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June 24, 2015
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June 18, 2010
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December 20, 1991
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(b)(3) APPROVED FOR RELEASE^ DATE: 25-May-201 0 PAO 910586 20 December 1991 MEMORANDUM FOR, Director of Central Intelligence FROM: Task Force on Greater CIA Openness SUBJECT: Task Force Report, on Greater CIA Openness REFERENCE: Memo for D/PAO fr DCI, dtd 18 Nov, Subj: Greater CIA Openness (Tab A) 1, In j:esponse to your referenced request, the Task Force addressed the fol.lowinq How can we do a better job of informing the general public and key constituencies about the need for a strong intelligence effort and about the missions and accomplishments of the Intelligence Community in a changing world, and To what extent do the dramatic changes in the wo~ild situation and the needs of oversight and accountability to the American people and their representatives dictate a reexamination of policies on classification and release of records, and finally How can we use openness to learn from others outside the Agency in order to improve our cap abiU.ties and our people. 2e Senior officiais in the media, in the Executive and Legislative Branches, in the business/private sector and in academia alt. shared their views on CIA openness with the Task Force. (See Tab B) We also consulted Agency retirees and employees throughout the organization. 3. Many of those interviewed said the CIA was sufficiently open; all thought the CIA could do more to declassify and make available portions of its historical archives, especially regarding CIA successes and scientific/technical accomplishments;; some said the CIA will have to work harder at explaining The need for intelligence in a post-cold war world. All agreed that an effective public affairs program for the CIA was necessary and that whatever changes were made to increase openness, all would expect the CIA to keep the secrets it is charged to protect. 4. In whatever program we pursue, we should: a get oua: employees on board first 0 be consistent a be exce dent a be credible--admit when we are wrong peA_sona}ize the Agency preserve the mystique We should aa.so ensure a coordinated PAC-OCA effort for this program. It will be important to get the Hill on board with the Agency's public position on various issues and to articulate the overall Agency strategy to Congress to honor your commitment 5:e openness. 5. Before we can pursue greater openness, it is important to understand the Agency's current program in this area to put down a marker for possible change in the future. To provide some context you should be aware that while PAO grew during Judge Webster's tenure to meet the needs of increased requirements and an expanded program, PAO is now being told to downsize by about 33%. We recognize that a program of increased openness will require commitment of additional resources, not only for PAO but for other parts of the Agency. The Directorates will need to assess the resource implications of these recommendations. 6. In most of our discussions with outsiders as well as within the task force there was substantial agreement that we generally need to make the institution and the process more visible and understandable rather than strive for openness spec jific substantive issues. To do this, we need to develop a strategic vision of what we want to be open about, why we want to be more oven and to whom we want to be more open. Our suggestion for such a vision statement is: CIA, the most. open intelligence agency in the world, wants to be recognized as an organization of high caliber and culturally diverse people who achieve technical and analytic excellence and operational effectiveness in fulfilling their mission with integrity and the trust of the American people. We believe that it: is important for 2 T the American public to see CIA as a law-abiding organization whose role supporting national security policymakers continues to be important'in an even more complex and dangerous world. Formal acceptance of this statement by the Agency, or one similar to it, will provide a necessary and well-understood framework for taking the steps to achieve greater CIA openness. 7. We have an important story to tell, a story that bears repeating. We are the most open intelligence agency in the world which is proper in our form of democracy. (In fact, several foreign intelligence organizations have sought advice from PAO on how to establish a mechanism for dealing with the public.) That said, many Americans do not understand the intelligence process and the role of intelligence in national security policymaking. Many still operate with a romanticized or erroneous view of intelligence from the movies, TV, books and newspapers. These views often damage our reputation and make it harder for us to fulfill our mission. There are steps we can take which will benefit us and the American people. 8. To increase CIA openness and signal, a change in how we do business, we need to take initiatives to share our history through the declassification of old records, explain our mission and functions in a changing world through an expanded briefing program within and outside of government, and develop a strategy for expanding our work with the media as a means of reaching an even broader audience. Our major recommendations address these issues: A. Declassifying and releasing records that describe CIA's history and activities would go a long way to educating the public on the work of intelligence. Our voluntary Historical Review Program has proceeded very slowly, and recent legislation (H.R. 1415) has mandated greater access to our records by State Department historians. Presently, policy and resource constraints severely limit the amount of historical records released by the CIA. Therefore, we recommend that you: 1) Establish a senior-led, Agency-wide group to review the Agency's policy and practices related to declassification and release of records under the Historical Review and FOIA programs, as they relate to the changing international environment and counterintelligence threat, and with a view to accelerating the process. -__ -Approve --Disapprove 3 T 2) Initiate in the near-term the declassification of historical materials on specific events, particularly those which are repeatedly the subject of false allegations, such as the 1948 Italian Elections, 1953 Iranian Coup, 1954 Guatemalan Coup, 1958 Indonesian Coup and the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962. Notify the public of the availability of the resulting materials. -Approve Disapprove 3) Have OTE publish an unclassified version of Studies in intelligence and make it available to the public for sale through the National Technical Information Service and have it-. listed in the Social Science I ndex . 1 -__Approve Disapprove Pub=_i-sh compendiums of papers delivered at conferences sponsored or cosponsored by CIA. Approve ______Di sapprove B. Many people inside and outside of government do not understand whhat we do or how we do it. It is important that we i.ncte.ase our efforts to tell people both what we do and what we cl.on?t. do, To this end, we recommend that you: 1) Commission PAO, working in concert with OCA and the directorates, to develop additional unclassified material, on CIA, its mission, functions` and changing role i.nto he nest century, --Approve --Disapprove l The Editorial Board of Studies has identified several hundred unclass i.fi_ed or declassified articles and taken steps to interest scholars and publishers in them. About half a dozen university presses have expressed interest, but to date none have actively begun the editorial. process. 4 S T 2) Expand the Agency's briefing program for: T new members of Congress C key Congressional staffers, as appropriate congressional Research Service (CRS) and Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) staff members new political appointees in relevant agencies, (especially important to prepare for in an election year) Agency contractors Academic consultants I Q, Academic, business and other private sector groups Approve Disapprove C. To reach our objective of greater openness, we must come up with a better balance in dealing with the media in a world where television is the primary conveyor of information to most Americans. In the past we have been reluctant to do television (judge Webster appeared only three times before he announced his retirement), and some would still caution against it because of the special risks involved. Yet the opportunity for impact is so great that we believe the time has come to change our position. One of the things that is leading us in this direction is the strong view from many quarters that we need a visible Agency spokesperson, such as the D/PAO, to refute allegations and set the record straight, When such false allegations come from television, we need to be able to speak to therii in the same forum. 2 To this end, we recommend that you: Commission the D/PAO to develop in consultation with the Deputy Directors a media strategy for the "90's that _. For example, an Agency spokesperson reading our statement in response to the allegations made by N.ghtline in summer 1991 would have been more effective than Ted Koppel's reading of it with raised oyebTows and a look of "What do you expect given the source? 7 T increases the visibility of the DCI and the intelligence process, expands the role of the Agency spokesperson and takes a more proactive approach toward the media in general. ____Approve _e _:Disapprove 8. In most of our discussions we defined the audiences for greater CIA openness as the following; the media, academia, business, the private sector, government and our own employees. We have used these categories to describe our current program related to openness which provides a context for offering our other recommendations. 1) Current Prows: a) PAO now has relationships with reporters from ovy major wire service, newspaper, news weekly, and television network in the nation. This has helped us turn some "intelligence failure" stories into "intelligence success" stories, and it has contributed to the accuracy of countless others. In many instances, we have persuaded reporters to postpone, change, hold, or even scrap stories that could have adversely affected national security interests or jeopardized sources and methods. b. PAO spokespersons build and maintain these professional relationships with reporters by responding to daily inquiries from them over the telephone (3369 in 1991), by providing unclassified background briefings to them at Headquarters (174 in 1991), and by arranging for them to interview the DCI, DDCI and other senior Agency officials (164 in 1991). c. PAO responds to numerous requests from authors, researchers, filmmakers, and others seeking information, guidance, or cooperation from the Agency in their endeavours. Some responses can be handled in a one-shot telephone call. Others, such as Llfi~ Magazine's proposed photo essay, BBC's six part series, Ron Kessler's requests for information for his Agency book, and the need for an Agency focal point in the Rochester Institute of Technology controversy drew heavily on PAO resources. d. PAO has also reviewed some film scripts about the Agency, documentary and fictional, at the request of filmmakers seeking guidance on accuracy and authenticity. In a few instances, we facilitated the filming of a few scenes on Agency premises. Responding positively to these requests in a limited way has provided PAO with the opportunity to help others depict the Agency and its activities accurately and without negative distortions. Except for responding to such requests, we do not seek to play a role in filmmaking ventures about the Agency which come to our attention. For example, although we knew that Oliver Stone's movie on JFK 14'as in the works for some time, we did not contact him to volunteer an Agency viewpoint. e. PAO coordinates the preparation of detailed bacground materials, usually in Q&A format, on major news issues for the DCI and 1D.DCI for their appearances before media groups, world affairs councils, universities, and business and professional groups. PAO also prepares verbatim transcripts of their interviews with reporters and their appearances before media groups. 2) Recommendations a. Provide more background briefings, when p.Tactica]., to a greater number of print and electronic media journalists. Respond more quickly to telephone queries from the media, especially on fast-breaking events o PAO should continue to work with area analysts and specialists so that PAO can respond telephonically to these questions, rather than insisting on an eventual in-person background briefings at Langley. Keep PAO as the conduit for these efforts and ensure that media across the U.S., not only those in the Washington, U,C, area, are aware of our program. Approve _-_ S approve b. find more opportunities for the deputy director to have on--the-record interviews with the media to talk about process and, on occasion: substantive issues Disapprove c. When ::here ids a major international event that requires the attention of CIA. l i_ , e? the Persian Gulf war), PAO should consider inviting ra number of reporters to CIA Headquarters for an unclassified background br-i efing -App. ove --Disapprove 7 d. Look for ways to emphasize the changing nature of the intelligence work force and the growing number of women and minorities in each directorate and increasingly in more senior positions. Consider support for some individual profiles which help personalize the world of intelligence in broad circulation newspapers or magazines.3 - __Appprove __ Disapprove ACADEMIA 1) CurrIrtt Program a. The Agency has a wide range of contacts with academics through recruiting, professional societies, contractual arrangements and OTE. -PAO has recently been designated the focal point for all information about CIA's relations with the academic community. As such, PAO is building a database of information about Agency contacts with academia--conferences and seminars, recruiting, officers and scholars-in-residence, contracts, teaching--and serves as the clearinghouse of such information for Agency employees. 1r. PAO officers also speak to approximately 250 academic audiences a year. Subject areas vary, but most focus on the structure and functions of the CIA, its role in the intelligence conununity, the intelligence process, and congressional oversight. PAO has developed a speakers' package for Agency officers and retirees who speak in public, including an annually updated Q&A package to aid the speaker in answering a broad array of questions. c. PAO maintains a mailing list of 700 academicians who receive unclassified Agency publications four times a year. Recipients write to praise the quality of the products and to claim that these mailings are one of the most effective ways of reaching out. d. PAO sponsors the DCI Program for Deans twice a year. This program seeks to expose administrators of academic institutions to senior Agency officials--the DCI, the DDCI, all the DDs, and heads of independent offices--and to give them a sense of what the Agency does, how it operates, and how it fits in and relates to American society. 3 The recent Denison University Alumni Magazine feature on Martha Kessler is a good example. (See Tab C) 2) commendations: a. The Officer-in-Residence (OIR) program is seen by many as an excellent means of providing a window into CIA for the academic community. The program (currently 13 parti- cipants) could be enhanced with dedicated slots and resources, under central manage- ment. At present, individual offices provide the positions and about $100,000 per officer. Such enhancement would ensure that selection of schools and officers meets our needs. Approve Disapprove ba PAO should work with OTE and OP to develop a program for CIA employees involved in rec=:uiting to ensure that they are conversant on all issues affecting the CIA with emphasis on the intelligence process and multicultural sensitivities. Provide for periodic update for recnnndi.ters on long-term assignment. Disapprove c. PAO`?s Coordinator for Academic Affairs should take steps to see that CIA becomes an institutional member of relevant scientific and professional societies. Agency employees should participate openly in such meetings as CIA officers. Procedures for individuals to present papers in such fora need to be updated. Approve Disapprove d. Sponsor either unilaterally or in cooperation with academic institutions or other government agencies conferences on the history and craft of intelligence, as well as on other areas of common interest. PAO will work with OTE's Center for the ~tudy of Intelligence on these programs. Approve Disapprove 9 For example, PAO is currently talking with the Truman Library about a conference in late 1992 or 1993 on the origins of the Intelligence Community. A similar conference with the Wilson Center is being considered to mark the 30th anniversary of the Cuban Missile Crisis next fall 9 S E T e. Conduct more academic conferences here at Langley. Take the successful DI model of substantive conferences with the academic community and explore how it could be valuable to '-;&T and DA. Ap_provu --Disapprove fo PAO CPAS and FBIS should examine ways to continue or enhance the program to disseminate uncJass:+Iied publications (highly valued by all we talked to) to ensure that the Agency is receiving maximum benefit for its efforts. _-Disapprove g. Encourage the establishment of intelligence studies programs at academic inst it.ut_sons. Approve --Disapprove GOVERNMENT Curre,at Program: a. The Agency has a broad range of contacts throughout government and provides product, briefings, and exchanges to both Executive and Legislative Branches. PAO is an active participant in briefing the military and other government agencies on the CIA, its mission and fiAnctions. This Year, PAO provided more than 70 briefings to groups from the National Security Agency, Foreign Service, Pentagon, defense Intelligence College, and the United States Information Agency. 2. Reco!nmend.atii.ons a : OCR should seek additional opportunities for. the DCI to appear before congressional committees in open session when such a session helps to educate the public about the role of intelligence and the relevance and accountability of the CIA. ___ approve _-Disapprove b. Explore with the SSCI and HPSCI leadership the possibility of having the oversight committees issue an unclassified annual report on the performance of the intelligence Community. ~_--Disapprove c. The DDT and DDS&T in coordination with OCA should reassFss the Agency's relationship with CES and OTI\ Disapprove da PAO should work with PCS to look for ways to reach broader military audiences with information about our programs D. $t ~I$INRS`1' Current I'rogfrartz: a. The Agency currently has three types ofbasic relationships with the US business sector. First, business is an important source of intelligence information via NR collection activities. Second, the US corporate sector is involved in the vast bulk of the Agency's contracting efforts. Finally, business receives selected briefings by the Agency- -talks on the counterintelligence challenge, counterterrorism and other presentations at business-oriented conf?erences organized by groups such as SASA. Given the emphasis on economic security for the United States in the `90s, the business sector is looking to the potential contributions the Intelligence Coinwunity can make in this area. `' Hill staffers rely heavily on OTA and CRS products. Moreover, active interaction with these congressional support organizations can provide invaluable insights into issues that key House and Senate committees and individual members believe are important, an well as what legislation is under consideration or in the conceptual stage. Some Hill staffers have suggested that CIA assign officers to act as liaison through OCA for relevant OTh projects, as the military services do. For example, OTA is now focusing on two projects of particular interest to several congressional committees, proliferation and economic analyses of other: nations as they relate to U.S. industrial competitiveness, b. This past year, PAO provided remarks and support for the DCI and DDCI for some 40 appearances before outside audiences- including a wide range of groups from the business, legal and civic communities. Most of these appearances were covered by the media giving even more visibility to our leaders' comments. c. PAO participates in providing briefings on the CIA to participants in At,-CEA`s biannual "Intelligence Comunity" course, attended by near!y 200 industry and government representative