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July 16, 2020
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July 30, 2020
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August 29, 1967
pproved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 PROJECT AQUILINE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT STUDY T Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 1 i; Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 PROJECT AQUILINE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT STUDY 29 August 1967 �Ade 1 iron automatic I� oomgratling and Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 declassification, Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 �sEenf TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Nature and Purpose of the Study II History A. B. C. Program Initiation Program Concept FY 1967 Development Program III Program Objectives � A. B. C. D. Overall Objective FY 1968 Goals FY 1969 Goals Ultimate Goals IV Program Plan Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure 'Figure :Figure A. B. C. D. E. Approach Development Plan Flight Tests Summary of Development Concept Management and Funding Operational Development 1 Mark I 2 Mark I Inboard Profile 3 Development Plan 4 AQUILINE Budget Work Sheet 5 Program Objectives FY 1967 6 AQUILINE Budget FY 1967 7 AQUILINE Program Objectives 8 System Program Plan (Douglas) 9 Summary of Projected Costs 10 Projected AQUILINE Operational Costs 3 3 4 7 9 9 10 10 11 12 12 13 15 16 18 22 ,......] -----rr --- 6-1Mili Excluded from automatic deringradin3 and declaesificatIou Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 ength- 4.75feet Wingspan - 6 feet Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 003055187 'Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 003055187 Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 fry,RE-T- � PROJECT AQUILINE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT STUDY Nature and Purpose of the Study In response to a Bureau of the Budget rquest, a research and development study has been prepared on Project AQUILINE. The AQUILINE system is a new concept in the collection of intelligence which encompasses development of the vehicle as well as the associated subsystems. Research and development on the AQUILINE system was initiated to increase our capability for collection of intel- ligence against prime targets. Our present airborne collection systems are large and must fly very high and very fast to sur- vive. The AQUILINE concept is to have a small vehicle which will fly low and slow and still have sufficient range. The successful development of the AQUILINE collection system depends heavily upon our ability to develop advanced micro- technology, microminiature sensors and power sources, sophisti- cated communications and control systems as well as an efficient, small aircraft. This study is organized into four major sections. Section II presents a history of the program through fiscal year 1967 ,K-eftEr Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 including a description of its intelligence collection poten- tial. Section III outlines the planned development program for fi&zal years 1968 and 1969. Section IV presents a detailed _description of the basic technology involved in the development and a summary of the development concept. The final section presents operational concepts and estimates program costs and timing. Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 II History A. Program Initiation. During the past four years, the Office of Research and Development has been investigating advanced concepts by which "black box" sensors could be emplaced at strategic targets in China, Russia, North Vietnam, and other denied areas. These emplaced "black boxes" would collect intelligence from missile test ranges, nuclear test facilities, BW/CW test areas, and other prime targets. The collected information could be sent in real time or be stored for later readout via radio to over- flight-aircraft or relay satellites. A major difficulty in the present emplacement systems is that the emplacement vehicle must execute the penetration and drop the black box at a high altitude in order to avoid detec- tion and/or interception. Consequently, black box payloads designed for emplacement in this manner are large and heavy--a few hundred pounds not being unusual. In addition, as the opposition develops more sophisticated defense systems, our opportunities to deliver black boxes using our present assets will be grossly limited. A solution to our prOsent difficulty would be to employ a system that would allow low altitude drops of small, light- Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 'SE weight, low power solid state sensors. This would enhance the probability of the black box surviving the emplacement as well as decreasing the probability of it being detected. At present, solid state and microminiaturization technologies have progressed to the point where these small, light-weight, low power black boxes can be developed. To emplace these black boxes, however, requires a small, low flying emplacement vehicle system capable of long range surreptitious penetration. The AQUILINE project was initiated out of this requirement. B. Program Concept. The AQUILINE concept encompasses a very small bird-like emplacement and collection system. To determine AQUILINE sys- tem feasibility, internal and external studies were conducted. The early conceptual studies were conducted by the Naval Ordnance Test Station (NOTS), Douglas Aircraft Company, and others (see Figures 1 and 2). Mission analyses and cost effect- iveness studies indicated that the AQUILINE concept was feasible and held great promise as an advanced emplacement and collection system. Furthe...., the studies established that the vehicle could exist for long periods of time in target areas and would be practically undetectable. Even if detected, it would be expensive and difficult to countermand. Its low altitude and low speed characteristics added to a long loiter time capability Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 would permit detailed examination of the target'areas and per- mit a wide variety of intelligence missions. Further, its small size and innocuous nature would make it more politically palatable in tense situations than conventional aircraft. It wquld be unmanned, smaller, and cheaper and, therefore, ex- pendable on special missions. Because of these characteristics, it would be deployable against targets not accessible by any means at the present time. In early stages of development, it could complement existing high altitude systems by providing more detailed examination of selected short-range targets by flying below the cloud cover. Concentrated studies have been performed on a wide range of aerodynamic lift devices including balloons, ballistic glider powered glider and helicopter types for this application. The powered glider was selected because of the following considera- tions: 1. Vehicle. A small aerodynamically clean vehicle can be produced which will contain the miniature payloads and subsystems required for the mission contemplated. 2. Propulsion. A variety of propulsion systems such as two-cycle engines, four-cycle engines, fuel cell and radioisotope powered systems can be used to propel the vehicle. The four-cycle and radioisotope powered sys- tems have a potential range of thousands of miles. Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 �su-Rfer 3. Observability. Tests of mockup models demonstrate that such-a vehicle and its subsystems could have low enough observability (visual, acoustic, radar and IR) to immerse itself in the indigenous signal environment of the target area, loitering unobtrusively while performing its mission. 4. Guidance and Navigation. Several guidance and navigation systems such as CHECKROTE, radio direction find- ing, transit satellites and Loran or Omega could direct this vehicle to within a few miles of the distant target. 5. TV Eye. The development of a subminiature TV Eye is feasible both in the visible and IR. The TV Eye can be employed for guidance and navigation as well �as surveillance duties. 6. Communication Link. Secure communications for data transmission and vehicle control can be achieved at line-of-sight ranges and are feasible over the longer ranges by using relays such as a small vehicle of the same type, satellites or CHECKROTE. Payloads. Photographic, IR, ELINT, audio, and droppable black box payloads being developed by various divisions in ORD can be employed in this system. 8. Mobility and Flexibility. Because of its size, 6 Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 weight, and speed, the vehicle can be launched from a small boat or aircraft or a simple portable launcher. 9. Range. A range of for the Initial Operational Capability (IOC)* version can be achieved. However, with a four-cycle internal combustion engine or fuel cells ranges of thousands of miles can be provided. Radioisotope engine versions could have unlimited range (30-day flight duration, 36,000 miles). 10. Operations Research. Computer programs for vehicle configuration systems integration, systems vul- nerability and mission analysis have been initiated and can be further developed to insure the effectiveness of operational systems. Eventually the computer programs can be carried out in the Intelligence Processing Research and Development (IPRD) facility of ORD. C. FY 1967 Development Program. During fiscal year 1967, development of an emplacement/ collection system configured as a small powered glider (AQUILINE) began with a budget of dollars. The development concept of the AQUILINE system was refined and improved with: 1. The initiation of an IOC prototype development program. *Used to designate the first generation vehicle and associated subsystem. Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 2. The continuation of advanced system studies by Douglas Aircraft (System Contractor). 3. Institution of development programs in the sub- system areas of aerodynamics, propulsion, navigation, communications, antennas, survivability studies, intelli- gence collecting payloads, and ground control equipment. A flight test range was established and instrumented to allow flight test of the airframe, its subsystems, and payloads under development. The flight of the fully instrumented IOC system is scheduled for October 1967. The IOC system will include remotely, controlled autopilot, navigation and communi- cations equipment (including a slow-scan TV camera and associated radio transmitter) and will be equipped to carry test payloads up to five pounds to a range of Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 'SE III Program Objectives A. Overall Objective. The AQUILINE development program is designed to be evolu- tionary, i.e., its collection capability will be increased as advances in technology become available. Specifically, the program will require advances in the state-of-the-art in the critical areas of aerodynamics, propulsion, navigation, com- munication and payload instrumentation. A major goal of the program is the ability to define an optimum collection system to be employed against a particular intelligence target using the technology currently available (see Figure 3). A more detailed description of this aspect of the program is contained in Section IV below. By late fiscal year 1968, the initial operational vehicle will be capable of flying . missions at altitudes up to 10,000 feet carrying a payload of five pounds. Prototype hard- ware will enable the vehicle to be positioned and controlled within a CEP of 70 feet at distances to . These capa- bilities are sufficient to perform intelligence collection � missions against typical peripheral targets in USSR, China, and Cuba. Computer programs have been developed to supply the detailed Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 "Arr design information needed to construct an AQUILINE vehicle and its subsystems. The computer program will optimize the vehicle and payloads for a specific mission against a specific target. and gives the probability of success for the mission. B. FY 1968 Goals. During fiscal year 1968, research and development on an Advanced Operational Capability (AOC) will be initiated. This program will consider four-cycle internal combustion engine designs, advanced subsystem elements, and payload instrumenta- tion resulting from current microelectronics research and development efforts. The initial AOC goal will be for round-trip missions. Possible target areas would be the coastal regions of the Barents Sea, China, Vietnam, and Cuba. Low altitude imagery, ELINT and SIGINT collection devices are typical, payloads which could be carried. C. FY 1969 Goals. The AQUILINE system capabilities for fiscal year 1969 will be increased by an advanced four-cycle engine which will extend the range to as Emerging navigational technologies such OMEGA* will provide the capability of using the AQUILINE vehicles in one-way missions against Lop Nor, Shuang- ch'eng-tzu and Sary Shagan. One specific objective for fiscal *A navigation concept which utilizes the long range Navy OMEGA radio transmissions, retransmitted through a synchronous satel- lite to the ground station for decommutation and position location. 10 Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 year 1969 will be to emplace a black box within a CEP of 1/2 p.m. at 2400 ft.m. D. Ultimate Goals. During fiscal year 1970 and beyond, research and develop- ment will be oriented toward increasing the range, navigational accuracy, data communication and storage capacities, loiter time at target and the overall reliability of the system. Im- proved payloads which are lighter in weight will be under development to collect a wider range of intelligence data under varying conditions. In addition, initial operational experience obtained from earlier deployed AQUILINE systems will be used to guide future AQUILINE development. � ET 11 Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 IV Program Plan A. Approach. The program plan used for development of an AQUILINE system during fiscal year 1967 will be replaced by an overall system's program in fiscal year 1968. This is necessary for a variety of reasons. During fiscal year 1967, there were three program areas: 1. IOC prototype development. 2. Interface (conceptual development) 3. Subsystem development Three vehicles, each with increasing capability, were designed and constructed under the IOC prototype development program If in fiscal year 1968 we were to follow this same schedule of building increasingly refined-test vehicles, we would quickly exceed fiscal year 1968 funding of In addition, our increased understand- ing of the various subsystem requirements and a better estimate of the costs involved in achieving these requirements has placed ever increasing strain on our limited funds. Further, mission analysis studies revealed that in order to achieve acceptable probabilities of success against any par- ticular target, a specially designed vehicle system should be constructed and deployed. In an environment of continually changing intelligence requirements, it becomes extremely difficult Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 jEGRfr and prohibitively expensive to predict the mission requirement and the operation schedule. To plan for an AQUILINE development which provide as milestones an increasing inventory of vehicle systems designed for general purpose missions seems to us'rto be an inappropriate and expensive approach to the Agency's particu- lar problem. None of these vehicle systems, in all probability, would be the optimum vehicle required to perform an intelligence mission when the need arises. To adjust the AQUILINE development plan to the available funds and to the specific capability needs of the Agency, a new plan has been formulated and put into effect. � B. Development Plan. As shown in Figure 3, the program emphasis is now being put on developing a capability in terms of the developing state- , of-knowledge which can be assessed on command by management. This .;..s done by establishing the two computer programs shown. The scheme works as follows. For fiscal year 1968 the control of the program is vested in the Advanced Conceptual Development team (Douglas Aircraft working under the direction of the Con- tracting Officer's Technical Representative*). The information library for the developmental program is a computer program endowed in its subroutines with all of the known or estimated (temporarily) characteristics of the IOC AQUILINE vehicle system. At the periphery of this information base are the various sub- *COTR 13, Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 003055187 ,sEGRF--r' system project engineers (Douglas) who are charged with generating requirements, subsystem development and updating and refining the information stored in that particular subsystem computer sub- routine. The computer can at any time be instructed to read out the current capability of the IOC family of vehicles under de- velopment.. This information, for instance, would include the range, payload capability and "signature" (i.e., IR, radar, visual and acoustic signal) emanating from the vehicle system. A second computer program has been established in order � to make maximum use of this information. The information for this computer is derived from reiterated survivability studies. The mission survivability computer program predicts the ability (probability) of the selected AQUILINE vehicle to penetrate undetected through the radar, visible, and acoustic defenses of a hostile country. In order to describe the radar defenses, the location and characteristics of each radar, including radar horizon and ground clutter, are read into the computer The visible and acoustic defenses are described by the density distribution. A candidate mission profile and then chosen for gathering intelligence from a selected program. population vehicle are target behind the defense system. The mission profile is described by the position-time-function of the flight path (altitude, velocity, position vs. time), the cloud cover, the background-sky contrast and the sun-aircraft relationship along the route. The candidate Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 003055187 Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 $E-C-RE1 aircraft is described by its radar cross section (as a function of viewing angle), its physical size and the acoustic and infrared characteristics of the power plant. With these data,. the computer program determines the probability of undetected penetration through the radar, visible and acoustic defenses. Should any of these probabilities prove unacceptable, a new mission profile and/or vehicle can be chosen which concentrates specifically on that aspect of penetration. C. Flight Tests. In order to assure that the information stored in the computer yields an accurate representation of the physical characteristics of the vehicle, two additional components of the development plan must be provided. These are the Prototype Systems Development (IOC) and Test Range Programs. Within the Prototype Systems Development Program, a number of test vehicles are designed and fabricated. (Five vehicles are planned for fiscal year 1968.) These vehicles are designed primarily to be test flown in a particular manner such as to augment or update the flight performance information stored in the computer. The vehicles are also used to carry developmental subsystems in ex- perimental flight tests. The vehicles, then,are designed to be , representative of the IOC family of vehicles, modified slightly to accommodate other requirements of the program. 15 Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 A test range for flight testing the developing AQUILINE system has been established at Randsburg Wash, a secure range on the Naval Ordnance Test Station at China Lake, California. The facilities and facilities support are being supplied by the Navy under a task order from the Agency. The prime contractor (Douglas) has established and maintains the instrumentation on the test range. D. Summary of Development Concept. In summary then, what the program attempts to provide Is a developing capability in intelligence collection systems which can any time and from collection system requirement. k be assessed on command by management at which they can define the optimum AQUILINE for a specific current intelligence In essence, the program plan is to develop a series of AQUILINE subsystems (Figure 4) which will be fabricated, tested in flight, and evaluated. The characteristics of these subsystems will be permanently stored in the computer memory. Each subsystem R&D program has its own goal mile- stones which are calculated to be integrated with the total system capability development. Each of the major subsystems may be expanded to indicate the long-range plans in that area. In Navigation (Figure 4, 5s,RE-T- 16 Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 5.,GREer Item III-C), for example, R&D programs are being carried out or planned for all of the fundamental techniques listed. This broad approach is necessary because no one technique y currently offers the potential to satisfy all of the probable requirements. In conjunction with the subsystem capability development, mission environmental information for some of the most likely targets is being collected from other offices and stored for evaluation and collation with specific system configurations. Sociological studies in conjunction with wildlife information would aid in a determination of the probability of detection and recognition. The population distribution would be a measure of likelihood of detection while the birdlife studies would reveal the likelihood of the vehicle registering as a bird or a normally appearing object to the observer. It also is obvious that survivability is dependent on current meteorological data, geographic features and intrusion defense posture. The political situation would affect the determination for detection and reaction of recognition by local governments, thus affecting the calculated risk that may be taken. Collation of all the subsystem data and environmentals would be an impossible task without the aid of modern computer techniques. However, the computer technique used in this program 17 Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 can compare all the R&D results achieved to date and provide answers to optimize the future AQUILINE development plan for any of three alternatives: 1. Most efficient use of available R&D funds. 2. Most effective pacing of subsystem develop- ments for orderly buildup of' system capability. 3. Most effective combination of platform and 4 subsystem elements in a possible crash program to develop a particular mission-oriented system. E. Management and Funding. During fiscal years 1966 and 1967, the program was broken down into its major components in accordance with Figure 5. During fiscal year 1967, although the funding was increased to dollars including AQUILINE-related efforts, the program from an Agency management point of view had not progressed to the point where it was considered a system endeavor. CA system plan will be initiated in fiscal year 1968 and is discussed later.) The funding for the program was provided in a piece- meal fashion, project by project as the program areas became defined. In order to manage the many separate contract packages as an integrated program development, an AQUILINE budget sheet was used for funding control. Figure 6 is a representative copy of this budget showing the total budget funds, the office's plan to commit these funds, and the status of commitment of funds 18 Approved for Release: 2020)02/11 C03055187 Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 3,CArr under the general program. By this means, management was kept apprised of the, progress of the overall program and the effort that the new dollars committed were to fund. The funding for AQUILINE in fiscal year 1968 is based on a master AP/ORD program with a system contractor (See Figure 3). ',3everal individual AP/ORD support contracts with other contractors and a moderate number of AQUILINE related projects (mainly payload R&D) monitored by other divisions are funded separately in support of the program. The basic funding program supports many tasks in subsystem development, environmental studies, mission analysis, and flight testing. Individual fund- ing of these tasks in fiscal year 1967 created unnecessary complications in contract negotiations and management as well as increasing the problems of coordinating and synchronizing the technical developments of each subsystem. A new technique will be used for fiscal year 1968 program funding and control. This plan will provide the required program development flexibility and still assure adequate control by the COTR of the rate of ex- V penditure of funds. - A master contract will be let with the McDonnell-Douglas Company. The request for fiscal year 1968 funds to Agency management will indicate the total contract price and costs of thet four major subcontract elements. This breakdown of costs will 19 Approved for Release: 2026/02/11 C03055187 Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 be similar to that shown in Figure 4. There are a number of major subcontracts which will be let by McDonnell-Douglas in fiscal year 1968. In fiscal year 1967 the composite fee negotiated with McDonnell-Douglas was based on a ratio of Prime to Subcontract effort of approximately A new com- posite fee will be negotiated with the prime contractor based on the new Prime/Subcontract ratio. In addition, the master contract will establish a fund- ing limitation on a quarterly basis. Within this funding limitation, McDonnell-Douglas will request funds on a task basis against which costs, technical milestones and delivery schedules will be submitted to the COTR. On approval by the ft COTR, the contract officer will authorize funds for the task. With this mechanism both the technical and financial progress of the program w111 be more closely monitored. At the same time, the COTR will have the required flexibility, found necessary during early stages of the program, to adjust the direction of the total effort in accordance with the developing technology. The preceding plan was considered more appropriate to the AQUILINE development program than a PERT COST analysis. However, PERT TIME analysis is maintained on both the advanced system development and prototype system development elements of the program. 20 Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 3 I ,The prime contractor has formulated a detailed fiscal year/1968 system program plan (Figure 8) for a dollar budget. AP/ORD proposes to use this system plan byf funding the highest priority tasks to a current budget ceiling of dollars. Therefore, additional funding, if it becomes available throughout the year, can be wisely used and coordinated with the overall AQUILINE program. A summary of the projected AQUILINE costs through fiscal year 1973 is shown in Figure 9. 21 Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 Operational Development The development of an operational AQUILINE system requires development of the aircraft system and payloads ds well as ground control equipment, operations support facilities and personnel. Although plans for fiscal year 1968 include study and parametric definition of the ground control equipment and operations support requirements, the plan is once again to develcp only those components which have commonality to all possible missions. All aspects of the problem would be researched, however, and a prototype of the basic ground control equipment would be developed. Keeping in mind that the costs of acquiring an operational capability are not funded, and that what is indi- cated is ORD's ability to respond technologically to a require- ment for an operational system, the projected operational cgpability for AQUILINE is shown in Figure 7. The development of the AQUILINE concept has required a hard look at the future of technical intelligence collection. As a result, it has been catalytic in the generation of a variety of new development projects. Although many of these new areas, i.e., small IR scanners, microminiaturization of ELINT receivers, recorders, communication and navigation equipment, etc., have ,application in the AQUILINE program, they also meet more general 22 Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 needs of the Agency. In any funding analysis it would be improper, therefore, to assess the AQUILINE program on a direct basis for the development costs in these areas. Figure 9 'apportions the total costs of the program in accordance with this point of view. The AQUILINE system is being designed to provide an un- usual degree of flexibility in both the types of mission and � the operational modes that it can accommodate. Therefore, without defining the type of intelligence to be collected, the target, and the operation scenario, it is difficult to project the costs of an operation. ORD has, however, projected the cost of a 100 mission/1 year � operation. The breakdown, shown in Figure 10, considers two alternate vehicles: a) an internal combustion engine propulsion system with a max. range of 2400 n.m.; and b) a radioisotope fueled engine propulsion system with 36,000 n.m. or 30-day flight duration capability. The mix and quantity of payloads were selected to support 100 missions against typical targets of present and future interest. Spares are included in the quantities shown, with � repair and maintenance included in O&M costs as shown. � Mission analysis studies have shown that 50 IC systems is a good estimate of the number of vehicles needed to conduct 23 Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 3f,PrK 100 single target missions. Twenty-five radioisotope fueled vehicles would be required for the same number of targets since it is assumed that a system with a thirty-day flight endurance capability could cover more than one target/mission. Although the tota1 estimated cost of one year of sustained operations for the IC and RI systems is $ and $ respectively, one can, using Figure 10, determine the approximate cost of other mixes of payloads/missions, and/or vehicles should one desire. (Costs, however, are based on the quantity shown.) 24 Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 EVELOPMENT P tlaose 461144 Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 003055187 r ,13.44,Vgfialg ' FIGURE 3 41611 ,1 Minion Video eiPrderi', Emplaceme S16.917-AW' IN ITechnical Manager Advanced AGENCY REQUIREMENTS Survivability Computer � Improved iutopilo vl*ve.mutrw4 round Control' fl-oppier-404' *Human Factors AnaIylict trwar Wind Tunnel Weight & Bud Hyperbolic IV Mappine;:1, omposile Sy9ems Phyla. Pi n,pc,,,mstier, 'gilt Signatur Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 003055187 Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 AQUILINE BUDGET WORK SHEET TITLE PROJECT NO: II Prototype System Development A-4001A-01 A -4001 -A -02 Advanced Systems Definition Studies A. B. Douglas AP/ORD Conceptual Sup- port/Other Contractors III Subsystem Development A. Advanced Aerodynamics 1. Coanda Studies A-4030-A-01 2. Advanced Vehicles 0-7020 3. Wind Tunnel Tests 0-7020 B. Advanced Propulsion 1. Souped-up 2-Cycle Eng. 2. 4-Cycle D&E A-4001-A-01 * 3. 4 Cycle * a. Reciprocating PC * b. Wankel (Rotary) PC 4. Free Piston 5. R.I.P.S. A-4110-A-01 6. Coanda Thrust Gen- erators C. Navigation Systems Dev. A-4060-A-01 1. Improved Autopilot 2. Inertial Systems a. Component Develop. b. Radio Navigation Update 3. Ra019_ayperbolic a.I -OMEGA b. OMEGA, Systems CONTRACTOR FY 1966 FY 1967 BUDGE1ED FY 1968 UNBUDGE TED FY 1968 Loran 1) LOP 2) Stored Phase Profile 4. Radio Trilateration A-4100-A-01 Douglas Douglas TBD IITRI TBD Marquardt DAC/Lyc Eng. Tech. OMC SRI DAC/GM Litton DAC Teledyne TBD DAC/RSI DAC/TBD DAC/TBD DAC/Cubic SE cPi lut!ed fr::1 2..:171e!z Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C0356116167] AQUILINE BUDGET WORK SHEET---2 TITLE Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 'SF BUDGETED PROJECT NO. CONTRACTOR FY 1966 FY 1967 FY 1968 UNBUDGE1ED FY 1968 * 5. Satellite Systems 6. TV Mapping/Correlation Optics 7. Altimeter a. Improved Barometric b. Radio c. Imagery Derived V/H DAC/TBD DAC D. Communications 1. Signal Processing (Spread Spectrum, etc.) TBD TBD 2. Data Storage/Handling A-4120-A-01 Philco 3. On-Board Electronics Development A-4001-A-01 4. Detectability and Douglas, ITT Security Studies DAC/TBD * 5. O.T.H. Communications RP/EPL 6. Satellite Commo ESL 7. Relays TBD E. Antennas 1. Integrated Antenna Study DAC/TBD 2. Antenna Development F. Survivability 1. Vehicle Signature Studies and Configura- tion Iteration A-4180-A-01 Douglas *a. Visual TBD *b. E/M TBD *c. Thermal 1BD *d. Acoustic PC Battelle 2. Mission Analysis DAC 3. Meteorology TBD G. Ground Control Station Dev. 1. Equipment Requirements Study/RD&E a. Control & Guidance 0-7025-A-01 b. Data Receiving and Processing *c. Man-Machine Interface BMSD .0rrC.v.:Need fin f ' .1,t?^I Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187.1 Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 AQUILINE BUDGET WORK SHEET-3 TITLE PROJECT NO, CONTRACTOR FY 1966 FY 1967 BUDGETED FY 1968 � UNBUDGE TED FY 1968 2. Launch & Recovery (Air, Land & Water) Requirements Study a. Prototype Dev. 1) Air 2) Land 3) Water A-4200-A-01 H. TV Eye * 1. Slow Scan Optics * 2. Solid State (Mosaic) AP * 3. Digiton Optics * 4. IR Scanner 0-1210-A-03 * 5. Real Time Vidicon Optics * 6. Image Motion Compen- sator, Image Motion Stabilization, and Image Intensifier Optics I. Payloads 1. Optics 2. ELINT 3. TV Eye A-4210-A-01 Optics Scope, T.I. 4. RP Mitras 5. SIGINT AP Telcom 6. Photo Payload Optics 'PRI) 7. 8. Payload Emplacement System AP TED * 9. Min. Video Recorder AP Ampex J. Operations Research Winston IV Range Test Support A-4160 Navy A. O&M on Facilities Douglas B. O&M on Instrumentation Douglas C. AQUILINE Test Bed Vehicles & Spares Douglas � oc.PerT Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187-, 1-6-ai 1. Excluded fr:7.1 c.IFfrime/z dtnr:77_!ln: -.,,Itl Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 AQUILINE BUDGET WORK SHEET---4 TITLE Budgeted UNBUDGETED PROJECT NO. CONTRACTOR FY 1966 FY 1967 FY 1968 FY 1968 D. Douglas Support of AQUILINE Related Projects 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. OMEGA WANDERING BOY ELINT TV Eye SIGINT Photo Payload Air Sampling Propulsion Payload Emplacement TOTALS! AQUILINE * AQUILINE RELATED Douglas t:= 1 Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 AQUILINE / Advance Veil: Douglas Battelle M. I. General Dynamics � AP/ORD IITRI Lockheed r7". .1 IR & TV Eye Teledyne T.V.(R.T.) T.V.(S.S.) Gnd. Mon. Fairchild Lt. Wt. I.R. Scan- ner Propulsion 1111011INAMSIMMEMBINIEW TEECO (R.I.) (Deferred) Hittman (R.I.) (Deferred) G.M. (Sterling) Pratt & Whitney (4,-) Douglas . MI,W7m1M1510======MM FY'67 Douglas Commo E.S.L. Philco Collins A.O.C. FY'68 Douglas Scope, Inc. Texas Instr. TSD Honeywell PC) LS' Op Photo MAJOR COMPONENTS Figure 5. Cubic(DASA) Litton-Stud7 T.I.(OPLE) LEGEND *Emplacement *Emplacement & Black Box Program Approved for Release:. 2020/02/11 C03055187 Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 AQUILINE BUDGET Project VEHICLE SYSTEMS I. O. C. Interface CONTROL & GUIDANCE Navigation Study Test Range Navigation Equip nent Inertial Navigation Systems Dev. Radio Nay. OMEGA) COMMUNICATIONS Sensor (Data Storage & Processing) Line of Sight Study GROUND SUPPORT Test Range Support (NOTS) Launcher PROPULSION A4110-A01 4 Cycle I. C. Radio-Isotope ADVANCED PLATFORMS A4C30-A01 ANTENNA SYSTEM A4180- A 01 IR AND TV EYE Real Time TV Slow'Scan TV Scan Cony. & Gnd. Mon. 07025-A01 Light Weight IR Scanner 01210-A03 TOTAL BUDGET TOTAL TO BE COMMITTED R/D N A4011-A01 A4000-A02 A4060- A01 A4100-A01 A4060 - At 2 A4130-A01 A4120-A01 A4070-A01 FY'67 Committed Budget Amount Date Nov. Nov. Oct. 10 Jan. 12 Jan. 16 Sept. Proposed Spending Amount Date Feb. As req'd. Jan. Jan. Jan. Feb. Jan. Jan. Jan. Contractor Douglas Aircraft Douglas Aircraft Litton Douglas /Cubic Texas Instruments Philco Corporation To be determined Douglas Aircraft Douglas/Pratt-Whitney Douglas/General Motors ITTRI/Douglas Aircraft Radiation Systems, Inc. ) Teledyne Teledyne Teledyne Figure 6. Approved for Release: 2020/02/1_1C03055187 Gr.NP 1 frn nat 0.:"! Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 003055187 AQUILINE OBJECTIVES I 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 RANGE 600 N.M. 1200 N.M. 2400 N.M. 25000 N.M. UNLIMITED PROPULSION , � 2- Cycle Internal Combustion 4-Cycle Internal Combustion . Advanced 4-N Internal Combustion Radioisotope TARGETS Barents Sea Chinese and Vietnam Coastal Area Cuba Lop Nor Shuang-Ch'Eng- tzu Sary Shagan 80% of Targets of Interest USSR China Land, Sea and Air Launch ANY TARGET MISSION CAPABILITY Reconnaissance Ferret Cep 4 N.M. Interim Commo Black Box Emplace- ment Cep 1/2 N.M. Secure Commo Black Box Emplacement Reconnaissance Cep 1/2 N.M. T.V. Terminal 100 Secure Commo Unlimited loiter ADAPTIVE INTELLIGENCE REQUIREMENT Low Altitude Imagery Elint Sigint Event Indicator Missile Telemetry Nuclear Staging and Yield Monitor Missile and Nuclear Ranges Intelligence Processing FIGURE 7 Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 003055187 Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 ^ .. 1. 1 I. - N PROGRAM 11.0, ... PROGRAM MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT NON-TECHNICAL STATUS REPORTING L1.2 FINANC IAL REPORTING 1.1.3 DATA I MANAGEMENT t �- - 1.2 TECHNICAL MANAGEMENT .1 TECHNICAL ' DIRECTION .._ .. 142 CUSTOMER LIAISON & TECHNICAL REVIEWS 1.2.3 -1$ SOURCE EVALUAT 10 VENDOR LIAISON 1.2.4 PROGRAM PROGRES1S REPORTING 1.2.5 1.3 MANUFACTURING CONTROL QUICK RESPONSE EVALUATIONS 1. 3. 1 1 DRAWING CONTROL 41 PRODUCTION i CONTROL - 2. 1 ADVANCED SYSTEM STuD I ES 1=1 SYSTEMS CONCEPTS DEFINITION _ ADVANCED SYSTEMS DEFINITION SYSTEM 1 REQUIREMENTS -- SYSTEM- � DEVELOPMENT PLAN , � 2.1.2 1DVANCED SYSTEM FS I 8 ILITY STUDIES 2. 12. 1 NAOIGAT I ON STUDIES 2.12.2 IOMMO. STUDIES 2423 Al RFRAMEI SURVIVABILITY STUDIES L. 2.4 AERO. STUDIES 41.2.5 PULS ION/POWER STUDIES 2.6 ROUND EQUIPMENT STUDIES < 2.2.1 2.2 I SUBSYSTEM ; DEVELOPMENT STUD I ESICONCEPT INTEGRATED ANTENNA STUDY PHASE I - 2.2.2 OMEGA NAVIGATION STUDY PHASE I� � Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 .. ....... � , M a 1987 AQU ILINE PROGRAM L__FY-68 3. Li 3.1 I `",,,...11111111111111h. 3.0 SUBSYSTEM DEVELOPMENT EVAW AT ION I OC IMPROVEMENTS PROJECTS AIRFRAME IMPROVEMBVS 3. L 2 G IMPROVEMENTS - - � � .1.3 IOC POWER SOURCE IMPROVEMENTS _ IOC - PROPULSION IMPROVEMENT lOG 'ELECTRICAL POWER ; IMPROVEMENT - .1.4 IOC ElICTEON ICS IMPROVEMENTS CONTROL SYSTEM IMPROVEMENTS 3.L 4.2 4.1 , NArGATION/COMMO. H SYSTEM , !IMPROVEMENTS v 3.2.1 3.2 ; SUB SYSTEM PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT/ MPROVEMENTS 3.2.2 I CAMEL I PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT (4 CYCLE) t�L-- F-MA� TR IX NO. (Same' as Statement of Work)/ OMEGA NAVIGATION� SYSTEM . DEVELOPMENT KEY INTERIM AUTOPILOT DEVELOPMENT AIRFRAME SURVIVABILITY DEVELOPMENT K- l COST OF TASK (Sum of sub tasks) 9 COST IS FIRM IF DARK CORNER- I COST IS ROM IF NOT DARKENED _ WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE AQUILINE PROGRAM FY-68 EXCLUDED FROM AUTOMATIC REGRADING; DOD DIR 5200.10 DOES NOT APPLY 'Pt 7E7 . DOCUMENT. CONTROL No. .."7,?e) _ ." NO.; /1 DOUGLAS AIRCRAFT 'COMPANY, : INC. .2.5 WIND TUNNEL TEST PROGRAM 3.2.6 COMMO. SYSTEM BREADBOARD DEVELOPMENT DIMENSIONAL TESTS BOUNDARY LAYER CONTROL TESTS 'AOC GLIDER I TESTS : Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 , ^ , t Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 RADAR ALTIMETER EVALUATION _ EXPERIMENT PLANNING/TECHNICAL DIRECTION EXPERIMENT TEST ARTICLES (GEE) ADDITIONAL TEST 4 EQUIPMENT -ADD ITIONAI TEST SUPPORT -DATA ;REDUCTION ANAL. YS I SIREPO RT ; IOC SIGNATURE FLIGHTIEST �3. 3. 2. 1 EXPERIMENT PLANN I NGITECHN ICAL DIRECTION EXPERIMENT TEST ARTICLES (GEE) 3.3. 2. 3 ADD IT I ONAL TEST EQUIPMENT 3.3. 2. 4 ADD IT 10 I;IAL ! TEST SUPPORT iDATA REDUCTION L--- [ ANALYS ISIREPORT --- - - - ---- - EFFLUENT SENSOR EXPERIMENT EXPERIMENT PLANNING/TECHNICAL DIRECTION EXPERIMENT � TEST ARTICLES (G FE) ADDITIONAL TEST EQUIPMENT ADDITIONAL TEST SUPPORT ..{DATA REDUCTION/ ANALYS I SI REPORT SIMULATED MISS ION SURVIVABILITY EVALUATION SITE A . EXPERIMENT PLANN I NG /TECHN I CAL DIRECTION. .3.4.2 EXPERIMENT TEST ARTICLES WED 3.3 � $405,000 SUBSYSTEM EVALUATION �TESTS/BOER I MENT CAMERA EXPERIMENT EXPERIMENT PLANN I NGITECHN ICAL DIRECTION _ 3. 3. 5.2 EXPERIMENT TEST ARTICLES WED 3. 3. 5. 3 ADDITIONAL- r TEST EQUIPMENT ADD ITIONAL TEST SUPPORT ADD IT I ONAL TEST EQUIPMENT " 3. 3. 5. 4 ADD IT IONAL TEST SUPPORT 3. 3:4. 5 4.1 . DATA REDUCTION/ ANALYS I SIREPORT . . . . _ . DATA REDUCTION/ ANALYS I SIREPORT DONNY II EXPERIMENT IR SCANNER EXPERIMENT I. 3. 6. 1 3. 3. 7. 1 EXPERIMENT PLANNING/TECHNICAL DIRECTION EXPERIMENT TEST ARTICLES (GEE) � 3. 3. 6.3 ADDITIONAL TEST EQUIPMENT 3. 3. 6. 4 -ADD IT IONAL TEST SUPPORT _ ,1.. DATA REDUCTION/ ' ANALYS IS/REPORT t � EXPERIMENT . 2.1P LANN I NG/TECHN ICAL DIRECTION -------- EXPERIMENT TEST ARTICLES (G FE) 3. 3. 7.3 ADDITIONAL TEST EQUIPMENT ADDITIONAL TEST SUPPORT 3. 3. 7.5 DATA REDUCTION/ ANALYSIS/REPORT _ � ,,, , Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187. SE , 3.3.8 3.3.9 WANDERING , BOY III 1 EXPERIMENT EXPERIMENT PLANNING/TECHNICAL DIRECTION I EXPERIMENT TEST ARTICLES (GFE) ADDITIONAL i TEST EQUIPMENT._ rAT)DITIONAL TEST ; SUPPORT DATA REDUCTICINI 4", ANALYSIS/REPORT : ELI NT RECEIVER & RECORDER1 EXPERIMENT EXPERIMENT PLANNING/TECHNICAL DIRECTION EXPERIMENT TEST ARTICLES (GFE) ' ADDITIONAL TEST EQUIPMENT _ ADDITIONAL TEST SUPPORT DATA REDUCTION/ 'r ANALYSIS/REPORT .r 4.0 LEXPERIMENT SUPPORT OPERATION NOTS 1 FIELD STATION OPERATION 4.1.1 FIELD STATION MANAGEMENT ADMINISTRATION 4.1.2 IOC SYSTEM FLIGHT SUPPORT 2.1 I BAS IC EXPERIMENT VECHICLES 4.2 EXPERIMENT BASIC EQUIPMENT SUPPORT EXCLUDED FROM AUTOMATIC REGRADING; DOD DIR 5200.10 DOES NOT APPLY 4.2.2 ADDITIONAL GSE KEY 4.2.3 EXPERIMENT VEHICLE REFURBISHMENT 4.2.4 14 IN-PLANT GSE MAINTENANCE COST OF TASK (sum of sub tasks) XXX 41 COST IS FIRM IF DARK CORNER COST IS ROM IF NOT DARKENED THENciteROM COST FOR 3.3 IS BASED ON AN AVERAGE COST OF $45. 000 PER ' EXPERIMENT NOT ALL 9 EXPERIMENTS WILL BE STARTED DURING FY.68. - Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 Sj2REI AQUILINE Summary of Projected Costs (X 1000) TITLE FY'66 *FY'67 *FY'68 FY169 FY'70 FY171 FY'72 FY773 BASIC SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT I Prototype Sys. Dev. II Advanced Sys. Def. III Subsystem Dev. IV Test Range Subtotal AQU3LINE SUPPORT DEVELOPMENT III Subsystem Dev. Payload Dev. Subtotal TOTAL PROGRAM BY F.Y. *Budgeted Figure 9. GM 1 lEce- Irizutuntic ticitcustir...yza Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 PROJECTED AQUILINE OPERATIONAL COSTS System Element I Payloads Lamera Elint (Repeater) Elint (On-board record) Nuclear / Missile BB/Empl. BB Interrogate 1 yr. O&M and Training II Vehicle TV Eye Radio Navigation Electronics (Rec. /Trans Autopilot and Contr. Airframe Altimeter Batteries Engine & Generator Fuel Inventory/Flt. Vehicles) Costs (00 Missions 50 25 Vehicles Costs6.00 Mission Internal , Radioisotopes No. Combustion No. 36,000 n.m. Req'd. @x$1000 600-2400n.m. Totals Req'd. @ x $1000 or 30-day Flt. Totals 1 yr. O&M and Training Figure 10. Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187 PROJECTED AQUILINE OPERATIONAL COSTS (contid) System Element III Ground Station (Comm. Cont., Data Storage & Readout) Mobile (Sea & Air) Land Based Satellite Piggyback Electronics Relays & Support Aircraft 1 yr. O&M and Training Costs( 50 Vehicles) 100 Missions) Internal No. Combustion Req'd.. @x$1000 600-2400n.m. Totals Costs 25 Vehicles (100 Mission Radioisotopes No. 36,000 n.m. Req'd. @x$1000 or 30-day Flt. Totals IV Data Proc. & Mission Plan. Film Video Analysis Waveform GRAND TOTALS Approved for Release: 2020/02/11 C03055187