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Approved for Release: 2018/10/05 C05164492 CIA HAS NO OBJECTION TO DECLASSIFICATION AND/OR RELEASE OF THIS DOCUMENT DATE: 10-05-2018 International Terrorism: Hostage Seizures A statistical overview of international terrorist hostage seizures from January 1968 through December 1982. March 1983 Approved for Release: 2018/10/05 C05164492 Approved for Release: 2018/10/05 C05164492 Terrorism: The threat or use of violence for political purposes by individuals or groups, whether acting for or in opposi- tion to established governmental author- ity, when such actions are intended to shock, stun, or intimidate a target group wider than the immediate victims. Terror- ism has involved groups seeking to over- throw specific regimes, to rectify per- ceived national or group grievances, or to undermine international order as an end in itself. international Terrorism: Terrorism con- ducted with the support of a foreign government or organization and/or direct- ed against foreign nationals, institutions, or governments. Approved for Release: 2018/10/05 C05164492 Approved for Release: 2018/10/05 C05164492 International Terrorism: Hostage Seizures On 27 February 1980, the Dominican Republic's Embassy in Bogota, Colom- bia, hosted a reception attended by dip- lomats from 17 countries, including US Ambassador Diego Asencio. Amidst the measured cadences of international di- plomacy, 12 members of the Colombian terrorist organization M-19, dressed in soccer uniforms, stormed the front of the building, exchanging gunfire with the guards. Simultaneously, other M-19 ter- rorists, already inside the Embassy and disguised as guests, drew their weapons and secured the building from within. During the takeover frightened diplomats shouted from Embassy windows alerting outsiders that there were wounded inside and warning that any precipitous police action might cause a massacre. The siege and negotiations dragged on for two months. Isolated and unsure of the pace of negotiations, all of the diplomats lived with the daily fear of death and some showed clear signs of depression and mental fatigue. Finally, on 27 April after weeks of careful negotiations, the Colombian Government reached an agreement with the terrorists ending this hostage-and-barricade situation. This single event focused worldwide attention on Colombia and catapulted the M-19 to new prominence as a terrorist group. International terrorists have employed a wide variety of violent means in pursuit of their goals, including complex and stressful hostage-and-barricade operations similar to the one described above. While such hostage seizures represent only a small portion of all terrorist activity, they are among the most spectacular types of event. Hostage-and-barricade situations 1 require a governmental response, draw the attention of the international media, gener- ally involve a well-trained and experienced terrorist organization, and often place their victims under severe and prolonged emo- tional stress. During the last 15 years, hostage seizures have been conducted by 188 groups and have victimized more than 3,000 individ- uals from all parts of the world. This paper provides a statistical overview of terrorist kidnapings and hostage-and-barricade op- erations conducted during 1968-82.1 General Findings � The annual number of hostage seizures has varied widely, ranging from one re- corded incident in 1968 to 63 in 1975. � Hostage seizures composed 540, or 7 percent, of the almost 8,000 terrorist attacks which occurred during this peri- od. Of the 3,162 hostages seized, 91 victims were killed and 106 wounded. Approximately 20 percent of all hostage operations resulted in death or personal injury to the victims, compared with roughly 30 percent of all international terrorist attacks. � Almost half of all hostage seizures oc- curred in Latin America, with much of the remainder roughly divided between Western Europe and the Middle East. ' See appendixes A-C for the terrorist groups responsible, nationalities of the victims, and countries in which these hostage seizures oc- curred. Appendix D is a chronology of selected terrorist incidents involving hostage seizures during the last 15 years. Approved for Release: 2018/10/05 C05164492 Approved for Release: 2018/10/05 C05164492 International Terrorist Incidents Involving Hostage Seizure January 1968-December 1982 80 60 40 20 1 I I I I_ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 Total: 540 � Concessions in exchange for hostage release were demanded from 56 coun- tries and 46 companies or private organi- zations. These demands included mon- ey, release of fellow terrorists held in jail, publication of a political statement, and safe departure to another country for the terrorists. � Twenty-four countries�most often Cuba, Libya, Algeria, and South Ye- men�have granted asylum to terrorists after a hostage seizure. � The number of hostage seizures�both kidnapings and hostage-and-barricade operations�directed against diplomats as a discrete category of victim has been rising in recent years. 2 � Governments are dealing with hostage seizures more effectively. Records for the last three years show an increase in the number of incidents in which hostages were successfully rescued or freed with only minor concessions to the terrorists. Types of Hostage Seizures In this publication, we consider two types of hostage seizures: kidnapings�defined as the seizure of one or more victims who are subsequently moved to a hideout� and hostage-and-barricade situations� Approved for Release: 2018/10/05 C05164492 Approved for Release: 2018/10/05 C05164492 defined as the seizure of a facility with whatever hostages are available.2 In both cases, the release of hostages is made contingent on meeting the terrorists' demands. Kidnapings. During 1968-82, we record- ed 409 kidnapings involving 951 hostages. Although kidnapings occurred every year, most took place in the mid-1970s, when Argentine terrorists routinely kidnaped US businessmen for ransom. Kidnapers es- caped with their hostages in more than 80 percent of all recorded attempts and col- lected a ransom in almost 70 percent of the cases in which a ransom was demand- ed. Kidnaping attacks resulted in 36 deaths, including seven US citizens, and 62 woundings, including 11 US citizens. Hostage and Barricade. Since 1968 we have recorded 131 hostage-and-barricade operations, in which 2,211 victims from 45 countries were seized. Two-thirds of these operations were directed against embas- sies or consulates. Thirty terrorist groups conducted hostage-and-barricade opera- tions in 46 countries, demands for money or political change were made on 56 gov- ernments, and at least 55 victims were killed and 44 wounded in these attacks. Our records show that, in 75 percent of the attacks, the terrorists achieved at least a portion of their demands, and in 44 per- cent they obtained safe passage from the scene. Attacks in 1982 During 1982 international terrorists con- ducted 30 hostage seizures. This is 11 fewer than recorded in 1981. The most significant decrease occurred in Latin America, where the number declined from an average of 24 per year during 1968-81 to only 10 recorded incidents in 1982. A third category, skyjackings�the seizure of an airplane with whatever hostages are aboard�is covered in a separate publication. 3 One highly publicized incident took place on 7 August when two Armenian terrorists attempted a hostage seizure at the Ankara Airport. When their attempt failed, the ter- rorists fired into a group of passengers and exploded a bomb in a customs area. Nine people were killed (including one US citi- zen) , and 70 were wounded. One terrorist was wounded by the police, and the other fled to an airport cafeteria where he seized hostages. He negotiated with the police for about 30 minutes but was killed when police stormed the cafeteria. Major kidnapings during 1982 included six conducted by Kurdish rebels in Iraq, three by Turkish terrorists, and three by foreign terrorists in Lebanon. Two other kidnap- ings, highly publicized incidents involving Americans, occurred in July. As of early 1983, both cases remained unsolved and the fates of the victims unknown. In Beirut on 19 July, David Dodge, the Acting Presi- dent of the American University, was ab- ducted by unidentified gunmen. On 23 July nine tourists�Americans, Britains, and Australians�were seized in Zimbabwe by armed dissidents, who subsequently re- leased only the three female hostages. International Terrorist Groups Since the beginning of 1968, a total of 188 terrorist groups from every part of the world have seized hostages (see appendix A) . About 25 groups conduct hostage seizures in an average year. This average has decreased slightly even though the total number of groups conducting terrorist operations has increased. In 1970, for ex- ample, 49 groups claimed credit for some kind of terrorist attack, and 24 groups carried out hostage seizures. In 1975, 111 groups claimed credit for attacks, and 35 seized hostages. In 1981, 131 groups claimed credit for attacks, and 19 seized hostages. Our records show that hostages were successfully rescued by forces from Britain, the Philippines, Turkey, Italy, Approved for Release: 2018/10/05 C05164492 Approved for Release: 2018/10/05 C05164492 Cuba, and Mexico in 1980 and by forces from Indonesia, Bolivia, France, Pakistan, Poland, Sweden, Spain, and the Nether- lands in 1981. Although Palestinian terrorists have not been active in the past few years, they still conducted over 10 percent of all interna- tional attacks during the 15-year period, including the most hostage seizures. A total of 14 Palestinian terrorist groups con- ducted almost 100 hostage-seizure opera- tions in 15 countries. These incidents ranged from the September 1972 Munich Olympic attacks by Black September and the May 1974 attack on Maalot by the Popular Democratic Front for the Libera- tion of Palestine to relatively minor kidnap- ings conducted in Beirut and other Middle Eastern cities. Although most Palestinian attacks are directed against Israeli citizens, Jews and non-Jews from 15 other coun- tries have been taken hostage. The Peoples Revolutionary Army (ERP) in Argentina also often used hostage seizures to achieve a wide range of goals including publicity, financial gain, and the erosion of government authority. ERP, virtually wiped out during the mid-1970s, was a domestic group that also attacked foreigners in Ar- gentina. Although it primarily kidnaped US businessmen and officials, it also seized citizens from Chile, Austria, Italy, Denmark, the United Kingdom, Switzerland, and France. Its operations included the June 1973 kidnaping of the president of Fire- stone's Buenos Aires subsidiary and two kidnapings of the president of a British firm�Roberts and Company�once in 1973, when he was released in exchange for a $2 million ransom, and again in 1975, when he was rescued after a police shoot- out. Another group, the Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) of Spain, primarily con- ducts domestic operations, although it of- ten seizes foreigners in Spain to collect ransom or to discredit the Spanish regime. It has kidnaped at least one foreigner in Spain every year since 1970. These at- tacks have mostly been against officials or businessmen from other European coun- tries. 4 Hostage-Seizure Victims During the past 15 years, 3,162 victims from 73 countries (see appendix B) were taken hostage by international terrorists. West Europeans were the most frequent targets, followed by North Americans. Citi- zens from the other regions account for only about 35 percent of all hostage sei- zures. Diplomats and other official govern- ment representatives were seized in almost half of all hostage takings, while business- men were the victims of another one-fourth of such attacks. Countries whose citizens have been the most frequently victimized are the United States, France, the United Kingdom, West Germany, and Italy. At- tacks against those nationalities account for about half of all hostage seizures. Americans were by far the most often seized. Of the 540 hostage seizures, US citizens were victims in 155. The number of countries whose citizens have been seized has remained rather con- stant since 1968. We recorded hostages from 16 countries in 1970, 19 in 1975,. and 21 in 1981. This is in sharp contrast to other types of attacks, for which the num- ber of countries involved has increased dramatically during the last 10 years. Since 1968 government representatives have been taken hostage by international terrorists in 220 separate seizures. These representatives were from 57 different countries, most often the United States, France, West Germany, and the United Kingdom. Seizures occurred in 57 coun- tries with almost half in Latin America, especially in Mexico, Brazil, and Colombia. More than 1200, people were taken hos- tage in these attacks. The following inci- dents were among the most publicized: � The M-19 attack on the Dominican Em- bassy in Bogota on 27 February 1980; 57 hostages were seized, including am- bassadors from 11 countries. � The Japanese Red Army attack on the US Consulate in Kuala Lumpur on 4 August 1975; 52 hostages were seized, including diplomats from the United States, Japan, Sweden, and Malaysia. Approved for Release: 2018/10/05 C05164492 t Approved for Release: 2018/10/05 C05164492 International Terrorist Incidents Involving Hostage Seizure, By Nationality of Victims January 1968�December 1982 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 o North America Total: 540 Latin Western America Europe USSR/ Eastern Europe Sub- Saharan Africa Middle Asia Other East/ North Africa Locations of Attacks Although hostage seizures were concen- trated in Latin America and Western Eu- rope, almost every major country experi- enced at least one such attack. Since 1968 hostage seizures have been recorded in 73 countries (see appendix C) and, on an average, occurred in about 25 different countries each year. More than one-third of the attacks, however, took place in only six countries. The greatest number oc- curred in Lebanon, which, until the 1982 Israeli invasion, was a virtual crossroads of international terrorism, with almost every major Middle Eastern terrorist group repre- sented in Beirut. Other countries in which a 5 large number of hostage seizures have occurred are El Salvador, Mexico, Guate- mala, Colombia, and Ethiopia. In these countries attacks were generally carried out by indigenous groups against foreign targets, most often representatives from the United States and European countries. Latin America. During 1968-82 we re- corded 249 hostage seizures by interna- tional terrorists in Latin America, almost half of the world total. This primarily re- flects domestic violence in several nations and the effects of its spillover into the international arena. Although citizens from 34 countries were held hostage in Latin Approved for Release: 2018/10/05 C05164492 Approved for Release: 2018/10/05 C05164492 Number of International Terrorist Incidents Involving Hostage Seizure, 1968-82 The United Slates Government has not recognized tIt. incorporation of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuanla into the Soviet Union. Other boundary representation is not necessarily authoritative. 505763 (547564) 3-83 82 (15.2%) Western Europe 254 , (47.0%) Latin America 1 (0.2%) Eastern Europe/Soviet Union 102 (18.9%) tiorth Africa/Middle East 58 (10.7%) Sub-Saharan Africa America, the kidnapings of US business- men accounted for almost one-fourth of all hostage seizures in that region. Western Europe. Every year since we began keeping records, both European and non-European terrorists have conduct- ed operations in Western Europe, where they are likely to receive publicity and where movement is relatively easy. We have recorded 82 hostage-seizure inci- dents there since 1968. These seizures were most numerous during the mid-1970s when Palestinian terrorists were most ac- tive. The number decreased somewhat in the late 1970s but increased again in 1980-81, primarily because of Armenian and Red Brigades activity. During the 15 years, international terrorist groups from 27 countries conducted hostage-seizure operations in Western Europe against citi- zens from 32 countries. Half of all hostage seizures in Western Europe were carried out by non-European terrorists against non-European victims. 6 31 (5.8%) Asia/Pacific Outcomes of Hostage Seizures Asylum for Terrorists. In more than 50 hostage-seizure cases, the terrorists were able to obtain safe passage for themselves and asylum in a friendly country. Although 24 countries have granted asylum to ter- rorists, Libya and Cuba were involved in almost half of the cases. Cuba has primari- ly granted asylum to leftwing groups in Latin America, such as the M-19 in Colom- bia and the Peoples Revolutionary Armed Forces in Mexico. Libya has granted asy- lum to many different groups, although most often to Palestinian terrorists. Libya has also granted asylum to terrorists in- volved in some of the more notorious inci- dents, such as the seizure of the US Con- sulate in Malaysia by the Japanese Red Army in 1975. Approved for Release: 2018/10/05 C05164492 Approved for Release: 2018/10/05 C05164492 Release of Hostages. From 1970 through 1982, meaningful negotiations resulted in the release of hostages in 42 instances.3 In those incidents with successful outcomes: � The terrorists often allowed outsiders to substitute for the hostages originally seized. The practice of hostage substitu- tion suggests a willingness by the terror- ists to negotiate in good faith and a certain dedication to reaching a settlement. � The terrorists set fewer deadlines during negotiations, thereby allowing for ongo- ing discussions and avoiding the need to demonstrate the credibility of their threats. � Few of the events were barricade situa- tions. Barricade incidents are high-ten- sion situations for all parties involved and tend to produce a psychological climate that reduces chances for a nonviolent outcome. � The release of prisoners�perhaps the most difficult concession for a govern- ment to make�generally was not stipu- lated or maintained as a nonnegotiable demand by the terrorists. Of the 534 hostage seizures during this 12-year period, only 63 involved meaningful negotiations with a series of exchanges between terrorists and government; in 42 incidents all the hostages were released, in 21 incidents some or all of the hostages were killed. 7 Approved for Release: 2018/10/05 C05164492 Approved for Release: 2018/10/05 C05164492 Appendix A Terrorist Groups Responsible for Hostage Seizures This list contains the names of organizations responsible either by claim or attribution for specific hostage seizures reflected in the statistics. Some of these seizures may have taken place without the approval or even the foreknowledge of the leaders of the organizations involved. Certain of the claims of responsibility are probably false. Some of the names listed may be fictional ones invented by organizations not wishing to accept responsibility for particular actions or by criminals or psychotics for their own purposes. In other cases or- ganizations may have claimed credit for (or have been blamed for) actions they did not take. Group Nationality Afghanistan Dissidents Led by Afghanistan Sahruddin Baez Ananda Marg India April 19 Movement (M-19) Colombia Arab Liberation Front Palestine Arab National Youth Organization Palestine for the Liberation of Palestine Argentine Forces of Liberation Argentina Armed Forces of the Chadian Revolution Chad Armed Forces of the El Salvador National Resistance Armed Revolutionary El Salvador Party of the People Armenian Secret Army for the Armenia Liberation of Armenia (ASALA) Army of National Liberation Colombia Bandera Roja (Red Flag) Venezuela Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) Spain ETA-Military (ETA-M) ETA-Political/Military (ETA-PM) Black June Palestine Black September Organization Palestine Black 1902 Thailand Charles Martel Group France Cuba National Liberation Front Cuba Democratic Party for the Mozambique Liberation of Mozambique Eagles of the Palestinian Revolution Lebanon Eritrean Liberation Forces Ethiopia Eritrean Liberation Forces General Command 9 Approved for Release: 2018/10/05 C05164492 Approved for Release: 2018/10/05 C05164492 Group Nationality Farabundo Marti Liberation Forces El Salvador Fatah (Al Fatah) Palestine February 28 Popular League El Salvador Freedom for People Organization Iran Front for the Liberation of Quebec (FLQ) Canada Guerrilla Army of the Poor Guatemala Honduran Revolutionary Union Honduras Iberian Federation of Libertarian Youth Spain International Revolutionary Cells West Germany Invisible Ones Colombia January 12 Liberation Movement Dominican Republic January 31 Popular Front Guatemala Japanese Red Army Japan June 2 Movement West Germany Kurdish Liberation Army Iraq Kurdish United Socialist Party Iraq Marxist-Leninist Armed Propaganda Unit Turkey Montoneros Argentina Moro National Liberation Front Philippines National Democratic Popular Front Mexico National Liberation Front of Chad Chad National Liberation Party Lebanon National Organization of Cypriot Fighters Cyprus National Union for the Total Angola Independence of Angola (UNITA) October 1st Anti-Fascist Revolutionary Spain Group (GRAPO) Pakistan Liberation Army Pakistan Patriotic Union of Kurdistan Iraq Peoples Guerrilla Army Guatemala Peoples Liberation Armed Forces Mexico Peoples Revolutionary Armed Forces Mexico Peoples Revolutionary Army Argentina Peoples Revolutionary Vanguard Brazil Philippine Moslem Rebels Philippines Popular Colorado Movement Paraguay Popular Democratic Front for the Palestine Liberation of Palestine (PDFLP) Popular Front for the Palestine Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine General Command (PFLP-GC) 10 Approved for Release: 2018/10/05 C05164492 z Approved for Release: 2018/10/05 C05164492 Group Nationality Popular Liberation Forces El Salvador Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola Cabinda Popular Revolutionary Bloc El Salvador Proletarian Justice Italy Provisional Irish Republican Army Ireland Rebel Armed Forces Guatemala Red Army Faction (RAF) West Germany Red Brigades Italy Red Resistance Front Netherlands Revolutionary Action Front Honduras Revolutionary Armed Forces Mexico Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia Colombia Revolutionary Left (Dev Sol) Turkey Revolutionary Student Front Mexico Revolutionary Way (Dev Yol) Turkey Revolutionary Workers Party El Salvador Saiqa (Al Sai'qa) Palestine/Syria Secret Anti-Communist Democratic Front Guatemala September 23 Communist League Mexico Somali Liberation Front Somalia South Moluccans Netherlands Tupamaros Uruguay Turkish People's Liberation Front (TPLF) Turkey Turkish Revolutionary Youth Federation Turkey United Popular Action Front El Salvador Zaire People's Revolutionary Party Zaire 11 Approved for Release: 2018/10/05 C05164492 pproved for Release: 2018/10/05 005164492 Appendix B Countries Whose Citizens Have Been Held Hostage By International Terrorists, 1968-82 United States me ic Kiribati Belize Orgcijara Guatemala- El Salvador ' The Bahamas Cuba Dominican Haiti) Republic Jamaica ragua Antigua and Barbuda St Lucia � oom,�,�ha � st ,0,1Cent 11P0 Gresadnes vr. .d .5 Grenada Trinidad and Tobago Guyana Surinarne French Guiana Costa Rica I Panama Greenland (Den.) Iceland Svalbard (Nor.) Norway Sweden Finland Denmark " United Ireland Kingdom r lad GB Poland s '''Hung'-rania il,,,-,-.Germany Czech France , � Sa Monaco 5 Mnarino, 'yugoslavie Aust ROrn ne- Anrinda' - P�auga{r Spain Morocco Al Western saharari Italy - Bulgaria ct40" Alb ' (Tunisia Turkey Greece Malta CypruLes - s banon Iraq Israel uliwait Iran 'Jordan Egypt Bahrain r Qatar Saudi Arabia U.A.E. Mauritan Carte � Verde Sene-g2, The Gambia Guinea-Bissau G Sierra Leortc� IC Liberia Niger Chad in )1, Nigeria / 2 CAR /Camaro�n Togo Sao Some. vr. and Principe" Equatorial Guinea Yemen Yemen Ethiopia 7 Somalia da f )eetya1. Oman Seychelles Ozambigue The United States Government has not rorawsnired the ,noorporstion of Estonia. Latvia, and Lithuania into the Soviet Union, Names and boundary representation :me not neumsarily authoritative Soviet Union Afghanistan dagascar Mau"'" esotho abiland Pakista China Maid eit a t BangtacleSh -7, ,Taman India . -B Burma , s< ,poit } Macau Kong r U K 1 ., si"--'-�, , 'Vietnam . It,na117.dmp:che. Sri Lanka N. ,Korea S. Korea Philippines Japan sours Vanuatu'', New Zealand Tuvalu Kiribati Western , Samoa " � . pproved for Release: 2018/10/05 005164492 13 Approved for Release: 2018/10/05 C05164492 Appendix C Locations of International Terrorist Attacks Involving Hostage Seizure Afghanistan France Peru Algeria Greece Philippines Angola Guatemala Saudi Arabia Argentina Haiti Sierra Leone Australia Honduras Somalia Austria Iran South Africa Bangladesh Iraq South Yemen (PDRY) Belgium Ireland Soviet Union Bolivia Israel Spain Botswana Italy Sudan Brazil Jordan Sweden Burma Kuwait Switzerland Burundi Lebanon Syria Canada Lesotho Tanzania Chad Luxembourg Thailand Chile Malaysia Trinidad and Tobago Colombia Mexico Tunisia Costa Rica Morocco Turkey Cuba Mozambique Uganda Cyprus Namibia United Kingdom Denmark Netherlands Uruguay Dominican Republic Nicaragua Venezuela Ecuador Norway West Germany El Salvador Pakistan Zaire Ethiopia Paraguay 15 Approved for Release: 2018/10/05 C05164492 Approved for Release: 2018/10/05 C05164492 Appendix D A Chronology of Selected Significant Hostage Seizures, 1968-82 1970 7 June Jordan. Members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) seized 60 hostages, including American, British, Canadian, and West German citizens, at the Intercontinental and Philadelphia Hotels in Amman to protest the bombardment of Palestinian refugee camps by the Jordanian Army. The hostages were released on 12 June, the day after a cease-fire was arranged in Amman between the Jordanian Army and the Palestinian guerrillas. The hostages then joined 500 foreigners who were evacuated to Beirut in an airlift organized by the International Committee of the Red Cross. 31 July Uruguay. US AID official Dan A. Mitrione was kidnaped by Tupamaro guerrillas who demanded the release of all political prisoners in Uruguay. The government refused to negotiate, and Mitrione was found dead in Montevideo. 5 October Canada. James Richard Jasper Cross, the British Trade Commissioner in Quebec, was kidnaped from his Montreal home by the Front for the Liberation of Quebec (FLQ). Five days later another FLQ cell kidnaped the Quebec Minister of Labor, Guy La Porte. The kidnapers of Cross demanded the release of 23 FLQ members held by police. They also demanded that the families of the prisoners be provided safe passage by air from Montreal to Cuba or Algeria. The government rejected the demands, but offered safe conduct out of the country for the kidnapers. On 16 October the government invoked emergency powers, authorizing police and troops to conduct searches and arrest without warrants. On 18 October, the Minister's body was found in a car trunk. This led to a massive hunt for the kidnapers, with 500 individuals being arrested. Cross's kidnapers released him unharmed and surrendered on 3 Decem- ber. 1 December Spain. West German Honorary Consul, Eugen Biehl, was kidnaped near San Sebastian by members of the Basque separatist organization, ETA. His captors demanded the release of all ETA members imprisoned in Spain, including 16 Basque separatists who were on trial in Burgos for killing a police chief. Biehl was freed on Christmas day, but six separatists received death sentences, nine more were sentenced to terms of 12 to 70 years' imprisonment, and only one was acquitted. 17 Approved for Release: 2018/10/05 C05164492 Approved for Release: 2018/10/05 C05164492 1971 8 January Uruguay. Sir Geoffrey M. S. Jackson, British Ambassador to Uruguay, was kidnaped in Montevideo by the Tupamaros. The group demanded the release of 150 political prisoners. On 11 January President Pacheco Areco asked congress for a 90-day special police power to conduct a search. The 11-member legislative commission granted him a 40-day suspension of individual rights. The government remained firm in its refusal to negotiate for Jackson's release, and on 22 May offered a $50,000 reward for information on his whereabouts. On 6 September 106 Tupamaros, including their leader Raul Sendic, escaped from prison by digging a tunnel. On 8 September the Tupamaros announced that they no longer had a need to detain Jackson. He was found alive the next day on the steps of a parish church in a Montevideo residential district after an unidentified woman had phoned the UK Embassy. 10 February Sweden. Two Croatian emigres seized the Yugoslav Consulate in Gote- borg, took three staff members hostage, and demanded the release of a Croatian terrorist imprisoned in Yugoslavia. The Yugoslav Government refused to meet their demands, and the terrorists surrendered the next day to Swedish authorities. They were tried and sentenced to three and a half years' imprisonment. On 16 September 1972 they were released and flown to Madrid after three Croatians hijacked a Scandinavian airliner and demanded their freedom, along with the release of five Croatians involved in the assassination of the Yugoslav Ambassador on 7 April 1971. 17 May Turkey. The Israeli Consul General in Istanbul, Ephraim Elrom, was kidnaped by four armed Turkish leftists. The government immediately began an intensive search for the kidnaped diplomat and his abductors. The kidnapers were members of the Turkish People's Liberation Front (TPLF) . Deputy Premier Sadi Kocas reiterated in the Senate on 18 May that the government had "no intention of bargaining with a handful of adventurers." He also announced the arrest of a major suspect, Ayhan Yalin. The Israeli Government expressed its confidence in the action of the Turkish Government in attempting to save Elrom. The police found Elrom's body on 23 May in an apartment less than 500 meters from the Israeli Consulate. 1972 5 September West Germany. The Black September Organization broke into the Israeli quarters at the Olympic Games in Munich and took nine hostages. They demanded the release of 236 guerrillas in Israeli jails, the release of German terrorists Andreas Baader and Ulrike Meinhof, and safe passage to a foreign country. During a shootout when police stormed the building, the hostages, five of the terrorists, and a West German policeman were killed. The three surviving terrorists, two of whom were wounded, were released after the hijacking of a Lufthansa jet the following month. 18 28 December Thailand. Four members of the Black September Organization seized the Israeli Embassy in Bangkok and took 12 hostages, one of whom was the Israeli Ambassador to Cambodia. They demanded the release of 36 Approved for Release: 2018/10/05 C05164492 Approved for Release: 2018/10/05 C05164492 terrorists imprisoned in Israel. The Israeli Government did not comply, but after 18 hours Thai authorities and the Egyptian Ambassador persuaded the terrorists to free their hostages in return for safe conduct to Cairo. 1973 23 January Haiti. Three Haitians kidnaped US Ambassador Clinton E. Knox. Their initial demands were for the release of 31 political prisoners and a $500,000 ransom. Consul General Ward L. Christensen voluntarily joined Knox in captivity during the negotiations. The next day the terrorists reduced their demands to the release of 16 political prisoners, a ransom of $70,000, and safe conduct to Mexico. Knox and Christensen were released after the Haitian Government met the reduced demands. The terrorists and the released prisoners, accompanied by the Mexican Ambassador, were flown to Mexico, where the ransom money was taken from them and returned to Haiti. Mexico refused to accept the political prisoners, who then proceeded to Chile. 1 March Sudan. Eight members of the Black September Organization seized the Saudi Embassy in Khartoum during a farewell reception for American Charge d'Affaires George Curtis Moore. They took 10 hostages, including Moore, incoming US Ambassador Cleo A. Noel, Jr., the Saudi Ambassa- dor and his family, and the Belgian and Jordanian Charges. They demanded the release of Al Fatah leader Abu Daoud, other Palestinians held by Jordan and Israel, and members of the Baader-Meinhof Gang imprisoned in Germany. All the hostages except Noel, Moore, and the Belgian Charge, Guy Eid, were released, and the terrorists reduced their demands to the release of Abu Daoud and 16 Palestinians held by Jordan. The Government of Sudan refused to negotiate, and all the remaining hostages were killed. The terrorists surrendered on 6 March. President Nimeiri denounced the incident as "a criminal act devoid of any reason or bravery," and the Sudanese Government banned further operations by Palestinian organizations. The trial of the terrorists began on 1 June 1974. They were convicted on 24 June and sentenced to life imprisonment, but President Nimeiri commuted their sentences to seven years and released them to the Palestine Liberation Organization the next day. The terrorists were then flown to Cairo, where Egyptian authorities imprisoned them. 4 May Mexico. The US Consul General in Guadalajara, Terrence G. Leonhardy, was kidnaped by members of the Peoples Revolutionary Armed Forces, who demanded that 30 prisoners in Mexican jails be released and flown to Cuba. Mexican President Luis Echeverria Alvarez quickly agreed to the demands, and the 26 men and four women arrived in Havana on a Mexican airliner on 6 May. 19 Approved for Release: 2018/10/05 C05164492 Approved for Release: 2018/10/05 C05164492 5 September France. Five Palestinians seized the Saudi Embassy in Paris, took 13 hostages, and demanded that Jordan release imprisoned Al Fatah leader Abu Daoud. The Jordanian Government did not grant this demand, and the terrorists were allowed to leave France with four of their hostages. They surrendered to authorities and released their hostages in Kuwait on 8 September, after stops in Egypt, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia. In October the terrorists were allowed to go to Syria. 1974 6 February Kuwait. Five members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) seized the Japanese Embassy and took 12 hostages, including the Ambassador. They demanded that Japan arrange to fly two of their comrades and two members of the Japanese Red Army to Kuwait from Singapore, where they were imprisoned. Japan complied; Singapore cooperated. After the hostages were freed, the terrorists were granted safe passage to South Yemen. 20 22 March Mexico. Members of the Peoples Liberation Armed Forces kidnaped American Vice Consul John Patterson near Hermosillo. They demanded a ransom of $500,000. Mrs. Patterson claimed that all attempts she made to deliver the ransom were unsuccessful. Patterson was found dead in the desert on 8 July. 21 April Chad. Members of a Toubou rebel group calling themselves the Armed Forces of the Chadian Revolution kidnaped five Europeans in a raid on a medical research center. The rebels kept altering their demands, which revolved around the provision of money and arms. The West German Government agreed to pay a $1.2 million ransom and broadcast a manifesto for the release of one hostage. The terrorists threatened to execute a French hostage on 23 September if the French Government did not provide $880,000 and 88 tons of military supplies. The group granted the hostage a stay of execution when the French Government agreed to the cash ransom. A new faction of the Toubou rebels agreed to release the hostage. 15 May Israel. The Popular Democratic Front for the Liberation of ealestine (PDFLP) attacked a van bringing Arab women home from work, killing two and injuring one. They then proceeded to a school in the town of Maalot, where they shot a janitor and then herded more than 90 children from their dorms. The guerrillas asked that French Ambassador Hure and Romanian Ambassador Ion Covaci be brought to the school to act as mediators. The terrorists refused an Israeli demand to extend their deadline, and the Israelis decided to storm the building within half an hour of the deadline. One terrorist was shot as he ran to detonate an explosive; and, before they died, two others fired on the children, killing 16 of them and wounding 70 others. Five of the injured children died later. One of the Israeli commandos was also killed in the raid. Approved for Release: 2018/10/05 C05164492 Approved for Release: 2018/10/05 C05164492 13 September Netherlands. Four members of the Japanese Red Army seized the French Embassy in The Hague and took 11 hostages, including the French Ambassador, Jacques Senard. They demanded a ransom of $1 million, an aircraft, and the release of a comrade imprisoned in France. The French and Dutch Governments met most of the demands; all hostages were released on 16 and 17 September, and all four terrorists were flown to Syria. 27 September Dominican Republic. Members of the January 12 Liberation Movement kidnaped USIA Director Barbara Hutchison and then seized the Venezue- lan Consulate in Santo Domingo, capturing the Consul, the Vice Consul, a Spanish priest, and four local employees. The terrorists demanded the release of 38 political prisoners and a ransom of $1 million. The Dominican Government refused to comply with the terrorists' demands, and the hostages were freed on 9 October in return for safe conduct to Panama. /975 26 February Argentina. Montoneros kidnaped John P. Egan, a retired businessman serving as the American Honorary Consul in Cordoba. They demanded that four captured guerrillas be shown on national television or else Egan would be killed. Egan was found dead the next day. 24 April Sweden. Six West German radicals affiliated with the Red Army Faction (RAF) seized the West German Embassy in Stockholm, taking 12 hostages, including Ambassador Dietrich Stoecker. The military attache, Lt. Col. Andreas von Mirbach, was killed by the terrorists when Swedish police tried to enter the building. The terrorists demanded $20,000 and the release of 26 comrades imprisoned in West Germany. Although the West German Government had freed five terrorists earlier in the year after the kidnaping of a West Berlin mayoral candidate, this time it refused to meet the terrorists' demands. The terrorists then threatened to kill a hostage every hour until their demands were met, and economic attache Heinz Hillegaart was the first to die. An explosion took place in the Embassy just before midnight, killing one terrorist. The Swedish police captured others as they fled the building. The Swedish Government extradited all five terrorists to West Germany. One died of injuries received in the explosion; the other four were tried in Duesseldorf between 6 May 1976 and 20 July 1977. They were convicted and sentenced to two terms of life imprisonment. 19 May Tanzania. Members of the Zaire People's Revolutionary Party (PRP) kidnaped a Dutch student and three American students from Stanford University from Gombe Stream Research Center in Tanzania. One student was released on 26 May to deliver the PRP's demand for $500,000, arms and ammunition, and the release of two comrades held in Tanzania. The 21 Approved for Release: 2018/10/05 C05164492 22 Approved for Release: 2018/10/05 C05164492 Tanzanian Government refused to meet the terrorists' demands, and efforts by American diplomats and the families of the hostages to contact them were unsuccessful. Two hostages were released on 28 June and the last on 27 July after their families and Stanford University reportedly paid a ransom of $40,000. 4 August Malaysia. Five members of the Japanese Red Army (JRA) seized the consular sections of the American and Swedish Embassies in Kuala Lumpur and took 52 hostages, including the Swedish Charge d'Affaires and the American Consul Robert S. Stebbins. The hostages werelreed after Japan agreed to release five other members of the JRA. All 10 departed for Libya on 8 August. 15 September Spain. Four members of the Black September Organization seized the Egyptian Embassy and threatened to kill the Ambassador and two aides unless Egypt renounced the Sinai agreement with Israel. The Ambassa- dors of Iraq, Kuwait, Algeria, and Jordan negotiated with the terrorists and joined the Egyptian Ambassador in signing a document denouncing this agreement. (The Egyptian Government later dismissed this statement as "a worthless piece of paper.") The terrorists, accompanied by the Iraqi and Algerian Ambassadors, flew to Algiers on 16 September and released their hostages there. 4 December Netherlands. Six South Moluccans seized the Indonesian Consulate in Amsterdam, taking 47 hostages. They demanded independence for the South Moluccan Islands. Another group, which had seized a passenger train two days earlier, also demanded that the Dutch Government free five Moluccans, recognize a Moluccan government-in-exile, and provide safe conduct to an undisclosed destination. The Dutch Government rejected all these demands. The Moluccans holding the train surrendered on 12 December, and those in the Consulate did so on 18 December. 21 December Austria. Six pro-Palestinian guerrillas�members of International Revolu- tionary Cells�attacked the OPEC Conference in Vienna, killing three persons, wounding seven others, and taking 81 hostages. The hostages included 11 OPEC oil ministers, among them Saudi Arabia's Shaykh Ahmed Zaki Yamani. The terrorists reportedly were two Palestinians, one Lebanese, two West Germans, and a Venezuelan, llich Ramirez Sanchez, also known as Carlos. Their communique denounced Iran as an "imperial- ist tool"; called Egyptian President Sadat a "leading traitor" for signing the Sinai accord with Israel; praised Iraq, Syria, and the Palestinians as "progressives"; and demanded that the Arab people have full sovereignty over their oil resources. Austrian Chancellor Kreisky and Algerian Foreign Minister Bouteflika negotiated an agreement granting the terrorists safe conduct to Algeria in return for the release of 41 Austrian hostages and a declaration by the other hostages stating that they were voluntarily accompanying the terrorists. The terrorists left Vienna aboard an Austrian airliner on 22 December and released the remaining hostages in Algiers and Tripoli before surrendering to Algerian authorities on 23 December. Approved for Release: 2018/10/05 C05164492 Approved for Release: 2018/10/05 C05164492 1976 26 September Syria. Members of Abu Nidal's Fatah dissident group Black June took over the Semiramis Hotel in Damascus and took 90 hostages. During a seven-hour gun battle, four of the hostages, including three women, and the terrorists' leader were killed. Thirty-four hostages and an undisclosed number of Syrian troops were wounded. 1977 5 September West Germany. Hanns-Martin Schleyer, 62�President of the West German Employers' Association and the Confederation of Industry, a member of the board of directors of Mercedes-Benz, and West Germa- ny's most famous industrialist�was kidnaped by members of the Red Army Faction. Between 10 and 15 terrorists firing submachineguns ambushed his two-car convoy at an intersection in Cologne during rush hour as he was being driven to his apartment. Schleyer's body was later found after negotiations failed. 1978 13 March Netherlands. South Moluccan gunmen seized a government building and 71 employees. The terrorists demanded in a letter delivered to the Justice Ministry in The Hague the release of 21 South Moluccans imprisoned in Holland for previous terrorist acts, $13 million in cash, a bus to take them and the hostages to a local airport, a plane to fly them to Amsterdam's In- ternational Airport, and then a DC-10 jetliner to take them to an undisclosed destination. One hundred marines stormed the building after using an explosive device to distract the gunmen. There were no casualties among the attacking platoons, and the three gunmen were captured uninjured. Seven hostages were injured, one seriously, in the 20- minute assault that took place only moments before the planned slaying of two of the hostages. 31 July France. Two Arab terrorists with Fatah connections seized the Iraqi Embassy in Paris. One terrorist fled, but the other took nine hostages and demanded that Britain release an Arab woman who had tried to kill the Iraqi Ambassador there. After eight hours of negotiation, the lone terrorist surrendered to French police and freed the hostages. Iraqi security guards then opened fire, wounding the terrorist and killing a policeman. The French police returned the fire, killing one Iraqi and wounding three others. 1979 16 January El Salvador. Thirty members of the United Popular Action Front seized the Mexican Embassy and the offices of the OAS and the Red Cross, taking between 120 and 156 hostages. They demanded freedom for all political prisoners in El Salvador but settled for safe passage to Mexico after two days of negotiations. 23 Approved for Release: 2018/10/05 C05164492 24 Approved for Release: 2018/10/05 C05164492 14 February Afghanistan. Four Afghans kidnaped US Ambassador Adolph Dubs in Kabul and demanded the release of various "religious figures" held by the Afghan Government. Dubs was killed when Afghan police stormed the hotel room where he was being held. The US Government protested to the Afghan Government for not having tried to secure Dubs's release peacefully and drastically reduced its foreign aid programs there. 13 July Turkey. Four Palestinians affiliated with Saiqa stormed the Egyptian Embassy, killing a policeman and two security guards and taking 20 hostages, including the Egyptian Ambassador. They demanded that Egypt free two Palestinians and that Turkey break relations with Egypt, recognize Palestine, and grant them safe conduct to an undisclosed destination. One hostage was freed during the negotiations and four others escaped. The rest were freed when the terrorists surrendered two days later. 14 November Iran. A mob of Iranian students occupied the American Embassy in Tehran and captured 63 Americans, all but two of them Embassy personnel. Another three, who happened at the time to be at the Iranian Foreign Ministry, were held there. The captors released one woman and two Marine Security Guards on 19 November and four women and six black men the next day. The remaining hostages were threatened at various times with trial as spies. Six members of the Embassy staff had escaped from the consular section during the takeover and found shelter at the Canadian Embassy. Canada closed its Embassy on 28 January 1980, and brought the six Americans out the next day. An attempt to rescue the hostages failed on 25 April, resulting in the deaths of eight American military personnel. Richard Queen, a consular officer, was released on 10 July because of ill health. On 3 November the Iranian militants turned the hostages over to the government. Negotiations leading to the release of the hostages began in Algiers on 10 November. Their actual release took place on 20 January 1981. 20 November Saudi Arabia. Between 200 and 500 heavily armed rebels raided the Grand Mosque at Mecca during dawn prayers, seizing hundreds of worshippers of 30 nationalities. The attackers said that they sought reversal of Saudi modernization and abolition of television, professional soccer, and the employment of Saudi women outside the home. Saudi National Guardsmen fought their way inside against the rebels, who were armed with submachineguns, rifles, and pistols. Most of the hos- tages escaped or were freed by the Saudis several hours after the takeover, but the rebels held out for two weeks. Saudi troops used tanks, heavy artillery, snipers, and tear and asphyxiating gases against the Approved for Release: 2018/10/05 C05164492 4. Approved for Release: 2018/10/05 C05164492 attackers, who had taken up sniper positions in the mosque's minarets. Frequent Saudi claims of victory were proved premature, and it was not until 3 December that Saudi troops routed the last of the rebels occupying the mosque's basement. 1980 11 January El Salvador. Fifty members of the February 28 Popular League seized the Panamanian Embassy and took seven hostages, including the Ambassadors of Panama and Costa Rica. They demanded the release of several members of their group who had been arrested a month earlier. The Salvadoran Government complied, and the hostages were released on 14 January. 27 February Colombia. M-19 terrorists seized the Embassy of the Dominican Republic in Bogota, capturing 30 diplomats from 17 countries, including 15 chiefs of mission. Ambassador Diego Asencio was the only American among them. The terrorists initially demanded the release of 311 political prisoners, a $50 million ransom, and government publication of their manifesto. They gradually reduced their demands and released all but 18 of their hostages. The remaining hostages, including Ambassador Asen- cio, were freed on 27 April in return for a $2.5 million ransom and passage to Cuba. 30 April United Kingdom. Six Iranian Arabs belonging to an organization backed by the Iraqi Government seized the Iranian Embassy in London, took 26 hostages, and demanded that Iran release 91 political prisoners and grant more rights to its Arab minority. Five hostages were released during the next five days. On 5 May two hostages were killed and the rest threatened with execution. A Special Air Services team stormed the Embassy, rescued the remaining 19 hostages, and killed five of the six terrorists. Much of the Embassy was destroyed by fire. 1981 19 January Colombia. A faction of the April 19 Movement (M-19) kidnaped Chester Bitterman, a translator for the Summer Institute of Linguistics (SIL) . The group demanded that the SIL leave Colombia. The fate of Bitterman was clouded by a series of disagreements among factions of the M-19. His body was discovered on 7 March in an industrial/residential section of Bogota. 6 February Lebanon. Pro-Syrian terrorists, calling themselves The Eagles of the Palestinian Revolution, kidnaped Jordanian Charge d'Affaires, Hisham Moheissen, in Beirut. Three security guards were killed. The terrorists threatened to kill Moheissen unless seven defecting Syrian Air Force pilots were returned, two from Jordan and five from Iraq. A 9 February deadline for compliance passed, but Moheissen's whereabouts remained un- known. Jordan recalled its Ambassador to Syria. 25 Approved for Release: 2018/10/05 C05164492 Approved for Release: 2018/10/05 C05164492 19 Feburary Spain. Striking during the night, ETA-PM terrorists kidnaped three honorary consuls from their homes in the Basque region. Three teams of masked guerrillas abducted the honorary consuls of Austria, El Salvador, and Uruguay. The first two resided in Bilbao; the latter in Pamplona. On 28 February the ETA-PM 'released the honorary consuls unharmed. The hostages later reported they had been kept in a single room in a small country house but were well treated. 24 September France. Four Armenian terrorists affiliated with the Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA) stormed the Turkish Consulate where police, alerted by the commotion, exchanged gunfire with the terrorists. One Turkish guard was killed, a vice consul seriously wounded, and two terrorists slightly wounded. Shortly after occupying the Consulate, the terrorists threw a typed tract out a window which stated in excellent French that they were the "ASALA, Suicide Commando Yeghia Kechichian, Van Operation." They demanded the release of all Armenian prisoners in Turkey plus five Turkish revolutionaries and five Kurds. They stated that if this did not happen within 12 hours, all hostages held in the Consulate would be executed and the building blown up. Late in the afternoon, one of the wounded terrorists requested medical treatment and, apparently only slightly wounded, walked under his own power to an ambulance raising his arm in a "victory" signal. Negotiations with the French police continued, including arrangements for the second wounded terrorist to receive medical attention. Fifteen hours after occu- pying the Consulate, the terrorists surrendered and released their hos- tages unharmed. Several press reports stated that the terrorists used the hostages as shields as they went from the Consulate to police cars. 17 December Italy. Two males disguised as plumbers kidnaped US Army Brig. Gen. James Dozier. The Red Brigades claimed the kidnaping in an anonymous telephone call to an Italian news agency office in Milan. Italian counterter- rorist squads rescued the General from a Red Brigades safehouse on 28 January 1982. 1982 12 January Guatemala. Thirteen guerrillas, affiliated with the January 31 Popular Front, seized the Brazilian Embassy. They took the Brazilian Ambassador to Guatemala and eight others hostage and demanded they be allowed to hold a press conference to denounce the Guatemalan Government. The guerrillas, armed with two guns and nine molotov cocktails, unfurled a flag of the January 31 Popular Front. On 13 May following negotiations, the hostages were released and the attackers bused to the airport. On 14 May they were flown to Merida, Mexico, along with several Brazilian and Guatemalan officials, and were granted political asylum by the Mexican Government. No injuries were reported during the incident, and all but the 13 guerrillas returned to Guatemala. 26 Approved for Release: 2018/10/05 C05164492 Approved for Release: 2018/10/05 C05164492 Office for Combatting Terrorism Department of State Approved for Release: 2018/10/05 C05164492