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Glossary and Acronyms

Term or Acronym Meaning or Definition
28th April Group A research group paralleling the work of the 404 Group.
404 Group A four-man air defense missile system research group.
AAM Air-to-Air Missile.
ABD Airborne Division (US).
ABS The Scientific Bureau for Drug Information and Medical Appliances.
ADDP Accelerated Device Development Program.
ADN Ammonium Dinitrate.
ADN Ammonium Dinitramide (a solid-propellant oxidizer).
AEST Albostangy Equipment Services and Trade.
Agent “A” Botulinum toxin.
Agent “B” Anthrax.
Agent “C” Aflatoxin.
Agent “D” Wheat cover smut.
Agent “G” Gas gangrene.
AHCV Acute Hemorrhagic Conjunctivitis.
AHF Anhydrous Hydrogen Fluoride.
AK-20 A liquid-propellant oxidizer (IRFNA containing 20% N2O4 by weight) used in SA-2.
AK-27 A liquid-propellant oxidizer (IRFNA containing 27% N2O4 by weight) used in SCUD.
Al Husayn Project Project under Husayn Kamil to identify the steps required to develop a nuclear weapon.
AlNiCo Aluminum-Nickel-Cobalt.
Anthrax A disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus Anthracis.
AP Ammonium Perchlorate (a solid-propellant oxidizer).
ARADET Arab Company for Detergent Chemicals.
ASB Arab Scientific Bureau.
ASP Ammunition Supply Point.
ASVI Ameriyah Sera and Vaccine Institute.
ATAP Anti-Tank Anti-Personnel submunitions.
ATCC American Type Culture Collection.
ATGM Anti-Tank Guided Missile.
AVLIS Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation.
AWACS Airborne Warning and Control System.
AWRC Agriculture Water Resource Center.
AYC Akashat Yellowcake.
AZ-11 A liquid rocket fuel, composed of 2 components (89% DETA plus 11% UDMH).
Bacillus Anthracis Causative agent of the disease anthrax.
Bacillus subtilis Simulant for BW spore agents.
Bacillus thuringiensis Natural bacterial insecticide and simulant for anthrax.
Bbl/d; bpd Barrels per day.
BCP Border Control Checkpoint.
BIAP Baghdad International Airport.
BME Belmetalenergo.
BOP Balance of Payments.
Botulinum toxin A toxin used as a BW agent.
Breakout capability Knowledge, infrastructure, and materiel, which usually lie beneath the threshold of suspicion, but which can be rapidly adapted or reorganized to allow for weaponization processes to be undertaken. Such capabilities require pre-disposed resources and often employ dual-use technology, equipment, or knowledge.
Bt Bacillus thuringiensis.
BW Biological Weapon—an item of materiel that disperses or disseminates a biological agent including arthropod vectors; Biological Warfare.
CA Commercial Attache.
CAD Computer-Aided Design.
CAEC Abrasive Import and Export Corporation.
CAFCD Currently Accurate, Full, and Complete Declaration. The declaration presented to the UN by Iraq, as required by UN Resolution 1441. The 12,000-page document was presented to the UN on 7 December 2002.
CAM Computer-Aided Manufacturing.
CBI Central Bank of Iraq.
CBJ Central Bank of Jordan.
CBS Central Bank of Syria.
CBW Chemical and Biological Weapons.
CCD Charge Coupled Device.
CCHF Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever.
CDB Cast Double Base (a solid-propellant, cast and then cured).
CDG Chemical Destruction Group, a UN body operating in Iraq from 1992 to 1994.
CEAP Captured Enemy Ammunition Point.
CEDC Chemical Engineering and Design Center.
CENTCOM Central Command, (US).
CEP Circular Error Probable.
CERC Central Evaluation Research Committee.
CGMS Control and Guidance Missile System.
CIA Central Intelligence Agency (US).
CIC Chemical Industries Committee.
CIF Company for Industrial Forests.
CJTF-7 Combined Joint Task Force 7.
Cl Chlorine.
Clostridium botulinum Causative agent of the disease botulism.
Clostridium perfringens Causative agent of gas gangrene.
CMPC-B Combined Media-Processing Center, Baghdad.
CNC Computer Numeric Controlled devices or machines.
CNEC Commisao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, (Brazil).
CO2 Laser Carbon Dioxide; common laser medium useful for LIS.
CoM Council of Ministers.
CoS Chief of Staff.
CoSm Cobalt-Samarium.
CP Command Post.
CPA Coalition Provisional Authority.
CPHL Central Public Health Laboratory, Baghdad.
CPMIEC China Precision Machinery Import and Export Corporation.
CPU Central Processing Unit.
CS Tear gas (not a nerve agent).
CSL Corn Steep Liquor.
CVL Copper Vapor Laser; useful for LIS.
CW Chemical Weapon—an item of materiel that disperses or disseminates a chemical agent; Chemical Warfare.
D4 N-Dimethylphosphoramidic Dichloride.
DB Double Base, a solid propellant comprising nitrocellulose and nitroglycerine.
DCC Dicylohexl carbodimide.
Delivery System The means of delivering or transporting conventional or unconventional weapons in the form of weapons platforms, such as rockets, missiles, spray devices, unmanned aerial vehicles, or other types of vehicle. Delivery is defined as the positioning of the weapon to a point from which it was designed to operate independently.
DETA Diethylenetriamine—one of the two components of AZ-11 liquid rocket fuel.
DF Deutrium Floride.
DG Director General.
DGMI Directorate of General Military Intelligence.
DGS Directorate of General Security.
Dhafir Project High-explosives development program to support nuclear
weapons development.
DIA Defense Intelligence Agency (US).
DIO Defence Intelligence Organisation (AUS).
DIS Defence Intelligence Staff (UK).
Diwan The Presidential Office.
DMA Di Methyl Amine (a precursor for UDMH).
DMI Directorate of Military Intelligence.
DMMP Dimethyl methyl phosphonate.
DOCEX Document Exploitation.
DOZ Dioctyl Azelate.
DPRK Democratic People’s Republic of Korea.
Dual Use Technology, materials, equipment, or knowledge capable of use for both legitimate and proscribed purposes. The object per se is not one or the other—it is dependent on intentions.
ECCM Electronic Counter-Countermeasure.
ECM Electro-Chemical Machining.
ECM Electronic Countermeasures.
EDB Extruded Double Base.
EDC Engineering Design Center—MIC organization (Formerly Office 3000 Group 1, and later EDD).
EDD Engineering Design Directorate—a MIC organization renamed the Engineering Design Center in 1988.
EEDDC Electrical Engineering Design Center.
EGC Electri-Gaz-Com.
EMIS Electromagnetic Isotope Separation.
End User The identity that is declared to be the final consumer of an exported technology, item, service, material, training, or apparatus. The entity is not necessarily the purchaser.
EOD Explosive Ordnance Disposal.
EP Entry Points.
ETGC External Technology General Corporation.
EU European Union.
EUC End-User Certificate. An end-user certificate is an internationally recognized, but not internationally standardized, documentary method of declaring the end user of any of the above. The end-user certificate is not a foolproof system and has been frequently abused. Due to corrupt practices and outright fraud, end-user certificates can be completely false or deliberately deceptive in their declarations of the end user.
EW Electronic Warfare.
FAE Fuel Air Explosive.
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization.
FASP Field Ammunition Supply Points.
FCDC Foreign Currency Disbursement Committee.
FEAL Food Examination and Analysis Lab.
FFCD Full, Final, and Complete Disclosure. The series of Declarations Iraq presented to the UN, detailing its WMD programs. Separate documents were submitted for CW, BW, nuclear, and ballistic missiles.
Fissile material Material (e.g., uranium) capable of undergoing nuclear fission.
FMD Foot and Mouth Disease.
FMDV Foot and Mouth Disease Vaccine.
FOG Fiber-Optic Gyroscope.
FRJE Factory for Repair of Jet Engines.
FROG-7 Free Rocket Over Ground (Mk 7). A battlefield artillery Rocket (also known as LUNA).
Front Company A firm or commercial enterprise purposefully established and owned by Iraqi procurement authorities to purchase or otherwise illicitly acquire items prohibited by UN sanctions. The front company would operate in a covert and clandestine fashion with the intention of avoiding international scrutiny and deceiving any monitoring authorities concerning the nature of goods procured, the source of goods, the transport routes used for importation, the financial aspects of illicit trade, and the eventual Iraqi end use and end user.
FRY Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
FS Fedayeen Saddam.
FSU Former Soviet Union.
G&C Guidance and Control.
GA Tabuna—chemical agent.
GB Sarina—chemical agent.
GCHQ Government Communications Headquarters (UK).
GDP Gross Domestic Product.
GE General Establishment.
GEBRC Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Council/Center.
GEET General Establishment for Engineering Technologies.
GF Cyclosarin—a chemical agent.
GID General Intelligence Directorate (Jordan).
GPS Global Positioning System.
GRL Goods Review List.
Group 1 Office 3000 group whose focus was gaseous diffusion and later gas centrifuge; later separated from Office 3000 and renamed EDD, and then EDC under MIC and MIMI.
Group 2 Office 3000/PC3 group whose focus was EMIS; later part of PC3 under MIMI.
Group 3 Office 3000/PC3 group whose focus was support activities, to include planning, purchasing, administration, technical and fabrication; later part of PC3 under MIMI.
Group 4 Originally al Husayn project; renamed Group 4 when transferred to Office 3000; later part of PC3 under MIMI.
GSE Ground Support Equipment.
GSSE Geological Survey State Enterprise.
HC Higher Committee.
HDI Human Development Index.
HE High Explosive.
HEU Highly Enriched Uranium—a term indicating a high percentage (>80%) of U235 isotope; generally weapons-grade material.
HF High Frequency; Hydrogen Fluoride.
HIC Higher Inspection Committee.
High-Value Detainee A detainee who, due to his or her senior position in the military, security, scientific/technical, or governmental structures of Saddam Husayn’s Regime, may have knowledge or insights of relevance to ISG’s mission.
HP Al Husayn Project.
HSBS Hong Kong Shanghi Banking Corporation.
HTPB Hydroxyl Terminated Polybutadiene (a polymeric solid-propellant binder).
HUMINT Human Intelligence.
HVD High-Value Detainee.
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency—the UN’s nuclear watchdog organization.
IAEC Iraqi Atomic Energy Commission.
IAF Iraqi Armed Forces.
IAH Ibn al Haytham-Haitham (Khadimiyah).
IAH-AHI Ibn al-Haitham—Al-Hazen Institute (located at Salman Pak).
IC Industrial Committee.
ICC Iraqi Chemical Corps.
ID Iraqi Dinar.
IED Improvised Explosive Device.
IID International Industrial Development.
IIP Ion Implementation Project.
IIS Iraqi Intelligence Service.
IIS Section one IIS internal section responsible for creating front companies in Iraq and facilitating trade with these companies.
ILTC Iraqi Land Transportation Company.
IMF International Monetary Fund.
IMU Inertial Measurement Unit.
INOC Iraq National Oil Company.
INP Iraqi Nuclear Program.
INS Inertial Navigation System.
Intellectual capital A cadre with engineering and scientific knowledge.
INVO Iraq Nuclear Verification Office.
IRFNA Inhibited Red Fuming Nitric Acid (a liquid rocket
oxidizer comprising nitric acid plus N2O4).
ISG Iraq Survey Group. The organization stood up by the Coalition in June 2003 to conduct a survey of Iraq’s WMD programs and to locate Captain Speicher. It is a multiagency intelligence collection and analysis organization, formed of military and civilian personnel from the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia. Its mission is to organize, direct, and apply capabilities and expertise in Iraq to discover, take custody of, and exploit information and material of intelligence value on individuals, records, WMD samples, weapons systems materials, facilities, networks, and operations.
JARIC Joint Air Reconnaissance Intelligence Centre (UK).
JD Joint Delegation.
JIICA Jordan International for Industrial and Commercial Agencies.
KDP Kurdish Democratic Party.
KGB Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti.
KIMADIA State Company for Drugs and Medical Appliances Marketing.
KOMID North Korea’s Korea Mining Development Corporation.
LACM Land Attack Cruise Missile.
LAMA Active Metallurgy Testing Laboratory, Tuwaitha.
L/D Length/Diameter ratio (of missiles).
LDM Large Diameter Missile.
LEU Low Enriched Uranium—a term designating uranium with a low (<5%) percentage of U235 isotope.
LIS Laser Isotope Separation—a uranium enrichment technique using lasers for isotopic separation.
LRBM Long-Range Ballistic Missile.
LSM Land-to-Sea Missile.
LU Launcher Units.
M1 Office of the Director, IIS.
M2 Directorate of Administration and Accounting, IIS.
M3 Directorate of Data Processing and Information Security, IIS.
M4 Directorate of Foreign Clandestine Operations, IIS.
M4/8 Formerly M19 of the IIS, formed of three sections: the internal, foreign, and trading sections.
M5 Directorate of Counterintelligence, IIS.
M6 Directorate of Internal Security, IIS.
M7 Directorate of Investigation and Prosecution, IIS.
M8 Directorate of Liberation Movements, IIS.
M9 Directorate of Communications, IIS.
M10 Directorate of Studies and Research, IIS.
M11 Training and Preparation Institute, IIS.
M12 Directorate of Accounting, IIS.
M13 Directorate of Clandestine Operations, IIS.
M14 Directorate of Special Operations, IIS.
M15 Directorate of Legal Affairs, IIS.
M16 Chemical Preparations Division, IIS.
M17 Directorate of Signals Intelligence, IIS.
M18 Directorate of Residency, IIS.
M19 The primary IIS body handling procurement of specialized items. Redesignated as M4/8 also known as the Technical Consultation Company or the Trade Office.
M20 Directorate of Surveillance, IIS.
M21 The Al Ghafiqi Project, responsible for explosives in IIS.
M22 Directorate of Protective Services, IIS.
M23 Directorate of MIC Security, IIS.
M40 Directorate of Opposition group activities, IIS.
MABOT Mina al Bakr Offshore Terminal.
MANPADS Man Portable Air Defense Systems.
MAPO Tris-1-(2-Methyl) Aziridinyl Phosphine Oxide.
MEASI Middle East Advanced Semi-Conductors ,Inc.
MEK Mujahiddin e Khaliq.
MFA Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
MGRS Mercator Grid Reference System.
MHESR Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research.
MIC Military Industrialization Commission.
MIM Ministry of Industry and Minerals.
MIMI Ministry of Industry and Military Industrialization.
MIO Military Industrial Organization—also known as MIC.
MGM Modified G Medium.
MLIS Molecular Laser Isotope Separation.
MoA Ministry of Agriculture.
MoD Ministry of Defense.
MoF Ministry of Finance.
MoH Ministry of Health.
MoO Ministry of Oil.
MoT Ministry of Trade.
MoTC Ministry of Transport and Communication.
MOU Memorandum of Understanding.
MOST Ministry of Science and Technology.
MPC Methylphosphonyl Chloride.
MPF Methylphosphonyl Difluoride.
MPS Methylphosphonthioic Dichloride.
MRDC Military Research and Development Center.
MRL Multiple Rocket Launcher.
MS Main Survey.
MSE Muthanna State Establishment—an organization within the MIC.
MTC Military Technical College.
MTCR Missile Technology Control Regime.
N2O4 Nitrogen Tetroxide.
Nd-YAG Neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet—a laser
medium.
Nd-Glass Neodymium doped glass—a laser medium.
NFI No Further Information.
NGA National Geospatial Intelligence Center (US), formerly NIMA.
NMC National Mobilization Committee.
NMD National Monitoring Directorate.
NMG Nuclear Monitoring Group (IAEA).
NORINCO North Industries Corporation.
NP Nitronium Perchlorate (a solid-propellant oxidizer).
NPPP National Project for Pharmaceuticals and Pesticides.
NPT Non-Proliferation Treaty.
NSC National Security Council.
Nuclear Weapon A complete assembly (i.e., implosion type, gun type, or thermonuclear type) in its intended ultimate configuration which, upon completion of the prescribed arming, fuzing, and firing sequence, is capable of producing the intended nuclear reaction and release of energy.
NVD Night-Vision Device.
NVG Night-Vision Goggles.
ODF Operation Desert Fox.
ODS Operation Desert Storm.
OIF Operation Iraqi Freedom.
OIP Office of the Iraq Program.
OFF Oil for Food program.
Office 3000 Project to research uranium enrichment, known as the Office of Studies and Development until late 1982; renamed PC3 in Jan 1989 after transfer to MIMI.
Oil for Food Program The program established by UNSCR 986 in December 1996. The scheme allowed the UN to authorize sales of Iraqi oil, with the intention of allowing the Iraqis to buy food supplies with the revenues gained. In practice, trade under the OFF process opened the door for Iraq to develop numerous kickback and illicit money-earning schemes. A percentage of OFF money was used to finance UNMOVIC.
OMI Organization of Military Industrialization, synonymous with the MIC, the preferred usage.
OMV Ongoing Monitoring and Verification.
ONAREM Office National Des Resources Minieres (Niger).
OSD Office of Studies and Development.
PC3 Petrochemical Project 3—codename for Iraq’s clandestine nuclear research and development project under MIMI.
PC13 Phosphorus Trichloride.
POC13 Phosphorus Oxychloride.
PFD Process Flow Diagram.
PFP Process Flow Plan.
PID Piping and Instrumentation Diagram.
PPD Plant Protection Division—part of Ministry of Agriculture
PPE Personal Protective Equipment.
PPRC Pulse Power Research Center—renamed the al Tahadi State Establishment in 1995.
Project 144 Project for the reverse-engineering of SA-2 (later SCUD)
Protocol Official set of rules and guidelines established by state parties to regulate activity. In this instance, it refers to a systematic code of behavior for organizing trade between Iraq and its protocol partners: Egypt, Jordan, Syria, and Turkey.
QC Quality Control.
R50 EMIS separator with central orbit radius of 500 mm.
R60 EMIS separator with central orbit radius of 600 mm.
R100 EMIS separator with central orbit radius of 1,000 mm.
R120 EMIS separator with central orbit radius of 1,200 mm.
R&D Research and Development.
RCC Revolutionary Command Council.
RDC Research and Development Committee.
RDT&E Research, Development, Test and Evaluation.
RDX Tetra methylene tetranitramine (an explosive).
Reconstituted Program A term describing the restart or renewal of a program based upon and using technology, materials, equipment, and knowledge from a dormant, hidden, or previously interrupted program.
RG Republican Guard.
RGFC Republican Guard Forces Command.
Rhoda mine 6G A medium for dye lasers.
Ricin A toxin used as a BW agent, derived from the castor bean.
RLG Ring Laser Gyro (part of an INS).
RNA Research and News Analyzing.
RO Reverse Osmosis.
RPG Rocket-Propelled Grenade.
RPV Remotely Piloted Vehicle.
RSI Regime Strategic Intent.
SA-2 Surface-to-Air missile Mk 2 (also known as Volga).
SAFF Safe, Arm, Fuze, and Fire—a term used in weaponry including nuclear weapons.
SAM Surface-to-Air Missile.
SAP Security Apparatus for the Protection of military industrialization establishments.
SCP Single Cell Protein.
SCR Security Council Resolution (of the United Nations).
SCVM State Company for Veterinary Medicine.
SDH Synchronous Digital Hierarchy.
SDI Samarra Drug Industry.
SE State Establishment.
SEEMO State Establishment for Extraction and Mining Operations.
SEHEE State Establishment for Heavy Engineering Equipments.
SEPI State Enterprise for Petrochemical Industries.
SEPP State Establishment for Pesticide Production.
SF Special Forces.
SFOR Stabilization Forces.
SIEI Specialized Institute for Engineering Industries.
SIGINT Signals Intelligence.
SIPRI Stockholm International Peace Research Institute.
SISMI Italian Intelligence and Military Security Service.
SLV Space Launch Vehicle.
SME Subject Matter Expert.
SOE State Owned Enterprises.
SOMO State Oil Marketing Organization.
SOTI State Organization for Technical Industries.
SPO Special Projects Office—subordinate office in MIC; also known as the Master Subjects Office.
SRBM Short Range Ballistic Missile.
SRC Scientific Research Center.
SRG Special Republican Guard.
SSM Surface-to-Surface Missile.
SSO Special Security Organization.
STADI Staff Training and Development Institute, Tuwaitha, (IAEC).
STRD Scientific and Technical Research Directorate, which later became the Technical Research Center.
SVI Sera and Vaccine Institute.
SWB Summary of World Broadcasts.
TABRC Tuwaitha Agriculture and Biological Research Center.
TAGCO Trading and Agriculture General Company.
TCC Technical Consulting Company.
TDI Toluene DiIsocyanate (a cross-linking agent in polymers).
TEA TriEthylAmine.
TECO Technical Corps for Special Projects.
TEA Triethylamine—a chemical agent precursor.
TEL Transporter Erector Launcher.
TEMPS SS-12 Missile—destroyed under Intermediate Nuclear Forces Treaty.
TFASP Tactical Field Ammunition Supply Point.
TG-02 A liquid rocket fuel (a mixture of 50% TEA plus 50%
xylidene).
TIS Thermal Imagery Sight.
TNRC Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center—the principal center of research and development in Iraq’s nuclear program.
TNT Tri Nitro Toluene (an explosive).
TOSSCO Technical Oilfield Services and Supply Company.
TPAO Turkish Petroleum Company.
TPIC Turkish Petroleum International Company, a TPAO Subsidiary.
Trade Intermediary An independent commercial entity that links the consumer of products and services to other manufactures, vendors, transporters, financiers, and/or consultants or other service providers. Trade intermediaries were used by the Iraqi Regime. Some were cognizant of the illicit nature of trade and deliberately colluded with Iraq, while others were deceived by the Iraqi Regime and were innocent tools of illicit Iraqi procurement activities.
TRC Technical Research Center.
TSMID Technical and Scientific Materials Import Division.
TTC Thermal Tracking Camera.
TVC Thrust Vector Control (of rocket engines).
U Uranium.
U# UNSCOM inspection number.
UAE United Arab Emirates.
UAV Unmanned Aerial Vehicle.
UCl4 Uranium Tetrachloride.
UDMH Unsymmetrical DiMethyUnsymetrical Di-Methyl. Hydrazine-one. One of the two components of AZ-11, a liquid rocket fuel.
UEIE Ur Engineering and Industrial Establishment.
UF4 Uranium Tetrafluoride.
UF6 Uranium Hexafluoride.
UGF Underground Facility.
UHF Ultra High Frequency.
UN United Nations.
UNCC United Nations Compensation Commission.
UNDP United Nations Development Program.
UNESCO United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization.
UNICEF United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund.
UNGA United Nations General Assembly.
Unilateral Destruction Destruction of weapons, equipment, or documents by one party only.
UNMOVIC United Nations Monitoring, Verification, and Inspection Commission. Set up by UNSCR 1284 on 17 December 1999 as a replacement for UNSCOM. Its first Executive Chairman was Dr. Hans Blix.
UNOPS United Nations Operations.
UNSC United Nations Security Council.
UNSCOM United Nations Special Commission. Set up by UNSCR 687 on 3 April 1991 “. . . to carry out immediate on-site inspection of Iraq’s biological, chemical, and missile capabilities.” Inspections of nuclear capabilities were carried out by the UN’s International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the two sometimes worked alongside each other.
UNSCR United Nations Security Council Resolution.
UNSCR United Nations Security Council Resolution.
UNSYG United Nations Secretary General.
UO2 Uranium Dioxide.
UO4 Uranium Tetroxide.
UoB University of Baghdad.
URENCO European Enrichment.
USD US Dollars.
USSR Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
UTL United Telecommunications, Limited.
UXO Unexploded Ordnance.
VHF Very High Frequency.
VP Vice President.
VR Video Reconnaissance.
VVDP Veterinary Vaccine and Drug Production facility.
VX A highly toxic CW nerve agent.
Weaponization The application of technology, materials, equipment, and knowledge to harness the effects or physical principles that have been proven in laboratory or otherwise controlled conditions to create a weapon.
WFP World Food Program.
WHO World Health Organization.
WMD Weapons of Mass Destruction. Weapons that are capable of a high order of destruction and/or being used in such a manner as to kill large numbers of people. Can be nuclear, chemical, biological, or radiological weapons but excludes the means of transporting or propelling the weapons where such means are a separable and divisible part of the weapon. Chemical Weapons and Biological Weapons need to be of a certain size to count as WMD—single chemical or biological artillery rounds would not be considered to be WMD, due to the limited damage they could produce.
Yellowcake A form of uranium ore concentrate.

Posted: Apr 22, 2007 08:14 PM
Last Updated: Apr 22, 2007 08:14 PM