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January 1, 1972
Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 ial No Foreign Dis DIRECTORATE OF INTELLIGENCE Intelligence Report Peking and Environs 0 CIA/BGI GR 72-3 January 1972 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 WARNING This documen ontains information affecting the national defense of the Un d States, within the meaning of Title 18, sections 793 an 94, of the US Code, as amended. Its transmission or r 'on of its contents to or re- ceipt by .an unauthorize erson is prohibited by law. GROUP I EAcludocl from automatic downerodtng and cicclo$tilication Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 IDENTIAL NO FOR DISSEM CONTENTS Page Introduction 1 The Geographic Setting 7 Overview of the City 9 General Plan 9 Suburban Expansion 11 Industry 14 Agriculture 14 Transportation 15 Public Services 18 Security 21 Hotel Accommodations 21 Patterns of Life 22 Points of Interest in the City 26 and its Suburbs Tartar City Imperial City Eastern Half Western Half Chinese City Eastern Suburbs Southern Suburbs Western Suburbs Northern and Northwestern Suburbs Attractions in the Vicinity of Peking Appendix: Ming and Manchu Emperors CO NTIAL NO FOREIGN EM 26 26 38 45 47 51 53 54 59 66 73 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 IDENTIAL NO FORE Figure 1 SSEM Ch'ih-ch'eng P'ang-chia-pa Cho-lu Hsi Ling.. 1-hsien Yen-ch'ing Huai-lai Chii-yung Kuan Chai-t'ang Peking. People's Republic of China Ping-ku Luan-p'ing( Pan-ch'iao -s. sien Ta-an-shan Ch'ang-hs. Ta-ch'ang Tz'u-chia-wu � ang-ho Fang Chou-k' Cho-hsienf Lai-shui Hsin-ch'eng Ting-hsing Jung-ch'eng 500747 11-71 an-tiny DENT I AL NO FORE I )1 SEM Wu-ch'ing hing-hai �a Pao-ti likentsin Luan /to 1-1sing-lung Po- hai Wan Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 DENTIAL NO FOREI EM CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY Directorate of Intelligence January 1972 INTELLIGENCE REPORT Peking and Environs Introduction 1. Peking has been the capital of China for most of the past 700 years, but its political significance has never been as strong as it is today. The origins of the city date back much farther into history, possibly to around 2,000 B.C. Much of Peking's importance is derived from its site; it was first a northern rampart against outside invasion and later the fortified home of the Imperial Court. The basic plan for Peking was laid out by the Mongol (Yilan) Dynasty about 1268, and the core of the present city, established during the early Ming Dynasty, is situated approximately on the ruins of the Mongol city. Peking had a long and glorious reign as the Imperial Capital, but fell into moderate disrepair after the demise of the Manchu (Ch'ing) Dynasty in 1912. The present regime has been engrossed in the revival of Peking -- now at its apex as the cultural, political, and communications center of China. Note: This report was prepared by the Office of Basic and Geographic Intelligence and coordinated within the Directorate of Intelligence. ENT AL NO FOREI SEM Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 T'utchioolata Figure 2 � 01(: Walled C Hsirso-hej-men Hsloo-ts'un Ching-ru-on Shih-mon'eng n Viieh ran (Altar of the Moon) Flphsina Men 11 T'Ma. Kuang. Station Huotfao-k'ou Teo-chin-Won Tiolvohirseripyirigi"' 500757 11-71 rieh-shih-tzution Huang-hu Fen �fa7ch'eng (remnants of Mongol city wall Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 sio.oung-cmu-eon Mn-Clan Huang-nu T A R T lisFan Mel Hain-hue Men Hstierprou Men WAI-CH'ENG Woi�lruon Confucius Shrine Chung Lou (Bell Tower) Ku Lou (Drum Tower) sCITY -yanj Men CHINESE CI lisitchvann Huo-ytion Hslen-nung Tan (Altar of Agriculture)' Ynnivling Men Tung.tinvmen Station Ti Tan (Altar of Earth) Yuntplur Kung NEI-CH'ENG T'ien ran (Altar of Heaven) Hu-chucing Hurt-chino-Au- Won Hun-yiJon Limo-yarn 0 Tung-lo-yuon Kuo-yilart Tooltchi To Wong-yeh-fmn Kung,chu Ling Jih Tan r of the Sun) Chl-ahlo-yiron Ho-tan-yu Chtion-chlong Miles Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 IDENTIAL NO FORE I SSEM 2. Much of Peking today is new, but the old city remains, and its splendid remnants provide the Communist leaders of China with an impressive backdrop for the display of their political and cultural programs. The population has increased in the last 22 years from about 2 million to more than 7 million, and the city has burst out of its original area to spread for miles in every direction. Much of the population increase is the result of the annexation of sizable tracts located some distance from the built-up area. The city is still in the throes of a construction boom, and the formerly low silhouette of the city is now sporad- ically disrupted by multistory apartments, hotels, and office buildings. Open excavations, casual large piles of building materials, and throngs of workers are frequent sights in the area, and suburban industrial smoke contributes to a small but growing pollution problem. 3. Travelers have always been strongly attracted to Peking. Marco Polo spent the latter part of the 13th century here, when the city was known as Ta-tu or Khanbalic, before returning to Europe to spread tales of Peking's fantastic beauty and richness. His accounts appealed to the adventurers of that day, and commerical interests began to look with fondness on the potentially vast and untapped Chinese market. Relations with the Chinese developed very slowly, however, and by the conclusion of the Mongol Dynasty in the 14th century, Chinese rulers had begun to look with disfavor on the further expan- sion of contacts with foreign countries. Although a few foreigners managed to live or to travel in China, the Capital City of the legendary Cathay was inaccessible for most non-Chinese in the ensuing centuries. 4. The barriers restricting the entrance of foreigners eventually weakened, and by the 19th century a sizable body of non-Chinese were living in Peking. By this time the Empire was in decay, and Peking's grandeur was deteriorating. Xeno- phobic inhabitants cowered in semi-seclusion behind the myriad walls of the hu-t'ung (street - 3 -- DENTIAL NO FORBI SSEM Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 ENT I AL NO FOR Figure 3 The history of Peking is the story of at least six town sites designated by eight place names, and like most old Chinese things, the city has its true origins shrouded in the myths and legends of the distant past. No one can say when the site of Peking was first occupied, but it seems reasonable to assume that the area was settled about 2000 B.C. Chi was the first known town on the site of modern Peking. Located near the northwest corner of the old walled city, it became the capital of the Yen state under the Chou Dynasty in 723 B.C. Chi was destroyed in 221 B.C. by Shih Huang Ti, founder of the Ch'in Dynasty. The Peking area was of little importance until 70 A.D., when a new city, about 3 miles south of the site of Chi, was built under the Han Dynasty. Called Yen-ching, it was the capital of the independ- ent state of Yen. During the Three Kingdom Period the name was changed to Yu-chou. The city was des- troyed by the Khitan Tartars (Liao Dynasty) in 936, and a larger city was built on the same site. The new town was called Nan-thing (southern capital) to distinguish it from a northern capital in Man- churia, but the alternate name, Yen-thing (swallow capital), was more commonly used. The Liao were defeated in 1125 by the Chin (Golden) Tartars, and Yen-ching underwent important modi- fications. It eventually became the Chin capital, acquired a new name, Chung-tu (central capital), and was considerably enlarged. The magnificence of Chung-tu disappeared in 1215 when it was destroyed by the marauding hordes of Genghis Khan, In 1260, Kublai Khan became the Mongol Emperor, and he ultimately moved his capi- tal to Chung-tu. Some of the city was rebuilt, but later abandoned as Kublai devised a grandiose plan for a completely new city just to the north of the site 500756 11-71 NO FOR SE The Evolution of Peking City name Chi � Yu-chou Nan-ching (Yen-chino) Chung-tu Ta-tu (Khanbalic) Peking-1949 walls Last date 221 B.C. 936 A.D. 1125 1215 1368 of Chung-tu. Work apparently began about 1268. The new city was named Ta-tu (Great capital), or Khanbalic (home of the Khan), and was declared to be the capital of the Yuan Dynasty in 1272. This was the first time that central control over China was exercised from what is now Peking, and it was Ta-tu that greeted Marco Polo, who lived in the court of Kublai Khan and later wrote vividly of the wonders of the city. The Mongols were overthrown by the Ming Dynasty and driven from Ta-tu in 1368. The new dynasty stayed in the south at Nanking, which served as its capital, and changed the name of Ta-tu to Pei-p'ing (northern peace). Pei-p'ing became the seat of the very ambitious Prince of Yen, the fourth son of the founder of the Ming Dynasty. After the death of his father, the prince usurped the throne and precipi- tated a civil war for power, with the south divided against his northern rule. After he defeated the south, he became the Emperor Yung Lo in 1403. For a few years he divided his time between Nanking and Pei-p'ing, but eventually he decided to move the capi- tal back to the north, and for this move, he began a lengthy and comprehensive reconstruction program in Pei-p'ing. By 1421 the program was well underway, and Yung Lo moved into the new capital, which he renamed Peking. Peking was the Imperial Capital of China from 1421 until the end of the Manchu Dynasty in 1912, and it served until 1928 as the capital of most of the country under the Republic of China. In 1928 the Nationalists changed the name of the city back to Pei-p'ing and moved the capital to Nanking. Peking became the seat of government again in 1949, when it was pro- claimed capital of the People's Republic of China. 4 ENT IA EM Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 CO NTIAL NO TOREIG SEM or alley) compounds, and the Emperor and his retinue remained .hidden from view in the Forbidden City. Foreigners were shocked at the level of filth and poverty in Peking, but most of them became fond of the city nonetheless, and in the process learned to respect the Chinese with whom they came in contact. Perhaps more than the Chinese, who were mainly deprived of any contacts with the court, the foreigners in Peking loved to revel in images of the city's past pageantry and splendor. 5. In June 1879, President Grant visited Peking on a round-the-world trip following his term of office. Denied a visit with the Boy- Emperor or entrance to the Forbidden City, the former President was received by the Prince-regent in the Tartar City. Later, Grant climbed the Tartar Wall, just south of the buildings then being occupied by the American Legation, for a better look at the gracefully sloping roofs of the For- bidden City. Another former American President, Herbert Hoover, became familiar with Peking while he served in China as a mining engineer. 6. The shadow of seclusion that has largely hidden Peking since 1949 now appears to be lifting. During most of this period only a few selected visitors were permitted .to take tightly regulated tours of the city, and those who were accredited to the small diplomatic communities lived an almost contemplative existence within their com- pounds. Visits and travel by outsiders virtually ceased during the Cultural Revolution. Since that time foreigners have been welcomed at an unprec- edented rate. Travel visas are much easier to obtain than formerly, and a sprinkling of tourists are now permitted to visit the city. Movement within Peking, however, remains carefully controlled. 7. What do visitors see today in Peking? Certainly some of the, splendor'of the past is there, but the destruction of the old city walls, the incongruous new buildings and wide streets, and the blare of revolutionary propaganda has eroded the charisma of.the city, which in these 5 - FIDENTIAL NO FOR DISSEM Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Figure 4 Ch'ing-lung- ch'iao (CNha= Kuaa Nan-k'ou-chen Men-l'ou-kou Fang-sha Nan-h�yean 500748 11-71 Liang-hsi Y ng-fang-chen Western Hills Kao-ching Ku-ch'eng Ch'ang-hsin-tien Clang- thsiang Ya-men-k'ou Sh,irran L,ng Shui-Vu Kao-Ii-ying +Pehing/Sha-ho-che Sh1,50---Ehen Summer Pal 5-""-""" Airfield " MM. Hsi-chiao 1 immosnalem � �141* T'ung-hsie Sho���k'u Peking Central Airport Niu-lan�shan hlo�nan-ts'un Nan-yiian Airfield Nan-yaan Ch'ing-On-hen Miles T'ung-hsient Niu-p'u-l'un-chen Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 NTIAL NO FOREI I SSEM respects seems strangely shorn of oriental mystery. Peking resembles any number of other large Asian cities, but it has fewer shopping centers, little night life, and a drabness that seems almost manufactured, as many of the new buildings, like modern antiques, appear old. But the city today is cleansed of its filth, and many of the earthy street smells of the past are gone. Beneath the revolutionary facade, the regime has taken care to preserve whatever does not directly clash with construction plans for the city, and although some of the shrines, palaces, and relics of yesterday have disappeared, most of those that remain have been restored to their best state of repair since the time of the Manchu Dynasty. The Geographic Setting 8. Peking occupies a site on the northern edge of the North China Plain, a few miles from the mostly barren mountains that wall it in on the north and west. An oddity among major cities, it is not located along a stream; the major river in the area, the Yung-ting Ho, flows across the plain a few miles to the west. The city occupies a slightly elevated portion of the plain and is thus protected from the major floods that have historically devastated large areas in this part of China. The predominant soils of the area are deep, fertile, and of loessial origin. 9. Although the climate of Peking is usually considered healthful or invigorating because of its changeability, tourists often complain that the weather is too hot, cold, wet, or dusty. Nevertheless the city enjoys nice spells, and if one stays long enough, he may find the weather delightful. While Peking and Washington, D.C., are at approximately the same latitude, the former is hotter in summer, colder in winter, and does not have the equivalent of the US Capital's usually long and pleasant spring and autumn. 10. The longest season, winter, is dry and clear, with little snowfall. Cold permeates the city, which generally lacks central heating, and -7- CS ENTIAL NO FOREIG SEM Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 CS ENTIAL NO FOREI SSEM everyone bundles into extra clothing, even when indoors. Temperatures at this time of the year may drop below 0�F. The ground and vegetation dry up, and by late winter, brisk winds begin to swirl the Peking dust -- fine yellow loessial silt that seeps into everything. Spring finally arrives in April, but dust storms are also most likely to sweep out of Central Asia at this time of the year. Dust control measures involving reforestation and the planting of grasslands and shelter belts have proven only partially success- ful, largely because of the widespread nature of the storms. Locally, however, some progress has been made by planting grass and shrubbery and by paving streets. 11. A pleasant but short spring gives way quickly to hot weather, and the normal summer is characterized by spells of oppressive heat inter- spersed with periods of heavy rainfall. Temperatures in the summer occasionally exceed 100�F. Rainfall is usually insignificant until June, but seasonal distributional patterns and amounts are highly vatiable. Sometimes the rains start later in summer; worse, in some years, it hardly rains at all. Normally, however, the rains begin in June and build up to a maximum in July, when almost 40 percent of the total annual precipitation occurs, much of it in downpours associated with violent thunderstorms. Most foreigners living in Peking prior to 1949 made it a habit to flee the city in early summer and to spend as much time as possible on the cool wooded slopes of the Western Hills. 12. Probably the best time of the year to visit Peking is late September and early October, after the summer rains lose their intensity. During this short and pleasant period Peking . remains green and cool, prior to an abrupt tran- sition into winter. -8- CI ENTIAL NO FOREI I SSEM Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 ENTIA NO FOR BIG SEM (Summer Nue) Overview of the City General Plan 13. When the Communists assumed control of Peking in 1949, the slightly tattered city was essentially the same Imperial City that served the Ming and Manchu Dynasties. Most of it was confined within an imposing outer wall, pierced by only 13 gates and a few railroad lines. Inside the walls, the city was divided into two main sections -- the Tartar City in the north, and the Chinese City in the south. This division had its origin during the Mongol period. At that time the Chinese were not permitted to live inside the walled city, which was reserved for Mongol princes and officials. This situation continued even after the Ming walls were built. The Chinese town re- mained outside until 1553, when Emperor Chia - 9 - ENT AL NO FORE SSEM Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 , Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 pproved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 tApproved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 DENTIAL NO FORE IISSEM Ching* finally completed the long-planned enclosure of the Chinese City. 14. The Tartar City contained three walled enclosures -- the Imperial City (Huang Ch'eng), the Purple Forbidden City (Tzu-chin Ch'eng), and the Legation Quarter. The Imperial City, the housekeeping organ of the palace and the Govern- ment, was located in the center of the Tartar City and completely enclosed the Forbidden City, the seat of the Emperor. High walls and a wide moat further insulated the Forbidden City, even within the Imperial City. The newest walled division within Peking -- the Legation Quarter -- housed most of the foreign legations and was built in 1901 after the Boxer Uprising. The systems of walls are now mostly destroyed, and the Forbidden City, referred to as the Palace Museum, is the only unit that survives intact. Suburban Expansion 15. The buildings and streets of the old city are in sharp contrast with those in the newer suburbs, although everywhere the street patterns are square. In the residential sections of the old city the squat, gray, mostly tile-roofed buildings are huddled closely together behind nondescript walls; in the suburbs, on the other hand, buildings are more widely spaced and taller. The tremendous suburban growth of Peking has apparently followed orderly guidelines. New residential, institutional, and governmental *Emperors in China had at least three names: a personal name, a dynastic reign title, and a posthumous name. The personal name was used before the ascendency, the reign title during the period of rule, and the posthumous name after the death of the emperor. Throughout this text, emperors are referred to by their best known name -- the reign title -- a common practice among western writers. (See Appendix on Ming and Manchu Dynasties on page 73.) NO FORE DENTIAL ISSEM Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Figure 7 CO �NTIAL NO FORE I G SEM Growth of Peking Since 1949 500751 11,71 CIA Peking in 1949 FUNCTIONAL AREAS F71 Commercial-Industrial Eii,1 Governmental-Institutional-Park I�I Military Residential CONFIDENTIAL NO FOREIGN DISSEM RELEASABLE TO UX, CANADA, AUSTRALIA, AND NEW ZEALAND - 12 - CO PENTIA NO FORE EM Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 DENTIAL NO FOREI I SSEM Figure 8. West Ch'ang-an Boulevard near the old city wall. The low buildings (foreground) in the old city contrast with the taller modern buildings (background) in the new sections outside the west wall (still standing in 1966). Peking Broadcast House is to the left just outside Fu-hsing Men, the opening in the wall. The spire in the distant center background is that of the Military Museum. complexes are generally located either in or close to the old city, and new industrial plants and agricultural communes are situated in the far suburbs. Most universities and research and governmental institutions are concentrated in the northern and western suburbs -- a planned institutional growth that was originally conceived in the 1930's. The eastern outskirts are heavily industrial, but the largest major industrial complex is in the far western suburbs near the Shih-ching-shan Iron and Steel Plant along the Yung-ting Ho (River). The scope of development in the southern suburbs has been relatively limited. - 13 - NO FO DENT JAL &SEM Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 IDENTIAL NO FORE I SSEM Figure 9. Cotton textile mills in the east suburbs. A fourth plant has been added since this photo was taken in 1959. Workers housing is at left. Industry 16. Industrial growth has placed some emphasis on the production of communications and electrical equipment, electronics equipment, and advanced military weapons. Although industrial development has been highly diverse, Peking still ranks con- siderably below such other industrial centers as Shanghai, Mukden, Dairen, Lan-chou, and Wu-han. Nevertheless the city is now a significant producer of textiles and synthetic fibers, petrochemicals, automotive and agricultural equipment, and light and heavy machinery. It has a large and growing skilled labor force, and its position in most enterprises is supported by the presence of the nation's leading technical research facilities and personnel. Agriculture 17. Peking, like all major cities in China, must grow most of its own food, and the task is - 14 - Ce ENTIAL NO FOREIG SEM Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 ENTIAL NO FORE SSEM Figure 10. Agricultural commune in outskirts of Peking. These are hothouses for growing winter vegetables. assigned to large agricultural communes in the suburbs. The communes are also used to demonstrate the agricultural advances of China and to experi- ment with new farming techniques. Many of the large communes, especially those visited by foreign dignitaries, are of the "showcase" variety and probably are not typical of those in other sections of the country. Impressions of Chinese agriculture gained from visits to them could be misleading. One commune, for example, features milk cows, a rarity in China. Transportation 18. Although Peking is a very busy city, it s relatively unencumbered by the traffic jams and the usual rush-hour patterns of other major cities, mainly because of the lack of privately owned automobiles and the absence of a principal central business district that would concentrate traffic flow toward one sector of the city. Furthermore, the distances traveled are reasonably short, and most people either walk or use bicycles; workers in Peking's factories usually live in dormitories or apartments near their work. Still, Peking's - 15 - DENTIAL NO FOREIGN SEM Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 ENT JAL NO FOREIGN SEM Figure 11. Peking subway under construction. This view from the south side of Hsin-chiao Hotel shows subway construction on the site of the old city wall. Figure 12. Light traffic in T'ien-an Men Square. Pedicabs carry a large volume of goods in Peking. lien-an Men and the reviewing stands for national parades are in the background. - 16 - NO FO DENT IAL S SE Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 ENT IAL NO FOREIG Figure 13. Street corner in Peking. Pedestrians and bicycles account for most of the traffic at this intersection. The old lady with the cane has bound feet. Figure 14. Peking Central Airport Terminal. Completed in the late 1950's, the airport handles international traffic for the Chinese capital. - 17 - DENTIAL NO FORE us Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 ENTIAL NO FOREI SSEM streets are filled with a conglomeration of pedestrians and vehicles -- buses, trolleys, and bicycles -- and everyone seems to be "on the go." Few are idle in this city where even mothers of young children hold full-time jobs, leaving their offspring in nurseries during working hours. 19. The monumental project of today is the subway system that will eventually link all of the major portions of the enlarged city. The first completed segment connects the main rail- road station in the eastern portion of the old city, via 16 subway stations along a 23-kilometer route, with the Shih-ching-shan Iron and Steel Plant to the west. 20. The role of Peking as a major trans- portation center has changed little, except that the airplane is now more frequently used for intercity passenger travel and the haulage of small, light goods. Most intercity transport -- freight and passengex -- is accomplished by train, and major railroad lines radiate from the city. Although growing in importance, the truck transport industry is still in its infancy, there being .a lack of both good roads and large vehicles. Water transport, which was formerly a significant carrier of goods into Peking, especially via the Grand Canal, is now regaining some of its former importance. 21. There are a number of airfields in the Peking area, but most of them are for military use. Nearly all civil traffic uses the Peking Central Airport (Capital Airport), one of the few international airfields in China; it is located about 10 miles northeast of the city. The Chinese civil airline is growing, but its equipment, judged by international standards, is outdated. Accordingly, flights are programmed to take advantage of good weather and daylight hours Public Services 22. Most of Peking's water supply in the past was derived from wells. This source has - 18 - DENTIAL NO FORE SSEM Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 c. ENTIAL NO FOREIG SEM Figure 15 Water Supply Kuan-eing Shui-k'd Shin-san Ling Shui-Wo rung.tingHI Aqueduct 1,0 500760 11,71 Miles Huarga Shui-k`u proved insufficient in recent years, however, and water has been increasingly transported to the city from nearby springs, rivers, and reservoirs. Two notable water-supply projects completed by the Communists are the Yung-ting Ho Aqueduct and theiPeking--Mi-yidn Canal. The Yung-ting Ho Aqueduct brings water from an intake dam on the Yung-ting River through a combination canal and tunnel along a 21-kilometer course. The Peking--Mi-yun Canal carries water to Peking from the Mi-yUn Reservoir, about 70 kilometers to the northeast on the Ch'ao-pai Ho. This wide canal follows a circuitous 110-kilo- meter route along the base of the mountains to the north and west of Peking, and reportedly, it can accommodate vessels of up to 1,000 tons. The - 19 - NO FOR DENT I AL SSEM Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 ENTIAL NO FOREIG completion of both of these very impressive projects undoubtedly required tremendous inputs of labor. 23. Trash is no longer dumped into the hu-t'ungs (streets or alleys), which are now carefully swept by the inhabitants, whether paved or not. Underground sewers have replaced most of the large open ditches that in the past drained sewage from the residential sections. Figure 16. Water Supply Canal north of the Summer Palace. The canal passes through a typical small agricultural village in the suburbs of Peking. 24. Air pollution is a concern in Peking, but it is much less of a problem here than it is elsewhere in cities of comparable size. Industrial plants add smoke to the atmosphere, of course, but most industries are situated in the eastern and southern suburbs, where the prevailing northwesterly winds help to move it away from the city. Other plants, such as those along the Yung-ting River, - 20 - FIDENTIAL NO FOR DISSEM Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 CO I NTIAL NO FOREIG EM are situated far enough from the city that the smoke they generate is dissipated somewhat before it can reach Peking. Home heating systems are the main polluters of the atmosphere in Peking, where practically all heating depends on coal. The smoke of home heaters all over the city can contribute to the massive pollution of the air during the long cold winter. Security 25. Soldiers and military vehicles are in evidence on the streets of Peking, but only in small numbers. Military installations in the city are either so unobstrusive that they warrant little attention or they are located in remote suburban sites, protected from the scrutiny of visitors. Probably the most sensitive military areas are in the western suburbs -- the site of important state agency and military headquarters. Certainly, the Chinese are excessively secretive, and in addition, they wish to present only favorable images of their country. Thus the movements of visitors in Peking have been controlled in an effort to demonstrate the economic and sociological advances of the regime, while minimizing the flow of intelligence to "imperialistic" countries. 26. Large numbers of military personnel move into Peking's streets during visits by prominent foreign officials. At these times the street corners are well patrolled, and the normally light traffic is completely controlled. Since 1969, Chinese crowds have usually been docile and friendly -- responsive to the wishes of the Government. Visitors are permitted considerable freedom of movement, but only under the watchful eyes of helpful guides, who provide translation services and act as buffers to minimize visitor contact with the Chinese people. Normally, the Chinese do not like to be photographed without permission. Hotel Accommodations 27. Of the major hotels in Peking, only two predate the present Government -- the Peking and - 21 - CS ENTIAL NO FOREIG SEM Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 IDENTIAL NO FORTLDISSEM the Kuo-chi (formerly Grand Hotel des Wagon Lits). The Peking has been enlarged and completely renovated, but the current status of the Wagon Lits is unknown. Most of the recent foreign visitors have been accommodated at the Hsin-chiao Hotel, located near the southeast corner of the old Legation Quarter. The Min-tzu (Nationalities) Hotel, on West Chiang-an Boulevard, just west of the Cultural Palace of the Nationalities, has usually been reserved for Afro-Asian visitors. The Overseas Chinese Hotel is located northeast of the Forbidden City, adjacent to the Museum of Fine Arts and the nearby Ho-p'ing (Peace) Hotel. The Ch'ien-men, to the west of the Altar of Heaven, is the only large hotel in the old Chinese City. Most of the smaller hotels, hostels, and guesthouses in the city do not accommodate foreign guests. 28. Foreign dignitaries are usually accom- modated in their respective embassies or at one of the better government guesthouses. Some of the finest guesthouses are located in a parklike compound in the western suburbs, just east of Yu-yuan T'an, about a mile west of the old city. The former site of an Imperial residence known as Tiao-yu T'ai (Fishing Terrace), this pleasant, . secluded compound contains some of the finest modern residences in the Peking area, and it has been used by only the most distinguished guests. Patterns of Life 29. Living habits among the Chinese in Peking have changed only moderately, even though most of the people may be living in an apartment or dormitory for the first time. Facilities are crowded, but crowding is accepted by the Chinese, who are accustomed to living in small places. Family apartments often consist of one room, with toilet and kitchen facilities being shared with other families. Dormitories usually house four people to a room. 30. Most people still wear blue clothing as they always have. While other colors are not un- common, especially among the women and the young, - 22 - DENTIAL NO FOREIGN SSEM Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 NO FOR BIG S Fifture 17. Apartments in eastern suburbs. These are typical of the better apartments for workers. Figure 18. Walled hu-t'ung in old city. Walls or backs of buildings commonly front the narrow streets and alleys of old Peking and most homes are hidden from view. - 23 - NO FOR DENT IAL DISSEM Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 CO NTIAL NO FOREIG Figure 19. Narrow hu-t'ung in old city. Small shops and homes line this improved alley in one of the poorer sections of town. Figure 20. Peking backyard barbecue. Chinese women often cook meals outdoors on charcoal stoves. - 24 - c. ENT IAL NO FO G Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 ENTIAL NO FOREIGN SEM all clothing seems to have a unity of style that is depressingly austere. Most of the women wear pantsuits, which are masculine, pajama-style outfits that do little to identify the sex of the wearer. Recently, women have been encouraged to wear clothing that is more feminine. 31. Lacking private refrigeration, the Chinese buy food on an almost daily basis. They make many of their purchases in markets and small shops, however, instead of relying on street hawkers as they did in the past. The people still spend much of their time on the streets, particu- larly when the weather is good, and peddlers continue to hawk their wares, but at a pace that is much reduced from that which prevailed when practically all the necessities of life could be purchased at the doorstep. The once popular pastime of haggling is almost unheard these days, and it is hardly needed as food prices are set low by the Government. There are no supermarkets or self- serve stores. 32. Food in Peking is now in better supply than ever before, and beggars and emaciated individuals are no longer observed in the streets. While eating out is a favorite pastime, the average person cannot afford to patronize the better restaurants. The Chinese tend to dine in low- priced cafeterias, and in most neighborhoods small food shops offer simple meals at reasonable prices. Food stands and tea shops are also popular. For those with ample funds, the gustatory delights of Peking have not changed. Foreign visitors are usually impressed by the variety and quality of the food served in Peking restaurants, and are amazed by the relatively low prices. 33. Recreation in Peking now stresses whole- some athletics, and the illicit pleasures and much of the night life of pre-Communist days have disappeared. The numerous large sports complexes are in almost constant use, and most organizations have athletic fields or facilities to accommodate workers and students. Calisthenics are engaged in at prescribed times during the working day, often - 25 - IDENTIAL NO FOREIGi SEM Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 ENTIAL NO FOR I SEM with great fervor. Theaters still abound in Peking although the fare is slim, the dominant theme of most productions at this time being political. Points of interest in the City and its Suburbs Tartar City Imperial City 34. Although the former significance of the old Imperial City as home of the Emperor and seat of the Government is gone, this section of the Tartar City retains its importance. No longer existing as an entity, the outlines of the Imperial City are nevertheless still traceable. Many of the state and military offices are located here and political control still seems to emanate from this quarter of the city. 35. Almost every tour of Peking begins at T'ien-an Men Square, said by the Chinese to be the largest square in the world. Comprised of some 100 acres of granite slabs, it is large enough to contain about 75 American football fields. Tiien-an Men (Gate of Heavenly Peace), with its portrait of Mao Tse-tung, overlooks the square on the north, and during the massive parades and celebrations that are held here, it serves as a reviewing stand for the Party hierarchy. At the south center of the square is the Monument to the People's Heroes, a pine and cypress park, and a bus station. Flanking the square on the west is the National People's Congress Building, and on the east is the building that contains the Revolutionary and Historical Museum. Both of these massive stone buildings were completed in a flurry of construction in 1958. 36. Prior to 1949 the square in front of T'ien-an Men was much smaller. At that time it was included within an extension of the walls of the Forbidden City, the site of the Imperial Palace which it served as an outer courtyard. Behind T'ien-an Men, the gracefully curved, yellow-tiled roofs of :the city peep over the walls, although - 26 - FIDENTIAL NO FORE IISSEM Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 TI-AN-MEN-TUNG-TA-CHIEH AApproved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 tire Figure 21 Imperial C 1.131H-V1-11.N-HIHS-ISH North Cathedral HSI-HUNG-MEN I 2 t, x I I O 0 1 c ..: a Ministry of Monumen National Del 2 6 WEN-CHING-CHI ERKTIA0 HUANG-CIVENG-KEN TAI-FU-SSU LI-KO-LAO-HU-TUNG 151-CC'ANG-AN-CHIEH visis_cyCANG-LU HSIN-PIN0-1.1.1 JUNG-FISIEN-HU-T'UNG WEI-YING-HWT'UNG CHUNG-CHIEH Young Pioneers hydroelectric 5-Dragon power statio II Pavi\lism \ x\\ Kung-ndng-ping Park-'-- (Pei Hai Park) \\ White D goba National 1 Library \ \ -- Imperial Canal Bridg ty ( Hsin-hua H^ SI-C^ H'ANG-AN-CHIEH N Peking Music Hall HSIN-LIEN-TZU-HU-TUNG H3IHD-VIIWN151-1-13c1 H31143.0NY.H3-13d 0 MI-LIANG-K'U 0 ;hie Kg H311-13-V1-N3W-NV�11 . HUANG-HUA-MEN CHING-SHAN-HOU-CHIEH Ching-shin Park (Mel Shan, Coal HUD fu _ SAN-YEN-CHING CHING-SHAN-TUNG-CHIEH HIEH hen-wu Me g-sh Kung Forbalen City (Palace klUseurtt) - � � - ----rai-ho Men Wu-Men Ti i. Theater Ch rig-sban P3r1/4 \ (-7) ( Monument National 1 People's JuNG-HstEN-Hu-ruNo j Congress Monument 2., KAO-PEI-HU-T'UNG HSI-CHIA0-MIN-1-15IANG Ho-ping Men 500752 11-71 CIA Mile Subway HSI-HU-YEN HSI- GHIAO-MIN-HSIANG 1/2 CHIEN-NEI-HSI rh _r 1 e Pe, ople's Cultural' Park � � T'uan Men T'len-an Men 'ENG-CHIEH T'ien-an Men Square Monument to the People' eroes 143114)-VI-ISH-CISS-04-V1 Museum of Fine Arts HAN-HUA.YUAN-TA-CHIEH Overseas TS'Ul-HUA-HU-TUNG.� t.hinese 8 TUNG-CIVANG-HU-T'UNG ; 9 cul-eo-tcrU MENG-KUNG-FU 0 Guesthouse " NAI-TZU-FU SHAO-CHIU-HU-T.UNG Hotel H31HD-V1-fli�ONYM TUNG-AN-MEN-TA-CHIEH �Peking Theater Tung-an People's Market Peking Department Store OV1-VIHD-NVN .External Affairs office, !Ministry of Defense I Embassy of Denmark Li CH' ANG- AN BOULEVARD Revolutionary storical NO FOREIGN DIS RELEASABLE TO UK, 604PA'Di4, AUSiNR4,11;sig PIECOPIA LA N mo.ciPANo 111 branch office (probable) eums Central Post Office HalHO-111-0N1H3-fLi�ONVM Peking Hotel � nternational Civil Aviation Bureau TUNG-CH'ANG-AN-CHIEH 9 TUN0-CHIA0- WS-HSIANG Kuo-chi Former American Hotel Embassy CHIEN-NEI-TUNG-SHUN CH'ENG-CHIEH Ch'ien Men CON TuNG-HO-YEN TA-ERH-FIU-T'UNG ONV.H711.0-1V.1 International Club HSIA-TUNG-HO-YEN AMOCHAN Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Figure 22. T'ien-an Men Square from Pek leads westward past Fien-an Men and Tua Revolutionary and Historical Museum is People's Congress Building is on the sam across the square. Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 3ek1ng Hotel. Chiang-an Boulevard Nan Men (at right). The 3 on the left, and the National 3ame side of the boulevard but Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 IDENTIAL NO FORE SSEM three more gates and courtyards bar entrance to the former palace of the Emperor. 37. After the fall of the Manchu Dynasty, the walls of the Imperial City were gradually removed to facilitate east-west movement, and today only the southern wall along Ch'ang-an Boulevard remains standing. While the functions of the old Imperial City have changed, most of the original structures remain, and it is still possible to appreciate their relative role in Imperial China. 38. Two parks -- Chung Shan (Sun Yat-sen) and People's Cultural Park -- are located just inside the walls of the old Imperial City behind T'ien-an Men. Chung Shan Park, also known as Central Park, is to the northwest of T'ien-an Men. It was a palace, playground and the site of the Altar of the Earth and Harvests (She-chi T'an). Only the Emperor was entitled to sacrifice at this altar, which he did on prescribed days in the spring and the autumn. Near the entrance of the park is a marble p'ai-lou (commemorative archway), on which is inscribed characters that transliterate "Kung-li Chan-sheng" ("Right Triumphs Over Might"). This p'ai-lou was erected by the Chinese Government in memory of Baron Ketteler, a German killed during the Boxer Uprising. Following World War I, it was dismantled and moved from its original location near the Legation Quarter to its present site; at that time the new inscription was added. Numerous statues, small pavilions, a pedestal to Sun Yat7sen, and a roofed, open-air theater are some of the features of the park. Shaded walks and peony beds around the p'ai-lou attract large numbers of people. 39. The People's Cultural Park, formerly T'ai Miao (Temple of Ancestors), is to the north- east of T'ien-an Men. Under the Emperors, this was the most sacred spot in Peking, except for the Altar of Heaven. The spirit tablets (simple strips of lacquered wood in which the spirit of the departed was supposed to reside) of the Emperors and their consorts were kept here. - 29 - NO FORE DENTIAL ISSEM Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 ENTIAL NO FOREIG Sacrificial ceremonies were performed periodically by the Emperors, and homage was paid to the ances- tors on special occasions, such as weddings or coronations .� Years ago, prisoners of war were sometimes marched into the courtyard in order that they might be viewed by the spirits of the departed Emperors. The Temple of Ancestors also contained the spirit tablets of important princes, dukes, and ministers. Some of the tablets are those of Manchu ancestors who were canonized as Emperors with posthumous honors.. Today the temple is used as a place of recreation and amusement, and cultural and industrial exhibitions have sometimes been held here. Table tennis is often played in the buildings. The beautiful gardens and the cypress trees add to its general appeal. 40. A small, man-made hill (Ching Shan or Prospect Hill) dominates the northern edge of the Forbidden City. This hill has traditionally been called Mel Shan (Coal Hill), but during the Cultural Revolution, the name was officially changed to Red Guard's Park. The hill was con- structed for geomantic reasons to guard the Forbidden City against evil influences that might blow in from the north. It is recorded that during the Liao Dynasty a large amount of coal and charcoal was stored here for emergency use; this fuel laid the foundation for the present hill, hence the name Coal Hill. Recent excavations have not -fevealed any evidence to verify the story. Ching Shan was a place of rest and recreation for the Emperor, and a system of paths leading to five pavilions are laid out among the trees on its slopes. Until the recent addition of high buildings in Peking, Ching Shan provided the best vantage point for observation of the city. 41. On West Ch'ang-an (Hsi-ch'ang-an) Boulevard, about 1 kilometer west of T'ien-an Men, is a two-story building usually identified as the official residence of Mao Tse-tung. This is the Hsin-hua Men (Gate of New China), the front entrance to what is probably the most beautiful part of the Imperial City -- the area around the three "seas" (lakes) -- Nan (South), Chung (Central) - 30 - ENTIAL NO FOREIGN Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 TIAL NO FOREIGN Figure 23. Hsin-hua Men. This is the building usually identified as the office of Mao Tse-tung. and Pei (North). The building was constructed originally as a pavilion by Emperor Ch'ien Lung for his Mohammedan concubine, known as Hsiang Fei (Fragrant Concubine), but more commonly referred to as K'o Fei (Stranger Concubine). 42. Inside the wall, to the north of the Hsin-hua Men, the three "seas" provide the setting for beautiful buildings that were known in Imperial times as the Sea Palaces. This area was a resort for most of the Emperors and it served as a source of relief from the formalized ceremonial living that prevailed inside the walls of the Forbidden City. 43. The lakes date back to the 12th century, when one of the Chin Emperors diverted water into the Pei Hai (North Sea) from a spring near the present Summer Palace. Kublai Khan enlarged the lake and the park, built the hill on which the White Dogoba (Pai T'a) now stands, and planted trees from various parts of the country so the - 31 - DENTIAL NO FORE Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 CO NTIAL NO FOREIGN hillside would be green throughout the year. The Ming Emperor Yung Lo dug out all three lakes and added considerably to the parks and buildings. Succeeding rulers continued the work, but none was as energetic as the Empress-dowager Tz'u Hsi, who spent much of her time in the Sea Palaces and loved the winter carnivals that were held here. 44. The areas adjacent to the Central and South lakes are traditionally more secluded and restricted from public use than the Pei Hai, which is now a public park. Most of the Imperial residences and audience halls were located around Chung and Nan lakes. When the Chinese Republic was founded in 1912, the area was selected by President Yuan Shih-k'ai as his home and executive offices. Later presidents and some of the warlords also stayed here. Mao Tse-tung's official residence, if not in the Hsin-hua Men, is probably somewhere near the Nan Hai. Some visitors have been told that Mao lives on the Ying T'ai, the island in the middle of the Nan Hai. This small compound of beautiful Chinese-style buildings was the prison home of Manchu Emperor Kuang Hsu' during the last years of his reign. Figure 24. The Peking National Library. The White Dagoba in Pei Hai Park is visible over the trees at right. - 32 - NO FOR DENTIAL SSEM Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 DENT IAL NO FORE Figure 25. Pei Hai. The lake is used for boating in summer and ice-skating in winter. This northwest view from one of the restaurants in the area is toward the Ministry of National Defense (left) and the Five Dragon Pavilion. Figure 26 White Dagoba Island, Pei Hai. Built to commemorate the Dalai Lama's first visit to Peking in 1651, the dagoba crowns the hilly island on which it stands and serves as a vantage point for views of the Forbidden City and the North, Central, and South Lakes. In the left background of this eastward view is Ching Shan. - 33 - Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 DENTIAL NO FOREI 1 SSEM 45. The park and shrines around the Pei Hai probably comprise the most popular recreation area in the Imperial City. Boating, swimming, ice skating, and basketball are among the most common sports enjoyed in the park. The long promenades and the restaurants and refreshment stands accom- modate large numbers of people who flock to the park on weekends. Some of the shrines and pavilions are very old, but most are relatively new or have been rebuilt. The White Dogoba dates to 1651, when it was built to commemorate the first visit to Peking of the Dalai Lama. The ,wall that encloses the Circular City (T'uan Ch'eng) dates to 1417, but the present buildings were erected in 1746. _The. marble arch bridge (Imperial Canal Bridge, Yu-ho Ch'iao) that marks the boundary between Pei Hai and Chung Hai was built in 1956 to replace a similar bridge that proved much too narrow for the current heavy volume of traffic. A very prominent complex of multistoried buildings .just to the west of Pei Hai Park is occupied by the Ministry of National Defense. 46. On the north side of the road just west of the marble Imperial Canal Bridge is the National Library (Peking Library). It was built on the old site of a temple and of a palace in which the Emperor Hung Chih was born in 1486. The library is a popular place for study and is the repository of many cultural works. 47. A few blocks west of the library, and on the same side of the street, is the land that leads to the North Cathedral (Pei T'ang). On of the last relics of the RoMan Catholic faith in Peking, it is still open to the public. The cathedral was originally situated just outside the wall to the west of the Central Lake on a site presented to the Jesuits in 1693 by Emperor K'ang Hsi. The cathedral was closed and demolished in 1827 during a period of persecution under the Emperor Tao Kuang. The property was given back to the Catholic missions in 1860, and a new church was built in 1867. In 1885, however, Empress-dowager Tz'u Hsi moved into her new palaces on the Central Lake and objected to the cathedral that overlooked her - 34 - ENTIAL NO FOREIG EM Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 IDENTIAL NO FOR DISSEM residence. Negotiations led the Jesuits to accept the present site, well to the northwest of the palace, for a new church. The existing cathedral was completed in 1887. 48. Within the Imperial City is the Forbidden City, first opened to the public on August 28, 1900, after the Boxer Uprising, when the allies* staged a victory parade across the main courtyards. The Forbidden City was closed again in 1902 when the Emperor resumed his residency. Royal occupation of the palaces finally ceased on November 5, 1924, when Emperor Hstian T'ung (Henry P'u-i) was sum- marily evicted from the palaces by Feng Yu-hsiang, the "Christian General." The palaces were later opened to the public, and visitors were permitted to visit parts of them until 1966, when they were closed. Today much of the Forbidden City is open again to the public. 49. The Forbidden City is surrounded by a moat 160 feet wide and by walls more than 35 feet high. Covering a 250-acre expanse in the geo- graphical center of Peking, it comprised about one-sixth of the former Imperial City, which housed the administrative and maintenance organi- zations, graneries, stables, orchards, parks, residences of officials and princes, and some of the palaces and pleasure gardens of the Emperor. 50. The fabled magnificence and inaccessi- bility of the Forbidden City has promoted interest in it for centuries, but the palace proves a mild disappointment for many visitors. Unquestionably, the concept and layout of the palace is very impressive, but it is difficult for people today to appreciate Imperial accommodations in these some- what crude buildings. The Palate consists of a large number of detached single-storied buildings, one behind the other; they are separated by *British, French, Russian, German, Japanese, and Americans. - 35 - Ce DENTIAL NO FORE IISSEM Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Figure 27. The Forbidden City. the Court of the Golden River, th the palace, is toward the Gate of marble bridges across the Golden are known as the "Five Arrows." the Emperor could use the center Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 This northward view over -le second largest court in F Supreme Harmony. The River (canal in foreground) In Imperial China, only path and gate. Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 CO. NO FORE AL Figure 28. Rear entrance of Forbidden City. Southward view from Ching Shan. immense paved courtyards, along the sides of which are the former residences of servants and attendants. The outer pavilions are a series of throne rooms in which audience was given according to the 'rank of the individual admitted. The room nearest the gate - 37 - DENTIAL NO FORE $ISSEM Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 ENTIAL NO FOREIG sufficed for the reception of lesser mandarins or envoys of petty states, and the rooms farther into the palace were used for the higher nobility and representatives of greater nations. Eastern Half of Tartar City 51. Most of the buildings in the old Legation Quarter remain almost intact, although the foreign delegations have been moved to the eastern suburbs. The Chinese have constructed a few large modern buildings, especially on the old glacis*, now studded with buildings, except for a space in the east that has been reserved as the Tung-tan Park. The American Embassy is intact, and some new buildings have been erected on the former military drill ground northeast of Ch'ien Men. The International Club in the eastern part of the old Legation Quarter is still in use. 52. The Russian Embassy occupies a 400-yard square compound (Pei Kuan, or North Hostel) in the northeast corner of the old walled city; at this time it is the only embassy in the old Tartar City. Its site has been utilized by Russian clerics and diplomats for almost three centuries beginning in 1685 when Emperor K'ang Hsi allowed a large group of Cossack prisoners taken at the seige of Albaiin, on the Amur River, to settle here. Later on, additional priests were permitted to reside in the compound, and after the Treaty of Kiakta in 1727, the Orthodox ecclesiastical mission was officially recognized and given semi-diplomatic powers. This mission established a cloister (Nan Kuan; South Hostel) in what was to become the Legation Quarter. In 1858 the mission gave up Nan Kuan to the Russian Legation and moved to Pei Kuan. Nearly every building in the Pei Kuan was destroyed and their occupants murdered in 1900 by the Boxers. The monks later rebuilt the mission and considerably *A grass-covered plain that formed a buffer between the Tartar City and the walls of the Legation Quarter. - 38 - CON.JDENTIAL NO FOREI DISSEM Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 CS ENTIAL NO FOREI SEM enlarged it. After World War II the mission's land was taken over by the Soviet Embassy. 53. just to the northeast of the Peking Hotel is a large hospital compound that was formerly known as the Peking Union Medical College. Originally built, equipped, and maintained by Rockefeller Foundation funds, it is still one of the most modern and best-equipped hospitals in China. Most of the original green, tile-roofed hospital build- ings are still in use, and some new and larger buildings have been added. The complex was known as the Anti-Imperialist Hospital in 1970, but later that year it was renamed Friendship Hospital. 54. Near the hospital is Peking's main shopping center; it is concentrated along a few blocks of Wang-fu-ching Ta-chieh (Street). Among shops and stores of note are the Peking Department Store and the Tung-an People's Market. 55. Diagonally northwest of the Overseas Chinese Hotel is the Museum of Fine Arts, a striking example of traditional Chinese architecture. Built by the present regime, it has a wide range of Chinese works of art on exhibit. 56. The ancient Peking Astronomical Observatory (Kuan-hsiang T'ai; Watching the Luminaries Terrace), just south of East Ch'ang-an (Tung-ch'ang-an Chieh) Boulevard, is a unique institution. It was first established in the late 13th century by Mongol Emperor Kublai Khan on the southeast corner of the Tartar Wall. When the last wall was razed, the observatory, along with a portion of the wall, was preserved. Most of the instruments in the observ- atory date to 1674; they were made by the Jesuit priest, Ferdinand Verbiest, on orders from Emperor K'ang Hsi. Considering their vintage, they are remarkably precise. The Germans looted the obser- atory in 1901 and took most of the instruments to Potsdam, but they were returned to Peking in 1919 following the Treaty of Versailles. 57. The new Peking Railway Station occupies a large area in the southeast corner of the old - 39 - IDENTIAL NO FORE SSEM Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 DENTIAL NO FOREI SSEM Figure 29. Side street in main shopping area. This view is of an alley off Wang-fu-ching Street near the Peking Department Store. Some buildings of the Friendship Hospital (formerly Peking Union Medical College) are at the end of the street. Figure 30. Peking Astronomical Observatory on a remnant of the old east wall of Peking. These are some of the ancient instruments that were fabricated in the 17th century. - 40 - DENTIAL NO FOR G Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 IDENTIAL NO FORE SSE Figure 31. The Peking Railroad Station. The subway now traverses the area beneath the square in front of the station. Tartar City. A large and gaudy building graced with a Chinese-style roof, it is operated with efficiency, but the bustle that characterizes stations of similar size in other countries is lacking. 58. The Temple of Confucious (Klung Miao), the Lama Temple (Yung-ho Kung), and the Hall of Classics (Kuo-tzu Chien) are three important features of the northeastern part of the old Tartar City. The Lama Temple (more properly a monastery or gompa) is one of the oldest and best preserved temples in Peking. It was the home of Manchu Emperor Yung Cheng, and in accordance with ancient custom it could not be used by his descendants after he ascended the throne. His son, Emperor Ch'ien Lung, therefore converted the palace into a temple in 1745. It developed great religious and political importance, serving as the former residence of a living Buddha and the home of approximately 1,500 priests. Although the temple has been renovated, only a few priests remain. - 41 - DENTIAL NO FORE IISSEM Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 DENTIAL NO FORE ,EM Figure 32. Escalator in the Peking Railroad Station. Bound feet, such as those of the two old women shown, are an in- frequent sight in Peking. 59. Just west of the Lama Temple is the former Temple of Confucius, also known as the Civil Temple (Wen Miao) or Altar of the Master Teacher (Hsien-shih T'an). This temple served the ancient, - 42 DENT IAL NO FOREIGi EM Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 NO FO DENT1AL SSEM Figure 33. Lama Temple (Yung-ho Kung). This is one of many beautiful buildings on the temple grounds. although nonreligious, practice of honoring the great teacher with certain rites of worship, especially on the anniversary of his birth. The temple was built by the Mongol Emperor Chih Cheng toward the end of the 13th century, and its last major rebuilding occurred in 1737. It follows the general design of other Confucian temples in China, and its main hall, the Hall of Great Perfection (Ta-chreng Tien), is a masterpiece of classical Chinese design. The temple is now being used as an educational facility; it reportedly houses schools of drama and printing and is not open to visitors. 60. The Hall of Classics adjoins the Temple of Confucius on the west. It was originally a private school under the Mongols, but it was en- larged and converted into a national university by the Emperor Yung Lo. The present buildings date from 1783. At that time the Emperor Chtien Lung had a complete text of the classics carved, with 80,000 characters, into 300 stone tablets. - 43 - FIDENTIAL NO FOR DISSEM Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 IDENTIAL NO FORE IISSEM Figure 34. Northern part of Tartar City. Looking northward from Ching Shan over the children's playground and young people's dormitories. Drum Tower is in the background. He did so to guard against the recurrence of a disaster -- such as the burning of the books under the Ch'in Emperor Shih Huang Ti in 213 B.C. In recent years the hall has been converted into a municipal library, and the stone tablets are stored in an annex. 61. Due north from Ching Shan and the For- bidden City are two historic landmarks, the Bell Tower (Chung Lou) and the Drum Tower (Ku Lou). These two dissimilar buildings are less than 500 feet apart, and they dominate the skyline about a mile north of Ching Shan. 62. The oldest of the two, the 90-foot Bell Tower, was built during the Mongol Dynasty and moved to its present site in 1420, when Ming Emperor Yung Lo built the Drum Tower. The Bell Tower was later destroyed by fire and rebuilt again in 1745. Its 10-ton bell tolled the curfew each night until early in this century, but now it has been removed to a site near the Drum Tower. The tower became a movie theater under the Republic, and it now serves as a children's library. - 44 - DENTIAL NO FORE SEM Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 NO FORE DENTIAL ISSEM 63. Drum Tower is the more imposing and the taller of the two. At 99 feet it is on a level with the highest guard towers in Peking. In old China, it was believed that the fiercest kinds of demons flew at heights of about 100 feet; there- fore most buildings and guard towers were built just short of that level. The Drum Tower is constructed of materials salvaged from an older Mongol drum tower that stood about 100 yards west of the present site. In Ming times, the drum beat in Drum Tower would precede the tolling of the bell in Bell Tower. At that time there was in Drum Tower a unique water clock, or clepsydra, that calculated the quarter hour divisions, at which intervals a large cymbal was sounded. The clepsydra disappeared after the Boxer Uprising, but the drums continued in use to sound the watch. Later the tower was used by the Kuomintang as a propaganda headquarters; it now houses a cultural center. Western Half of Tartar City 64. In the western part of Tartar City there are fewer points of interest than in the eastern part. The Central Telegraph Building and the Cultural Palace ot the Nationalities are located on the north side of Ch'ang-an Boulevard, west of T'ien-an Men. The former occupies a neat functional building, quite in contrast to the lavish, Chinese-style architecture embodied in the latter. The Cultural Palace of the Nationalities, a spreading, white building crowned with a blue- tiled roof and a central tower of 13 stories, is probably one of the tallest structures in Peking. It contains a museum in which the achievements of various nationalities are exhibited; a library and auditorium; a dance hall; and sports and recreation rooms. The library concentrates on the history and culture of the minority peoples of China to whom the palace is dedicated. 65. In the northwest less than a mile west of Pei-t'ang, is one of the oldest monuments in Peking, the White Pagoda Temple (Pai-t'a Ssu). A prominent landmark, this bell-shaped stupa was originally built in the 11th century, but it was - 45 - IDENTIAL NO FOR RISSEM Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 NO FOR DENTIAL ISSEM Figure 35. The Cultural Palace of the Nationalities. The Forbidden City and Tien-an Men Square are in the background to the east along Ch'ang-an Boulevard. The tower in the distance is on the Peking Telegraph Office. repaired and considerably improved by Kublai Khan late in the 13th century. Almost a twin of the White Dagoba in the Pei Hai Park, it is sometimes called the White Dagoba. Fairs were formerly held on the temple grounds. 66. East of the White Pagoda is the Temple of Broad ,Charity (Kuang-chi Ssu). It dates to the Chin Dynasty and is more than 800 years old. Over the years the temple has been repaired or rebuilt a number of times and large portions of it were destroyed by fire in 1932. Currently it is the repository of some ancient Buddhist writings, and it also serves as the home of the Chinese Buddhist As - 46 - FIDENTIAL NO FOR DISSEM Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 ENTIAL NO FOREI SSEM 67. The Lu Hsun Museum is a popular shrine situated near the White Pagoda. Named for an early Communist leader who lived here, the museum contains copies of his writings and exhibits that depict his travels and experiences. His home has been care- fully preserved and is an important part of the museum. It is an excellent example of a typical Peking home. Chinese City 68. The mile-square Altar of Heaven (T'ien T'an), the most sacred spot in Imperial Peking, probably remains the most important temple in China to this day. A grandiose structure of immense proportions, it contains majestic temples, halls, gates, and gardens. The culminating feature within it is the altar, which in former times only the Emperor could ascend; this he did annually to offer sacrifices to the Supreme Being. 69. The current regime has kept the Altar of Heaven in good condition and uses it mainly as a park. Although some of the grounds have been excavated in recent years, the Chinese have re- planted and landscaped work areas in order to retain the temple's integrity. Some of the western annexes now house a hospital and a medical research center. Just to the north of the entrance to the temple is the Museum of Natural History, a modern building in which exhibits in zoology, botany, and paleon- tology are displayed. 70. West of the Altar of Heaven is the site of the former Altar of Agriculture (Hsien-nung T'an). Each spring the Emperor came here to make sacrifices designed to obtain rain; he would also plow the first furrows in plots set aside for the growing of ceremonial grain. Other officials finished the plowing and then planted the crop. The grain harvested from these plots was stored in a special granary and used at sacrificial ceremonies. During this century the Altar of Agriculture declined, and the buildings comprising it fell into disrepair. Under the present regime the temple area has been converted into a sports playground that features a 30,000-seat stadium and a large swimming pool. - 47 - DENTIAL NO FOREI IISSEM Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Figure 36. The Altar of Heaven. This northward view from a point near the main altar looks over the Temple of the God of the Universe (center) to the gateway of the Hall of Annual Prayers (background Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Figure 37. Tao-jan-ting Park. The pleasant atmosphere of the park has made it one of the most popular places for visits in the southern part of the city. Figure 38. Commercial alley in the old Chinese city. Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 DENT IAL NO FOREI SEM Figure 39. Main Street in the old Chinese city. This is Ch'ien-men Ta-chieh, the main north-south street in the old Chinese City. View is north toward Chien Men, one of the few gates that are still standing. 71. West of the Altar of Agriculture is the Joyous Pavilion Park (T'ao-jan-t'ing Kung-yuan). This large park was established prior to the Mongol Dynasty, which built the Temple of Mercy here. In 1695 the Joyous Pavilion was erected near the temple. A very popular meeting place for scholars and officials for many years, the park fell into disuse in the 19th century. Early Communists used some of the temple annexes for their meetings in the 1920's, and the park now has a special sig- nificance to the Government. The lakes have been dredged since 1949, and the park has been expanded and improved. 72. To the east of the Altar of Heaven is another large sports complex. It includes the Peking Gymnasium, an indoor swimming pool, and a tall parachute tower. A seven-story pagoda, Fa-t'a Ssu (also designated by legend as the "Little Tired Pagoda"), is located next to the railroad. - 49 - DENTIAL NO FOREI SSEM Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 rigure AwMile rOMFIDENTIAI, 51-11H4ZU-r0 II -TiAN DIP OMATIC C oM POUND South V Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824" DIPLOMA IL COMPOUND ICUNG-JEN4VtUCH'ANG tu Athletic fields Athletic fie king Worker's s Complex SAN-LI-I'UN Monument Tank. Athletic field 0 Proyitional Monurren. cr.:3 CC 0 Athletic field Diplomatic Compounds Temple of the Ea te n Peak CPti40,� (Tung-yLieh M ao) -"`03-MEN.WAt�TACHIEH Altar of Sun Clih-fan Park) 0 Lanes CHIEN40.10-1AEN.. AICEi4CC A KUAN-TUNG-TIEN TA�YU-Tal KtfANCOIVA,LEI Yu-WANG-FEN F ENT AL 71 CIA HO-TAO-YUAN NO FO RELCASA8LE TO UK, CANADA, Al) Monument ZEALAND HU-CHIA-LOU National gricultural Exhibition Cente PAI-CHIA-CHUANG CHlSHENGMlA0 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 T AL NO FOREIGN D Fi_gure 41. Diplomatic Compound south of the Altar of the Sun. These are typical living quarters. In the center building facing the garden is a store. 73. The north-central part of the old Chinese City, south of Ch'ien Men, contains what used to be known as the amusement district of Peking. In addition to the theaters, restaurants, and public baths, many of which are still in operation, it included opium dens and houses of prostitution. The shops, restaurants, and theaters of this old district still create a festive atmosphere, but the illicit pleasures are gone, and so far as the foreigner can determine their passing is not mourned. Eastern Suburbs 74. A new residential-industrial area has been developed immediately east of the old city walls. In it are to be found worker's apartments, two diplomatic compounds, a large sports complex, and a number of other buildings of interest. 75. Nearly all of the foreign legations are now housed in the diplomatic compounds here. One, the Jih T'an Compound, is on the main east-west extension of East Ch'ang-an Boulevard, just to the south of the Altar of the Sun (Jib T'an), for which it is named. The other compound is farther to the northeast at San-li-t'un, between the National - 51 NO FOREIGN Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 C ENTIA)., NO FOREIG SEM Agricultural Exhibition Center and the Peking Worker's Sports Complex. Both compounds are marked by rather drab modern buildings, typical of Chinese apartment houses in the Peking suburbs. 76. The Altar of the Sun has been slightly increased in size and now functions as a park and recreation area. Although the park enclosure has been squared off and numerous trees and walks added, many old buildings remain. The altar, a low, square terrace, with steps on each side, is surrounded by a circular wall of red brick. It was formerly used each spring to make sacrifices in worship of the sun. The Emperor appeared at this temple every other year, and appointed officials represented him on alternate years. The temple dates to 1330, when the grounds were given to the Emperor. 77. One of the most impressive sights in the eastern suburbs is the large Peking Worker's Sports Complex, about three-quarters of a mile north of the Altar of the Sun. A huge, elliptical stadium, witha seating capacity of over 80,000 people, dominates the park, and it is flanked by a circular 15,000-seat gymnasium and by indoor and outdoor pools. A small lake extends across the grounds between.numerous playing fields. In addition to major sports events, the complex occasionally hosts large political rallies. 78. The National Agricultural Exhibition Center is immediately east of the San-li-t'un Diplomatic Compound. Opened in January 1959, the center presents comprehensive agricultural, . forestry, and fishery exhibits. It is also used to propagate the Party's agricultural plans and policies and to present its progress reports. The center has at least 11 exhibit halls in the main building, which sprawls across the front of the large complex. Numerous other structures, including research buildings and exhibition halls, are dispersed on the grounds. 79. On the north side of Chao-wai Ta-chieh (Street), just south of the Peking Worker's Sports - 52 - CS ENTIAL NO FOREIGN Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 FIDENTIAL NO FOR SSEM Complex, a beautiful wooden triple-arched pai-l'ou is flanked by two stone lions. This is the entrance to one of the most interesting places in Peking, the Taoist Temple of the Eastern Peak (Tung-yueh Miao),more commonly known as the Temple of 10,000 Punishments. This temple is dedicated to Huang Fei Hu, the legendary character who rebelled against and killed the infamous tyrant Chou Hsin, the last ruler of the Shang Dynasty. The Tung-yueh Miao was completed after 8 years of construction by the Mongol Emperor Yen Yu in 1329. 80. The temple was formerly very popular with the Chinese because it was designed to minister to almost any need. People with bodily ailments, mental ills or anxieties, debts, lack of heirs or a marriage partner, and numerous other troubles could visit the shrine of the proper diety, where presumably their particular entreaties were heard. One gallery of statuary graphically portrayed, in horrible manner, the punishments to which evil individuals would be subjected in the numerous Taoist underworlds. Another gallery depicted the rewards for the good and the just. The temple offered something for nearly everyone. 81. The buildings of the Tung-yueh Miao still Stand and are apparently in use as a school. Visitors have not been permitted on the grounds in recent years, however, and the present status of the idols and statuary is not known. Southern Suburbs 82. Peking's suburbs to the south have experienced the least growth in recent years. With the exception of a small built-up area just to the south of the Temple of Heaven, expansion is mainly confined to. an industrial area around Ta-hung-men, about 2 miles south of the Yung-ting Men (gate), and, to the military complex around the Nan-yilan Airfield. Feng-t'ai, southwest of the city, contains the largest railroad yards and storage facilities in the Peking area. The remainder of the area consists mostly of cultivated fields, many of which are worked by large communes - 53 DENTIAL NO FOREI SEI Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 DENTIAL NO FORE DI SSEM whose mission, next to providing food for Peking, is to demonstrate the efficiencies of the Chinese Communist agricultural system. 83. Nearly all of the southern suburbs were once a part of the vast Imperial hunting grounds, the Nan-hai Tzu (Southern Hunting Park). The Manchus, however, preferred to use either the Hunting Park (Hsiang Shan) in the western hills or the grounds near the palace at Ch'eng-te (Jehol) and hardly any trace of the old hunting grounds remain. Nan-yuan Airfield is located at about the center of the old park, and the rest of the tract is cultivated. Western Suburbs 84. Suburban Peking has grown principally toward the west in a discontinuous pattern, almost to the Yung-ting River. Much of this growth was planned prior to 1949, by which time many of the streets had already been laid out. Since then the Communists have constructed numerous multistory residential and governmental buildings, particularly' along West Ch'ang-an Boulevard, the route of the new subway line. That wide throughfare has been completely repaved, following a long period of disruption caused by the subway construction, which currently continues north of Fu-hsing Men (Gate of Rejuvenation), along the site of the old west wall. - 85. On the south side of West Ch'ang-an Boulevard, just outside of Fu-hsing Men, is the headquarters of Radio Peking. It occupies the site of an old British cemetery, which was once restored after its complete desecration during the Boxer Uprising. Fu-hsing Men is not a real gate, but merely an opening that was hacked in the old city wall to accommodate traffic in 1941. Radio and television programs are beamed from the broad- cast center, although the television industry in China is still in its infancy. 86. Southwest of the broadcast center, on the south bank of the aqueduct and adjacent to the - 54 - IDENTIAL NO FORE IISSEM Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 ENTIAL NO FORE SSEM Figure 42. The western suburbs. The multistory buildings in this section near the Peking Broadcast House (lower right) are typical of the newer sections of Peking. The old city walls at right have been removed to make room for the subway. old railroad line, is the former mother temple and headquarters of the Taoist sect in North China, the Temple of the White Cloud (Pai-y-Un Kuan). This temple, unlike the Tung-yueh Miao, has a small complement of priests and is still operating. The - 55 - DENTIA NO FORE I SSE Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 ENT I AL NO FORE SSEM Figure 43. Peking Broadcast House. The building is one of the most impressive of the modern structures in the city. oldest part of it stands on the site of a T'ang Dynasty structure that lay inside the walls of the old city of Chung-tu. Extensive repairs have periodically been made to its numerous buildings. The temple formerly attracted large numbers of visitors, especially to the annual 20-day festival a celebration that marked the arrival of the Eight Immortals who supposedly descended from heaven on the 20th day of the first lunar month. The high- light of this festival was the foot and cart races, which precipitated a veritable orgy of gambling, an activity dear to the Chinese. Even Manchu princes and nobles participated in some of the races, which often led to violent brawls and clan fights. Eventually the racing was abandoned in favor of an ordinary temple fair. 87. The ancient pagoda of the Temple of Celestial Peace (T'ien-ning Ssu) rises majestically - 56 - NO FOR DENT JAL DISSEM Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 c. NTIAL NO FOREI I SSEM Figure 44. The T'ien-ning Pagoda. Cropland now surrounds the pagoda, situated in the western suburbs. Small remnants of the temple remain at its base. about a half-mile to the south of the P -yun Kuan. It is one of the largest pagodas in the Peking area, rising to 190 feet. The temple that housed the pagoda was first built in 472 A.D. and underwent the usual repair and rebuilding cycles, but it is now largely destroyed and only a few buildings near the base of the pagoda remain. The origins of the pagoda are obscure, but most sources agree that it was erected sometime in the late 12th or early 13th century under the Liao Dynasty. The octagon-shaped, 13-story structure, covered with more than 2,000 bas-relief images of Buddha, houses a colossal Buddha. Formerly, over 3,000 little bells were suspended from the eaves of the pagoda, and when the wind was in the right direction, they could be heard a mile away. Nearly all of the bells are now gone. 88. The Altar of the Moon (Hs yue ''an) is near the Children's Hospital, aboutthree-quarters - 57 - NO FOR DENTIAL SSEM Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 C DENTIAL NO FORE T DISSEM of a mile north of the broadcasting center. It was erected at the same time as the Altar of the Sun in the eastern suburbs (1530), on an almost identical plan, except that the wall around the Altar of the Moon was square and the symbolic color was white. The autumn sacrifices to the moon were celebrated in alternate years by the Emperor, as was the case in the sacrifices to the sun. Today the temple is used as a public park and school. A tall television tower juts into the sky from the central area near the old altar. 89. A little over a mile west of the Altar of the Moon is the Jade Abyss Pool (Yu-yuan T'an), also known as the Fishing Terrace (Tiao-yu T'ai). During the Chin Dynasty this pool was used by the Imperial family. Emperor Ch'ien Lung enlarged the lake in 1773 and rebuilt the palace, which was used by later Emperors during fishing expeditions on the lake. By the 20th century the lake had silted up, and the palace was crumbling. In 1956 a new gourd-shaped lake was dug and a dam and hydro-electric facility was built as part of the Yung-ting River aqueduct system. Trees were planted along the shores of the mile-long lake to create a park, which is very popular. A guest house compound for distinguished foreign visitors is located at the eastern edge of the lake. 90. The Military Museum of the Chinese People's Revolution is located on the north side of the westward extension of Ch'ang-an Boulevard, just south of Yu-yuan T'an. It consists of a large white,. stone building, topped by a spire and a red star. Opened in 1959, the museum attempts to portray the armed struggle of the Chinese people, under the leadership of the Communist Party, during various stages of the Chinese Revolution. It also traces the growth of the People's Liberation Army, and it exhibits various types of military equipment, ancient and modern. The Chinese have put a number of U-2 and pilotless drones of US manufacture on display in the courtyard of this museum. 91. The Peking Zoo, outside the northwest corner of the old city, is one of the finest in - 58 - CS DENTIAL NO FOREI DISSEM Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 CO INTIAL NO FOREIG SEM the world. Next to it is the Peking Exhibition Center, an elaborate Russian-style building that was opened with a Soviet exhibition in 1954. The center has hosted Chinese as well as numerous foreign exhibits. Its extensive layout includes a cinema and a restaurant. 92. The Peking Planetarium (T'ien-wen Kuan), across the street from the zoo, was opened in 1957. It is small and has very modest facilities. Northern and Northwestern Suburbs 93. The importance of Peking as the nation's educational and scientific center has been under- lined by the establishment there of the Academia Sinica, the largest research body in the country. More than 40 of the 80-odd research institutes of the Academy are now in the city, and many of them are located in the area north of the old wall. Of the 66 learned societies in China, 58 have their headquarters in Peking, where the most important universities and colleges of the country are also concentrated. Ch'ing-hua University, the best engineering school, and Peking University, the institute used to train the Communist rank and file, are located near the site of the old Summer Palace (Yuan-ming Yiian), adjacent to the head- quarters of Academia Sinica. About two dozen new professional colleges have been established in Peking to train skilled personnel in critical trades and professions. Among those that are located in the northern and northwestern suburbs are the institutes for iron and steel, geology, aeronautics, petroleum, mining industry, forestry, mechanized agriculture, railroads, and music. 94. Ch'ing-Hua University was originally established from funds provided by the US Govern- ment out of the Boxer indemnities it received from China. It was designed to prepare young Chinese students for study in Western universities. Over the years its curriculum gradually changed, and by ,the time of its closing during the Cultural Revolution, it had become the best engineering school in the country. After 3 years of inactivity, - 59 - DENTIAL NO FOREI IISSEM Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 CI DENTIAL NO FORE DISSEM it was reopened in 1969 as a quasi-military school of technology. At one time physically remote, the college is now surrounded by other buildings in the northern suburbs. 95. In addition to educational institutions, the northern suburbs contain some distinctive cultural sites. A short distance outside of An-ting Gate is the Altar of Earth (Ti T'an), which complements and was only slightly less sacred than the Altar of Heaven. The Altar of Earth was erected in 1530, in the same year that the Altar of the Sun and the Altar of the Moon were built. It is square, reflecting the then-prevailing Chinese belief that this was the shape of the earth. In 1860 it was occupied by French and British troops, who used it as a barracks and campgrounds. It has been used in a similar fashion on other occasions since then, and. parts of it have fallen into dis- repair. The grounds surrounding it now serve as a park. 96. ,The Yellow Temple (Huang Ssu), located next to a military barracks, is a lama temple with a long and colorful history. Built originally by the Ming, it was destroyed in 1643 by the rebel leader Li Tzu-ch'eng and rebuilt in 1651 by the Manchu Emperor Shun Chih as a temporary residence for the Dalai Lama. The most magnificent part of the temple is the Tibetan dagoba; of Indian design it includes four octagonal pagodas. The dagoba was added by Emperor Ch'ien Lung in 1780 to serve as a tomb for the Panchen Lama, who died of small- pox while visiting Peking. Ch'ien Lung returned the body of the Panchen Lama to Tibet in a gold coffin and buried only his clothes under the dagoba. The temple later fell into disrepair, but it was used as the residence of the Dalai Lama on his visit to Peking in 1908 -- an unwelcome visit in the eyes of the Empress-dowager, who had been warned by astrologists that her death would coincide with his visit. Both she and the Emperor died during the stay of the Dalai Lama in Peking. In 1949, the temple was partly in ruins; some of it has now been replaced by modern buildings, but the western part, which contains the dagoba, is still standing. - 60 - . CO ENTIAL NO FOR I DISSEM Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 IDENTIAL NO FOR DISSEM 97. About 3 miles to the southwest of the Yellow Temple, just north of the zoo, is another temple of Indian design, the Five Pagoda Temple (Wu-t'a Ssu). It was built during the early Ming Dynasty to house five golden Buddhas, presented to the Emperor by an Indian monk, along with a model of the Diamond Throne Temple in India. This model was used to design the temple, in which the five Buddhas were placed in separate pagodas. Today, the grounds are still preserved, but of the temple proper, only the central building with the five pagodas remains. 98. Probably the main attraction in the northern suburbs is the Summer Palace (I-,ho Yuan),* now called People's Park (Jen-min Kung-yUan). *In spite of the variety and extent of the residential quarters in the Forbidden City and the Sea Palaces, the Emperors found the sultry air of the city un- healthy during the summer months. By custom they moved out of Peking to summer palaces in the vicinity. This custom reached its highest point under the Manchus, when Emperor Ch'ien Lung expanded the summer palaces (Yuan-ming Yuan), situated about 5 miles north of Peking. The best architects and artisans were employed, including some skilled Jesuit missionaries to the Court. Ch'ien Lung had seen pictures of the palaces at Versailles, and he ordered the construction of similar European-style palaces in one section of the park. Most of the succeeding Emperors spent much time at the summer palaces, which they continued to embellish. Despite occasional attempts at simplicity, great sums of money were expended to make and keep them as exquisite as possible. Regrettably, the summer palaces were demolished in 1860 at the hands of the British and French military forces during the last phase of the Second Anglo-Chinese War (Arrow War). The Chinese had caused the deaths of some prisoners, who had appeared under a flag of truce. In retaliation, the British- destroyed the palaces, directing their ire at the Emperor rather than the Chinese people. - 61 CON NTIAL NO FOREIG SSEM Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 ENTIAL NO FOREI ISSEM Fi_gure 45. The Summer Palace. The most prominent buildings in the palace face K'un-ming Lake. The large octogonal building is the Fo-hsiang Ko (Buddha's Fragrant Incense Pavilion). 99. The present summer palace was built in the late 19th century by the Empress-dowager. Lacking funds, she appropriated money that had been allocated to the Chinese Navy -- estimated at $50,000,000. The greatest feature of the Summer Palace is its setting. Low hills and surface undulations have been well utilized as sites for palaces and temples, and the grounds are impressively laid out. In 1914 the grounds were first opened to the public, but many of the buildings remained closed. The Summer Palace has been maintained moderately well through the years, and it is now a very popular recreational spot, frequented by the Chinese and foreigners alike. 100. Rising from the flat plain to the west of the Summer Palace and Krun-ming Lake is the low rounded, twin-peaked hill of the Jade Fountain (Yu-chtuan Shan, or Jade Springs Hill). Two clear - 62 - C DENTIAL NORNLDISSEM Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 DENTIAL SEM water springs on the hill, the largest on the southwest slope, formerly supplied the Imperial City and its lakes with water. The springs are still in use, and they provide some of Peking's water supply. The use of this hill as a pleasure park predates the summer palaces. The Chin Emperor, Chang Tsung (1190-1208 A.D.), had a hunting lodge on the crest, where the Jade Peak Pagoda (Yu-feng T'a) now stands. In the south another pagoda at a lower level adds to the beauty of the hill. Visitors have not been permitted to approach the hill in recent years. 101. The Western H. (Hsi Shan) overlook Peking from the northwest These mostly barren rugged outliers of the T'ai-hang Shan have been long used as a haven from Peking's summer heat. Temples, palaces, and tombs are spotted along lower slopes, which in recent years have experienced considerable population growth, mainly at the eastern edge. Figure 46. View eastward from Hunting Park (Hsiang Shan). The twin peaks of Jade Spring Hill, located to the west of the Summer Palace and K'un-ming Lake, rise sharply from the flat, crop-covered plain. - 63 - DEN' AL NO FOREI IJSSEM Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 C DENTIAL NO FOREI IISSEM Among the numerous cultural sites in the Western Hills, on the slopes facing Peking, are the Temple of the Sleeping Buddha (Wo-fo Ssu), the Temple of the Azure Clouds, (Pi-yUn Ssu), the Northern Hunting Park (Hsiang Shan, or Fragrant Hills) and the Eight Big Places (Pa-ta Ch'u). 102. The Temple of the Sleeping Buddha is nestled in the foothills about a half-mile from the main road and 2 miles to the west of Jade Springs Hill. It has a very long history, dating back to the T'ang Emperor Chen Kuan (627-649 A.D.), but numerous repairs and alterations over the years have changed it considerably. The present temple dates from 1734. The principal building on the grounds contains the 50-foot figure of a sleeping Buddha, originally built of wood, but recast in bronze in 1465. A smaller sandalwood figure of Buddha, also in a reclining position, dates from the temple's earliest period. In the past, many of the buildings in the temple were rented during the summer season by Peking residents. 103. The Temple of the Azure Clouds lies in the next valley, about a mile to the west of Wo-fo Ssu and a mile into the mountain valley from the main road. It is easily the most beautiful temple in the western hills, not only because of its buildings, but also because of its magnificant woodland setting. It demonstrates how Buddhist Monks chose sites that enhanced the beauty of their religious architecture. The dominating "stupa" of the temple, like a mirage in the forest, is visible from the main road at the foot of the valley, but the visitor must traverse a mile of roaa through a cluster of trees in order to obtain a close-up view of the shrine. 104. The temple dates from the late Mongol Dynasty (1366); reconstructed and enlarged many times, it has been supported at various times by wealthy eunuchs. It consists of two parts: the temple, which contains most of the buildings, including the Hall of the 500 Gods, and behind it, the six-towered, Indian-style Diamond Throne Pagoda (Chin-kang T'a); the beauty of which - 64 - DENTIAL NO FOREIGN SEM Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 DENTIAL NO FORENJJISSEM has been compared favorably with that of the Taj Mahal. The pagoda was built in 1748, following the same design as that of the Five Pagoda Temple north of the zoo. It is constructed of marble- like stone, the famous Ta-li-shih, or natural colored stone, from Yunnan Province. After Sun Yat-sen died in Peking in 1925, his body was brought to Pi-yun Ssu, where it lay in a niche under the pagoda from 1926 to 1928. It was then removed, first to Central Park in Peking, and finally to the Purple Mountain Tomb in Nanking. 105. The Hunting Park is a wooded enclosure just south of Pi-yan Ssu. About half a square mile in area, it was a game preserve used by Emperors from about 1170 to 1850. The game has long since gone but the wooded area and many of the buildings have been used at times as an orphanage, a sanitarium, and for summer residences. 106. Circular City (Yijan Chleng) is an inter- esting structure on the edge of the plain to the southeast of the Hunting Park. An enormous oval fort with 15-foot-thick walls, it was built by Ch'ien Lung in 1749 to commemorate a victorious campaign in Tibet and also to provide a place where he could watch his troops maneuver on the plain. This former military training ground contained numerous military barracks, forts, and blockhouses, but they all deteriorated. The fields are now cultivated and the fort is being used by horti- cultural services. The Emperor also built a number of queer-looking structures designed to train soldiers to climb the Tibetan walls. These rough stone buildings, with terraced roofs and false windows about 20 to 45 feet high, were scattered about the plain and on the hillslopes, but most have now disappeared. 107. Located about 2 miles southwest of Yuan Ch'eng (4 miles by car) in a long, rather steep valley that opens to the south are the Eight Big Places; these are eight temples, situated one above the other on the valley slopes. They are ancient -- the oldest dates back to the reign of Sul Emperor Jen Shou (601-604 A.D.) and the newest to 1442 A.D. Each has a different story and each has - 65 - IDENTIAL NO FORE DISSEM Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 DENT JAL NO FORE I ISSEM undergone considerable rebuilding and repair. The temples at one time were very popular with the residents of Peking in summer, and the buildings were rented out as vacation homes. During the Boxer Uprising, they were reported to be a Boxer base, and they suffered some retaliatory damage at the hands of the allied forces. A beautiful white octagonal. pagoda in back of the Temple of Spiritual Light; (Ling-kuang Ssu), the second temple from the plain, was destroyed by Indian troops. A new pagoda has been built there by the present regime. Attractions in the Vicinity of Peking 108. Almost every tourist in Peking visits the Great Wall, probably China's most famous attraction. Restored portions of it are best viewed from a tourist center situated about 35 miles north of Peking, at Chu-yung-kuan, the site of the main gate and guard post north of Nan-ktou. Visitors to this area are permitted to climb up and walk along the top of the Great Wall as it snakes across the barren ridges of the rugged Pa-ta Ling (Mountains). 109. Dating to about the 5th century B.C., the Great Wall was originally constructed as a defensive barrier to ward off attacks from the north. It extended from the Gulf of Chihli (Po Hai) to western Kansu. Largely ineffective against determined attacks, it did provide an excellent communications system in frontier regions, permitting news, men, and supplies to move rapidly along its wide top. It also provided a barrier that prevented the intrusion of nomadic peoples into Chinese farmland. Parallel or reinforcing walls were occasionally built in critical areas, and in some sectors a whole system of secondary walls was developed. 110. Much of the Great Wall was restored under the Ming Dynasty, but the Manchus let it fall gradually into disrepair. Under the Communists each end of the wall and the portion near Peking have been maintained, but the rest of it has fallen - 66 - CI DENTIAL NO FOREI PISSEM Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 NO FO D NTIAL SSEM Figure 47. The Great Wall at Chu-yung-kuan. The restored portion of the wall is in as good condition as in centuries past. A tourist center is in the old gate compound in the background. into various stages of disintegration. Crumbling guardtowers or eroded mud remnants mark large sections, and some portions have disappeared completely. 111. A statue of Chan Tien-yu, the first successful Chinese railway engineer, stands at Ch'ing-lung-ch'iao Railroad Station. Under his - 67 - EN" AL NO FORE Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 C DENTIAL NO.FOREI ISSEM direction a railroad line was constructed from Peking to Kalgan in 1909 -- a difficult project because of the intervening mountainous terrain. This line was the first important railway to be built in China without foreign capital or technical help. 112. The Ming Tombs (Shih-san Ling, or Thirteen Tombs), about 2 miles to the north of the highway near Ch'ang-p'ing, are also popular tourist attractions. The scattered tombs are nestled in carefully chosen sites along the foot- hills of the semicircular mountain range that protects the valley on the north. All of the Ming Emperors who ruled from Peking except one are buried here. The one who is not, Ching T'ai, assumed the throne during the period 1449-57, while his brother, the rightful Emperor, was a prisoner of the Mongols. Ching T'ai died shortly after being deposed; denied burial in the Ming Tombs, his remains were deposited in a modest tomb near Jade Springs Hill, west of the Summer Palace. 113. The tombs were originally protected by a long wall in the valley and by guard posts on the hill tops, and only those who were in charge of their physical upkeep could enter the enclosure. The guards were garrisoned in Ch'ang-p'ing. The wall around the cemetery has long since disappeared and most of the trees in the valley, except for those around each tomb, have been cut to provide land for cultivation. 114. The entrance and approaches to the Ming Tombs are spacious and majestic. The gateway, an impressive five-arch, marble p'ai-lou built in 1541, is more than 4 miles from the largest and grandest tomb, the Ch'ang Ling of Emperor Yung Lo. The other tombs are situated mainly behind and on the flanks of Ch'ang Ling. Almost a mile down the road and inside the gateway is the Ta-hung Men (Great Red Gate), formerly the main gate in the old wall and the official entrance to the burial grounds. Everyone in Imperial China, including the reigning Emperor, was forced to dismount and walk from here along the "sacred way." Today, - 68 - IDENTIAL NO FOREIG EM Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 K'ang Lin (Cheng-te, 1505- 21) FIU SHAfi (Tiger fain) Hsi-shan-k'ou (Five- 5 11-71 T'ai lJn nyhi 14E37 0 Mu Ling (Ch'eng-hua, 1464-1487) Hs en Hung-hsi, 1 Ting Ling (Wan-li, 1572-1619) Shihiipai-fang hed Stone Portico) Chao Ling chirugn 566-1572) 9/ Pei Ting Stele Pavilion) T 4ning Men (Great Red Gate) LUNG SHAN (Dragon Mountain) Yil Ling Cheng-t'ung, 1435-1454) Ch'ing Ling 1620 4-1425) Figure 48 Ching Ling Hsuan Te, 1425-1435) Yung Ling chine, 15214560 CO Te Ling (r(en-chi, 1620-1027) Chang Ling Tomb name (Yung-lo, 1402-1424) Emperor's reign title, years of reign Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 CS ENTIAL NO FOREI SSEM automobiles and buses drive unceremoniously up the road past the Stele Pavilion (Pei T'ing) and between the rows of stone animals and other statuary that flank the road leading up to Ch'ang Ling. 115. Although the tombs resemble each other, they vary in size and grandeur. Most of them consist of a tumulus -- a round artificial burial mound, under which the remains are secreted in a vault -- and a rectangular compound of gates, court- yards, halls, and pavilions so situated to resemble a giant keyhole. Vaults are carefully hidden and sealed in such a way that they are difficult to find or open. In 1956, archeologists received permission to open Ting Ling, the tomb of Emperor Wan Li, situated about a mile to the west of Ch'ang Ling. It proved a challenging task, but the tomb was eventually opened with minimal damage. Next to the Ch'ang Ling, it is the most popular tomb to visit, largely because the interior of the tumulus is available for viewing. 116. An earthen dam containing the small multipurpose Ming Tombs Reservoir (Shih-san Ling Shui-ku) was built about 3 miles south of Ch'ang Ling in 1959. At one end of the dam a monument to the workers was constructed, and for a few years the place was very popular with visitors. More recently, however, the dam has leaked, and water levels are nearly always low. 117. Attractions that probably have not been viewed by foreigners in many years include the Manchu Tombs and the Summer Palaces at Ch'eng-te. Reaching them would involve overland travel -- about 75 miles to the tombs and 135 miles to Ch'eng-te -- but their beauty and historic sig- nificance add to their appeal. In the past, only a few people are known to have toured the sites, ostensibly because of their inaccessibility from Peking, but now better transportation facilities are available. As far as is known, however, visitors have not been permitted in recent years. 118. The Eastern Tombs (Tung Ling), the burial sites of early Manchu Emperors who ruled from Peking, are located in the western end of a - 70 - DENTIAL NO FOREI SSEM Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 DENT IAL NO FOREI ' I SSEM Figure 49. Pei Ting (Stele Pavilion) on the "sacred way" in the Ming Tombs. The 13 tombs are nestled in the foothills of the mountains in the background. Figure 50. One of the Ming Tombs. This is the entrance to the underground vault of Ting Ling -- the only tomb open to the public. - 71 - DENT -FAL NO FORE Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 NO FORE ISSEM large valley northeast of Chi-hsien, about 70 miles from Peking. At one time the entire enclosure was forested, but most of the trees have been removed, and the tombs now stand out on the plain. Magnificently wrought, they are very similar to the Ming Tombs, with courtyards, towers, marble monuments, and other features of impressive Chinese architecture. Five Emperors are buried here, including the great K'ang Hsi and Ch'ien Lung. 119. The Western Tombs (Hsi Ling) are located in a hilly valley at the eastern edge of the Ta'i-hang Shan, about 65 miles southwest of Peking. Sizable stands of forest mantle the slopes of the foothills that compartment the.individual tombs, which are scattered about the vast complex. The majestic site was selected by the Emperor Yung Cheng, an innovator who was dissatisfied with the Eastern Tombs. Yung Cheng intended that succeeding Emperors be buried near him, but his son, Ch'ien Lung, fearful that the first two Emperors buried in the Eastern Tombs would be left alone, changed this plan, suggesting that burial sites should be alternately chosen in the two locations. Four Emperors are buried here, and a fifth Imperial Tomb was built for the last Manchu, Henry P'u-i. Architecturally, the Western Tombs differ slightly from the Ming Tombs in that each mausoleum has its own avenue of stone animals and tablet house. 120. The old Summer Palaces at Ch'eng-te are located about 110 miles northeast of Peking. Begun in 1703 by Emperor K'ang Hsi, they were used as an Imperial summer residence until 1820, when Emperor Chia Ch'ing was killed by lightning while staying there. This was considered an ill omen, and the palaces were abandoned until 1860; at that time Emperor Hsien Feng, fleeing from the British and French forces that had captured the newer summer palaces at Yuan-ming Yiiian, returned to Ch'eng-te. Bad luck is said to have prevailed, however, as the Emperor died there, within the year, at the age of 30. His death convinced the Imperial clan that their previous conclusions regarding evil influences in the place were correct, and the court never returned. The palaces are still preserved, but they are now somewhat deteriorated and their current use is uncertain. - 72 - DENTIAL NO FORE I SSEM Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 DENTIAL NO FOREI SSEM Appendix Ming and Manchu Emperors Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) Hung Wu (1368-1398) Chien Wen (1398-1402) Yung Lo (1402-1424) Hung Hsi (1424-1425) Hsuan Te (1425-1435) Cheng T'ung (1435-1449) Ching T'ai (1449-1457) T'ien Shun (1457-1464) [previously ruled as Emperor Cheng T'ung, 1435-1449] Ch'eng Hua (1464-1487) Hung Chih (1487-1505) Cheng Te (1505-1521) Chia Ching (1521-1566) Lung Ch'ing (1566-1572) Wan Li (1572-1619) T'ai Ch'ang (1620) T'ien Chi (1620-1627) Ch'ung Cheng (1627-1644) Manchu Dynasty (1644-1912) Shun Chih (1644-1662) K'ang Hsi (1662-1723) Yung Cheng (1723-1736) Ch'ien Lung (1736-1796) Chia Ch'ing (1796-1821) Tao Kuang (1821-1851) Hsien Feng (1851-1862) T'ung Chih (1862-1875) Kuang Hsi (1875-1908) Hsian T'ung (1908-1912) - 73 - CO NTIAL NO FOREIG SEM Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Figure 51 CENTURY CITIES AT SITE OF PEKING B. C. 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 A. D. 1 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 0 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 DYNASTIES (Non-Chinese Underlined) INTERNAL DEVELOPMENTS WEST CHOU Bronze and Iron Ages Earliest writing Chi (Became capital of state EAST CHOU Rise of philosophic schools: of Yen in 723 (ICJ Confucianism, Taoism, Mohism, Legalism WARRING STATES Coinage and money economy CHIN China united and Great Well built Peasant revolts WEST I-IAN Estabishment of a civil service bureaucracy Confucianism as a state cult Yen-ching EAST HAN Peasant revolts Yu-chou THREE KINGDOMS Political decline of North China and WEST CHIN growth of the South China. BARBARIAN STATES EAST CHIN WE (To-pa) FOUR CHINESE Buddhism flourished BARBARIAN STATES DYNASTIES SUI Canal to Sian TANG Government and Civil Service examination system perfected Golden Age of art and literature Invention of Printing Nan-ching (Yen-ching) Peasant revolts Widespread use of paper money Li AO FIVE DYNASTIES TEN STATES (Khitans) NORTH SUNG Chu ng-tu CHIN urchen) SOUTH SUNG Neo-Confucianism Ta-tu (Mongols) (Khanbalic) YUAN Grand Canal completed, linking with Hangchow Pei-ping Peking MING Peasant revolts CH'ING (Manchus) Musltm and T'ai-p'ing Rebellions Pei-p'ing Modernization and Reform Revolution of 1911 REPUBLIC Peking Nationalist government PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC Communist goverment 51275E3 1-72 gh ig s of Chinese History STRONG UNITY� CENTRALIZATION WEAK UNITY�DECENTRALIZATION DIVISION Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824 Con i tia Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06928824