available legal mechanisms to punish international terrorists; and, helping other governments improve their capabilities to combat terrorism thereby preventing international terrorists from becoming problems to the United States. In this regard, the Intelligence Community (IC) focuses its efforts on gathering information on terrorist activities aimed at US citizens or interests and to help thwart such activities.
- Personnel Exchange. The FBI stated the FBI's ability to fulfill its counterterrorism mandate is enhanced by the strong working relationships it has established with members of the IC and US law enforcement. The exchange of personnel among agencies has been key to the flow of critical information between agencies and has strengthened the overall US Government counterterrorism capability. Information is also exchanged between agencies via several telecommunications systems that have dramatically decreased the lag time experienced between the receipt of terrorist threat information and the dissemination of that information to Federal, state, and local intelligence/law enforcement agencies.
The following are some examples of accomplishments realized by the FBI's International Terrorism Program in 1998:
- Identifying Suspects and Forensic Examinations of Bombing Sites. In response to the August 7, 1998, twin bombings of the US Embassies in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; and Nairobi, Kenya, hundreds of FBI agents were dispatched to Tanzania and Kenya to identify suspects and conduct extensive forensic examinations of the bombings sites. As a result of these efforts, Mohamed Rashed Daoud al-Owhali and Mohamed Sadiq Odeh were rendered to the United States on August 26, 1998, and August 27, 1998, respectively. These individuals remain in custody in New York, but neither has agreed to cooperate with investigators.
- Indictment of Usama Bin Ladin. On November 4, 1998, the Southern District of New York announced the indictment of Usama Bin Ladin; his lieutenant, Muhammad Atef; Wadih El Hage, Fazul Abdullah Mohammed, who is also known as Harun Fazul; Mohamed Sadiq Odeh; and, Mohamed Rashed Daoud Al-Owhali on counts of conspiracy resulting from the bombings. In addition, Wadih El Hage was indicted for perjury before a grand jury and for making false statements. Both Usama Bin Ladin and Muhammad Atef were added to the US Department of State Heroes Reward Program in conjunction with the indictments. The Heroes Rewards Program publicizes various rewards being offered by the US Government for information leading to the arrest and/or conviction of selected international terrorists. Fazul Abdullah Mohammed has been on the list since October 1998, and remains a fugitive.
- Rapid Deployment Teams (RDTs). As a result of the experience gained through its response to the August 7, 1998 twin bombings in Dar el Salaam and Nairobi, the FBI established five Rapid Deployment Teams (RDTs), (two of which are located in the Washington Field Office, and one each in Los Angeles, New York, and Miami) which will enhance and expedite the FBI's ability to respond to acts of terrorism abroad. RDTs are units capable of deploying abroad with celerity to the scene of a terrorist attack, organizing a command post, conducting a forensic examination of the crime scene, and conducting the resultant criminal investigation. RDTs are comprised of field office executive managers, investigators, analysts, as well as task oriented personnel, such as bomb technicians, physical security specialists, and evidence response teams. Specialty personnel capable of providing expertise in such diverse areas as chemical/biological weapons, communications, and logistics are able to be integrated into each RDT. Although the success of all extraterritorial deployments is dependent on host nation support and cooperation, the personnel and equipment organic to the RDTs will allow the FBI to sustain extended operations in foreign environments.
- World Trade Center Bombing. On February 26, 1993, the World Trade Center in New York City was bombed, killing six persons and injuring hundreds. On March 4, 1994, four perpetrators were convicted of the bombing and sentenced to 240 years each in prison. The alleged mastermind, Ramzi Ahmed Yousef, was later returned to the United States. On November 12, 1997, Yousef and an associate, Eyad Mahmoud Ismail Najim, were found guilty of conspiracy. On January 8, 1998, Yousef was sentenced to 240 years in prison. Simultaneously, he was sentenced to life in prison for the role he played in a plot to bomb US commercial airliners servicing the Far East region. The sentences are to run consecutively. Najim was sentenced on April 3, 1998, to 240 years in prison with no chance of parole.
Efforts to control the proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) and conventional weapons remains a high priority for the US Government. Through treaties and other methods the US aims to strengthen controls over weapons-usable fissile material and prevent the theft or diversion of WMD and related material and technology.
- Missile Tests. The Nonproliferation Center (NPC) reported that CIA provided early warning of imminent missile tests in three countries, which allowed the Community to deploy collection assets in a timely manner.
- CW Assessments. NPC's characterization of chemical weapons agents allowed assessments that provided a reliable intelligence baseline for DOD planners to make decisions on CW detection and medical countermeasure acquisitions.
- Implementation of BW and CW Enhancements. NPC developed an implementation plan to address the BW and CW proliferation issue, and began implementation of the plan by identifying and hiring a leading biotechnology industry expert to serve as the DCI's Senior Science and Technology Advisor to increase the Community's ability to address BW issues.
- Foreign End User Checks. In support of the State-chaired, interagency nonproliferation working groups, NPC processed and coordinated Intelligence Community inputs to many demarches, talking points, or non-papers. These inputs were used to counter the transfer of nuclear, chemical, biological, and missile-related equipment and technology that could be used in WMD programs. CIA conducted more than 7,000 foreign end user checks in support of the US licensing and export process, checks that the Department of Commerce considered vital to its review of US export licenses.
- Development of Shahab-3 Missile. NPC and OTI identified and analyzed key milestones and technical parameters in Iran's program to develop the Shahab-3 missile.
- Network Assists Decisionmakers. The National Ground Intelligence Center provides a web-based network to estimate the consequences from the release of nuclear, biological, chemical, or radiological materials to assist decisionmakers in formulating an emergency response.
- The Army Foreign Materiel Program. The Army Foreign Materiel Program assessed a wide range of weapon systems and technologies during the past year. Data developed from foreign materiel exploitation have contributed significantly to upgrading US weapons and developing technologies to defeat worldwide threat systems and assure the survivability of US ground forces.
- Urban Warfare Threat. The Marine Corps Intelligence Activity was the largest producer of the urban warfare threat during the year. Products included urban warfare reference documents, a video highlighting past operations, a lessons-learned overview of three case studies, and a handbook to assist warfighters in identifying urban intelligence requirements.
- Nuclear Collection Tools and Technical Support. DOE continued to provide support for specialized intelligence operations, to include the development/enhancement of a suite of sensitive, lightweight, compact, and inexpensive radiation detection equipment; an on-call capability, through selected Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, to analyze data and identify/classify suspect nuclear materials; specialized training on nuclear health physics and the use of the detection equipment; and one full-time DOE laboratory technical advisor. Established a deployable cadre of an additional two trained personnel for support.
- Combating Proliferation. NIMA imagery and imagery analysis were key to understanding and responding to worldwide efforts to develop and proliferate both critical weapons of mass destruction (WMD) technologies and operational WMD systems.
- Monitoring. NIMA reported analysts monitored worldwide research and development, test and evaluation, production, and proliferation of nuclear, ballistic missile, chemical, biological, and advanced conventional weapons and weapons-related technologies.
- CW Intelligence Baseline. CIA characterized chemical weapons (CW) agents so as to provide a reliable intelligence baseline for Department of Defense (DoD) planners to make decisions on chemical weapons detection and medical countermeasure acquisitions.
- Interdiction. CIA processed and coordinated IC inputs to many demarches, talking points, and other unofficial papers used to counter the transfer of nuclear, chemical, biological, and missile-related equipment and technology that could be used in weapons of mass destruction (WMD) programs.
- Counterproliferation Assistance Program. FBI and DOD have consulted with and have been supported by other US Government agencies in developing and implementing a Counterproliferation Assistance Program for the states of the former Soviet Union (FSU), the Baltic countries, and Eastern Europe. This program is designed to expand and improve US efforts to deter the possible illicit WMD proliferation on the part of organized crime groups and individuals throughout the FSU, the Baltics, and Eastern Europe. Assistance is tailored to the specific response needs of the targeted country/region and is intended to: enhance awareness levels regarding the WMD threat; improve overall detection techniques; and, increase the law enforcement capabilities needed to effectively respond to and investigate WMD-related incidents within their borders.
- Countering Proliferation of WMD. FBI/DOD Counterproliferation Assistance Program also calls for the provision of a certain amount of follow-on technical assistance and equipment procurement, where appropriate, in order to counter the proliferation of WMD.
- Unit at FBI. FBI continues to refine and expand its investigative and analytical efforts in the counterproliferation area, as exemplified by the recent establishment of a unit at FBI Headquarters dedicated solely to counterproliferation matters.
- "Counterproliferation" Course of Instruction. FBI reported in connection with the aforementioned Counterproliferation Assistance Program, 184 government officials from the Republics of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldava, and Georgia have received the basic "Counterproliferation" course of instruction at the International Law Enforcement Academy in Budapest, Hungary.
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Counterintelligence provides an ability to protect sensitive national security
information and to prevent the loss of critical technological, industrial and
commercial information. Counterintelligence efforts provide a comprehensive security
program and constant evaluation of the intentions and targets of foreign intelligence
services. Counterintelligence capabilities and programs work to detect and neutralize
the impact of espionage against US interests. The intelligence mission depends
on the adequacy of counterintelligence programs to provide warning and protective
measures against both traditional espionage and non-traditional economic theft
of US equities. Failure to protect our economic and security interests would impact
America's prosperity at home and abroad. Awareness of the threat and adherence
to prescribed personnel information and physical security standards and procedures
based on risk management principles are critical.
- Training. NACIC continues to fund CI agency participation in its various CI courses, seminars, and conferences. NACIC also sponsored numerous CI awareness training programs for both the public and private sector.
- Joint CI Evaluation Office. The DoD FCIP reported that the joint CI Evaluation Office- manned by DoD and Service CI representatives, was established to keep senior DoD leadership informed on significant CI investigations. NSA and DIA provide support as needed. FBI and CIA personnel are expected to join in the near future. The Defense Computer Forensics Laboratory achieved initial operating capability.
- CI Program. FCIP provided DoD customers with a comprehensive and professional CI program to identify, assess and/or neutralize foreign intelligence service or terrorist threats. The FCIP conducted over 1,500 CI investigations and operations; disseminated more than 19,000 Intelligence Information Reports or service collection reports; published over 7,400 CI analyses, threat estimates or other CI documents; presented over 20,000 threat briefings to more than 640,000 personnel; supported in excess of 500 joint, service or combined military exercises; enhanced a vital link with US Defense industry by keeping that industry aware of foreign threats; and accomplished over 6,600 additional CI initiatives to support military customers.
- Third-Party Purchasing. DoD FCIP reported that AFOSI, in a joint investigation with US Customs, determined that a Taiwanese national had purchased military sensitive parts through a third party from a Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office and tried to ship them to Taiwan without proper export license. The individual was charged and indicted for the offense. The military systems involved were US Army tank treads, USAF F-117 gyros, F-111 navigational devices and unspecified US Navy equipment.
- Recruited Soldier. DoD FCIP reported that Kelly Warren, a former Army soldier who served in Germany from 1984 to 1988, pled guilty to one count of conspiracy to commit espionage in a Tampa federal court on November 6, 1998. On 12 February 1999, she was sentenced to 25 years in prison; the maximum allowed under the plea agreement. Warren was one of a number of soldiers recruited by convicted former spy Army sergeant Clyde Lee Conrad in Europe. Army Military Intelligence conducted the investigation of Warren jointly with the FBI.
- Blackbird Database. DoD FCIP reported that the Balkans Branch of the US Army Europe Analysis and Control Element created and maintains the Blackbird Database. The branch pulls all raw reporting from the CI/HUMINT as well as theater, national level and open source reports related to the Balkans. The database is available at the SCI, SECRET collateral and NATO release classification levels. All levels of the intelligence community, from CI/HUMINT teams in Bosnia to DIA analysts utilize it.
- NCIS System and Technology Threat Advisory. DoD FCIP reported that the Naval Criminal Investigative Service (NCIS) developed a new analytical product entitled the "NCIS System and Technology Threat Advisory". The Advisory provides threat warning to Navy acquisition programs concerning foreign targeting of US Navy critical program information. The products have received wide acclaim within the Navy and the FBI, CIA and National CI Center.
- Expanded Collection and Analysis. CIC expanded collection and analysis of the threats posed by hostile intelligence services to US national security interests.
- Publications Produced. CIC produced a significant number of publications for the Community analyzing foreign intelligence and security services.
- Illegals Network. A three year investigation by the FBI and other US Government entities culminated in the arrest of 10 members of an illegals network in Miami, Florida, on September 12, 1998. This network was engaged in the collection of information from a variety of targets in the south Florida area. These targets included information related to political and humanitarian activities by Cuban American organizations; the operation of US military installations; and, other US Government functions. As a result of this investigation and related investigations that were conducted by the New York field office, the US Department of State expelled three members of the Cuban Mission to the United Nations in New York during December 1998, for actions related to this network.
- Connectivity to Industry. FBI established connectivity to industry in order to share threat warnings and information via the InfraGard Program. InfraGard is designed to address the need for a private and public section information sharing mechanism at both the national and local levels by:
- providing members prompt, value-added threat advisories, alerts, and warnings;
- increasing the quantity and quality of infrastructure threat information and incident reports provided to local FBI field offices;
- increasing interaction and information sharing among InfraGard members and their associated local FBI field offices and FBI Headquarters on infrastructure threats, vulnerability, and interdependencies;
- ensuring the protection of cyber and physical threat data shared among InfraGard members, FBI field offices, and FBI Headquarters through compliance with proprietary, legal, and security requirements.
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The following are program accomplishments which illustrate enhancements to specific
All Source Analysis and Production
All source analysts examine and interpret both the raw data from the intelligence disciplines of IMINT, HUMINT, SIGINT, and MASINT, as well as the expert commentary of both single source analysts and HUMINT collectors. Each all source analyst also develops a unique personal preference for other valuable data sources. These may include industry and academic contacts, allied intelligence services, non-governmental agencies (NGOs), and counterintelligence data. The all-source analyst synthesizes all such data through the prism of their academic training, language skills, foreign travel, and personal experience.
With the emergence of information on formerly denied countries, open source intelligence has become an increasing valuable contribution to the all source analysis process. The availability of open source intelligence was facilitated by the Internet's exponential growth.
All-source analysts must possess or acquire expertise on functional or regional topics as diverse as North Korean biological weapons and South American economics. Because each analyst is unique, the best analysis is usually a result of collaboration with other IC analysts with complementary expertise. The finished intelligence products resulting from this process provide warning, illumination, and context to the decision making process of national policymakers, diplomats, military commanders, and other government officials worldwide.
All source analysis accomplishments result from the process of analysis, evaluation, synthesis, interpretation, and integration of information into finished, all-source intelligence products, and the dissemination of the finished, all-source intelligence product.
Building Expertise for Future Intelligence
- Increased Production. US Transportation Command's Joint Intelligence Center increased its overall yearly intelligence production by a factor of four without an increase in manpower. Also, Reserve Component production at the Command increased by 800 percent and contributes to 24 percent of the overall production effort. In addition, all intelligence products are available electronically.
- Increase in Task Force. European Command's Joint Analysis Center (JAC) continued to provide focused support in response to increased activity within the Command's area of responsibility, in which the number of joint and combined task forces almost doubled since last year. The JAC supported two joint task forces simultaneously and, during the Kosovo crisis, provided over 1,100 tailored intelligence products and exploited more than 3,000 images. The JAC also provided extensive support to other combatant Commands, highlighted by extensive efforts in preparation for Operation DESERT THUNDER.
- Global Expertise Reserve. The NIC recruited seven academic experts in a pilot program to augment limited analytic coverage of 27 Latin American and African countries. Among other things, this Global Expertise Reserve provided 12 in-depth reports on Tier 3 and Tier 4 countries and held four Community seminars.
- Diplomatic Support. CIA provided support for high-level US visits to all regions of the world, in particular, extensive support for several Presidential and to US participants in the Middle East Peace Process.
- PDB. CIA tailored the President's Daily Brief and its delivery mechanism to better serve the President, Vice President, and senior advisors and created the Strategic Perspective series to provide more in-depth analysis of longer term issues.
- The Senior Executives Intelligence Brief. The Senior Executives Intelligence Brief (SEIB) replaced the National Intelligence Daily (NID) as the daily vehicle to inform policy makers, as part of the procedures to more carefully control copies of the SEIB and protect it from accidental or intentional disclosure.
- Established Standards and Procedures. CIA established competency standards and certification procedures for analysis that provide the clarity, consistency, and flexibility for tailoring professional development to meet future expertise requirements.
- CIA Operations Center. CIA reengineered the CIA Operations Center--as well as daily intelligence delivery--to better tailor products and services for the President and senior policymakers.
- Outreach. CIA increased outreach to identify and communicate on a regular basis with outside experts to fill information gaps and to challenge and test analysis.
- Internet to the Desktop Program. CIA designed a technical architecture for the Agency's Internet to the desktop program, which will provide high-speed Internet access to every analyst as well as access to a variety of analytic tools.
- Arrest of Cuban Agents. The FBI reported that FBI Headquarters assisted in a major espionage investigation through the identification of several Cuban agents who were operating in the United States. This investigation resulted in the arrest of 10 individuals.
- Pitts Espionage Case. FBI analysts are providing significant contributions to the ongoing damage assessment of the Pitts espionage case.
Imagery Intelligence and Geospatial Information (IMINT)
- Geographic Learning Site. On January 30, 1998, State INR launched the Geographic Learning Site (GLS). The GLS is INR's contribution toward supporting the President's "Call to Action for Education" and the Department of Education's "America Goes Back to School" effort. The GLS is designed to assist teaching of geography and foreign affairs to students in grades K-12. It demonstrates how geography can help us to understand the forces that shape foreign affairs and informs students - some of whom will become tomorrow's diplomats - about the Department's work. The GLS underscores the leadership role of the United States in such global issues as human rights, democracy, sustainable development, and environmental protection. The site can be used by teachers to stimulate their students to think geographically, to use effective research methods and tools, and to seek out answers for themselves about the important and difficult problems behind today's headlines. The GLS has steadily increased in popularity – currently receiving over 2,000 hits a day, and has won five web awards as an excellent educational tool including Editor's Choice for the Awesome Library (Top 5% in grades K-12).
- Intelligence Assessments. State INR produced more than 5,700 intelligence assessments covering virtually every country and transnational issue of foreign policy significance.
- Morning Intelligence Summary. State INR published the Secretary's Morning Intelligence Summary 365 days last year and delivered it to the Secretary of State no matter where in the world she happened to be.
- Research and Training Program on Eastern Europe and the NIS. State INR managed the $4.6 million Research and Training Program on Eastern Europe and the NIS (Title VIII) which seeks to build US expertise on those regions by providing assistance to over 1,200 graduate students and senior scholars annually.
- Environmental Flashpoints. CIA brought together a workshop on Environmental Flashpoints of over 170 experts from academia, the private sector, nongovernmental organizations, and government agencies identified regional environmental stresses worldwide and assessed their impact on US national interests.
- Language Training. CIA expanded language training on global coverage languages to facilitate analysts' access to new sources of information, particularly foreign press and selected Internet websites.
- Information Alert Tools. CIA completed the first of a four-phase project that will provide global coverage analysts with a suite of new information alert tools.
The collection, processing, and analysis of imagery for intelligence reasons.
Signals Intelligence (SIGINT)
- Imagery and Information for Customers. Through the acquisition, processing, and management of imagery and geospatial information, NIMA developed the capability to identify, obtain, and evaluate the best sources of imagery and information for customers. NIMA continuously investigated new sources of data, both government and commercial, including advanced nonliteral imagery (for instance, multispectral and hyperspectral imagery).
- Functional and Regional Knowledge. NIMA analytical resources focused on satisfying Presidential Decision Directive issues, against which extensive functional and regional knowledge and expertise are applied. With the implementation of (US Imagery & Geospatial Information System) USIGS, detailed and timely analysis will be provided to a host of customers, from national decisionmakers and military commanders to tactical military units, on such issues as peacekeeping, non-combatant evacuation, military engagements, and national policy initiatives.
- Integrated Production Cell. CIA implemented with NIMA an integrated production cell that fuses geospatial information with imagery intelligence. Within the cell, imagery and geospatial analysts engage in collaborative analysis and production.
- Thule Air Base in Greenland. CIA completes a comprehensive land use study documenting the potential environmental concerns at Thule Air Base in Greenland. Comparisons between NIMA data and previously existing documentation revealed dramatic improvements in the spatial accuracy of suspected hazardous sites and identified new areas of potential concern.
Intelligence information derived from all communications intelligence, electronics intelligence, and foreign instrumentation signals intelligence, however transmitted or collected.
Measurement and Signature Intelligence (MASINT)
- Integration of Imagery and Signals Intelligence. Atlantic Intelligence
Command's JIVA Operational Laboratory demonstrated the capability to integrate
imagery intelligence with signals intelligence. In addition, the laboratory
demonstrated the capability to overlay imagery intelligence and signals intelligence
data on a single display, which yields better visualization of a fused intelligence
- The Assured Support to Operational Commanders Document. DIA
reported recent developments in weapons, doctrine, and joint warfighting concepts
defined in Joint Vision 2010 prompted the community to examine all intelligence,
surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) techniques as well as the collection
platforms, designs, and systems that support joint force commanders. The Assured
Support to Operational Commanders, produced in August 1998, defines the
operational intelligence requirements for air, space, naval, land, special
operations, and strategic and mobility forces during crises and conflict.
The document focuses on requirements needed to locate, target, and defeat
enemy assets and to assess the damage inflicted upon him. Recurring publication
will strengthen the ability of the Intelligence Community to support the Chairman's
Joint Requirements Oversight process. This key reference will be reviewed
and updated as new national strategic, planning, and capabilities documents
- Production of Cross-Cueing Mission Needs Statement (MNS). In accordance
with Defense Planning Guidance, DIA produced the Cross-cueing Mission Needs
Statement, which lays the groundwork for integrating system requirements to
ensure improved interoperability and cross-cueing of collection sensors in
the future. This effort will encourage improved cooperation and coordination
across collection disciplines, echelons, and agencies. It also will support
new acquisitions and improvements to existing systems to help them achieve
synergy. Finally, the statement establishes the central role of cross-cueing
in the development of future intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance
Measurement and Signature Intelligence (MASINT) is technically derived intelligence that detects, locates, tracks, identifies, and describes the unique characteristics of fixed and moving targets.
Human Source Intelligence (HUMINT)
A category of intelligence information derived from human sources.
Open Source Intelligence (OSINT)
- Mobile Communications Network. DOE developed a prototype mobile, wireless, Intranet Protocol (IP)-based computer communications network that incorporates low probability of detection/low probability of intercept characteristics. The system provides a secure, flexible, mobile communications network that can support a variety of field operations.
- World War II Casualties. USDAO Tirana, Albania, assisted in a search and recovery effort that resulted in the return of the remains of a US Serviceman lost during World War II. On 10 August 1944, six crew members of the 513th Bomber Squadron, 376th Bomber Group, were reported missing in action after failing to return from targeting a refinery in Ploesti, Romania. The aircraft was shot down over Albania and, although the case was never closed, a search was never conducted because of the isolationist policy of the Communist government of Albania. In cooperation with the local authorities and the American Embassy, Tirana, a search and recovery team recovered the remains of a crew member, which are pending identification. This activity demonstrates the continuing efforts of HUMINT to support an accounting of all lost military personnel, regardless of the passage of time.
- Thwarting Collection Activities. The combination of HUMINT with expert investigations and analysis allows the FBI to work proactively to thwart the collection activities of hostile foreign intelligence services. This combination has also proved invaluable in the deterrence of numerous acts of terrorism throughout the years.
The collection, processing, analysis, and dissemination of open source information from foreign media/broadcasts, publications, and commercial databases.
- Future Crisis. The CIA reported efforts to create a DI Corporate Knowledge System and exploit open source information systems that will help leverage analytic resources in warning of and surging against future crises.
- Latin American Newspapers. CIA created a new product and implemented a new work processes to produce daily roundups of Latin American country newspapers on the Internet.
- International Program Expansion. CIA expanded the open source international program from three countries to six and negotiations with five more countries.
- Management System. CIA deployed the first Web-based INTELINK Open Source Requirements Management System for IC coordination and submission of tasking requirements.
- Increased Reporting. The CIA increased open source reporting on proliferation, international economics, crime and narcotics, and on terrorism.
- Internet Based Collection and Processing System. The CIA deployed a new Internet-based collection and processing system overseas allowing collaborative work in a virtual environment and increasing flexibility, cost effectiveness, and loadsharing.
Infrastructure includes all the sustaining activities that support a program in its entirety. An effective and efficient infrastructure is the key to a cost effective program. An ineffective infrastructure can be very costly and drain the critical resources needed to support the core mission of the Program. As shown in the many significant accomplishments list below, all Programs are making progress in streamlining and modernizing their infrastructure.
This category includes general, financial, and administrative functions, including logistics, comptroller, legal and audit functions, personnel management, facilities costs (utilities, leases, maintenance, and purchase), communications and information services, education and training, basic and applied research and development activities required to support intelligence operations, public information, medical services, supply operations, base services, and property disposal.
- "Closing the Circle Award". The 1998 White House "Closing the Circle Award" for Environmental Innovation was awarded to DIA for developing a process to eliminate the heavy metal toxic, cadmium, from imagery processing.
- Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Implementation. ATM implementation provided a quantum improvement in desktop communications bandwidth for the entire all-source analyst workforce, allowing exploration of new technologies and analytical strategies and ultimately desktop videoconferencing, collaborative tools, and faster file transfers.
- Joint Worldwide Intelligence Communications System (JWICS) Installation. The installation of an upgraded JWICS communications hardware and video teleconference scheduling equipment and software provides a more robust operating environment. Upgrades also ensure continued operation into the next millennium as the premier global Sensitive Compartmented Information (SCI) communications vehicle for most Intelligence Community customers.
- HUMINT Operational Control Network Installation. The Defense Attaché Worldwide Network (DAWN) system is being upgraded for the global DIA customer base. This effort also assured Y2K compliance and commonality of hardware and software between the Secret/collateral and SCI environments, thus reducing support costs by standardizing applications and operating systems.
- Improved Information Technology Support to UNIX Customers. Over 85 percent of DIA's UNIX customers have been converted to the SUN SOLARIS operating system, assuring Y2K compliance and increasing interoperability with Windows NT customers via common Microsoft office automation applications.
- Translations of Foreign Language Source Materials. DIA saved money, improved support, and broadened the customer base by using Reserve Component manpower to translate foreign materials into English, then posting the product on the secure Intelink network.
- Commercial Satellite Imagery Library (CSIL). More than 10,000 commercial satellite images were added to the CSIL, saving over $15 million in imagery duplication costs.
- Support to Consumers of Order of Battle Data. Electronic dissemination of order of battle data (Integrated Data Base and Modernized Integrated Data Base) and software releases were provided over JWICS, STONE GHOST, and SIPRNET networks to US and partner nations, generating over 800 information products monthly using electronic and magnetic media and processing data base transactions from over 20 delegated producers globally.
- DIA Information Technology Preparation Center. GDIP completed the design, construction, and activation of a new Information Technology Preparation Center at the DIA warehouse, reducing the amount of time between order and delivery of much-needed technology platforms and ancillary devices and allowing nearly 200 new platforms to be processed each week.
- Consolidated Application Integration. The Consolidated Application Integration (CAI) effort was initiated in response to the DIA strategic plan's emphasis on improving support to the business systems that aid agency management and streamlining life cycle support for 16 business applications by consolidating contract support.
- AUTODIN Bypass Definition. In order to transport record message traffic when AUTODIN shuts down in December 1999, the DoDIIS Management Board defined a "bypass" architecture, replacing AUTODIN with the Joint Worldwide Information Communication System (JWICS) and validating it with all the Unified Commands within 90 days.
- Consolidated Information Technology. To preclude stove-pipe development of systems, DIA's new information technology development strategy was created to permit users to develop applications, but not systems. Major cost avoidance has already been realized.
- Chief Information Officer Program. The DIA Chief Information Officer (CIO) panel was established to ensure responsible execution of all information technology funds. The DIA CIO Panel, in equal partnership with other Intelligence Community CIOs, is moving toward the goal of Intelligence Community interoperability through the implementation of policies, procedures, standards, and information technology.
- Y2K. DIA successfully completed the DoD Inspector General audit. All projects are on schedule, and all documentation, tests, and contingency plans are complete. Plans for IC/DoD end-to-end testing have been completed.
- Use of Reserve Components as a Force Multiplier for the Active Duty Community. DIA provided over 40,000 man days of Reserve Component intelligence support to OSD, the Unified Commands, the Joint Staff, and combat support agencies. A broad spectrum of intelligence production and collection support is available during peacetime and crises. Contributions include joint targeting materials, air defense studies, community data base updates, and amphibious studies.
- Crisis Support of Bosnian Operations. Crisis support for operations in Bosnia was provided through a Presidential Select Recall of Reserve Component personnel. Also, electronic connectivity allowed reservists at their home station in Ft. Sheridan, Illinois, to provide real-time intelligence support to active duty forces in US European Command. Reserve contributions included accomplishing 68 percent of the scheduled intelligence production requirements for the Joint Analysis Center at Molesworth, UK.
- Conducted the Majority of USPACOM's Declassification Effort. Reservists accomplished most of USPACOM's declassification effort by downgrading classified documents for release to foreign governments and multinational forces.
- Training Accomplishments. DIA provided 15 mobile training teams for 354 personnel at 10 joint Commands, established a fully operational advanced technology classroom at the Defense Intelligence Analysis Center, and trained 3,732 students in intelligence and career development subjects.
- Emergency Antiterrorism/Force Protection Training Program. DIA established a modular approach to providing on-site emergency antiterrorism and force protection training to DIA offices worldwide. The training helps personnel avoid potential terrorist attacks through recognition and proper reaction. Training can include defensive driving, weapons qualification, surveillance detection and countersurveillance techniques, route surveys, personal protection, and risk profiles.
- Monitoring Policy Issues. In recognition of the expanding role of Information Operations/Information Warfare (IO/IW), the J2 created a four-person element to monitor IO/IW policy issues from the intelligence perspective for the Joint Staff. This element provides liaison with DISA, FBI, NSA, and CIA and played a major role in the development of the Computer Network Defense Joint Task Force.
- Strategic Warning of Attacks Against Computer Networks. DIA has developed a methodology to provide strategic warning of attacks against computer networks. The methodology will be used to alert the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the warfighting Commands to potential threats to their automated systems.
- Training Facility. In its first full year of operation, US Atlantic Command's Regional Joint Intelligence Training facility trained over 2,200 personnel in joint intelligence systems and applications.
- Production Cells. NIMA introduced Production Cells to integrate imagery and geospatial analysts into collaborative work teams using state-of-the-art commercial systems to provide tailored solutions to ICG users worldwide within required timelines.
- Analytical Methodologies. NIMA invested in training and developed leading-edge analytical methodologies to ensure the expertise necessary to perform the mission always is available.
- Performance Assessments. NIMA conducted performance assessments on new exploitation processes and strategies for responsiveness and to reduce production-cycle times.
- Information Operations Technology Development. Responding to a common community need for tools to support information operations, DOE conducted a proof-of-concept demonstration of a distributed "virtual machine" that enhances the defensive capabilities of computer networks against cyber attack.
- Tagging, Tracking, and Locating. Based on a US Secret Service requirement, DOE developed a prototype system for tagging and tracking vehicles. The tag is made up of a chemical compound that can easily be sprayed onto a target and has unique characteristics that generate several measurable signatures (e.g., UV absorption, UV fluorescence, and IR fluorescence). When interrogated with a UV/IR light source, the tag can be detected with an optical sensing device.
- Geographic Information Systems. State INR is leading the way in the Department of State's use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to spatially organize and display a wide range of data. INR designed several GIS demonstrations - ranging from using GIS for territorial negotiations to public outreach to strategic planning.
- Skills Inventory Tool. CIA is designing and developing a skills inventory and survey tool, which will be used to gather and maintain a single database of Agency employees' skills. Managers will use the database to identify personnel to fill critical surge needs and to address skills mix issues.
- Release of Documents. CIA is formally releasing over 1 million pages of material 25 years old and older in response to Executive Order 12958, which represents the largest volume of Agency material ever formally declassified and released in one program.
- Machine Translation. CIA delivered a prototype version of an Arabic-to-English machine translation system, with a proof-of-concept version for Persian machine translation.
- Linguistic Support. Provided equipment and connectivity for reserve linguists and analysts to support NSA/CSS, CINC, and component commanders' requirements. This real-world, peacetime training for wartime missions was a force multiplier of previously underused reserve personnel.
- Upgraded Automation. NSA upgraded the Support Services Operations Center's (SSOC's) automation equipment resulting in reducing emergency response cycle times.
- Service Online. Established Service Online, a customer-focused NSA/CSS intranet web site that affords customers immediate and constant electronic access to DS services.
- Support Services Program. NSA/CSS realigned the Support Services Program by DS core process and the Agency MATRIX Program structure, ensuring expenditures are consistent with the Agency's strategic direction.
- Strategic Warning. DIA has developed a methodology to provide strategic warning of attacks against computer networks. The methodology will be used to alert the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the warfighting Commands to potential threats to their automated systems.
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