Document Type: 
Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
Release Decision: 
Original Classification: 
Document Page Count: 
Document Creation Date: 
April 3, 2019
Document Release Date: 
April 12, 2019
Sequence Number: 
Case Number: 
- itgiVPX,AANe4.-tWIVe" .AtiVka10, 44140graFT',Ne kr pproved for Release: 2018/09/17 C03258180 IA HAS NO OBJECTION TO DECLASSIFICATION AND/OR ELEASE OF THIS DOCUMENT DATE: 09-14-2018-4' UW� � 5 pproved for Release: 2018/09/17 C03258180 Approved for Release: 2018/09/17 C03258180 .1101101.111110�VIMMORIONIOMMIPPI0010 On the evening of Sept. 10, just prior to an overflow rally at the Felt Forum in New York on behalf of the restoration of human rights in Chile, I chatted with a dear friend and fellow humanist, Orlando Letelier, former Chilean ambassador to the United States and an opponent of the junta. He complained how on that very day the Chilean junta had withdrawn his Chilean citizenship. And, in response, I told him how such a deprivation, coming from the junta, should be considered as a great tribute to him. He simply smiled and nodded his head. We then chatted with mutual friends and I looked forward to accepting his invitation to visit him soon in Washington. Later that evening, at the close of his speech to the rally, Letelier emo- tionally but with the utmost sincerity declared: "Today is a dramatic day in my life in which action of the fascist generals against me makes me feel more Chilean than ever. . "I was born a Chilean, I am a Chilean and I will die a Chilean. They, the fascists, were born traitors, live as traitors and will be remembered forever as fascist traitors." How logical then�if monsters can claim to use logic�for the junta to take the next step in eliminating what they considered dangerous opposition to their cruel and inhuman regime. Thus on Sept. 21, the Chilean junta, acting through their secret ' police�DINA�murdered Orlando Letelier�just as they murdered Gen. Carlos Prats in Argentina and many others in Italy and elsewhere who were "graciously" allowed to leave Chile after months of torture and imprisonment. With the cynicism typical of their rule, they promptly denied any involvement in Letelier's murder. Moreover, with crocodile tears they even "lamented" the assassination of a man for whom they so recently *issued a decree depriving him of his Chilean citizenship. Obviously, in their diabolic reasoning they feel they can more easily escape indictment for the deaths and disappearance of the former democratically elected leaders and members of the Popular Unity party if these individuals are done away with outside Chile instead of by the "on the spot" murders and "disappearances" which have been going on in that tragic country since Sept. 11,1973. � If there is any forthrightness and "Founding Father" greatness in either of our present presidential candidates, I believe that now is the time for their platforms to include specific proposals for doing away with this monstrous terror that is spreading throughout all of Latin America. We now all know it was aided and abetted by deliberate acts of the Nixon administration and the CIA�an attitude that is still being supported covertly and overtly by the Ford administration, and many in the business world and the banking community. This growing cancer in the western hemisphere will surely destroy not only our Latin American brothers and sisters, but also our America�just as our policy in Vietnam came close to doing. Now is the time�now before our November election�for our next President to obtain his mandate from the American people to correct the evil that we have wrought; to state his intent to go before the United Nations and there openly acknowledge, with all the honesty that should characterize America, our government's part in stealing away the Chilean government from the Chilean people and our anxiety to make amends and enable restitution. Our next President should also commit the United States to support- ing all possible U.N. sanctions, includ- ing the ouster of the present Chilean regime from that body, to bring about the regime's downfall; he should insist that this regime be succeeded by a caretaker body in the hands of the democratically elected Popular Unity party and that early elections be held under U.N. supervision and the constitutional laws that prevailed prior to the 1973 putsch, and he should pledge our willingness to help a democratic Chile recover from its eresent state of economic chaos. By taking such a stand, this country --mid once again demonstrate to the �/odd community of nations that America is still capable of exercising the high ideals and purposes of demo- cracy upon which our nation was founded. In the hearts of his many admirers in this country and Chile, Orlando Letelier has not died. In history, Letelier, his former president, Salvador Allende Gossens, and the many Chilean heroes who worked and died with them to bring political and economic freedom to the Chilean people will live on forever. The mem- bers of the junta and those who assisted in establishing that junta must surely, soon we hope, share the fate of Hitler, Mussolini, and all their ilk. A.J. Rosenstein New Marlborough, MA About four years ago I worked with the Committee of Concerned Asian Scholars to write a pamphlet called The Opium Trail. In it, we accused the CIA of purposefully aiding the opium heroin trade in order to �build the economic dependence of allied mercenary forces and tribal groupings in Laos. I talked personally with one ex-green Beret who said he delivered CIA gold to village chiefs and loaded opium on Air America planes and helicopters. He also said he later saw the same opium (village markings) on the Saigon market. I believe Alan Ginsberg has names of other G.I.s who had similar experiences. Around the time I was working on the pamphlet, I thought of starting an organization to research and expose the CIA. I am very happy to find you proceeding with much effectiveness. My best wishes. Thank you for your efforts! C. Knight Cambridge, MA � Your Spring 1976 issue is just great; congratulations on your good work. One little addendum to the infor- mation on Larry McDonald: I was traveling from Miami to New York in early May and noticed an item in either a Georgia (Athens) or Tennessee (also Athens) paper that he remarried, and his new wife, whose name I forget, from Glendale, California, is a long- Approved for Release: 2018/09/17 C03258180, "Should the practice of Spydom become universal farewell to all domestic confidence and happiness." London Times Christmas 1859 Publisher � � Fifth Estate Publishing Company Senior Editors Julie Brooks Winslow Peck Ellen Ray Approved for Release: 2018/09/17 C03258180 The Magazine For People Who Need To Know � COMMENT TRENDS �. Feedback on Reeses- / Border Harassment Continues / IRS Spies on Own Workers / HUD Refuses to Give Up Workers List / Bugging Aliens / Green Berets Train Local Cops / U.S. Narcs Accused of Assassination Program / Are You an Interpol Victim? / Gangs Linked to Police / Military Retreat I Framed . Tokyo Rose? / Sensory Deprivation Report / Torture Survey / Levi Threatens U.S. � � .:ADEX;. The FBI's Hit List. Exclusive expose of FBI: "Adminis- trative Index.' DEATH ON EMBASSY ROW CIA Covers Up Murder. Web. of Chilean Gestapo By Winslow Peck Chile's Secret Police / 'Fascist Cancer in Chile / CIA Henchmen 16 TIP: TERRORIST INFORMATION PROJECT Police Arrest Nazi Bomber 1 Klan Organizes Prison Guards / Chicago Nazis Compete With. Klan / Vietnamese Reactionaries Organize 18 , RENDEVOUS IN GENEVA Philip Agee exposes the woman who bugged Associate Editors Philip Agee Robert Friedman Contributing Editors Sidney Lens Edgar Lockwood ts D. Gareth Porter Anthony Russo William Turner Philip Wheaton Correspondents In Bangkok, Berlin, Copenhagen, , � Frankfurt, Havana, Hong Kong, London, Luanda, Madrid, Mexico City, Paris, Rome, San Juan P.R., Stockholm, Sydney, Toronto, and the U.S. CounterSpy Magazine, Vol- ume 3, Number 2, December 1976, published by Fifth Estate Publishing Company, a District. of Columbia not-for- profit corporation, P.O. Box 647, Ben- Franklin Station, Washington, DC 20044, tele- phone (202) 466-3424. All rights reserved; copyright Cc) 1976, by Fifth Estate Pub- lishing Company. Cover graphic by Johanna Vogelsang of Art for People. Typography by Art for People, and Myrna Zimmerman. 22 . . BOOKS: MOMENT OF URGENCY Edgar Lockwood examines the Kissinger Study of Southern Africa 24 HIT 'N RUN West German Revolutionary Ulrike Meinhof Found Raped, /Hanged in Cell � . � '- 26 EARTHQUAKE WARFARE A Preliminary Report on the Penta- gon's Unthinkable Plans By Robert Friedman 27 . .CIA AROUND THE WORLD 28 Plan Mercurio; Round 'Up For Political Exiles By Philip Wheaton '� 34 Revelations from CIA's Former Korea Chief By Steve McGuire "..3.6 CIA and Local Gunmen Plan Jamaican Coup By Ellen Ray, � 49 Bloody Wednesday in Bangkok By D. Gareth Porter 42 CONFIDENTIAL. U.N. MEMO Discloses U.S. Covert Actions- - Against Namibian Independence and U.N. Commissioner for Namibia 53 TECHNOFASCISM .; Technology News Briefs 54 SPECIAL SUPPLEMENT Indochina War Crimes! CBS Aids Pentagon Cover Up! Military � Documents Verify War Crimes Charges of Col. Anthony Herbert By John Kelley and Winslow Peck Approved for Release: 2018/09/17 C03258180 Approved for Release: 2018/09/17 C03258180 COMMENT Them' . . . Throughout the last five administrations, the State De- partment and the Central Intelligence Agency have been at war. with Cuba. It has not been the war of Vietnam, nor of Angola or,the Middle East. It has been a secret War, and for :the past eight years; one of Ilenry Kissinger's favorite ,battlegames. Whether the new administration will have the .sense or the courage or the strength to end this war remains ,-,to be seen. During the recent presidential campaign, the .reality, was well hidden, and only glimpses of that secret swar came into focus from time to time. But with the assassination of Orlando Letelier in Wash- ington, and the bombing in the Caribbean of a Cubana Airlines plane, the war escalated, and the tangled, convoluted �web was exposed, interweaving the U.S. intelligence appara- Aus,- the right-wing Cuban expatriots--- the gusanos, the fChilean Junta, and the transnational forces of destabiliza- -.tion. Caught in the web are the banished Chilean exiles, :the brave Cuban people, and progressive forces everywhere. People in power, have never given up their power without -a fight. As the age of capitalism gives way to the age of socialism, the struggle heightens at points of transition. And social progress is not smooth; while there are victories in Vietnam and Angola, there are tragedies in Chile and Thai- land-. The United States is always involved. The sphere of . North American counterrevolution is world-wide. As we demonstrate in this issue of CounterSpy, there is �a special emphasis now on Latin America and Africa. In the three years since the CIA-engineered coup in Chile, the southern cone of our hemisphere has become an inter- --national testing ground for mill taryputschestreeding fascism: The multi-national corporations, the ndlitary dictatorships, and the fascist parties are all at work with U.S. techno- logical help. Our articles on Chile and Argentina show 'something of the scope of these activities. ' The other major focus of current U.S. involvement, southern Africa, is represented by the revealing description of events surrounding the status of Namibia, as documented in-the confidential U.N. memorandum reprinted here, and in a critique of an early, secret Kissinger study of southern Africa, still being implemented. " Providing a link between the two fronts is Jamaica, a Caribbean land with a deep African heritage, which is the current target of a major destabilization effort, comparable to Chile and much of Latin America. Woven through all these -events is a common thread: the U.S, government's psychopathic fear of Cuba, as evidenced by the preposterous assertion that Fidel Castro may have been responsible for the assassination of John F. Kennedy. The struggle of course is global. This issue of CounterSpy also provides some exclusive details of U.S. war crimes in -Vietnam, exposed by Anthony Herbert, as well as an analy- sis of the repressive and reactionary developments in Germany and Thailand. Even though we limit our coverage to the incredible transgressions of the U.S. intelligence 'community and those they have trained, there is no lack of material. 2 CounterSpy anti Us Readers of CounterSpy will notice some changes, beyond the lateness of this issue. We have decided to attempt an expansion; we want to reach more people. We have incorporated, increased production, and modified our re- sources to present tighter, more comprehensive coverage Our staff has changed somewhat, with some former members of the old Organizing Committee for a Fifth Estate going on to other things. Now we will draw on the vast skills and knowledge of our contributing editors and advisors, as we have done in this issue. Future issues will carry more of their own analyses of national security issues, as well as those written by independent journalists. We hope our readers" will approve and welcome the new CounterSpy. CounterSpy Magazine Advisory Board* Sylvia Crane National Committee Against Repressive Legislation David Dellinger Institute for New Communications Frank Donner ACLU Political Surveillance Project Robert Katz Assassination Information Bureau William M. Kunstler Attorney and former OSS officer Dr. Ralph Lewis Criminal Justice Research Director, Michigan -State University COL (Ret.) L. Fletcher Prouty Former Military Liaison to CIA Kirkpatrick Sale Author William H. Schaap Editor, Military Law Reporter Stanley Scheinbaum American Civil Liberties Union Daniel Stern . Professor of Sociology, Northeastern University 'Organizations listed for identification only. CounterSpy Magazine is published bi-monthly by Fifth Estate Publishing Company. Please address all correspon- dence to P.O. Box 647, Ben Franklin Station, Washington, D.C. 20044. When appropriate, please mark envelopes Atten- tion: Subscription Department, Advertising Department, or Editorial Department, as the case may be. Subscriptions: S10.00/year, individuals; S20.00/year, institu- tions; S18.00/year, overseas surface; S25.00/year, overseas air- mail. Back issues of Vol. 2, No. 4 and Vol. 3, No. I, are availa- ble at $2.00 each. Prior issues are available from Xerox Uni- versity Micofilms, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106, or call toll free (800) 521-0600. CounterSpy welcomes the submission of manuscripts, but cannot be responsible for returning same. Signed articles do not necessarily represent the views of staff, associates or ad- � visors, other than the author. Prior written permission to reprint articles from CounterSpy, although liberally granted, is required, to protect us from unauthorized, and particularly profit-making, use of our copyrighted material. Approved for Release: 2018/09/17 C03258180 Approved for Release: 2018/09/17 C03258180 Levi Threatens U.S. Human Events, a conservative na- tional weekly, has concluded that U.S. Attorney General Edward Levi is a threat to our internal security. In the Septem- ber 25 issue it accused him of weakening our republic by ordering the FBI to stop illegal burglaries, stop infiltration of political parties, and stop COINTEL- PRO-type sabotage, particularly against the Socialist Workers Party. The Human Events article encouraged the Attorney General to allow the FBI to harass the SWP. is to go into trouble spots as a small team of specialists. The CIA makes initial � contact with local insurgents, and Spe- cial Forces enter to supply and train them. Its second function is to conduct direct operations against the enemy: � raids, ambushes, intelligence gathering operations, etc. - Presently, the Special Forces doctrine is designed for rural areas only. Recent urban guerrilla activity leaves them totally disabjed, according to a Special Forces Agent who wrote a story. for Harpers Weekly. Torture Survey - Amnesty International, an organiza- tion devoted to the release of political prisoners, reports in its latest survey that suppression of human rights is continu- ing on a disturbing scale in 107 nations. Persecution of dissident individuals, in- cluding the use of torture that almost defies belief, is not limited to a � few countries; it's widespread. Amnesty In- ternational, which sent investigators into 31 countries last year, reports that torture experts exchange knowledge and that torture equipment is exported from one country to another. Green Berets Train Local Cops � 'Although it is illegal for the military to aid civilian law enforcement agencies, ' , members of the Special Forces Reserve Units have been holding informal meet- ings with local law enforcement officials over the summer. ' The U.S. military's Special Forces Reserve Units held illegal training ses- sions for local police in counter insur- gency strategies. The sessions are com- pletely unofficial and not in any Special Forces capacity. They met with local police officials and also personnel from certain county sheriffs' offices. They created realistic scenarios, in which they would act. One went like this: a lame- duck president is in power. He should resign but can't give up his power. Military leaders decide they need a� strongman government. They demand the. federal government step in and declare martial law, a police state pronouncement. - Special Forces has two functions. One ugging Mien In March 1976, President Ford, Attor- ney General Levi and Senator Kennedy announced a bipartisan bill to govern electronic surveillance for national secur- � its,- purposes. On its surface, the For- eign Intelligence Surveillance Act (S. 3197) appears to be a constructive response to the abuses and atrocious practices of U.S. Intelligence agencies. It ,isnot- The bill establishes a procedure for obtaining warrants for electronic sur- 'veillance of an "agent oF a foreign power" in the name of collecting "for- eign intelligence information." An agent of a foriegn power is 'defined as ayone "who is not a permanent resident alien or citizen of the U.S. and who is an . . . employee of a foreign power." But q "foreign power" includes not only gov- ernments (friendly or otherwise) and military forces but also factions, parties, or enterprises controlled by such entities. Foreign intelligence information includes any information with respect to foreign � powers which is deemed essential to U.S. national security or to the conduct , of U.S. foreign affairs: Christopher Pyle, in his analysis of S. 3197 in The Nation, � states: "The scope of this definition is truly breathtaking. Fourth Amendment protection against unreasonable national security wiretapping would be denied not only to suspected spies (whose agencies are omitted from the list) but to doctors 'from Sweden, prOfessors from France, railroad engineers from England, poli. ticians from Canada, and UNICEF workers from Australia. Indeed, given the millions of people that socialism has put on foreign government payrolls, about the only foreign visitors clearly exempted under the bill are apolitical foreign businessmen, like the executives of multinational corporations whose dealings in strategic commodities have caused consternation in our intelligence agencies." Gangs Linked to Police A police scandal is brewing in Detroit, where sources report that officers in the gang intelligence unit of the Detroit Police Department and members of the Detroit Police Officers Association (DPOA) have made plans to feed guns, money and drugs to the Errol Flynns and rival gangs. Although DPOA and Dep- uty City Mayor William Bechham have termed such reports "ridiculous and ir- responsible," at least one aide to Mayor Coleman Young is reported to be inves- tigating the rumors. Possible motives for the crime-intensifying actions include �the need to force rehiring of laid-off officers and the desire to ernbarass or destroy the mayor and strengthen the DPOA. At least one gang member, Keith Harvey (known as a publicity-seeker and not entirely credible), says that members of the Detroit Police gang intelligence unit gave a list of black police officers, names and addresses to gang members. The list was recently found in the posses- sion of a gang, member. The list, Harvey contends, was given to the gang by Abdul Mohammed, who was found murdered in Highland Park last winter. Harvey contends that Mohammed was a police provocateur. ' A recent article in the Los Angeles Times also charged that gang violence in Detroit was precipitated by Mayor Young's 'enemies to embarrass his administration. Feed Back on Reeses John and Louise Rees were sub- poened by the Socialist Workers Party as part of its suit against the govern- ment for harassment. The FBI admit- ted to its lawyers that 66 FBI agents are inside the campaign committee of SWP Presidential Candidate Peter Camejo, despite the ruling by the court to cease spying. The SWP suspects that the Rees apparatus may have worked for the government to spy on the party. The Reeses have also been subpoened by the Institutue for Policy Studies in a similar suit. Approved for Release: 2018/09/17 C03258180 CounterSpy 3 � Approved for Release: 2018/09/17 C03258180 (right) A sample of John Rees' hand- writing in a letter sent as recently as , June 19 76 to a radical left organization. John Rees has been active infiltrating a number of leftist organizations in Bal- timore claiming he, worked for a dog kennel or worked as a freelance writer. He also bragged about his many con- tacts in the Left movement. When the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee .- published its analysis of the SWP� - .largely written by Louise Rees .who works for Rep. Larry McDonald�John Rees rushed a copy of the document .:over to the local officer of a. SWP splinter group, the Baltimore Marxist Group, to gauge their reactions. An of- Baltimore police press sticker is h .John Rees's automobile license plate. His I.D. says he works for '2!Capital Reports." But -"Capital .Reports, Inc.," which answers his 'telephone as "Washington Credit Let- - :ter," denies -Rees worked there. The. National �Lawyers. Guild � in Washington, D.C. has formed the- Guild Investigative Group to examine the works of the Reeses -and Larry. McDonald. , , (Wow) JOHN and LOUISE RFS as they appeared in 1972. In August, the Committee to Combat CommunistAggression � held a- banquet in Virginia in honor of the Reeses and Rep. Larry McDonald (D -Ga.). The .three spies received awards for their `great efforts at infiltrating radicals until their exposure recently in CounterSpy magazine.- Unknown to the 45 gues' - 'attending the dinner, there Were also three counterspies enjoying dinner and McDonald's wicked'remarks about this rna,;,! Approved for Release: 2018/09/17 C03258180 IRS Spies On Own Workers Three IRS employees, Paul Stuchlak, Frank D. Fuoco and Albert J. Schibani, charged that the IRS engaged in whole- sale violation of the 1974 Privacy Act by maintaining illegal files on its workers. They filed the suit in Washington, D.C., seeking damages and other relief not only for the three plaintiffs, but for the "thousands" of other IRS employees allegedly affected. The files, which are not the files the IRS admitted and disclosed they had last December 1975, are kept in the supervisors' offices. The plaintiffs' names are on the outside of the notebook or binder and each folder contains handWritten notes on the em- ployees, evaluation forms, latters, mem- oranda and other personal information on the employees. They're called "docu- mentation folders" and are not kept with the Official Personnel Folder. HUD Refuses to Give Up Workers Lists This may be the first case where the Privacy Act conflicted with the Freedom of Information Act�and the latter pre- vailed. The Housing and Urban Develop- ment Dept. maintains promotion lists on which employees are ranked numerical- ly. The lists are major factors�though not the only ones�in promotion deci- sions. When HUD refused to grant a local of the American Federation of Government Employees access � to the lists, the union filed a grievance which eventually went to arbitration. The arbi- trator declared the union is entitled to any and 'all information available to individual employees. He ordered HUD to make the promotion lists available � within fifteen days. He further ordered that management must advise the union of the promotion ranking of any em- ployee who asks the union to seek such information for him. He also said that when rankings are questioned, manage- ment must make the lists available in full to both the employees and the union. U.S. Nares Accused of Assassination Program The Solidary Committee with the Argentine People (SCAP) and the Man- chester Guardian have releaSed separate reports about an assassination program similar to the CIA's Phoenix Program in Vietnam, but operating throughout Latin America. (See story) It may have been created by.the CIA and the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). SCAP charges that the DEA in Argen- tina can be directly linked with the paramilitary death squad, AAA (Argen- tine Anti-Communist Alliance), which has been responsible for as many as 5,000 murders since August 1972. In September, 55 young men and women, opponents of the Argentine military dic- tatorship, were murdered on the out- skirts of Buenos Aires in one 24-hour period. The most grim mass killing involved 30 victims; they were found near Fatima on August 29, their bullet- riddled bodies blown apart by explo- sives. This method is now common in AAA killings. The man responsible for organizing the AAA was former Argentine Social Welfare Minister Jose Lopez Riga. While exiled in Spain, Riga was recriiited by Robert Hill, then U.S. Ambassador to Spain and a suspected CIA agent. When Hill was assigned as Ambassador to Argentina in 1973, Lopez Riga became the Welfare Minister. Hill and Riga arranged for the DEA to enter Argentina in order to establish a program to "wipe out drug traffic in Argentina." Riga claimed, while on television with Hill when they signed the U.S. Argentina Anti-drug Treaty, that the "anti-drug campaign will automatically be an anti- guerrilla campaign as well." The DEA has over 400 agents operating through- out Latin America. Sensory Deprivation Report The August 5, 1976 issue of New Scientists has a remarkable article titled "Taking the Hood off British Torture" documenting the clinical results of Brit- ish "sensory deprivation' techniques on prisoners in northern Ireland. The arti- cle, using evidence from a report by the European Human Rights Commission, reveals that this modern form of torture, used by the British at their Combined Services Intelligence Centre, has long- range medical and psychiatric effects including paranoid delusions and visual and auditory hallucinations which can continue long after initial treatments. In 1971, the British placed hoods over fourteen prisoners, forced them to stand against a wall in a frisk position, supported only by their fingertips, and dressed in loose-fitting boiler suits for periods up to sixteen straight hours. If they fell, they were forced back to the position. If they, fell again, they were subjected to a continuous loud "white" noise of high intensity and deprived of " Approved for Release: 2018/09/17 C sleep, food and water. Although these techniques do not leave any physical scars, the report concluded these methods are indeed torture. Border Harassment Continues The U.S. Supreme Court has autho- rized the Border Patrol to reestablish highway checkpoints along the Mexican border. In its July 6 decision, the court reversed a 1975 order by the circuit court of appeals in San Francisco that shut down checkpoints because they violated the Fourth Amendment ban on unreasonable search and seizure. The new decision also scraps the court's earlier rulings requiring "reasonable cause" for stopping and searching cars. The court described the checkpoints as . "minimal" intrusion on constitutional rights, justified by the number of undoc- umented workers the system appre- hends. The checkpoints 'may be "minimal" � for whites but not for Mexican-Ameri- cans. There have been many incidents of racist abuses by -the Border Patrol, , including verbal insults, physical vio- lence, women molesting, and good old- fashioned American shakedowns. Justi- ces Thurgood Marshall and William Brennan, dissenting from the ruling, declared the searches "a dragnet-like procedure offensive to the sensibilities of free citizens." The court noted that 17,0.00 "illegal aliens" were caught at a single checkpoint last year. Brennan added in his remarks, "That law in this country should tolerate use of one's ancestry as probative of possible criminal conduct is repugnant" Framed Tokyo Rose? The Workers News Service of Ewa Beach, Hawaii, recently sent Counterspy an interview from the Honolulu Adviser which indicates the FBI may have framed Iva Toguri d'Aquino, the Jap- anese-American woman convicted, of treason in the 1949 "Tokyo Rose- trial concerning pro-Japanese radio broad- casts during World War II. The inter- view was with Norman Reyes, a Flonoinlu public relations man, who, white a POW,' helped write some of the broad- casts by d'Aquino. Reyes was a defense witness at the trial of two other POWs who worked at Radio Tokyo. They all agreed d'Aquino was innocent and that they had conspired to .sabotage Japanese 03258180 CounterSpy 5 - Approved for Release: 2018/09/17 C03258180 propaganda efforts. Out the judge threw out Reyes' testi- mony because it directly contradicted a statement, prepared by the FBI and signed by Reyes. in which he stated there were no efforts to sabotage Japanese propaganda and that he did not trust d'Aquino. On the stand, he said he would trust her with his life. Reyes now claims the FBI statement was a total lie, composed by the Bureau, which he was forced to sign. Reyes and many others are urging President Ford to pardon Iva Toguri d'Aquino. Military Retreat During the August 10, 1976 hearings before the Senate Armed Services Com- mittee on the Nomination ot Daniel Orrin Graham to be promoted to Lieu- tenant General on the Retired List of the Army, Senator Stuart Symington (D-Mo.) was able to force Gen. Graham to,admit that the CIA was -the brightest and most flexible piece of the Federal Bureaucracy that I have ever run into.- It's startling when one remembers Graham led the Pentagon effort to take over many intelligence activities, especi- ally strategic estimates troni the CIA. Under questioning from the Senator though, Graham admitted that the De- fense Intelligence Agency (DIA) was not very accurate at threat estimates. Like most military intelligence agencies, the DIA exists to enforce the command statrs operational plans and most often delivers "intelligence to please." Most notorious were the military intelligence estimates of the Indochina War, which only reinforced Pentagon contentions that the U.S. was winning, Are You an Interpol Victim? The National Commission on Law En- forcement and Social Justice has been conducting an investigation into INTERPOL, the quasi/private Inter- national Police Organization working out of the U.S. Treasury Department. If INTERPOL officials or associates have abused or harassed you overseas by possible false [INTERPOL tiles, we want you to contact the Commission. It' you know or suspect INTERPOL harass- ment, please contact: The National Commission or Law Enforcement and Social Justice, 044 Market St., Rrn. 607. San Francisco, CA 94102 or call 415) , 397-2678. rounterS2y YOU'RE UNDEA SURVEILLANCE !! A HOST OF PEOPLE, AGENCIES, AND COMPUTERS ARE BUSY SPYING ON YOU AND YOUR BUSINESS EVERY DAY, OFTEN ILLEGALLY... HOW TO STOP IT OR DO IT BACK! THE BIG BROTHER GAME BUGGING WIRETAPPING TAILING OPTICAL AND ELECTRONIC SURVEILLANCE SURREPTITIOUS ENTRY DETECTIVE TECHNIQUES WEAPONS COUNTERMEASURES SCOTT FRENCH "A Encyclopedia on surveillance . . everything you've. always wanted to know alnut spying." � Playboy Magazine. To Order Wri:e: Rig Brother Game, Box 647, Ben Franklin Station, Washington, D.C. 20044. Send Money Order or Check for 37.15 Li Coon tf2rSpy . �1�11����..����....M. Approved for Release: 2018/09/17 C03258180 Approved for Release: 2018/09/17 C032581,80 In 1971, Attorney General John Mitchell, in an attempt to stave off further criticism of the FBI's practice of keeping huge lists of dissidents�alleged subversives�for Who knows what nefarious reasons, announced that all of the lists had - .been abolished, and were replaced by one short "Administrative Index," or "ADEX," of less than 10,000 names. Since that list was also unrelated to proven, or even suspected criminal activity, in 1974 Acting FBI Director L. Patrick Gray announced that the ADEX had been abolished. However, in 1976, a politically active attorney from New York, requesting his FBI file under the Freedom of-Information Act, discovered, buried in his dossier, a copy of his ADEX entry Memoran- dum and Report. ADEX, it appears, was not abolished, simply moved around. No explanation of the four categories was given. The New York office recommended that the lawyer be put in the lowest category, IV, "because of subject's apparent � influence with New Left leaders." However, the home office stated: "In addition to the foregoing, a review of subject's activities clearly depicts him as a revolutionary attorney and sympathizer who, during a time of national emergency, would be likely to commit acts inimical to the national defense. In view of the above, subject is being included in Category III of ADEX" What fate is in store, we wonder, for people put in Category 1? The names and addresses have been changed; otherwise the document below is an exact replica of an ADEX Memorandum: 111-12'.! ilt,r, �,..0-........a. .� .....' ''" ......., ......,..- -. , UNITED STATES C. ' ERNNIENT illemorarldun? , DM f 4. F fil (B (I DATE: GLAY .1 5- 1972 � sAc. NEW YORK illiECT z amUel. Abraham Strauss 'aka -- e � NY summary'reoort dated R.,�,,,,,,,d; !g:.u.,i.,:i c3rd c:j ADES. Card changed (speCify thange only) Ei Sal eel removed (...ecr ince snmosusy eifmiche" Same � Samuel Abraham Strauss. Abases Samuel A. Strauss - ,-.Sam Struuss ' Abe Straus a WS:alive bor. 0 - LT3 Al,,., _ Tab C-4..C....elp,r+. E.,-, Cat!gtarIT K Care;ory Is ..viia,urtesserCt*'" El MCC MI COMMUNIST 0 NL ED PLP C] P BSI r.7.3 &4C c3 sir? fj ENT El JFG 0 501 � 0 PPA CM SOB , 0 Sri., 0 WI. � 1, 0 BPS, M 1.1010 Miscellaneous (Specify! If Date of Bird, 6/20/39 Place of Moll 12..ace 1 Brooklyn, New York. , Id Sex . Ggml.,.... 0 Female t �----1 Business Address. Name of Emploaing Concern and Address, NilliZV 01 EffiP10) men.. and Union Alfiliation, irony, attorney . .-.35 Becker, Becker and Strauss. 504 Lexington Avenue ,New York, New York Residence Address Jana Street - New York, New York Key jUiltry Laata ' Geographical Reference Bundaer �I Note the importance given to "Union Affiliation." Some of the political groups are obvious: BPP�Black Panther Party; PLP�Progressive Labor Party; SDS�Students for a Democratic Society; SNC�Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee; SW?--- Socialist Workers Party; WWP�Workers World Party. For some, we can make educated guesses: MIN� Minutemen; NOI�Nation of Islam; PRN�Puerto Rican Nationalists. Some are less clear: NL may mean National Lawyers Guild; AWC may be American White Citizens Council; SPL could mean Spartacist League; no one at CounterSpy can guess what JFG stands for. ADEX: ,The indox of moo Americans Note that fluctations in Category are obviously contemplated. Note the date of "Rev." If the ADEX was only established in 1971, what was being revised? - Approved for Release: 2018/09/17 C03258180 CounterSpy 7 Approved for Release: 2018/09/17 C03258180 ID T � .-IF.F.MBASS) � CIA - CIA Covers Up Murder Web of Chilean Gestapc � With False Stories and Terrorist Operations Leaders Hi the .1z1nra from IL!! ir filrct. 'comma,.ider\ General G.istal..o [vizi' (;uzman, Junta President Pinocilid Admiral .1-)w Torihio Merino Castrr, and General Cesar Mendoza L,heran, commander of the. cardhincrr)s (armed 8 CountrSily Approved for Release: 2018/09/17 C03258180 By Winslow Peck Approved for Release: 2018/09/17 C03258180 By the time CIA Directo'r George Bushmet with Justice Department officials to, as the Washington Post put it, "Aid: the Federal investigation of the bombing death of former Chilean Ambassador Orlando. Letelier", the cover-up was in full gear. Bush knew he couldn't keep all the strands of the CIA's convoluted web of intrigue from being torn, but the official probe could be just a "narrow" investigation focused only on those who committed the murder. With persuasion and limited cooperation on his part, the Justice Department would probably 'not examine, all the CIA's "sources and methods'.. The -odds were !favorable for the narrow in- vestigation. , , ' � ,4 Confused local Police, FBI investigators, and boinb ex- perts examined the bits and pieces of twisted automobile glass and metal. Whatever remained of the bomb did nof explain its compositim or the method .of detonation, The assassins were long gone before police could e'ven recon- struct the event. Interrogation, of bystanders and witnesies were equally fruitless; conflicting stories'are commOn after crimes of hightension and quick execution. Ordinary police methods do not work. This was a political assassination not a common murder. _ The professional assassin can kill anyone, at any time at any place and "does. not hinge success on the method of murder but on ,protective invisibility. The objective is not the killing, but the not The assassin con- centrates on plausible denial, alibi,, confusion, false leads, escape and finally, the frame-up.. This is ',why political assassinations such as those of the Kennedys and Martin Luther King have produced more tangled and speculative theory than evidentiary fact, which is likely to be the fate of this assassination. - Reporters in. the Washington communitY heard Letelier may have died of a bomb of his own making, or perhaps that of a jealous lover or political rival in .his own family'. The whispers from Letelier's enemies were far- fetched and abundant. The trauma of death in the nation's capital. was momentous enough for mass confusion. Bush could plausibly, deny involvement .of the CIA, allowing those at the bottom of the murderous hierarchy_ to be'the scapegoat if the whispers and confusion failed. Tire capital's citizens might. know in their, hearts that,.henchmen of the CIA and its bloodthirsty Chilean client DINA (the Direc- - cion de intelkgencia Nacional), comrpitted the foul deed but 'the CIA could live with that. What ,the CIA must hide is the vast web of CIA and Chilean intelligence agents, foreign' dictatorships and their secret police, right-wing 'terrorists, media agents,, lobbyists and corrupt government officials that would be exposed by a "broad" investigation. 'The American public must never know that the bloody hands that murdered the Chilean democrat patriot and the young American woman with him, are connected body and soul, to the secret power of fascism permanently woven into the frabric of America's 'liberal democracy and foreign policy. , Symbol of Unity ; Orlando Letelier, 44-year-old former Minister of Foreign Affairs and Defense and , Ambassador to the US, for the Chilean Popular Unity Government was an outspoken critic of the Present Chilean military Junta which overthrew his government on September 11, 1973, almost three years to the day they assassinated him. The Junta had targeted him for a long time through its propaganda machine and through verbal threats made on his life. .Letelier became a symbol of unity in the movement to resist the bloody dictatorship. Also killed when an explosive device went off in Letelier's car on September 21, as it rounded Sheridan Circle in Washington's Embassy Row, was Ronni Karpen Moffitt of the institute for Policy Studies. Moffitt was an assistant to the Institute's director and active in Chile solidarity work. Letelier was an economist and Director of the international program of the Institute�the Transnational Institute (TNI), .;," � ' shake . since coming to the 'US after imprisonment by the Junta. Iviloffitt's husband of three Months, Michael, was injured irt the blast; � *, The leader of the junta, General Augusto Pinochet, had personally greeted Letelier that day,. three years ago when the tanks and planes murdered Chilean democracy. Allende was killed by the time Pinochet ordered soldiers to take Letelier from the Ministry of Defense building at gunpoint. The Junta iMprisoned Letelier at a concentration camp for the next year' of his' life" onthe bitterly cold Dawson, Island, off Tierra del Fuego-. But through concerted efforts of his friends and supporters throughout the. world, Letelier was released on September 10, 1974, a year after the coup. Letelier joined other Chilean refugee S in a life of deter- mined resistance against the Junta. Last February, in the course of his TN! activities,-he visited Holland and spoke with the 'Dockworkers Federation and the Dutch trade unions. After listening to Letelier, they agreed -to a total -.boycott on the _handling of Chilean commodities. After talks with Letelier, the Dutch government offered financial aid for Chilean refugees in Holland and .cancelled a S63 million development credit for the Junta. Letelier's prestige .._and leadership qualities made him a key figure among Chilean exiles from the .Populat= Unity parties, the MIR (Movement of' the Revolutionary Left), some Christian Democrats, and the-liberal Catholics. He was-a symbol of Chilean unity. Approved for Release: 2018/09/17 C03258180. Approved for Release: 2018/09/17 C03258180 More threats on Letelier's life began shortly after Con. gress passed the Kennedy/Fraser resolution to cut off military aid to Chile on June 16;1976. Strange men would call Isabel Letelier to ask: "Are you the wife of Orlando Letelier?" "Yes," Isabel would answer. "No, you are his widow," the voice on the line would say. Some of Letelier's mail was mysteriously opened and through friends in the diplomatic community, he learned that there were high level discussions in the Junta over whether or not to assassinate him. The Junta viewed him as such a threat that Pinochet personally signed a� decree revoking his Chilean citizenship on September 10,1976. Letelier was killed by right-wing Cuban exiles�called gusanos or worms�in the pay of both the CIA and recently i,DINA. The gusanos have been engaged in a war of terror against Cuba, the Caribbean countries and Latin America. ORLANDO BOSCH, leader of the gusanos' terrorist group,' CORU, recently accused GUILLERMO and IGNACIO - NOVO SAMBOL of killing Letelier. , � The gusanos also blow up airplanes, embassies, fishing boats, airports and carry out kidnappings in an effort to � overthrow and disrupt the Cuban government. The CIA trained the gusanos. The gusanos' army, after, was organized by the Chilean gestapo, called DINA. The CIA with DINA, organized the escalated war against Cuba. Today DINA is declaring its independence from the CIA by carrying out its own operations against Chilean resisters. The CIA-trained DINA-organized gusanos are connected to the secret police agencies of several Central and South American right-wing dictatorships and also to the secret police of Venezuela. Certain operations are cairied out under CIA directions; others are unilateral efforts by DINA or other foreign secret police agencies. Together the _network is desperately 'trying to cover up its connections by ,using its paramilitary , operations, and its psychological warfare methods. � , � , ,What follows is a portrait of what abroad investigation of the CIA's paramilitary and propaganda operations that 'created, trained and supported DINA would uncover. A narrow investigation, such as the one the CIA is trying to control will cover up these facts. But the CIA will also have to cover up the fact that the IS government can rio longer control its brutal and vicious monsters;like Dr. Frankenstein when the, monster he Tcreated from many dead bodies turned to attack him in his own laboratory. , PARAMILITARY OPERATIONS On October 15, Cuban Premier Fidel Castro announced cancellation of the 1973 anti-hijacking agreement with the US in retaliation for what he termed a CIA-backed "terrorist - - - campaign against Cuba. Castro spoke at the mass funeral rally in Havana for the 57 Cubans (including several national a heroes) who were among 73 persons killed when a Cubana Airlines plane was blown out of the air October 6. Castro revealed the existance of a double agent, working for the CIA but loyal to Cuba, who had intercepted two messages from CIA headquarters at Langley, Virginia to a CIA agent 10 CounterSpy Orlando Bosch - in Havana. One of the messages indicated that the CIA,was planning another attempt on Castro's life. The message of . October 9 read: � Please report as soon as possible any inforniatiod dealing with Fidel's attendance at the ceremony on the first anni- versary of the independence 'of Angola on November-11. If affirmative, try to find out complete itinerary of Fidel's , visits to other countries during the same trip. ., With applause from the crowd, Castro said, "We_have the -� code, the ciphers and all the evidence of the veracity of thee communications." Castro also mentioned. that the CIA agent had bugged the office of Osmany Cienfuegos, secretary of the executive committee of the council of ministers, who' participates participates in formulating Cuba's African policy. � The other message from CIA headquarters intercepted , earlier asked a" series of questions about terrorist acts against Cuban property. The message read: What is the official and private reaction to bomb attacks against Cuban offices abroad? What are they going to do to avoid and prevent them? Who is suspected as responsible? Will there be retaliations? - In a barely plausible denial, Henry Kissinger said in response ta Cas`tro, "I can categorically state that no official of the US government, no one paid by the American. government, no one in contact with the American gbvern-' ment has had anything to do with the airplane sabotage." Castro mentioned eight. earlier incidents other than the Barbados plane bombing. On .April 6, two fishing boats -Approved for Release: 2018/09/17 C03258180 Approved for Release: 2018/09/17 C03258180 were attacked by private launches from Florida. One fisher- man was killed. Two persons were killed and there was heavy damage when a bomb exploded in the Cuban embassy in Lisbon on April 22. On July 5, another bomb damaged the Cuban mission to the United Nations. On July 9, a bomb exploded at Norman Manley airport in Jamaica in a luggage cart just before the luggage was to be loaded onto a Cuban airliner. A bomb exploded July 10 in the offices of British %Vest Indies Airways in Barbados, which represents the Cuban airlines in Barbados. On July 23, a technician of the Cuban National Fishery Institute was killed in an attempt to kidnap the Cuban consul in Merida, Mexico. On August 9 two Cuban embassy officials were kidnapped in Buenos Aires and no one has heard from them since. And on August 18, a bomb exploded in the Cubana office in Panama. ",- CORU, a DINA terrorist army Identified by Castro, the Washington Star and numerous Caribbean newspapers as responsible for the terrorist acts is the gusano organization (pronounced goo'zan'o) organiza- tion, the Coordination of. United Revolutionary Organi- zations (CORU). CORU is an umbrella organization of five anti-Castro groups with approximately 500 members (See Sidebar). It formed at a meeting in Costa Rica in June 1974. CORU is well known in Miami's Cuban exile community, Little Havana, and photos of its meetings have appeared in the local Spanish press. From investigations of its activi- ties by Caribbean governments, we'll learn more about CORU, but it is taking the blame in the US government's narrow investigation. Training and support for the indivi- duals and member groups of CORU is supplied by the CIA; that's what the cover up is all about. The organization is the result of fanatic passions of enterprising gusanos and the operational need of the Junta's gestapo, DINA. CORU is a DINA terrorist army. It claimed responsibility for the September 1 bombings at the Embassy of Guyana in Port of Spain, Trinidad; the Mexican � Embassy in Guatemala City; as well as other bombings in Barbados on other occasions. CORU claims it - bombed the Guyana embassy in retaliation for Guyana's policy of allowing Cuban airplanes to refuel there en route to Angola. The Guatemala bombing, according to CORU, was in retaliation for Mexico's failure to release two CORU .members who tried to kidnap the Cuban consul in Merida, Mexico. CORU is lead by the crazed former pediatrician named Orlando Bosch. Bosch was one of the founders of Cuban Power but he supposedly broke with the CIA after the Bay of Pigs because he thought the CIA was no longer dedicated to overthrowing Castro. Although his first commando actions were hardly dangerous, Bosch has a habit of killing those with whom he disagrees. (See New Times, October 29 for a profile of Bosch's career.) Bosch and others began their anti-Castro actions in the early sixties against Cuban and other socialist commercial shipping in the harbor of Miami. But his first attacks were empty threats.; he forgot to put fuses in the bombs. The "mad baby doctor" soon learned from his mistakes, how- The CIA's Henchmen. The following gusano groups are only some of the Cuban exile organizations under the umbrella group called CORU. The organizations that participate in terrorist activity use such sophisticated explosives that police in Dade County, Florida required special training in bomb techniques. Accion Cobano�a small Miami-based group formed � around July, 1974 which claimed credit for bombing several Cuban embassies in that year. Recently, this group sold bonds on the streets of Little Havana (in Miami) to finance its organizing, in denominations from $10 to $1,000, re- deemable upon Fidel Castro's death. The National Liberation Front of Cuba (FNLC).- also Miami-baSed and headed by -FRANK CASTRO and HUM� BERTO LOPEZ. It took credit for the April 6 fishing boat attack. FNI.0 appeared about the time that talks of renewed trade with Cuba began in Washington. It also had plans to ,assassinate Senators Javits and Pell tiefore their trip to Havana in early 1974. �FNLC has been largely responsible for an internecine war between gusano groups in little Havana and elsewhere over the question of how to main- tain discipline for the umbrella group CORU. The FNLC has formed sevetat satellite terrorist cells in the US including the Jovenese de Estrella (Youth of the Star) in Miami, and F14 in the New York City area, with whom the Letelier � assassins are associated; Zero, which marks its victims for death by sending the a "zero" mark; Secret Cuban Govern- ment; Cuban Action; GIN; Omega 7; and El Condor which took credit for the plane �bombing that killed 73 people in October. One of El Condor's leaders, ROLANDO OTERO was arrested for bombing the Miami FBI office, the Florida State Attorney's ,office, the Dade County Police Depart- ment and another explosion at Miami International Airport. He was the youngest member .of the Bay of Pigs invasion force. The Association of Veteran's of the Bay of Pigs�a Miami- based group headed by ROBERTO CARBALLO who won the presidency after a bitter fight at this year's election ceremonies on April 17. The keynote address at the congress was Nicaraguan dictator. Somoza and US Representative CLAUDE PEPPER. Some of these gusanos simply became mercenaries after the Bay of Pias fiasco and joined bands such as the Inter- continental Penetration Force led by freelance ,anti- communist mercenary GERALD PATRICK HEMMING in the early sixties before the Congo operation. Movimento 17 de April�.a splinter group Of the CIA-and- Green-Beret-trained Cuban Invasion Brigade 2506, run by CIA case officers GRACETON LYNCH and 'RICHARD ROBERTSON, which was defeated at the Bay of Pigs on April 17, 1960. The splinter group was formed last April by JUAN PEREZ FRANCO. ' Movimento Nacionalista Cubana�another Miami-based group responsible. for many bombings in the US and �'elsewhere. � �.; CORU drew personnel from the JURE group of gusanos, for CORU operations in the Dominican Republic. JUKt has operated since the US' invasion in 1967. - � CounterSpy 11 Approved for Release: 20'18/09/17 C03258180 Approved for Release: 2018/09/17 C03258180 ever, and created such a problem for harbor authorities that the US Coast Guard was forced to escort the ships in and out of the harbor. By the mid-sixties, Bosch was a leader of the Movement for Revolutionary Recovery (MIRR) led by MA.NUEL F. ARTIME, who later would form the Commandos Mambises, the only gusand-terrorist group which the CIA directly originated in the early sixties. All the gusano groups were infiltrated and manipulated by the CIA's OPERATION MONGOOSE, the campaign to overthrow or kill Castro. Mongoose developed the Miami CIA station IM/Wave on the University of Miami under the cover of Zenith Technical Enterprises. JM/Wave had an annual budget of..over $50 million, branch offices in 54 dummy corporations, and a permanent staff of 300 Ameri- cans who employed. and controlled approximately 6,000 gusano agents including Bernard Barker of Watergate fame, who' was a member of MIRR under E. Howard Hunt as his controller. After the Bay of Pigs fiasco, led by GRACETON LYNCH and RICHARD ROBERTSON, the CIA wound down operations at JM/Wave and sent Artime to Guatemala under direction from Robertson in a last effort to influence gusanos who were bitter over the defeat. Robertson later directed the gusano actions in the Congo crisis of 1967. The following explains what some of the 6,000 trained gusanos did after the Bay of Pigs plan fell apart. " With a cell of MIRR, Bosch escalated the disruption of shipping in the Miami harbor. On September 16, 1968, the FBI arrested Bosch and others While they fired a makeshift bazooka into the harbor from MacArthur Causeway, over the Coast Guard cutters escorting a Polish ship. Charged with this, and with using the telephone to make threats against the governments of Mexico, England and Spain, .Bosch was sentenced to ten years in a federal prison. After three and a half years Bosch ,was freed after a series of hunger strikes; he soon disappeared. US authorities still want Bosch for parole violations and for questioning for at- tempting to murder RICARDO MORALES NAVARETTE, a former FBI informer and CIA agent, now a high-ranking member of the Venezuelan secret police. _ � , Bosch was arrested in Caracas, Venezuela in November, 1974 after taking credit for two bombings, but the FBI did not ask that he be extradited to the US because the State_ Department intervened. Powerful Cuban exiles in VeneZuela took their case to high levels of the government and Bosch was released. He flew immediately, to Santiago, Chile and established contact with DINA. A Miami newsman who interviewed him there reported he had a Venezuelan chief of staff and 15 Chilean bodyguards. DINA had already made contact with other gusano � groups including the non-terrorist youth group ABDALA� and Alpha 66, a broad coalition of exiles often opposed to the terrorism. According to a gusano defector who returned ' to Cuba named CARLOS RIVERO COLLADA*, Colonel 'EDUARDO SEPULVEDA, the Chilean Consul in Miami; is an intimate friend of Pinochet and visited Miami shortly after the coup; at the same time, the Junta repaid several - million dollars ofitadebt to the US in cash. There, according CARLOS RIVER� COLLA DOS, who returned to his homeland in Cuba. has recently published &book on the gusanos called Los Sobrinos tiel Tbo Sam or The Nephews of Uncle Sam. � 12 CounterSpy to --Thvero, he met with RAMIRO DE LA FE, a leader of a group plied Young Cuba. Young Cuba took credit for attacks on the Cuba Mission in Ottawa in 1966 and 1967 and in 1972 blew Up the Cuban trade mission in Montreal with assistance � from members of the Royal Canadi- Mounted Police. De la Fe had been sentenced in th'e three and a half years for illegal activity. Young C,;': CORU and the National Liberation Front of Cuba (- are believed to receive additional financial backing fr.,in Little Havana gbdfather, CARLOS PRIO SOCARRAS, th president of Cuba before Battista. A splinter group 'of Young Cuba, the ,Cuban Neorevolutionary Action Group took credit for the 1973 attack on the Cuban ambassador in Mexico which CORU would later attempt ,to avenge in -� the Guatemala City bombing. � Sepulveda encouraged the gusanos to carry out a publi- city campaign in Miami and New York City in return for munitions and funds. DINA assigned a newsman, PEDRO ERNESTO DIAZ of the fascist Patria y Libertad party to control Young Cuba. The information which was stolen from the Chilean Embassy in Washington before the coup by the same gusanos involved in the Watergate affair, ended up in the hands of this Chilean fascist party. Sepulveda attended a September meeting of gusanos in Miami Beach; others in attendance were JULIO DURAN, the Junta's representative at- the U.N., Memphis mayor MARICE FERRAR, and the US Representative TOM E. GALLAGER. By July 1975 Bosch began his reign of terror in Little f Havana and the Caribbean to gain control of all the gusanos and to raise his CORU army. One of his principal deputies became HUMBERTO LOPEZ of FNLC who was a former announcer for the Voice of America and who had been � trained in demolitions by the US Army and the CIA. Some of Bosch's first actions after his release from prison were in Costa Rica. While Bosch was, behind bars, Approved for Release: 2018/09/17 C03258180 Approved for Release: 2018/09/17 C03258180 BENJAMIN MATTE, a member of Patria y Libertad had set up DINA's Costa Rican operations to counteract the work of anti-Junta groups according to the Costa Rican weekly Pueblo on November 2, 1974. Its July 6 issue stated � that Chileans were working with various right-wing groups with their nexus in Guatemala, where the CIA organized a coup d'etat in 1954 and has influenced the government City cm charges of massive gunsmuggling from the US to Central America), Guatemala, Israel and the United States. That same year a Costa Rican radio 'station reported that Guatemala, El Salvador and Chile were facilitating a coup. Even the conservative opposition Costa Rican daily .La Nacion on October 23, 1975 carried reports of the Guate- rnalan government financing MCRL.** Left: A Rev Moon Unification- Church 'spy (left) and DINA agent photograph C'hile Solidarity rally' one year after the coup, September 11,1974, in front of the White House._ Middle: At a large reception for Hortensia Allende November 1974, sponsored by the Institute for Policy Studies at the DuPont Plaza Hotel. Left to right; an uniden- tified man, a DLVA informant who is a student at Mont- gomery Junior College and a former Santiago Military Academy. student; DINA agent with mustache; and his superior. Right: As guests enter reception hall, DINA informer and .DINA agent whisper names to superior. ever since.- On October 29, 1974 the newspaper La Horn published photostats of intercepted correspondence dated September 12,-1974 between Chilean Embassy officials and their superiors in Santiago, in which the Embassy requested more funds to finance the activities of Movimento Costa Rica Libre (MCRL). The MCRL was asking for more funds. The documents stated that "the contributions wrucn we have given them have been small but they are asking for - more aid." The letter mentioned activities "following our instructions from Santiago" to buy arms (presumably for MCRL) and to pay for propaganda work by gusano teams. The Junta's purpose was to strengthen MCRL at the time because it was, in their opinion, the only way to prevent communism in Costa Rica. Santiago (and. presumably the US) believed the Oduber government was ='weak, indecisive, and corrupt."I ' The La Hora photostats specifically implicate the Guatemalan .military attache in Costa Rica and state that MCRL has "minimal aid" from the embassies of El Salvador (whose Chief of Staff was, recently arrested in New York In 1975, DINA-sent Bosch to Costa Rica with a Chilean diplomatic passport to make contact with the MCRL and to assassinate MIR leader ANDRES PASCAL ALLENDE, nephew of the murdered President 'of Chile. But Bosch was detained after Mexico's President Echevveria called Costa Rican President Oduber to warn him. Kissinger was coming to Costa Rica at the same time. The April 29, 1975 issue of Pueblo revealed that ,from there Bosch was reported in several Latin American and Caribbean countries especially the Dominican Republic and Veneznela, where the gusano 'groups are active in the police, and intelligence agencies services. The Pueblo office was blown up on August 2,1976 by gusanos connected to Bosch and DINA. The Costa Rican secret police, 0 fficina de Seguridad Nacional (OSN), directed by Gen. FERNANDO FIGIJLS. also employs gusanos and continues to allow MCRL to operate in Costa Rica and to publish a column in El National. . _ Gusanos Admit Guilt - One day after the Cubana plane blew up, Trinidad authorities arrested HERNANDO-RICARDO LUSANO, aka JOSE VELASQUEZ, aka _JOSE GARCIA of the Caracas That month, the government began a formal investigation of,VCRI, sparked 'by rumors that the group, along with gusanos, were planning to assassinate foreign minister CONZA LO FACIO who was active in the campaign to lift sanctions against Cuba. The Miami Herald on September 20, 1974 reported that Facto received phone threats when he was in the U.S. for U.N. and OAS meetings. At the same time, a former gusano surfaced in Havana re- vealing- that the gusano terrorists .were planning attacks against Facio, Kissinger, � and- other U.S. diplomats. 'Facia, like Kissinger and other officials were hardly soft on communism; they were seeking a pragmatic policy towards Cuba at the, time because, of skyrocketing sugar prices,. Facia professes close ties with Nelson Rockefeller and is a _corporate lawyer in Costa Rica for United Brands. Allied Chemical, U.S. Steel, and ALCOA and has been a legal counsel to Robert Vesco. CounterSpy 13 Approved for Release: 2018/09/17 C03258180 Approved for Release: 2018/09/17 C03258180 newspaper Et Mundo, which. carried a column by CIA agent LLANO MONTES on October 12 about the bombing. Also arrested was FREDDY LUGO. At this writing the Venezuelan judge has indicted four gusanos; Bosch, Lusano, Lugo and LUIS POSADA CARRILES,, a Cuban-Venezuelan who was formerly chief of operations of the Venezuelan secret police called DISIP (Directorate of Intelligence and Prevention Services), from 1971 to 1973. . Ricardo and Lugo, who have now aamitted planting the bomb, have implicated Bosch in the incident. They were ar- rested in Trinidad on October 7, 1976 after the crash when -7 a taxi driver, taking thern� to.' their hotel, overheard them - discussing and laughing about the incident. Trinidad police have proof that Richrdb contacted his boss Posada from the hotel, and Ricardo 's girlfriend and his secretary both con- ,firrn.ea they had passed on a message for Posada: "The :truck has left with a full load." - Ricardo was trained by the CIA in demolitions and - formerly wolked for Cuba's old dictator Battista in his secret police. A few days before the bombing, he was seen .;in Caracas in the company of CIA agent FELIX MARTINEZ � SUAREZ. Ricardo and Lugo also worked for a private detective agency in Caracas called Commercial Industrial � :Investigations (ICICA), which uses equipment that's more 'sophisticated than any used by government agencies in Venezuela. �'�-* . - ' On October 15, Venezuelan authorities arrested other members of the �private eye firm including Posada. The CIA also trained Posada, who is believed to be among those who � intervened for Bosch's release in 1974. � I The daily Punto announced that CORU members OLEG GUETON RODRIGUEZ, CELSA TOLEDO, FRANCISCO NENEZ and Bosch had all been arrested in Caracas as well; they are also connected to the mysterious private eye firm. -The governments of Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, - Guyana, Barbados and Cuba have formed a united effort to investigate these actions and more information will no .� doubt be available in the next few months. zuelan government has had intimate ties to those involved and has allowed DINA and the gusanos to operate from Venezuela; to prosecute those who have served the govern. ment will be difficult. . � The problem for Perez is further complicated because gusanos hold important positions in. the Venezuelan secret police, DISIP. RICARDO MORALES NAVARRETE, , high. ranking gusano in DISIP, worked for the CIA jusi after the Bay of Pigs. He was a member of Rick Robertson's team in. the Congo (Zaire) in the mid-sixties. He became outraged there at the degenerating operation. According tc a reliable source in the CIA, the gusanos had nothing to do in the Congo and spent most of their' time getting drunk firing shots at the U.S. consulate for fun, and generall:v terrorizing the consul's wife. Morales later returned to the U.S. and became an informer for the Bosch trial, an act against Which Bosch retaliated by , trying to kill Morales -.Now that Bosch has some protection in Venezuela, he denies he accused the Novo brothers of the Letelier/Moffitt assassination. Cuba's Foreign , Minister.declared recently that the US is attempting to block the trial of the gusanos in Venezuela and has recently divided the Caribbean meetings on the airplane sabotage. In those meetings,.Fred Wills, Foreign Minister of Guyana, mentioned that Trinidad and Tobago officials had diaries of the arrested gusanos which implicate the CIA. He also mentioned that he had concrete proof the US was attempting to destabilize Guyana and Jamaica � it is part of an overall US strategy-to divide the other nations of the Carib- bean from Cuba. During negotiations on the fate of the arrested gusanos, 'Trinidad and Tobago officials refused to release evidence to the other 4 nations including Venezuela. ' - . . Perez hired gusanos to �fight -Cuban influence in the past, as 'many Latin American chiefs of state have clone. But in recent years, Perez has opened up to the possibility of better relations between Cuba and Venezuela. The Caracas �:trial for the terrorist saboteurs puts pressure on Perez. They' � will be tried in a military court, because officials thought it . would facilitate a fair trial for the gusanos. But the Vene- DINA Foreign Operations The murder Of Letelier follows a pattern of Junta terrof to remind Chilean exiles of the blood that was let on a ' day of the coup. For the past three years prominent Chi!' exiles have been attacked. In 1974 CARLOS PRA former Chief of Staff of the Armed forces under Allenel.., was killed in -Argentina, at DINA's request. Then, in 1975 '--gusanos, or- Italian fascists, fired shots at BERNARDC LEIGHTON, vice-president of the Chilean Christian Demo cr a tie Party � � - Prats, Chief of Staff until his' resignation during the , Allende -regime, was replaced by Pinochet. He was living ir 'Buenos Aires, working on a, book about the coup ar Pinochet, whom he had actually recommended as his o - replacement, a judgment he had come to regret and v.,' ./to expose. On September 30, 1974, just a year afte-c IcOup, he and his wife were blown tri, in a car; shorn:, .ili-ereafter, the manuscript was stolen from his home. Colonel PEDRO EWING, director 'of DINA's foreigr 'oPera dons, established DINA relations with Argentina.' � Ewing and his assistant; JUAN, LUIS BULNES CERD who was former- head of the youth group of the fasci .National Party; ordered the Prats assassination. -13ulne. :was one of many Chilean Military Intelligence Service � (SIM) agents who were responsible for the killing of Prat' predecessor, General Rene Schneider.** Sources allege thn members of the,Argentine Anti-Communist Alliance (AA,', killed Prats. The AAA is composed of Argentine soldiers and was formed by LOPEZ REGA, the power behind th Peron' government at the time.. After the coup against th corrupt. and failing Peron administration, General JORG VIDELA reincorporated the AAA back into the army. Thu 'he could declare that he "eliminated" -the right wit'. terrorists, in Order to target the left. DINA agents Ewire. � Bulnes, and 'a man named EDMUND() JACKSON, a to] turer who directed the AAA attack on Prats, began work i Argentina only a month before Prats was Murdered. A year later, the trio made contact with the Italia neo-fascist party, MSI, whose leaders have been connecte to the Italian secret service, SID. On October 6, 1975, a ,Approved for Release: 2018/09/17 C03258180 Approved for Release: 2018/09/17 C03258180 attempt was made to kill Leighton, vice-president of the conservative CDP. Italian Communist newspapers accused MSI of machine-gunning Leighton and his wife in a street in Rome. Though both survived, Ana Leighton was para- lyzed. Oddly, though significantly, CORU sent a com- munique taking credit for the attack in Italy, pointing the finger again at DINA and the gusanos. Ewing institutionalized DINA's tactic of cooperating with local terror squads after DINA practiced it with the CIA's terror squad, Patria y Libertad, in Chile. DINA maneuvers with the gusanos' CORU, the Italian MSI, the Costa Rican MRCL, the Argentine AAA, and others, were organized from DINA headquarters, which Ewing estab- lished in fascist Madrid in early 1974. CounterSpy has also learned that DINA is active not only in Spain, but in England, Paris, Switzerland, Bel&ium, and Holland. A report from the London-based news service, InterPress, on May 16, 1976, reveals that Ewing may have repeated his operations in London. The former Chilean Embassy press attache and DINA informant, JORGE NAVARRETE, contacted a man known only. as "John Cooper," but whose real name, according to InterPress, was Leslie Wooler. Wooler, a former corporal in the British Royal Air Force, infiltrated pro-Palestinian organizations in the sixties. Three years earlier, lid had been active in a plot by the British neo-fascist, anti-sernitic National take over the Conservative Party's Monday Club. Navarrete recruited 'Cooper" at the Monday Club and asked him to photograph people entering the Chile Solidarity offices. After a few contacts, he asked Wooler to remove documents, including finance and address lists, and to gather information on the private lives of the supporters. In particular, Wooler was asked to gather information on Judith Hart, the former Minister of Overseas Development, and her son Stephen, secretary of the British Chile Soli- - darity Campaign. Then Navarrete encouraged Wooler to ' make harassing late-night phone calls to the Harts. � � Wooler was motivated by his anti-communism and by �the lucrative paychecks (several hundred pounds) signed by *the Chilean Ambassador to England, KAARA OLSEN. :But he soon realized that he was associating with people who were capable of killing his allies, the Christian Demo- -crats. Navarrete took Wooler to a meeting with a� DINA agent, presumed to be Ewing, who told him they were Ewing was the secietary of the Junta immediately after the coup and it was he who presented the notorious "White Book," written by the CIA, in which the Junta repeated the propaganda lines against Allende to justify the coup. At that time, Ewing controlled many resources of the Chilean intelligence network. *1,1 June of this year, at least 27 Chilean refugees disappeared in Argen- tina and there are reports that some 15,000 refugees there are terrorized by the DINA .with assistance from the Argentine SIDE. There are more reports that IBM installed a sophisticated computer system in Santiago for DINA; it contains an index of these 15,000 Chileans and others from -. Latin American countries. Shortly before the coup, 12 members ofPatria Libertad -were trained by International Cash Register in computer opera- tions in Ohio. TIME magazine revealed in September, 1974, that the U.S.' Embassy added 12 code clerks to the staff in Santiago shortly before the coup. Reliable sources at the State Department have indicated to Counter- Spy that the clerks helped computerize names of Latin American leftists , in Chile at the time for arrest during and after the coup. Thousands of Bolivians, Argentines, Brazilians and at least two Americans were arrested by the Junta forces. Many died, including the two Americans, and the others were turned over to their own countries' secret police. ** . This policy is continuing.- In July,. ANDRES PASCAL ALLENDE, who Bosch planned to kill in Costa Rica but never attempted, announced from Havana that EDGARD� EVRIQUEZ, a leader of the MIR, had been captured by Argentine authorities and turned over to DINA last April. -Schneider opposed a plan for a coup before the elections. The Church Committee report on Covert Actions in Chile reports that the CIA gave machine guns to a group of military conspirators on the day of Schneider's death. This was part of Kissinger and the 40 Committee's Track II plan to prevent Allende's election.- But according to CIA records, the guns were given to a different group, not the one headed by Bulnes. Despite this plan or that of various conspirators in Santiago. Allende was elected.- _ continued on page 64 - Approved for Release: 2018/09/17 C03258180 CounterSpy 15 Approved for Release: 2018/09/17 C03258180 'Terri) ist Irliormation !Project ----Vietnamese Reactionaries ' "Organize secrzt society called Black April was recently formed by anti-conununist Viet- namese refugees and is waging sporadic violence and intimidation in refugee communities. First reports of the intimi- dation campaigns came from the refugee , camps. Violence often broke out between Thieu regime officials and politically more moderate Vietnamese,' swept along in the exodus. In Los Angeles; several refugee meetings have been disrupted by fist fiehts. Vietnamese priests have been red-baited by the Black April members who believe priests work with corn.... =mists. , Last July in Boston the Association of Vietnamese Patriots meeting at MIT was disrupted by three Vietnamese men- brandishing knives. The men identified themselves as former soldiers (paratroop- ers and marines) of the Thieu regime who left leaflets with this declaration: "Blood will flow and corpses will fall if you continue to make propaganda for the communists." At the bottom of the leaflet was the name "Black Apar.% Former Minister of Information, Hoang Due Nha, was beaten by Black April 16 CounterSpy ,members in Washington D.C.. 1- The group emerges to the extreme right of Thieu and his followers among ,the. Vietnamese-exile conimunity. Many Black April members believe Thien was . too soft and sold out the country, thus the � name, April, the month of the exodus. One Vietnamese exile paper. Trang Den, which claims to still have correspondents in Ho Chi Minh City (formerly Saigon), reports that Black April, with contadts in counter- revolutionary'groups still operating in Vietnam, is well funded 'and armed. Over 5,000 refugees who worked with the CIA's Phoenix assassination program arrived in the U.S. with other refugees. Although U.S.' officials stated at the time that they were merely heads of programs and not the torturers or assassins in the field, many who trained and practiced terrorism are now organized in the U.S. � Police Arrest Nazi Bomber On September 9, 1976 the Los Angeles Police arrested' 23-year-old Serge Mashe, a former American Nazi Party member, for bombing the Socialist Workers Party headquarters in that city on February 4, 1975. In his 'home, police found six machine guns, four high-explosive artil- , lery shells, and 36 other weapons includ- ing 19 handguns. There were also 500,000 rounds of ammunition found in the house. Mashe says he is a "gun collector." The day after the 1975 bombing, the National Socialist Liberation Front, a Nazi splinter group, took credit for the bombing. Two months later the LA Free Press published. an interview with NSLF leader Joseph Tommasi who openly boasted his outfit was responsible for the bombing: "We know the cops aren't interested if we bomb the left." He was later gunned down by a member of a rival Nazi faction. Chicago Nazis Compete With Klan The American Nazi Party in C.' continues to organize white yeaaT;: Marquette Park area, in with local Ku Klux Klan ent:, White youths organized an attack on a rally sponsored by the Martin Luther King Jr. Movement on. July 19th. The march, . attended by 300 people, was organized to protest racist attacks on blacks in the park. They were confronted by several � thousand youths Who assaulted the un- armed marchers -with cherry ...bombs, � bricks, bottles, and paving stones. Although the KKK was active among. the older white residents of Marquette Park, it was the Nazi Party wooing th,:. youths that really spurred racism in area. The Nazis have opened a storefro^. in the area and some reports indicate � they are now concentrating on Organizing :among the 3,000 policemen known to be living in the Marquette Park community. In connection to the SWP's $40 million lawsuit against government harassment and surveillance, the FBI was forced to release its Denver files on Timothy Redfearn, an FBI informer who infil- trated the SWP and who committed burglaries for the FBI. A Denver grand jury is hearing testimony that FBI Direc- tor Clarence Kelley and the local bureau conspired to cover up the evidence of Redfearn's burglaries for the FBI. On August 30, red swastikas were found painted on the SWP headquarters build- ing and Nazi hate mail regularly streams into the SW? office. Nazi flags were found in Redfearn's apartment Which have led the SWP to charge the FBI is cooperating with the Nazi factions to harass the SWF and the Left in Denver, Los Angeles, and other cities. Approved for Release: 2018/09/17 C03258180' Klan Organizes Prison Guards . Reports are growing of Ku Klux Klan organizing drives among the guards at Attica, Clinton, Comstock, Elmira, Greenhaven, and other prisons in New York Stare. At Napanoch, some prison- ers, active in the NAACP or other mi- nority organizatons, have been beaten by guards affiliated with the secret KKK organizing. Napanoch appears to be the center of KKK activity because of the prison's innovative education programs, college :and vocational programs for Black and Latin people. � The September 1976 issue of Off Our Backs, a- national feminist newspaper, has an important article on the Ku Klux , Klan among the woman and men guards at the Bedford Hills Correctional Facility in Westchester County New York. Two of the male guards openly wear gold and silver KKK rings. The report contains details of the male guards pushing, beating and molesting the female in- mates while the female guards watch. In one incident, a woman, who had recently had a Caesarean operation, was beaten until she began to bleed. She was then left bleeding in her cell for six hours before a doctor came to assist her. Approved for Release: 2018/09/17 C03258180 If there is. a .Nazi, KKK, or NCLC -activity in your area, be sure to send a . tip to TIP, Box 647, Ben Franklin Station, Washington, D.C. 20044. by the XXX, was obviously in atten- dance. Leaders of the so-called "respec- table racists" say they can't control the KKK and the open threat of terrorism unless they can win concessions on the busing issue. , -.Klan Marches On August 14, 200 members of the UnitedKLans of America marched down Preston Highway- in Louisville with shouts of "White power" and "Good thing no niggers are here!" KKK litera- ture stated that the march was not only an anti-busing march but openly anti- black and anti-communist. The march was made up of some Klansmen , on horses, scores of Klansmen walking, several parade floats carrying Klan dig- nitaries, a military unit, a youth group and a ladies' auxiliary. Almost everyone wore hoods and robes and carried Ameri- can, Confederate and KKK flags. Although the KKK leads only a weak, extreme-right faction of the anti-busing movement in, Kentucky, the cheering crowds on the day of the march indicate a growing support for KKK methods. Since the KKK began active organizing in Louisville a year ago, the black com- munity has suffered bombings, beatings, and massive harassment. Sherman Adams, head of KKK for efforts in Kentucky, said the march showed "the people were around and ready to fight." Peaceful demonstrations were followed by violent ones in September as Louisville schools opened. Police were forced to fire volleys of tear-gas to disperse about 1,000 demonstrators as suspected Ku Klux Klan members and white youths smashed store windows, burned park benches, vandalized phone booths and threw rocks and 'bottles at police. Police were forced to arrest 14 adults who refused to disperse. August 28 was the date of the first mass rally by anti-busing forces in Louis- ville and there was ample evidence of a split developing in the ranks of this racist movement. The 'majority of the 1500 people were led by ROAR (Restore Our Alienated Rights) and the National Association to Preserve ,and Restore our Freedom (NAPF) supporting a national strategy of legal action against forced busing, sex education in _schools, com- munism and atheism. A small force, led Anti-busers Rampage The Powder Keg Information Center, a local anti-busing group loyal to ROAR, and Boston City Council President Louise Day Hicks, held the first anti- busing demonstration of the season on August 31 which culminated with rock- throwing attacks on police in Charles- town. The following evening, an esti- mated 600 whites skirmished in gang assaults on police, attacked patrol cars and set bonfires in what the Boston Herald American, a conservative anti- busing newspaper, termed a "rampage." Public ,transportation in the .area was disrupted by groups of young white toughs who stoned city buses. The four who were arrested had scattered pieces of cardboard, which were embedded with two-inch nails, under police cars., In all these incidents, members of the secret paramilitary Charlestown and South Roston Marshals Association, largely organized by KKK members, were present. CounterSpy 17 Approved for Release: 2018/09/17 C03258180 --- Approved for Release: 2018/09/17 C03258180 One of the loose ends left hanging when I went to London in late 1972 was the mystery of Leslie, my benefactor during those difficult months in Paris when I was struggling to write the story of my work in the CIA. � Just as I returned to Paris after six months of research and study in Havana, I had a visit from a former CIA colleague who said he came from Washington to ask what my book was to be about. I assured him that my presentation would be theoretical, without naming any names or damaging the Agency, and that I would be pleased to present my manu- script to the 'CIA for review prior to publication. For the time being, I needed to avoid any confrontation' with the , Agency, for I still had months of research to complete. At the Minerve Hotel, on Rue des Ecoles, I settled in to live and work, making only a few friends from among the Americans who lived in the hotel and some others who frequented Le ,Yam's, our corner cafe. A few weeks before Easter, 1972, 7 - a young American journalist nam .- Ferrera who occasionally came around f, Le Yam's and who was friendly with Therese, a Canadian who was settling in the Quartier after tiring of the violence and pressures of New York City. � Therese, Sal and I often discussed the American scene until early morning. Sal, with his good nature and wit, was an "underground" journalist and had be- cothe a principal contact for American anti-war activists who came to Pais for, peace conferences and demonstrations, and to visit the delegation of the FRG, of course, said nothing of the true ne. of the book I was writing. In May 1972, my money was running out. I decided to tell Sal who I was and what I was writing, in the hope that he could sell an interview and split the proceeds with me. He seemed a little too surprised and enthusiastic, but we agreed that he would do an interview and try to place it with a major American journal. - On the day of our first recording ses- sion, when we left the hotel for lunch, we spotted what was without any doubt a team of surveillance agents following us on Betlevard Saint Germain. After we shook off the surveillance by passing through the tunnels of the Faculty of � Science at Jussieu, I decided to tell another friend, Catherine, of my book and see whether she would allow me to stay at her studio until I found another. She agreed, and on the night the first surveillance occurred, I left the hotel and went carefully to her place, a short walk from the station. In Catherine's studio I would experience, a few months later, Approved for Release: 2018/09/17 C03258180 Approved for Release: 2018/09/17 C03258180 one of rhe shocks of a lifetime--the end of one phase of this mystery and the beginning of another. Sal began to lend me small amounts of money for food. Although he was curious and occasionally would ask, I refused to tell him where I had gone to live. Cath- erine was unknown to anyone else. Towards the end of June, Sal invited me to dinner. The formality of his invi- tation was strange, but I accepted, and afterwards he suggested that we have some English beer at the Mayflower. Less than five minutes after we entered, a young woman carrying a copy of Time entered and took the stool next to mine. By and by we began to talk. Her name was Leslie Donegan, daughter of an American businessman in Venezuela and a Venezuelan-American mother, both of whom had passed away. She had a degree in Public Relations from Boston � University and was sustained by the income from her parents' estate in Ca- racas which, from her manner of speak- ing, seemed by no means a pittance. I etook her telephone number and left in time to catch the last Metro back-- taking care, as I always did, to watch for . possible surveillance. A few days later Sal came Up with an idea. Leslie was an heiress. She was 'interested in Latin American politics, seemed politically liberal enough, and was planning to spend the summer in Paris after having just finished a year of study at the University of Geneva. She� _might fancy becoming a patroness of the arts by financing me through the corn- . pletion of my book. My situation was desperate. I had been forced to return my typewriter to the rental shop in order to get back the deposit for food. As luck would have it, a friend of Sal's had left a typewriter with him, and I could use it � for a while. Leslie's support might be the ;olution to my deepening anxieties. I took Sal's suggestion, called Leslie, and immediately received an invitation for dinner - the next evening. Leslie's modern studio apartment was on the eighth floor of a new twenty-story build- ing, a ten-minute walk from the metro station. � Leslie bought me dinner at a cozy, - candle-lit restaurant near her building, and,- glowing with wine, we bought another bottle and headed back to her studio'. I had decided not to tell her, the true nature of my book before getting to know her a little, so we spent most of the evening talking about Spain, Latin America, the University of Geneva, and, her Spanish boyfriend, who was coming from Geneva to visit her in about ten days Ina few days I saw her again, and it was not long before I was telling her that I was a former operations officer in the CIA and that my book was an account of how the CIA operates and of what I and others in the CIA had been doing in Latin America. On hearing of my penury she said she would help, but she wanted to see what I had written. A couple of days later Leslie and I stood for three hours at the copy machine in the Sor- bonne, copying about 250 pages of an early draft that I had removed from the, safe deposit box in the nearby Societe Generale bank where I kept my writing and important papers safe from any eventuality. I left the material with her, returned the copies to the safe deposit box, and Promised not to call her'for the next few days�she wanted it that way because her boyfriend was visiting for the, weekend: , Leslie returned the draft to me the fol- lOwing week, and although She was not terribly enthusiastic over what she read,. she agreed to help me. By now she had already given me a, few hundred francs, which I immediately spent on food and some overdue essentials. This time Leslie gave me 500 francs and promised 500 more in a couple of weeks. Relief was at last at hand. From the beginning 11 tried to com- partmentalize my developing situation with Leslie from my continuing relation- ship with Sal. To my consternation he was exceedingly slow in getting our inter- view transcribed. I wondered about Sal, not least because from time to time I would discover the surveillance again -- almost always after having seen him, Sal was now receiving all my mail so that I would not have to give my secret address to my sons and parents in America, but he persisted in listing the advantages of his being able to reach me on short notice �which was impossible as he didn't know where I lived. Soon Leslie became tired of the Paris summer and went to Spain, leaving me with more money and her studio apart- ment. She tried to persuade me to ac- company her to Spain, offering to pay all My expenses, but I declined. From Spain Leslie sent me still , more money, which, though not excessive, was all I had besides the continuing small loans, from Sal,Each night after leaving the studio, would go back to my secret hideaway at Passage des Eaux, always taking great care to leave the metro on the Left Bank to cross the Pont de Bir-liakeim on foot, so as to observe better, or at Trocadero to wander down among the gardens and fountains in order to get lost in the crowds and the dark. When Leslie returned to Paris in late September to turn back the studio to its owner, she ruined my compar�tmentation by taking a hotel room just a few doors from Sal's room and only a block from Le Yarn's. It seemed that suddenly every- one knew of each other's participation in my project, and soon Sal and Leslie were planning to go to London with me to help in the final research in the British Museum Newspaper Library. A couple of days after the American publisher rejected my book, a crushing. blow after almost three years' work. I was to meet Sal at the Choppe Mortge, but Leslie came instead�by now she had moved in with Sal although she also kept her hotel room. It was cold and rainy and she had a bad case of flu. A few hours - earlier, when Sal was away, the owner of the typewriter that Sal., had lent me months earlier came to get it. According to Leslie, he was furious that Sal had given his typewriter to someone else, and he demanded it back immediately. She had gone -out and bought me a used typewriter, which she gave me, so that I would not be left without any typewriter at all. I would have to get the first type- writer right away and �return it to Sal later that afternoon. , A few days later over pizza at Chez - Pietro, Leslie seemed hurt when I told her that I had left her typewriter at � Therese's roam and hadn't used it yet. � Later, Sal warned me that if it were stolen from Therese's room, where things had already disappeared�and we all knew Therese never locked the door� "then'Leslie might stop financing the Philip Agee, an A:sociate Editor of CounterSpy, is author of CIA Diary and is a former CIA case officer: Coun terSpy 19. Approved for Release: 2018/06/17 C03258180. named Leslie. It seemed that his friend had a young Spanish friend, no longer in Geneva, who confided one day that his girlfriend was working for the CIA. The girl had told her boyfriend that the CIA had recruited her for assignment at the University of Geneva, where she was studying, and that while at the Univer- sity, the CIA paid her rent and salary. Moreover, according to Jorge, she re- vealed to her boyfriend that the CIA sent her to Paris to work against me. Her true name was Janet Strickland. It all saemed to fit but I wanted to be sure. This would not be-difficult because Janet Strickland was still in Geneva and was working for none other than the International Labor Organization. Leslie Donegan, good old Leslie, a spy at the ILO? This I had to see. I went around to Janet's apartment, no. 8 on the 8th floor of a big, new luxury building called Matutina Park at Avenue du Bouchet Though the building was not as tall, her Geneva pad was on the order of the modern studio that Leslie had taken in Paris for the summer of 1972. Security was fairly good�doors locked with entry controlled by the in- habitants through the electronic porter system. Still, I had to see her. We rang. No answer. Janet was probably away for the weekend. I went on to Milan. Over Christmas and New Years we had a family vacation in Italy, but during the first week of January 1976 I returned to Geneva. I had to see her face to know for sure if I had finally found Leslie. On Monday morning I waited for her, seated in Jorge's car with a scarf around my head, watching for Leslie to leave Matutina Park. Lots of people and cars came from the garage, but not Leslie. I went to the ILO. According to the ILO Staff List of February 1975, Janet Strickland was an employee of the Central Library and Documentation Branch. I wondered if that gave her access to all ILO docu- ments�not bad for a CIA agent�or whether her current CIA assignment was to spot possible new agents, perhaps from Third World countries, who would be recruited in Geneva and eventually sent back to their countries to continue working for the Agency. While still working for the CIA in the 1960's, I had learned that the Agency had a station under the cover of the U.S. Mission to the European Office of the U.N. in Geneva. I had also learned that this Station had among its priorities the recruitment of U.N. people and people in other organizations who could penetrate and exercise influence from the inside� an operation that seemed doomed if measured by the U.N. voting patterns Approved for Release: 2018/09/17 C03258180 against U.S. policies. The Geneva Station also had, as the Paris, London, and other European Sta- tions, the task of recruiting Third World people for use while in Europe, but especially for use when they returned to their home countries. Possibly one of Leslie-Janet's jobs was to arrange intro- ductions between CIA officers in the Mission and the possible agents she had been spotting and assessing. The officer under diplomatic cover would then take over the case, bring along the prospective agent to the point of recruitment, and, if such was not accepted, at least the woman would be protected and could continue with other possible agent re- cruits. Leslie would be perfect for that. I wondered which of the CIA officers in the Mission might be in charge of her case�already I had begin to identify the CIA officers in the Mission and there seemed to be about 12-15 not counting all the clerical, communications and other support personnel. � I entered the ILO building through the garage and walked around looking for stairways and elevators. I wanted a quick way to get out if Leslie-Janet recognized me and reacted strongly. At that moment I remembered her as a hard, tough woman with little feeling and maybe capable of violence. Janet's office was at the far end of the building, number 159 on the ninth floor. I walked down the long hallway from the elevator, took a deep breath, turned the corner and walked by number 159. Empty! Back down to the cafeteria, fifteen minutes. over coffee, no sight of Leslie there. Back up to the ninth floor. Down the hallway and around the corner to 159. There she was, talking on the telephone. I slowed down, almost stopped, to make absolutely sure it was her face. She was wearing a lot of make-up now but behind it all was my Leslie. She looked up at me, then down again without reaction as she continued her conversation. I don't think she recognized me�I looked different too, shorter hair, heavier, different clothes and glasses. Good! At least know where she is, and if luck holds she won't know that I've found her. And it' she and the CIA don't know, they won't be able to move her quickly to some other job or country. But then,'maybe she isn't still working for the CIA. Possibly, but why did they give her another identity when they sent her to Paris? Or is Janet Strickland an assumed identity too? But not that many people are willing to work as CIA agents. Not after Chile, cobra venom, shellfish toxin, poison dart guns, CHAOS and other crimes. Surely not after the escala- tion of torture and political repression in so many countries where the CIA has been hard at work. Leslie did her job in Paris,, so why wouldn't the CIA do everything in its power to keep her working in Geneva? Besides, that Matu- tina Park pad should demand a pretty rent�probably too much for a Grade Seven employe of the ILO. I wondered how she got the ILO job. Who recommended her? What personal references did she give? In any case she's had choice assignments: University of Geneva, Paris, then back to Geneva and the ILO. On June 9, 1976, I returned to the ILO �to obtain photographs to show to Janet- Leslie's old friends in Paris.* I had decided to confront her. She was now in a different office and when at first I entered, she acted as if she didn't know me, rather in jest. But as soon as she saw the photographers at work, she stood up, turned fearful, and tried to hurl one' of' the photographers across the office. She fled down the hallway, probably into another identity, another life. Perhaps someday with coordination we. can keep' moreof them, like Leslie, on the run. frokpproved for Release: 2018/09/17 C03258180 Approved for Release: 2018/09/17 C03258180 r , , THE KISSINGER STUDY OF SOUTHERN AFRICA, National Security Study Memorandum 39, Edited and Introduced by Mohamed El-Khawas and Barry Cohen, Lawrence Hill and co., 189 pages; paperback $3.95; Cloth $6.95. By Edgar Lockwood ' The end of white rule in southern Africa draws close] day by day. The collapse of the Portuguese colonial regime, brought about by the guerilla liberation armies, has shortened the time frame within which we look at the future. We are bound to feel now that the schedule will be written in years, not in decades as one might once have felt. The domino theory, while it has no validity as a forecast of white collapse, still has some use as a projection of a series of linked victories. First the crisis will come in Zimbabwe (Rhodesia), and white rule by a five percent minority will be ended; next it will be the turn of Namibians to liberate themselves; at length, by proceSses that can be intuitively felt but not known. South Africa itself, the heart of apart- heid's monster, will fall. For the United States government, what was once a matter of leisurely planning and haphazard rationalization of contradictory interests and political postures becomes a question of moment and urgency, full of allegedly global consequence. Secretary Kissinger's intervention in Angola makes it plain that, for him, the forces of communism, which had been defeated in the Congo in the Sixties, are winning new and dangerous influence in central and south- ern Africa, not only destabilizing the region but also threatening a momentous shift in the world balance of _power. Why this sequential conclusion should necessarily follow is a matter of puzzlement as well as almost daily comment. For this reason, if for no other, i' urgent that all Americans interested in these issues read this book. In it we have the original text, unexpurgated and unabridged, of a secret study memorandum prepared at Dr. Kissinger's direction in 1969 inaorder to furnish the National Security Council with options- for United States policy toward southern Africa. But isn't this by now outdated, and in any case, isn't it just a study paper? Was policy actually changed as a result of this study? , Of course, the memorandum is dated. It was written be- fore the Portuguese coup, before the defeat of the United States in Vietnam, before the Watergate scandals, before the Arabs imposed a new price for energy on the West, before the deterioration of capitalist economies because of inflation, scarcities of mineral supplies and energy, loss of productivity, etc.,�and before the Angolan war. The facts 22 CounterSpy of the memorandum can be brought up to . Mohamed El-Khawas and Barry Cohen have done ii. important and useful introduction. With this accompli:. , it will be seen that the "tangible interests" which forn thzi foundation of US policy under any of the five optio elaborated in the memorandum are much greater in th� , mid-seventies than they were in 1969. . By the end of 1974, US direct investment in Soutf Africa had risen to 40 percent of all US investment h � Africa from a level of 25.8 percent in 1968., At the sami time, trade had doubled without diminishin:; the two-to , one favorable balance. Arguing from the results anti � forqeeable trend, we can see that Option 2 has le amounted to an encouragement of US investment and � in South Africa. � State Department spokesmen tried to play down tht importance of National Security Study Memorandum 3S ' when it was first revealed in detail by Tad Szulc and het Anderson in the fall of 1974, saying that Option Two wai �� never chosen and that no decision was reached to chang� policy in accordance with Option Two. Technically, thes- statements may be correct, but they are in fact completelt., misleading, � Kissinger recommended to President Nixon in January � 1970, that. he approve a general posture of partial relaxa tion along the lines of Option Two as presented at the National Security Council meeting on December 10, 1969 This would mean, he wrote, balancing US relations in the area by compensating for, rather than abandoning, US tan� . gible interests in the white states, lowering the anti-apart- heid profile at the United Nations, quietly relaxing bilateral '� relations with South Africa by taking a less doctrinaire approach to mutual problems, avoiding pressure on the Portuguese and increasing aid (by about $5 million) and making other gestures to black states. Option Two was not adopted verbatim, true. Certain of its features given as operational examples were altered. Kissinger recommended that through 1970 at least the Navy continue to limit calls at South African ports to emer- Edgar Lockwood is .Director of the Washington Office On Africa in Washington, D.C. 'Approved for Release: 2018/09/1.7 C03258180 Approved for Release: 2018/09/17 C03258180 gencies only. Clearly, this sort of action remains too highly visible, invites racial antagonism in the crew and is a politi- cally volatile issue without any compensating necessity to require it. EXIM policies would be loosened some, but not all the way; the test seemingly was whether the.loosening up amounted tb a visible promotion of trade. Subsequently, the decisions taken were, apparently, incorporated in a National Security Decision Memorandum, dated close to the end of January, 1970. What Option Two represents is a compromise, a straddle between option One-which was advocated by the Depart- ment of Defense and is often called the Dean Acheson position, after its advocate over the years-and Option Three, which was a codification of the Kennedy-Johnson- era policy advocated by the State Department's liberal Africa Bureau. These advocacies continue. Thus, the repeal of the Byrd Amendment, which undercut US compliance with UN sanctions against Rhodesia, is , advocated profes- sionally by the Africa Bureau, yet disparaged, discouraged or delayed by Defense, Treasury and Commerce, each for a different reason which is thoroughly "tangible": strategic, commercial and economic. The result is' a kind of dichoto- my, a hypocritical, rhetorical stance which is politically unenacted and a continuing stasis in which the White House remains unwilling to bend Republican arms lest it offend its business patrons to put marginal pressure on the Ian Smith regime. Meanwhile, however, the Africa Bureau is gradually being weeded out. The liberals are being rusticated, Donald Easum, former Assistant Secretary for African Affairs, for example, has been removed and sent to Nigeria, having returned from a tour of Africa during which he spoke in forceful terms against South Africa's intransigence. Foreign policy .officers with experience in key countries of Latin America where CIA operations have been executed (such as Chile, Guatemala and Cuba) have been installed in South Africa, Zaire and elsewhere. These changes have not all been effective. Nathaniel Davis, for example, a veteran of Chile, opposed Kissinger's hardline policy on Angola, even though he had been appointed to succeed Easum (apparent- ly because -he was believed to be much more sensitive to Kissinger% wishes than Easum). � Within the dialectical process, however, the, synthesis of contradictory tendencies was achieved by the application of a Kissingerian analysis. By reading NSSM 39, we are allowed to see how the staff approached a problem by laying it out in its full actual detail with all US underlying interests bared�. What is so chilling is the rationality of what is so fundamentally wrong and morally desiccated. Here we see realpolitik at work in the nude, unclothed with diplo- matic rhetoric and unadorned by obfuscation. Here we can see the balancing of interests, the trade-offs and the con- siderations that, preoccupy the national security manager of our time, who has shaped US foreign policy for seven years, almost single-handedly. I agree fully with the admirable analysis of the authors' introduction to NSSM 39, which needs no further elabora- tion. Perhaps it may not be amiss to stress a few points which deserve special emphasis: First, the writers of the classified documen-t do not seem to understand what black people want when they say they want majority rule. The issue is defined as the -racial issue" or "discrimination". At no point is it defined as a transfer of power to Africans. The most that the NSSM writers could envision the United States working for would be "progress" involving "participation" by blacks in a white power structure, a qualified franchise, advances in wages and organizational power, etc. Such progress is similar to the proposal rejected recently by the moderate leader of the Zimbabwe African National Council (international wing), Joshua Nkomo. - Second, we should understand the new significance of a minerals shortage which has been illuminated and studied since the Arab oil embargo. South .Africa and Rhodesia are now more important to the survival of the inclustrialieed western world than ever before. Specifically, I would like to refer to the declassified version of a White House study of 16 strategic minerals, which was published in December 1974. (Special Report, Critical Imported- Materials, Wash- ington, D.C. Council on International Economic Policy, December, 1974.) Embargoes, of raw materials are highly unlikely. They do not Make economic sense in terms of pro- ducers' revenue objectives . An embargo, however, may be undertaken for political reasons, as in the case of the Arab oil producers ... Canada, Australia, or South Africa would be un- likely to participate in any embargo of exports to the United States, Western Europe or Japan. Since these three countries are the most important sources of raw materials for the United States (and are very impor- tant for Western Europe and Japan), any embargo threat for commodities they produce is greatly dimin- ished. If Western Europe proceeds with its projected plans to shift its energy sources to nuclear power, there will be a very significant shortage of nuclear fuel by 1980 unless new-enrichment facilities are brought into existence close to sources of uranium. South Africa has 30 percent of the world's uranium reserves and a new uranium enrichment process. Third, the United States intervention in .Angola meant that the United States began to assume active responsibility for securing the stability of the southern African region against liberation movements that , are anti-imperialist. Through the CIA, the US assisted in bringing about the active collaboration of South Africa-with Zambia, Zaire and two black political movements in a common plan of action. That it failed does-not mean that -similar kinds of opera- tions will not be attempted utilizing the lessons of that. experience. It is interesting to note in the NSSM 39 the em- phasis the authors place on South Africa and Zambia as key elements in the plan to stabilize the region. I am personally- very grateful that the publisher of this American edition has had the courage and the foresight to , put into the hands of ordinary citizens the plan facts about how "our" security is planned through collaboration with racist and fascist regimes. That knowledge should arm us to resist. Approved for Release:, 2018/09/17 C03258180- CounterSpy 23 Approved for Release: 2018/09/17 C03258180 West German Revolutionary Raped, Hanged in Cell New Evidence in MaMho! Case Points to Murder, Not Suicide Ulrike Meinhof, ii !coder of what the press calls the "Baader-Meinhol group," was strangled and raped in her cell in Stammheim prison, near Stuttgart, West Germany, according to new evidence pre set-iced at an international commission or inquiry held in Stuttgart August 26th by the German Writers Union. Previously undisclosed information, from police re- ports and autopsies, contradicted official government findings that she had com- mitted suicide by hanging herself with a towel. ' From the start, official reports of Meinhofs death in June were confused: contradictory accounts were issued about how the towel had been secured, and how officials found the position of her bociy. The official conclusion was that she had torn the towel into strips; knotted them into a rope; looped it around a metal window screen; then, with her head in the loop, jumped off a chair. An official autopsy was carried out hours after the discovery of the body and before her family or lawyers even had a chance to see the corpse. The Atit(1,sy, 24 CounterST pertprmed Joachim Haushke and Joachim Mallach. two professor, of fo- rensic medicine, reported t mat the body was found hanging with her left heel still resting on the chair. Farli2r accounts, however, had not mentioned any chair in her cell. Meinhot's lawyer were skep- tical and questioned how her foot could have been found resting on the chair. Did the chair exist? Hanging victims usually have violent convulsions; a( chair would have teen kicked away. This was not the only ccntlict in the autopsy report examined by CounterSpv. The report statas Meinhof w is dressed in dark corduroy pants, a shirt t with its sleeves rolled up) and dark socks. Raushke and Mallach too id saliva on Menthol's skin, a common feature of death by hanging or straagdaticto But it ran from her hrethit to her navel, suggest- ing she v, as not fully clothed when she _ died. The most damaging evidt rice present- ed at the inquiry...vas a report trim the Stu tti.;art public prosecutor which docu- mented that semen was found on Mein- Approved for Release: 2018/09/17 C03258180 hors underwear. The official autops. also found small, blue patches, possibl. bruises, on Nfeinhof s legs; similar rr ark are often found on victims of rape. Tin autopsy dismisses the marks as "with-' sieniticonce" and concludes that Li - Meinhof hanged herself. Another examination of the bo-11:. ducted two days later, raised rnor- tions. The Meinhof family hroi:,;: other forensic expert, Werner perform the autopsy. He foil parts of the body cut away termined it was impossib! reconstruct exactly wha-. '� The fingernails had bee- that he could find no �.;ence of fiber under the nails to indicate when or not Meinhof herself had handled tr: towel. Janssen also noted the blue patches on both legs and said they were inflicted by blunt objects while she was still alive. 3u- he added; "This could have been the con sequence of hurting herself while hr_ro, ing.- He also noted that the conjunctiv a delicate membrane that lines the o lids, showed no signs of bleeding. C(....� terS py has shown copies of both autc.3- - reports to Dr. Cyril Wecht, a well-known forensic pathologist and Pittsburgh cor- oner. Dr. Wecht stated that an absence of conjunctival bleeding is most unusual where death is caused by hanging, and is more typical of strangulation. Janssen was reluctant to comment on the significance of his findings. His re- port concludes that there was no proof of third-party involvement in the death. But he emphasized thatfor a final evalu- ation, all the tests conducted in the pre- vious autopsy should be made availaiple, as well as reports of how the body was discovered in the cell. Lawyers sought expert medical advice from pathologists outside of German:: and many of these experts have four.. other puzzling aspects to the case. .For example, the fracture of the hyoid bone at the base of the tongue�found in both Approved for Release: 2018/09/17 C03258180 autopsies�revealed throttling, not a suicidal hanging. The fact that the aorta was apparently undamaged also pointed to murder. The commission of inquiry raised the possibility that Meinhot's death had political motivations. Meinhof, 41 when she died, was one of the leading New Left journalists in West Germany during the 1960's. She and her husband, Klaus Rainer Riihl, edited a Hamburg magazine, Konkret, which was instrumental in the growth of Germany's New Left. Its editorial style was modern and adventurous; in the words of the New York Times, it preferred "the methods of Playboy to those of Pravda." Meinhof and her husband raised nearly $250,000 from the orthodox East Ger- man Communist Party to finance Kon- kret but they never promoted an ortho- dox line. Although both were members of the then secret West German Com- munist Party, Konkret often criticized orthodox communism.' Yet her brilliant polemics, during the decade that Kon- kret unified the German opposition to the Vietnam war, reveal more affection for the red flag than the black. Meinhof and her contributions to Konkret, were instrumental in the achievements of the German militant left �seizing the West'Berlin Free Univers- ity, organizing tens of thousands of pro- test marchers to descend on Bonn, and, eventually, developing factions propos- ing to take power through armed strug- gle. Motivating Meinhof was her desire to transform the German youth move- ment into a mass force against American imperialism. She saw the left debilitated and reduced to theoretical impotence by never-ending defeats in decades bf struggle. � But Meinhof, like many American New Leftists, grew weary of the abstract idealism of the 60's. She also feared the random violence she saw perpetrated by Western Europe's most prosperous and powerful society. By the 1970's she had rejected what her husband termed "Christian paci- fism." She broke with Konkret and left Taking her twin daughters with her, she moved to West Berlin and began a new life devoted to the plight of the un- derprivileged�from orphans to convicts �recruiting for the revolution as she went along. Although her friends say she missed the old world of artists, poets, witty conversation, and left-wing cocktail parties, she was soon an established figure in the world of shabby, zealous, blue-jeaned radicals. She wrote a cri- tique of Konkret editorial policies de- nouncing the magazine for its nude pin-ups and its role as an "organ of counter-revolution." She was convinced now that a German revolution called for more direct measures than those offered by the peace demonstrations she organ- ized or publications she edited. She saw urban guerrilla warfare as the only means available to achieve her original goal of a mass ariti-i mperialist movement guided by Marxist principles. In 1968, she met Andres Baader. 'Baader had turned his back on the temp- tations of his father's middle-class edu- cational ideals and had become a fiery preacher of violent revolution. He and his comrade, Gudrun Ensslin, whose father was a Protestant pastor, had been arrested for setting fire to two Frankfurt department stores. Meinhof interviewed him and caused a stir by writing in her Konkret column that the-acts of arson were politically "progressive." She said they represented audacious defiance of the law. In 1970, Meinhof became in- volved in a plot to free Baader from jail. The escape attempt was daring but successful. Meinhof, Baader; Ensslin and Jan- Carl Raspe formed the Red Army Frac- tion�the first and foremost of Ger- many's urban guerrilla groups. Meinhof saw the group as a "fraction" of an eventual proletarian army (in English, the name of the group is often mis- translated as "Red Army Faction"). But to the press they were, and are, the Baader-Meinhof Group. Starting in 1970, the Red Army Frac- tion initiated an urban guerrilla offen- sive. Millions of people watched their ex- ploits on television. A surprisingly high percentage of young Germans indicated in a poll that they liked the idealism of the guerrilla movement and, hypotheti- cally would help them bide or get away. Many older Germans thought the Red Army Fraction members should be shot by a firing squad. Hardly a day went by without the police reporting some new incident. American installations in West Germany, such as the National Security Agency headquarters in the 1.G. Farben building in Frankfurt (used for U.S. in- telligence coordination during the Viet- nam war) were fire-bombed; other ac- tions against U.S. military presence in Germany; and frequent shoot-outs with police. Eventually, other groups emerged _ continued on page 35 Above: Ulrike Meinhof after the mur- der. German officials want us to believe the strange mark on her neck was left by the towel with which she supposedly hung herself The May 20, 1976 issue of Der Stern, magazine which ran this photo never got into the United States. Stern is the only magazine that has received the photo and even the Mein- hors lawyers cannot get their hands on an original. The photo was a two- page spread, thus the faint line down the middle. Political observers believe the photo ran as a scare tactic ci,linst German leftist. Approved for Release: 2018/09/17 C03258180 CounterSpy 25 Approved for Release: 2018/09/17 C03258180 Earthquake Ailhariare Preliminary .Report on Pentagon's Unthinkable Plans By Robert Friedman Is earthquake warfare on the Pentagon's drawing boards'? Far-fetched as the idea may seem, seismologists -- many of them working under con tr t with the Defense Department-- have learned over the past decade of at least two ways of. causing earthquakes. While the Pentagon's Advanced Re- search Projects Agency (ARPA), which funded some of the research, says that the U.S: does not now have the mili- tary capability of setting off earth- quakes, it does admit that it has explored the feasibility of seismo- logical warfare. CouraerTy's interest in artificial earthquake; began when former Lt. Col. Anthony Herbert who was forced out of the Army in 1972 for tryring, to expose war crimes in Viet- nam- revealed in an interview that he had been assigned in the mid-1 960's to gather intelligence on potential sites for the planting of, underground and underwater nuclear devices. Aca cording to. Herbert, these devices were to be placed along a fault runnia from Kenya up through the Persian Gulf with :he specific purpose of trig gering earthquakes. the U.S. planner_ to activate the bombs, Herbert said, as a final military strategy should tin, region be lost to hostile torces. Herbert's reconnaissance \vork v.:e; conducted from 19Os-6o under orderi; from the Secretary of Defense, Rubel-. S. McNamara_ At the time, Herber: was stationed in the Middle aboard "The Little White Fleet' three military spy ships that sailer. under diplomatic cover. He and group of divers explored the floor o the Persian Gulf', collected soil samples. and, in some cases, inserted inopera- tive "clay plugs- the size of a portable Robert Friedman, a freelone.