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March 16, 2022
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August 2, 2016
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November 1, 1992
pproved for Release: 2016/07/12 C00844616 ateibi 7-4 Director of Central Intelligence 012. Ili cer-0 Terrorism Review November 1992 Counterterrorist Center DI TR 921)12 �wentlwr 1992 < py 3 4 7 pproved for Release: 2016/07/12 C00844616 pproved for Release: 2016/07/12 C00844616 Terrorism Review November 1992 Latin America: Columbus Day Violence Muted Terrorist groups conducted a variety of attacks in mid-October to commemorate the 500th anniversary of Columbus's arrival in the Americas. The level of violence was lower than anticipated in many countries, however, because of heightened security and the lack of official celebrations sgrer< DI TR 92-012 November 1992 Page 17 (b)(3) (b)(3) NR pproved for Release: 2016/07/12 C00844616 t;or pproved for Release: 2016/07/12 C00844616 --.qtpat (b)(3) 25 (b)(3) Chronology of Terrorism 1992 This review is published monthly bv the DCI Counterterrorist Center. (b)(3) rec.ii _ - - Approved for Release: 2016/07/12 C008446161 rl rl n r-ILli pproved for Release: 2016/07/12 C00844616 (b)(3) (b)(3) Latin America: Columbus Day Violence Muted Terrorist groups conducted a variety of attacks in mid- October to commemorate the 500th anniversary of Columbus's arrival in the Americas, but the level of violence was lower than anticipated in many countries because of heightened security and the lack of official celebrations. Latin American terrorists carried out some 20 minor bombings, primarily against govern- ment facilities and symbolic US and Spanish targets; the attacks caused property damage, but no deaths. Most anti-US attacks in Latin America occurred in Chile, where terrorists bombed five Mormon chapels and a Citibank office. The most serious anti-US incident was a failed mortar attack by Peru's Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movment (MRTA) on the US Ambassador's residence in Lima. Indian and leftist groups also held mostly peaceful marches and demon- strations throughout Latin America to gain media exposure for their causes. Quincentennial-related vio- lence outside the region consisted of several bombings and violent demonstrations in the Dominican Republic, the bombing of the Peruvian Consulate in Turkey by Dev Sol, and a violent protest in San Francisco. California, where demonstrators burned police vehi- cles. Chile Chilean terrorists conducted several low-intensity bombings against Spanish and US targets to com- memorate the Columbus Day anniversary. Although the bombings caused limited property damage and one injury, they represented the first significant round of attacks against foreigners in Chile since 1991, when the Chilean terrorists conducted a series of anti- US attacks to protest US involvement in the Persian Gulf. On 7 October, a bomb exploded at a Spanish sports club in Santiago. The following day, terrorists threw two small bombs at the Spanish Embassy, causing minor property damage. The ensuing firefight between the attackers and Embassy guards injured one passer-by. Terrorists also bombed a Spanish bank. Anti-US attacks consisted of bombings of a Citibank office and five Mormon chapels. The United Popular 17 Action Movement/Lautaro (MAPU/L), a leftist ter- rorist group that frequently targets Mormon chapels, claiming they are instruments of US imperialism, took credit for bombing at least two of the chapels. MAPU/L also claimed responsibility for the Citibank attack. Bolivia Subdued Columbus Day protests in Bolivia belied government fears of terrorist attacks and widespread Indian violence. The on y terrorist attack during the Colum- bus Day anniversary occurred in Cochabamba in central Bolivia, where a bomb damaged the Palace of Justice. No group claimed credit for the attack. Indian groups held large rallies and marches in major cities, but few violent incidents were reported. In La Paz, 20,000 to 25,000 peasants, miners, students, and union members conducted a peaceful march past the US Embassy, shouting anti-US and anti-Spanish chants. Bolivian security officials adopted a noncon- frontational approach toward the protesters to avoid provoking violence. Marchers in La Paz also convened the first "Assembly of Original Peoples," but rainy weather and the inability of the many groups attend- ing to reconcile their conflicting agendas quickly broke up the meeting Ecuador Columbus Day also passed relatively peacefully in Ecuador, where officials had feared widespread vio- lence by Indian groups. only two serious incidents during the Quincentennial; DI TR 92-012 Sorember 1992 (b)(1) (b)(3) (b)(1) (b)(3) Approved for Release: 2-016/07/12 C00844616 � �I 1-1 1-1 1 U 1 pproved for Release: 2016/07/12 C00844616 (b)(1) (b)(3) (b)(1) (b)(1) (b)(3) (b)(3) one woman was struck and killed by a car that ran through a roadblock, and another person died during an attempt by Indians to take over a cooperative farm. Protest activities consisted of traffic disruptions along highways in the Andean highlands and several marches and rallies hroughout the country. Indian groups constructed road- blocks, dug trenches in the road, and dynamited a section of the Pan-American Highway near Quito to slow vehicle traffic. Large demonstrations were re- ported throughout the highlands, but fewer protesters than expected attended a planned rally in Quito. 'Inclement weather kept many people home, while troops stationed along thc highways slowed the mar- chers' progress toward the capital. Colombia Violence during the Columbus Day weekend was limited largely to several low-intensity bombings as In Bogo- ta. four bombs exploded near police stations on II October Terrorists also bombed statues of King Ferdi- nand and Isabella. The guerrillas, who began their nationwide offensive on 20 October, may have de- layed their attacks because of heightened security or may have intentionally sought to confuse the military by launching attacks after their announced starting dale of the offensive. Peru Both of Peru's active insurgent groups, Sendcro Lu- ininoso (SLI and the Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA), conducted attacks over the Co- lumbus Day weekend. MRTA marked the anniversa- ry by launching several low-risk, standoff attacks against Peruvian. US, and Spanish targets. SL's attacks, which included selective assassinations and the massacre of 48 Andean villagers, took place one month after the capture of SL leader Abimael Guz- man and do not appear to have been directly related to the Columbus Day anniversary. MRTA�in an apparent attempt to boost morale among its combatants and prove its continued viabili- ty�conducted the most spectacular anti-US incident during the Quincentennial by firing four mortar rounds on the US Ambassador's residence in Lima on 10 October. All of the rounds missed their mark; one fell in a nearby park and two exploded outside the residence's perimeter wall, causing little damage. The following day, MRTA conducted a mortar attack against the Peruvian Presidential Palace that also missed its target. On 13 October, MRTA members took control of a UPI office in Lima and broadcast a prerecorded tape in which the group claimed credit for the two mortar attacks and the bombing of a Spanish bank in Lima. The message also denounced Columbus, the government, and the upcoming nation- al election. Dominican Republic Leftist groups staged strikes and demonstrations and conducted several minor bombings to protest the Dominican Republic's lavish official Columbus Day celebrations, which included the interment of Colum- bus's alleged remains at a new, multimillion-dollar lighthouse built in his honor. Protesters staged violent demonstrations in several cities after police shot and killed a demonstrator on 20 September. In Santiago, masked youths protesting "500 years of extermina- tion" burned tires and clashed with the security forces. In another city, confrontations between police and protesters resulted in the injury of 10 policemen and one demonstrator. Bombs damaged three hotels and a cathedral in the capital on 6 October. The attacks may have been conducted by the Dominican Communist Party (PCD), which reportedly planned a wave of urban bombin s to disrupt the Quincenten- nial celebrations. The Collective of Popular Organizations (COP), a peasant labor group, organized a series of labor strikes during the period of the 500th anniversary celebra- tions. Strikes in three cities resulted in pipe bombings aimed primarily against government buildings. A pipe bomb thrown from a motorcycle in Esperanza wound- ed four young girls. Although a bomb was thrown at a Coca-Cola truck that failed to honor one strike, the strikes were not targeted against US interests. 18 �iApproved for Release: 2016/07/12 C00844616 , ri L ILSC pproved for Release: 2016/07/12 C00844616 Turkey One day after the Columbus anniversary, a small bomb exploded at the Peruvian Consulate in Istanbul, causing minor damage. Dev Sol took credit for the attack, claiming solidarity with Sender() Luminoso and denouncing the alleged mistreatment of captured SL leader, Abimael Guzman. Less than a week before the attack, approximately 80 Kurdish Workers Party (PKK) and Dev Sol sympathizers conducted a pro-SL demonstration in front or the Consulate. Dev Sol has no known operational links to SL, but is often moti- vated by international events and probably conducted the pro-SL attack around the time of the Columbus anniversary to gain publicity for its cause. Lithuania In Vilnius, 22 people from the Gediminas Youth Movement, a group that advocates the return to Lithuania's pre-Christian pagan traditions, staged a peaceful demonstration outside the US Ambassador's residence in Vilnius on 12 October, denouncing Co- lumbus and alleged US Government oppression of Native Americans Reverse Blank 19 pproved for Release: 2016/07/12 C00844616 (b)(3) (b)(3) pproved for Release: 2016/07/12 C00844616 ret Latin America Colombia British Hostage Killed Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) insurgents apparently killed Peter Arthur Kessler, a British businessman, during a rescue attempt by the military on 24 October, A government spokesman stated that the FARC insurgents killed Kessler to facilitate their escape from a pursuing Army unit. It is possible, however, that Kessler was caught in a crossfire between the two forces. FARC insurgents frequently kidnap employees of foreign- owned corporations to obtain large ransoms, usually releasing them unharmed after their demands are met. The Colombian military has been criticized in the past for its heavyhanded rescue methods that often have led to serious injuries or death to kidnap victims. :3�ee,� 22 pproved for Release: 2016/07/12 C00844616