This past year has reminded us that the threat from foreign intelligence services is more diverse, complex, and difficult to counter than ever before. Counterintelligence provides an ability to protect sensitive national security information and to prevent the loss of critical technological, industrial, and commercial information. Counterintelligence efforts provide a comprehensive security program and constant evaluation of the intentions and targets of foreign intelligence services.Counterintelligence capabilities and programs also work to detect and neutralize the impact of espionage against US interests.
Intelligence depends on the adequacy of counterintelligence programs to provide warning and protective measures against both traditional espionage and non-traditional economic theft of US equities. Failure to protect our economic and security interests would impact America's prosperity at home and abroad. Awareness of the threat and adherence to prescribed personnel information and physical security standards and procedures based on risk management principles are critical.
The following lists some accomplishments the IC has achieved in this area:
- Foreign Economic Collection. An informative brochure was developed summarizing the findings of the past several years. The brochure—Foreign Economic & Industrial Espionage Remains a Threat in 1999—is intended for wide public dissemination.
- Training. The National Counterintelligence Center (NACIC) developed a new course to address the need for analytical training. The new course title is Introduction to CI Analysis. NACIC sponsored numerous CI awareness training programs for both the public and private sectors.
- DOE Counterintelligence Implementation Plan. The plan contains 46 recommendations for strengthening the DOE Counterintelligence Program. To date, the Office of Counterintelligence (OCI) has implemented 75% of the 46 recommendations. Additionally, 95% of the Implementation Plan’s most critical recommendations have been implemented.
- CI Training.OCI improved and expanded its CI Training Program, which is responsible for providing DOE personnel with CI and Security Awareness training, as well providing DOE CI personnel with the ongoing instruction necessary for them to remain current in the field. For example, OCI has contracted with a renowned Russian defector who provides lectures at various DO facilities regarding the methodology of the Russian Intelligence Services.
- Polygraph Program. OCI is instituting a CI-Scope Polygraph Program, a closely supervised, less intrusive means of testing the minimal number of DOE federal and contractor employees with the type of professional duties and/or access that make them attractive targets for individuals affiliated with foreign intelligence services. DOE published a Notice in March 1999 in the Federal Register, announcing expanded authority in the area of polygraph testing allowing OCI to test DOE Federal employees. Construction of an expanded polygraph facility was completed in September 1999 to accommodate the testing requirements.
- Foreign Visits. OCI played a significant role in rewriting the new DOE Order on Unclassified Foreign Visits and Assignments (DOE Notice 142.1 signed by the Secretary of Energy on July 14, 1999). The primary goal of this new order is to delegate responsibility to approve unclassified foreign visits to the Laboratory Directors, and to hold them accountable for their decisions. Accountability will be ensured, in part, through the CI Inspection function. With Secretarial concurrence, OCI has implemented a policy whereby indices checks are conducted for foreign national visitors and assignees from sensitive countries and all those from any country who will have access to sensitive subjects while at a DOE facility.
- CI-Cyber Pilot Program. OCI began the CI-Cyber Pilot Program in FY 1999. It consists of two parts: (1) an Incident Management and Analysis Capability (IMAC) and, (2) an E-mail Analysis Capability. By the end of FY 2000, the IMAC capability will be extended to a total of 12 sites across the DOE complex. In FY 2001, expansion is planned to an additional 40 sites.
- CI Program. The DoD Foreign Counterintelligence Program (FCIP) provided DoD customers with a comprehensive and professional CI program to identify, assess and or neutralize foreign intelligence service or terrorist threats. DoD CI conducted over 1,500 CI investigations and operations; disseminated more than 25,000 Intelligence Information Reports or service collections reports; published over 8,200 CI analyses, threat estimates or other CI documents; presented 18,000 threat briefings to more than 518,000 people, supported in excess of 370 joint, service, or combined military exercises and accomplished more than 20,562 additional CI initiatives to support DoD and other customers.
- Training. DoD chartered the Joint CI Training Academy (JCITA) to provide standardized introductory and advanced training to members of the Service CI Agencies in a variety of key CI disciplines. The first class was held in October 1999 at the JCITA facility, Elkridge, Maryland.
- Hot Spots. DoD CI specialists deployed with combat and other forces throughout the year to provide support to the commanders. Supporting US forces involved in the NATO Stabilization Forces in the Balkans and the forces deployed pursuant to Operation Allied Force for Kosovo, DoD CI personnel provided a wide range of force protection services that received high praise fromcustomers. Air Force CI identified an important Serbian command center unknown to USAF targeteers. The command center was subsequently targeted and destroyed by the USAF.
- Exercises. DoD CI specialists provided real world and exercise scenario support to a wide range of military exercises around the world, often requiring close liaison with allied or other foreign militaries to practice for contingency deployments. In Thailand, Army, Air Force and Navy CI personnel participated in Cobra Gold 1999, one of the largest annual military exercises in the world involving over 10,000 multinational military personnel. The US Army and Belgian Military Intelligence co-sponsored the first ever NATO-wide, multinationalCI and HUMINT exercise in a Kosovo-like Peace and Stability Operation scenario.
- Support to Defense Industry. The Defense Security Service CI has an aggressive threat awareness and training program for US Defense Industry.Those efforts develop threat information which is subsequently shared with the other DoD CI agencies and the FBI.
- DoD Computer Laboratory. The DoD Defense Computer Forensics Laboratory was instrumental in the successful identification of computer hacking groups and the neutralization of vulnerabilities in several high profile CI investigations related to national computer network defense including Solar Sunrise, Digital Demon and Moonlight Maze.
- Assessment of Counterintelligence and Counterterrorism Capabilities. FBI analysts initiated an assessment of the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) counterintelligence and counterterrorism capabilities. In this regard, they prepared detailed survey instruments for FBI field offices and NASA employees to supplement information being obtained through on-site briefings and interviews with NASA employees. This assessment is being conducted to assist NASA in ensuring that their counterterrorism and counterintelligence capabilities are sufficient to respond to threats posed by terrorist groups and foreign intelligence service entities.