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November 1, 1971
Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06931189 PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA Atlas Central Intelligence Agency Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06931189 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06931189 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06931189 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA I November 1971 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 PREFACE This volume goes beyond the scope of a conventional atlas. It presents a wider variety of information, including geographic, economic, historical, and cultural data. In the interest of simplicity and clarity, it employs a number of unconventional graphic techniques in addition to standard regional and thematic maps, charts, and photographs. The publication is designed as an introduction and general reference aid for those interested in the People's Republic of China. To make so much information about such a complex and little-known country as meaningful as possible, a great deal of it is placed in a familiar context -- that is, by drawing comparisons between China and the United States. pproved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Introduction to China 5 Northeast 8 North 12 South 16 Southwest 20 Sinkiang 24 Tibetan Highlands 28 Administrative Divisions 32 Population 36 Ethnolinguistic Groups 40 Railroads 44 Roads and Inland Waterways 48 Climate 52 Agriculture 56 Minerals and Metals 60 Fuels and Power 64 Industry 68 Human Resources and Economy 72 Historical Perspective 74 Peking and Environs 76 Prominent Sights in Peking 78 Gazetteer 80 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Let's attack here! Drive away the mountain gods, Break down the stone walls To bring out those 200 million tons of coal. Let's strike here! Let the Dragon King change his job, Let the river climb the hills, Let us ask it for 8000 acres of rice paddies. Let that valley open its bosom To yield 500 catties of oats every year. Cut down the knoll To make a plain over there... Let's wage war against the great earth! Let the mountains and rivers surrender under our feet. March on nature, Let's take over the power of rain and wind. We shall tolerate not a single inch of unused land! Nor a single place harassed by disaster. Make wet rice, wheat, and yellow corn grow on top of the mountain, And beans, peanuts, and red kaoliang rise on sheer rocks... � "An inch of time is an inch of gold," That's the value of yesterday. Time's worth today Is "An inch for ten thousand pieces of gold." Chang Chih-min, Personalities in the Commune pproved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Introduction to China China's central location in Asia, immense area and population, and legacy of cultural superiority have given it a dominant role in Asian affairs. Tempering these factors of strength, however, are serious limitations. China must grow sufficient food for its rapidly increasing population, and also provide raw materials for the expansion of industry, from a land of limited and already extensively exploited agricultural resources. The regional character of China�the distribution of physical features, population, and resources�provides a framework for an understanding and evaluation of the problems and developments within the People's Republic of China. Physical Characteristics�China often is compared to the United States since both are about equal in area�China has nearly 3.7 million square miles and the United States slightly more than 3.6 million�and both occupy similar latitudes. Differences, however, are more important than similarities, and perhaps none is of greater significance than the higher proportion of land in China unsuited for intensive agriculture and settlement. Most of China consists of hills, mountains, and high plateaus; only 12 percent of the surface is in plains and about 19 percent in basins. Most of the bccins contain semiarid and arid deserts which, though flat to rolling, are of little agricultural use. Only 11 percent of China is now under cultivation, and little additional land is physically or economically suitable to augment this total. The major mountain systems of China are oriented west to east, a characteristic that is most pronounced in western China, where the massive Tien Shan, Kunluns, and Himalayas extend eastward more than 1,000 miles, In eastern China extensions of these ranges are often broken and at considerably lower elevations; nevertheless, they are of sufficient size to form physical barriers to north-south transport, separate different types of climate and vegetation, and serve as regional boundaries. The major rivers of China�the Huang (Yellow), Yangtze, and Hsi�also drain from west to east. The middle and lower basins of these great rivers provide the physical framework within which distinctive patterns of settlement and land use have evolved. In the fertile plains and valleys of these rivers, separated from one another by hills and mountains, lies most of the good agricultural land, the bulk of the rural population, and the more important transportation facilities and industrial areas. Population and Ethnic Characteristics�About 95 percent of China's population lives in the eastern half of the country. Adequate precipitation for agriculture is the key factor explaining this east-west population contrast, though high elevations and steep slopes as well as limited rainfall are contributing factors to the scanty population of western China. Ethnic contrasts also are sharp. Almost all of the dominant Han Chinese majority are concentrated in eastern China; a number of minority groups, of mostly Mongoloid racial stock, but with distinctive linguistic and cultural traits, predominate in western China. The political and economic integration of these diverse peoples of western China has been a major policy objective of the Chinese leadership. Regional Divisions�The major regional divisions of China shown on the map are defined primarily by climatic patterns and the generally west-to-east alignment of major mountain ranges. Western China consists of two distinctive regions�the Tibetan Highlands and the desert basins and desolate mountains of Sinkiang-Mongolia�which combined comprise slightly more than half of China's total area but contain only 5 percent of her total population. High mountains and plateaus, large deserts, and extensive grasslands are characteristic of these western regions; only locally do fertile river valleys have sufficient water resources to support a sedentary agricultural population. Eastern China includes about 46 percent of the land area of the country and almost all of the population. It is divided into four traditional regions�Northeast, North, South, and Southwest China, each possessing distinctive physical and cultural features. Cultural variants from region to region, mainly linguistic, are less important than the common cultural bonds that prevail in eastern China. The distinctive features of each of the major regions are examined on subsequent pages of this atlas. The Inner Mongolia area of Sinkiang-Mongolia is treated as a part of the North map and text for cartographic convenience. Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 taY-Ku,�, 'aTehe I. Karam* Z ri,anov k fqhu.tiai 011JNC11 R 4 N BASIN aft uthunrizict Ch Frais SHAN IA MAKAN DESeRr 1,4 T AINS MEN- Cly-f Ta= S'B144th "Na-ch'ir 1 ANG-K1-1-"' BITAra�tse'' at,Zhikatsei Sa *Tse-tang Chiang-tru� iGvangise, N G,E People's Republic of China International boundary International boundary, indefinite or in dispute Internal administrative boundary Hang-Fnou Internal administrative capital Railroad Road Populated places O Over 1,000,000 o 100,000 to 500.000 � 500.000 to 1,000,000 � Under 100,000 S, t� � I 000000 O 190 200 300 490 5(,)0 M,11-4. O 100 20 300 400 500 Kle40ot5, pproved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Novd Myinas SOVIET SOCer K'u-shui 4.4 Alsili9F a �Pula� shio \....--eShwenyauna uan 0. K A � Tal'una-hsian el Harien 1hylifi Kan4zu -rani? 1- ru-erh' I H Al I 'AND Won- Stun.� EN Approved for Release. 2022/02/10 006931189 -chin 'uan Eerie-h REPUB LAANBAATAR Saynshand 4tadinhaan Dzartun Ut Pao-V0 Ten k'ou ORDOS_ - ---Tunkshen -DESERT hih-tsui-shan Wu-hun Yen-an ' Yen .cI1_ln ping-hung T.10111 Pan-chi 14 n-yang� IN G SWAN 1St ._ .,:. Han-chUKK An-Wang 7 Kuang-yuan ' \i-4-" . Z. Mien-yang .khinng-ru - ruen 1 s z.rt c H W A N 1-h sieni:--...4'h'ing-pai-ohiang Wan-haien-shiho _- . 1:FNG...6 ' Nan-ch'ong�, � Sui-nuni . (li _---/ En- ng-sbani CHWAN. - BA i!Ak j IfS ,fa-anr . ' -mei yo:L o-shan \ck.Nei-chian eH'UNG�CWIPIG ier4chiag PTzu.1-i-u-'ngv:r \Hsiao-nan-hati. . 1.---, ._/,--.. . Yuan-hne -- ha a ���._ o, sun-i .t-tiang Pt-chien 1 - 0 1 KWE1QHOW �San-sui Kt:Milan CS Chita Eteen Sol zva yuan-Wi I-I A l'AETO u-t tvg-ituan ( ,er 141sienR-VTI,�� Z :I pi,' -chi Chia .Wen-shan �11K-tzu aloabana P THAI. : Tu-yun n-shun 9 KWEICHOwA PLATEA� U, ( An-I una �Halvtan K tiV Pal-se - � ALITONOW- -. � ien-lung ,Ching-hsi 'Thai Nguyen Yien .Haiehong NO H 1.'lhianh Hoa VIETPAM P'ing-Innr Clian eh' an Shao-shan-cli H shale nr hha-ki vino Et4TS Ts Wt. a Uafl NORTH Shan su Chen Non-sLI. p,"..hsiane K ;1' an- Ch'en-hsien 1401,Ua1' Pa 0100e:100 ai7Shan � MACAO Ho-p � .0 Pei-hai i Al -NAN Pet-h...�Cn'ang-ornang : Tung-lane (Khih-lu) ; TAO :Pe-so) Huang-lin' yoin' one. aO� itpie - tane-10"� -tten oen.vunAnc'g fokanK-shItt Lien-Y4 --eShulang- Ine-Olang' GS� hunt-101"g I ett Mel- lel!. G ch.a0-370_. � Nyato�I Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 .e nstok �sisi-cono choung tnou. V.0 son f ei"^4� f.BaY.,11.� PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA 7 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Northeast Northeast China�the provinces of Heilungkiang, Kirin, and Liaoning�is the most important industrial region of the country and a nationally significant and still-developing center of agricultural production. Most of the Northeast remained largely unpopulated and unaffected by Han Chinese culture until about a century ago, although tenuous political ties with China had existed, specifically with the southernmost sector of the Manchu- rian Plain, from very early times. It was, in fact, a frontier region that often served as a base for nomadic invaders who periodic- ally threatened, and at times controlled, parts of North China. The severe population pressures in North China during the 19th and 20th centuries, coupled with periods of Russian and Japa- nese development, provided the stimuli that finally led to settle- ment and modern economic development. The heart of this region is the extensive Northeast or Manchuri- an Plain, the largest in the country. Almost encircled by hills and low mountains, it opens only to Po Hai (Gulf of Chihli) in the southwest and through the restricted Sungari river valley to the frontier with the USSR in the northeast. Despite frequent spring droughts and a relatively brief growing season, the Manchurian Plain is highly productive agriculturally, and it is here that most of the region's population and economic activity is centered. The Greater and Lesser Khingan Ranges to the northwest, north, and northeast and the highland complex of hills and low mountains adjoining North Korea are economically important because of their extensive stands of timber and their important coal deposits. Northeast China contains the best-developed transportation net in the country. An extensive rail system�the densest in China�links all of the major population concentrations with regional market towns, major sources of industrial raw materials, and fuel resources. Though the initial development of the railroads dates to earlier periods of Russian and Japanese occupation, they have been substantially improved by the Chinese in recent years. Many of the old Japanese lines leading to the Soviet frontier have been rebuilt, a number of rail lines serving forestry areas have been expanded, and the capacity of the basic rail net has been increased. Though more localized, the Sungari river is a regionally important means of transporting forest and agricultural products. As the primary industrial region in China, the Northeast owes its national importance to its superior transportation system, extensive raw materials and energy sources, as well as to accidents of his- tory. Most of its extensive industrial development has taken place during this century, much of it prior to 1945 and under the auspices of foreign industrial ms. The Chinese have reconstructed and further developed the industrial base, however, capitalizing at times on help provided by friendly nations. A recent major development is the much-heralded and nationally preeminent Ta- ch'ing oilfield and refinery, located in the northern part of the Manchurian Plain. Other extensive mineral deposits in the North- east include large coal deposits. Coal is mined in huge open pits, as at Fu-shun and Ho-kang, and in large underground complexes such as those in the Shung-yo-shan area. Other mineral resources include large, relatively low-grade iron ore deposits around An- shan, the major iron and steel center in China, and in southwestern Liaoning there are sizable deposits of molybdenum and smaller deposits of manganese and other important ferroalloys. Though magnesite is found in abundance in southern Liaoning, most other mineral deposits, such as copper and lead, are relatively small. Important hydroelectric power resources exist, particularly on the Yalu and Sungari rivers, where several major dams and reservoirs have been built. The Northeast also is most typically characterized by its extensive agricultural development, with orderly farm villages, cultivated dry fields, and the ubiquitous soybean and grain storage bins. Most agricultural development has occurred on the rich dark soils of the central and southern sectors of the Manchu- rian Plain�but continuing efforts are being made to bring the more marginal areas of the northern part of the plain under cul- tivation. Reclamation also has been continuing in poorly drained tracts along the Amur-Ussuri frontier. The forests of the Northeast comprise nearly two-thirds of the nation's forest resources. Lying primarily in the Khingan Ranges, and to a lesser extent in the southeastern highland complex, these forests are undergoing intense exploitation by the Chinese, who are pressed for timber supplies and wood by-products. Though Northeast China's population is now overwhelmingly Han Chinese and integrated into the national economy, there are important minorities, particularly of Korean farmers who live in valleys close to the Korean border. A few Mongol groups live partially within and to the west of the Greater Khingan Range. Manchus, once numerous, are now largely absorbed within Chinese culture. Though only a few Russians remain, they left an architectural imprint on the northeastern cities that is visible in the bulbous spires of the Eastern Orthodox Churches. However, they, like the Japanese, left their most important legacy in the form of an impressive industrial and transportation complex. pproved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Timber operations in the Khingan Mountains. These sparsely populated ranges conta the largest concentration of timber resources in China. Timber operations are wide- spread throughout these hills and low mountains and constitute the most character- istic land use. Harvesting wheat on the Manchurian Plain. Agricultural production, particularly of soybeans and dry field grains, is characteristic of the plain. Its extensive level land is more adaptable to mechanization than are most agricultural areas in China. The plain has the largest population concentrations in the Northeast. several important mineral deposits and most of the region's industrial base. Agricultural valley in the southeastern highlands. Small agricul- tural valleys, surrounded by hills and low mountains, are focal points for most of the people and economic activity within the highland complex. Here, as in the Khingan Mountains, forestry is economically significant, particularly in the more isolated lo- cations in the eastern part of the highlands. Though more local- ized, there are also several areas where mineral exploitation is the most important economic activity. NORTHEAST Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 vtako Choyr Ha tope. Yan-o_pr., r-Ayrag SaYRshan SKLvy T'o.k'o-ro ntkuan Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 MOOY-,Oan en-mao-tre Wen-tu-era rarao Fp n8- nn en Dorarta -4- Aksha hosta Sutra Chang-pet Yanig-kao g-tzu.tle Urur fliSkOye , *soots Fervomayskly 0Barey 'ovyannaya Alai( Snoyovryiti cr,�.Ct Ereents �Jargalant Kagan � ;;,(Chang-rhia-li:ou). P'attg'Pla4pa y Oa Hstn- nsi tasayda-eray hu-yu-cha, F Pa na-ra erh ch', TENTS Pailsi C -C� k uang P Mg Patt'ou_ pproved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Us' Karsk *423r GazHiursky Zavod Paargansk Zabaykai'sk Kan!chu-erh- K'oHhoyt' Lartg Otia: � ch"Ing ng chou rig Ka-yeb a Fa�nryt A ktno erh-ltsea sawn Ch' Act ban T'ANG- N Lo.(fog Oang era-ku-r att Snang Cha-to -4 tang fen takunet ..torar VC7. Shan-ha, attan Ch'in-hu g-taa o Fu-ht Lu-shun Chin ho Po.leo-t* K u le.rau Paich'en h'uan shu tun ihan ching tzu -DAIREN (LU.TA) 0 fun Kan ho Pu�re-ha-ch'i Nien tzu�s 446 T'ao an inda laid 125 n t u-chih chi "I- ng.antch'i 1690. Ou-p' HO-lung-men daga'Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 grasnyy 1Vo.shan -HA- ERH Sa orb t'u _ uo,erh,lo.ssu h'ien.kuci-ch'i) T'arp'ing-cri'uan Shuang-lia K'ang-pring Fa�k 'u Chang.wu 'o.erh ch'in.tsot-ch Pieh.fihg FUSHU u�chia-run AN-SHAM' ai-cOeng -- 'eng-tzu4'an Pat�ch'uan uai.te Kung-chtl Nam Tygda Shimanov ung.chen Pei an ran.shi Hailun tn.hua NAMES AND SOUNCIANY REPRESENTATION ARE NOT NECESSARILY AUTHORITATIVE SeryshevO Belogorak Tomichi Tambovka //sun Norsk. - � inskiy TangWaflgb Wu yin Ts'uituan.'un - HA-ERH7PIN'eng hulan KIRIN ua ten5 riett-lt 310. Nan-ch'a Yen-she Yap Mu-ta It'tzing. ng La-fa Cniao.ho nggye" Wonsan, Yen-ch Yen-cht hsie (Lung-ch Ho-lung � stoyba Ashikan � o.kang ' I-Wa-nan wang ing itnch'aek Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 l45;0841. 04t.. Chegdomyn ,047 it robidZhan T'unit�cni9r.a FU�Cr1111 slat tai tie mi.snan eng.sharl Nap pongIIrI Imam � tkolimor ���=cf SHN-YANG horor � atliC asan LA h, HA' Vlad Duna L N d akho 1-35 International boundary International boundary, indefinite or in dispute Internal administrative boundary Internal administrative capital Railroad Road Populated Places 0 Over 500,000 o 20,000-100,000 100,000-500,000 � Under 20,000 Spot elevations in feet Scale 1:4,000,000 100 200 1411. 100 200 htlometel,. NORTHEAST 11 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 North North China includes the densely populated and intensively cultivated North China Plain, the loess-covered uplands of Shansi, northern Shensi, and eastern Kansu, and the sparsely populated, semiarid steppes of Inner Mongolia. Historically, often-hostile nomadic groups surged across the steppe to threaten and occasionally invade the prosperous cities and adjoining rural districts of North China. Separating these two distinct worlds�the grasslands from intensively cultivated valleys and plains�is the Great Wall. The Wall, actually a series of walls built at different times, was constructed by the Chinese to limit and control contact between themselves and the "barbarians" of the steppes. Ancient Chinese civilization began in the Wei Ho Valley and in contiguous areas of present-day Shensi, Shansi, and Honan; in time it gradually expanded to incorporate the North China Plain. Fertile and easily tilled soil, extensive plains, and an adequate climate (at times marginal in terms of rainfall) proved conducive to the development of intensive forms of agriculture and relatively high population densities, The North has been the politically and culturally dominant region of China throughout most of history, although recurrent droughts, floods, famines, and periodic invasions from the northern steppes have from time to time shifted the political and economic base southward to the middle and lower Yangtze regions. The advantages of the North have in recent times been reasserted and its primacy has been reinforced by a homogeneous Han Chinese population that shares a common culture and language, terrain that is suitable for road and rail construction, and the mineral and power resources needed by modern industry. Major industrial districts in North China are located in a triangle formed by the cities of Peking, rang-shan, and Tientsin; at T'ai- yijan; in northern Honan at Cheng-chou and Lo-yang; and at Pao- eau. Iron and steel, agricultural machinery, and textiles are some of the major products. Plentiful supplies of coal, located at numerous mines that rim the North China Plain, are available; major iron ore deposits also occur. West of the North China Plain are the physically diverse lands of Shensi, Shansi, and eastern Kansu, where almost everywhere landforms are blanketed by thick layers of fine-grained, yellow loessial (wind-deposited) soils. The characteristic landscape is one of steep-sided valleys, gullies, and cliffs, often contoured into even more intricate forms by man-made terraces. The favorable physi- cal environment in the loess area nurtured early civilization, but continuous settlement led to the gradual destruction of the original cover of grass and forest. Population pressures increased the need for timber and for additional land to till, thereby accelerating the physical degradation of a soil highly susceptible to erosion. The loesslands today are bleak and harsh, overpopulated, and continually threatened by droughts and crop failure. North of the Wall is semiarid country that administratively comprises part of the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region as well as the Ningsia Hui Autonomous Region and northeastern Kansu Province. Life centers in a few irrigated river valleys and oases and in the mixed agricultural-pastoral areas that extend discontinuously from the great bend of the Huang Ho or Yellow River northeast to the Greater Khingan Mountains. The most productive agricultural area is based upon irrigation water obtained from the Yellow River, particularly where it flows through the desert between Wu-yikin and Pao-t'ou. The Mongol population of Inner Mongolia is now small and far outnumbered by Han Chinese. Only a few Mongols still depend entirely upon animal husbandry for their livelihood; many more live in fixed settlements where animal husbandry is practiced and crops are grown. Others have been absorbed into the urban life of the larger settlements. The Han Chinese are concentrated in a narrow and irregular band north of the Great Wall. Numerous state farms have been established in this mixed pastoral-farming area; many of them are devoted to forage crops grown to sup- port the important animal husbandry industry. The Yellow River in a sense links the desert and steppe of Inner Mongolia and the settled; cultivated plains and hills of North China south of the Wall. It is one of the great hydrologic problems of the world, however, and keeping the river under control has taxed the financial resources and engineering skill of the Chinese for centuries. The high variability of rainfall in the Yellow River drainage basin and unchecked erosion are major river-control factors. Centuries of deposition has raised the streambed above the surrounding land; consequently, failure to maintain the dikes can cause the loss of a season's crop in large areas adjacent to the river. In 1955 a comprehensive Yellow River Plan was announced; it proposed flood control measures, the production of hydroelectric power, the provision of irrigation water, and the improvement of stream navigability. A key project�a major dam and associated hydroelectric facilities�was begun at Son-men Gorge, just west of the North China Plain; smaller dams and reservoirs were constructed upstream to help control runoff, prevent silting, and provide hydroelectric power. In spite of some progress in soil conservation, including reforestation, and the building and maintenance of dikes, the heavy load of silt carried by the Yellow River apparently has been a major factor preventing operation of the San-men facilities. North China is plagued with problems that have arisen out of a history of intense population pressures upon the region's rich but fragile agricultural resources. In the past the lack of effective government controls to preserve these resources led to increased abuse of the physical environment; highly variable amounts of rainfall accentuated the problems, causing droughts, floods, and often famines. The preservation, rebuilding, and harnessing of the land resources through a variety of land and water conservancy programs have provided Chinese planners with one of their most severe tests. 12 pproved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Hydroeiectric power project. San-men Gorge, Huang Ho(Yellow River). The control of the Huang Ho has been a continuous problem for Chinese planners for centuries The building of a darn and power station at San-men Gorge was the beginning of a comprehensive plan for flood control, power production. irrigation, and navigation of the Huang Ho. The dam was completed in 1962 but, because of excessive silting, the power piant has never been operative. .� . � � .. � . ,..Egr � .0.� . � ."Ixe".44; " � � . �:".. � � � � � :II. . � %." an � � . � � � it; � "j�SVAP.*".j". es". � NIP. � � ..:a1... � .. � �� � :"� . � ����:14;i1.." � ^ � ����� . �� % ""�^ .; �qt .... L.P.114% ," ^ :^ �;���4 � � � �� %1E" "" �:��;� � �� � e� � si% : � Ifrt : �:��:.: � ^ � ��:; : 4141. : c . � � � � � � : � "�:�:"-�e� .. ..� ��7411. � gait!' �".:t � ;"41. � �:�'' � ^ .? 1.1 1. � �11". "a �ip he? ." � �. �L � .."r.P. � � itimPr � � � . ^ a r. 3; � � � � ":". � ��s".117.". �"It � � � � � : ^ . . . . � � � � � . � % � � � � �� � � P 1. 7.2`��� r. : . . � � 'V . iv... � ow:: . � � � � ve":10: � �".. At. .. .1. ; ���:i." � � ....:.�� ... ; �::. I It.- "HA. � Tie Great Wall s built over 2.1 tied detersive i.iarrier tr,nairst nomadic invaders from the north � � Terraced fields in the loesslands of Shansi Province, Flat agricul- tural land is at a premium in the Icesslands. and insufficient and variable rainfall and the eroded terrain make farming difficuit. The government promotes modei-farm production brigades to encourage development of agriculture through the use of im- proved soil and water conservation techniques. �*: � : "" " � . . � � . . ".. C . � � � 1. � � . . . � � � " . � �C` � .^ �... � � . � � � . � . . � . Cis." � � . � .� . - . . � � .1 � . � � � .. ��� 1 � . � � � ?� � : se, thr�jf... t� � : � � " � � um% 1 ���� : .1 � . � . � x a :.74...�,�:. � : .1.7 r.,...:r � �: .� . . , - -;������� � �4����.0. � � � � 0 . � . i ),:��.. ����0074 ; .:: : � sz.. � -.4.� � ...q. co ... a. � .. a ..... .7 f . .I.". : ; 0 � � � . A"' v � 1 1:fi". a� . " :": .." � .. .. re k "cl 3.; ��: . .. � ei� IS. :�".� � �11); ���������� � � Is � �� �� � � X . � � in._513A. � � � � 3. 4�I: ��� �� � �� �.� �92 � ���� � � %WA. � 1�� � ..... � 1. . . . ; . ..:11 �. :� . � � � � � � .� lO years ago as a uni it also evolved as a practical line of demarcation -- separating pastoral nomadism from Through the centuries intensive. Chinese-style sedentary agriculture, based on the growing of drains Grasslands of A-pa harna-erh-oh:i. Icier Herding is the on the inne� stepoe. The yurt. a por' Mongol louse. is a feature on the grasslands. In the past, herding was nomadic: Now most Mongol famiiies reside in vi:iages. combining nerding -with limited agricuJure. Lciess cave dwo.ngs ii hernoi Province Caves i Shiers: ioessianns iiiustrate a prctica approach this region. The caves require re , few materials and easily be co: into the steep sided wails of the ravines in erodei ioE,ss areas beaving aii available fiat and for cultivation NORTH Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 13 V FOP' 40 k en kac 0 Ch'a k.a ' rApproved for Release: 2022/02/101606931189 A4,,ONGOLIA dnfizadga,, � Ae Itir.shu*no.erh ; kuo uo�erh chl na-chr, .14501 lo, e an tan Vka/g ch a tIOPt 7884 777,^ ' 2408 ALA SHAN DESERT yonL: (no n hsien;, er Chu an hsien Har)g�ettiP.� r P'tng �ch u hung ning n eh; r tan Lung hst - T �Zan't'ai S.? _i.�,aniph an tChin rack' pai C g ok,,/Nan,ch'ung rng. h !, Chien yang lung nan pproved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Tent( k'ou ng�tian# EN .0'Ogey Hatanbula:. ORDOS 'h!in ch Tobrrien ng yang Hsten yan h ,a 98 4289. I-chin-huo .3574 f ung st QES E bYu Len-s u We nan T'ur Shan g.hS4 Erh hen hao-re P�arg pea e y :h Wu ch'uan h.OR:Ve �T'o k'o to Feng cnen ang,kao ! *P'rert ir uan }Shan Panic ng H ikel ching Ch* en h�eng n chan Hsin hefl Yu tz'u Kao-win hirpCkeng ' Chiao t CHENG-CH Pi4 liAi-hsten .ang fan ng Meng-nha Fang-cit'eng Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 �,474 Kalgari: -(Chang-chia,l(oti) � p�ang ChinP � tia t' Hsin hst ^ Fa ap�ting � hia-chua Tz'u Ta He shu, We, hste Lin.ctetng_ C H n-tan ci K'at- eng an K' h'uan 4Vet, hih � K'ang-p *Shang tu * nmg Chang peuafl- Hsu) to guant Shui an yang 0 H0-(se Ts....hs,en o LA I I o Ku shin K 0 Slut14"1e ng-histen - � Pa ;:u Yen sh Tung Ituan Chl-hing Shan hCen ',. Tang s shatig ho Cteeng te Ku-yeh Ch h Acra P..a0.0., .t �ang TANGSML - ku ang hSIP Pet,c e Chou ts'un Yen chou ....rang IOU ashen Ito chuang lung Wok 1�2+. I - _ Po hstng Lin o-chuang, HSI� oven Hin-chstnng� �_40g CHOW I- an ch-a c3 yang Ssu hultg Ch'u hsten P' jiApproved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Fangtzu Yerrhs,01 hu.Yang ct t�te ang O''ng F a k Chang Au 1.114-Ch acc 4_ ying OU, g Lii Lu�sh4n P'ehg Lan ts'un Lien-Nei:In-Kan? n-yamkang-shth an shan Lia. an Pao prig Kao rico TSINGTA0 Ptn-01 � Fou nifig Ka! N "..,674'shoI 00 t)(KukonIRciEhAttn i)g :eh .TIS! tzu-t'a 4 Chalon Wet nal � (Yen.ta�) Wen TO Yen ctreng ,ai ctiou r fog n � 'kao .t,ung-r ri* ang-s Internationa boundary Internal adrhInistrative boundary "SIAN triternandriiinisirative capital , Hariroaa Road Opul d Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 South South China comprises the drainage basins of the middle and lower Yangtze River, the basin of the :Hsi Chiang (West River) in Kwangtung and Kwangsi, and the mountainous coastal provinces of Fukien and Chekiang. The division between the North and South, the two most important regions in China, is sharp and distinct in the west, where hills and mountains act as a barrier to movement and form a significant climatic divide. In the east, however, where alluvial plains of the North and the South merge, topographic distinction between the major regions does not exist. Instead, the regional division occurs in a zone characterized by gradually increased precipitation and temperature from north to south, and by the transition in cropping patterns from wheat to rice. The ethnic and linguistic pattern of South China is complex, being the product of repeated migrations and much local isolation. No other part of China, except the Southwest, has such a confusion of ethnic groups and dialects. Until about two thousand years ago South China was inhabited largely by non-Chinese tribes. Newcomers from the north repeatedly pushed the non- Chinese into the more inaccessible areas, and sometimes the newcomers themselves were later pushed into isolated areas by subsequent migrants from the north. Even after the region was fully incorporated into China in the third century A.D., newcomers escaping alien oppression or famine in various parts of North China continued to settle in South China, where the hilly and mountainous terrain served to perpetuate and accentuate their ethnic variations. Today Cantonese-speaking people prevail in southern Kwangtung and eastern Kwangsi, and they comprise the largest non-Mandarin-speaking Han Chinese ethnolinguistic group in South China. Widely diverse landscapes, ranging from monotonously flat and densely populated lowlands to sparsely populated hills and mountains, characterize the South. Although the uplands make up more than 80 percent of the total land surface, the core of South China is the fertile Yangtze Plain�often divided into middle and lower parts. The Yangtze Plain exhibits a coherence not found in other parts of the region: the majority of South China's population is located on or near it; it contains nearly all of the region's major manufacturing centers; and it is the most prosperous part of South China, producing more wealth than the rest of the region combined. The Yangtze Plain is highly irregular in shape and stretches inland some 600 miles before terminating at the steep- faced Wu Shan (mountains), guarding the entrance to the Szechwan Basin. About 70 percent of the Yangtze Plain is cultivated; an immense agricultural output is obtained by using intensive production techniques, including multiple cropping. Rice is the major crop and it has long been the primary commercial grain; the other main crop is winter wheat. Although most of the Yangtze Plain is already under cultivation, land reclamation projects are adding materially to the area available for crops. Most of this activity centers on the Plain's marginal lakes the Tung-t'ing, P/o-yang, and T'ai�and on coastal tracts reclaimed from the sea. The wide, navigable waters of the Yangtze River penetrate deeply into an immensely productive interior, providing an efficient avenue of east-west communication that helps to unite the lowlands and facilitates the exchange of commodities. A number of China's major cities are located along the Yangtze Plain. Wu- han, consisting of the tri-city conurbation of Han-k'ou, Wu-ch'ang, and Han-yang, is an important industrial center that occupies a strategic location, controlling inland waterway, road, and railroad transport over the middle Yangtze Plain. Shanghai, China's largest industrial and commercial metropolis and the country's most important port, lies near the mouth of the lower Yangtze River. It is a city with a wide range of heavy and light industries, and it is especially noted for textiles, iron and steel, and shipbuilding. The coastal zone south of the Yangtze is the only section of China that has a long tradition of interest in seafaring. Rivers here are short and swift, unnavigable, and without extensive floodplains. Each basin constitutes a unit isolated from other basins, except on the seaward side, and agriculture is restricted to small and scattered lowlands. Population pressure on the limited arable land, the presence of numerous protected coves and harbors in the deeply indented coast, and abundant forest resources have combined to give fishing and coastal trading an important place in the traditional life of the region. The Nan Ling (southern mountains) form a watershed be- tween the tributaries of the Yangtze and those of the Hsi Chiang and lesser rivers flowing to the South China Sea; at the same time they form a climatic divide that shelters the region to the south from cold northern air masses in the winter. South of the divide hills predominate, and there is little level land. To the west the hills merge with the Yunnan-Kweichow Plateau of Southwest China in an area of striking karst topography, where steep-sided hills and grotesque pinnacles rise abruptly from small plains. In the east, from eastern Kwangtung to Chekiang, deeply dissected hills extend to the very coast of the South China Sea, producing an irregular coastline characterized by promontories, protected bays, and numerous offshore islands. The principal river south of the Nan Ling is the Hsi Chiang, which rises in the highlands of eastern Yunnan and southern Kweichow. It flows eastward into Kwangtung, where it merges with the Pei Chiang (North River) and the Tung Chiang (East River) to form the Canton Delta�the most densely populated area of South China and one of the most highly developed agricultural areas in the world. The Canton Delta, also known as the Pearl River Delta, consists of fertile alluvium and a maze of distributaries and man- made canals. Not all of the delta is actually level; numerous hills of red sandstone have been enveloped, but not covered, by the advancing alluvium. Canton, which is situated at the northern edge of the delta, is the economic focus, principal population center, and leading manufacturing center south of the Nan Ling. Major industries include shipbuilding, steel manufacture, sugar refining, and food canning. In most of southernmost China two crops of rice are grown every year, and in the Canton Delta and on Hainan Island three crops a year can be produced. Sweet potatoes, which are grown an drier lands, are also a major food crop. 5ugarcane is a particularly important crop in the Canton Delta, and Kwangtung Province is mainland China's leading sugar producer. The Nan ling and the hills to the south contain a wide variety of ores, and small mines are scattered throughout the region. Most of the mines are of the open-pit type. Principal mineral resources include tungsten, antimony, manganese, oil shale, iron, tin, and coal. 16 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Karst ( limestone ) landscape in western Kwangsi Province. A major category of Chinese painting, known as shan shui (mountain and water 1, often depicts bizarre landscapes of pinnacles and steep-sided hills protruding above mist-en- shrouded lowlands Many of the paintings are inspired by the unusual terrain of northern and western Kwangsi and adja- cent southern Kweichow. Rice fields on reclaimed land near Tung-t'ing Hu (Lake) in Hunan Province. Drained and cultivated, these fertile low- land tracts can be very productive. Double-cropping is prac- ticed in this area, with winter wheat usually following rice. The reclaimed areas often serve as models. Floating small logs downstream in Kwangtung Province. In South China bamboo rafts provide the most common means of transporting fell- ed timber to the nearest sawmill or railroad. The rafts can generally be used the year round. Similar rafts carry passengers and local produce. Experimental tea farm near Hang-chou, Chekiang Province. China's most important tea-producing regions are in Chekiang, and the province normal- ly leads all others in total output Agricultural lowland in Fukien Province. Level land is found only in the small deltas and in small and scattered lowlands of each stream basin, but fertile alluvium and a long growing season make these lowlands highly productive. As shown here, adjoining valley sides may be terraced for rice where soil and sufficient water are available SOUTH 17 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Nan-c Ch't ch; 6 'UNG.ctvi sho, wETcH PLATEAU 4,en r'ien *Ling yun Panse 0 Hon G Hatphong ,Cheng-an Yulrang *Yu ch'tng sk*a, � Shang. S ntg g Chit, Pel-hrt rime len � San -Su; Net hsiaR Nan yan Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Teng Ytortg Hua,yuan Ytian-nn 'Lmg tat, � Ta nvao-shan , a# �Ong.sha, 0 e'u Pa tun I,ch'ang Ching Sh Tz u-it Che,ch.';* T et Sha.shih Chten Su, hsiert Yngcfr& Yueh yang Kuan shot yang .rang yin Ping ch.ang *Hsu tnu Hsiang-tan Hsin-hua s Crr n ChL g chba Ch eng-shui na Chfuan enou Ping nan 1st' Ktte' p uel,risien Jung hsien Yu in Chanchha Hal lean LEI- PAN , , \ Hsu wen Ha, an tlank.011 � HsIn t,ert �him& yuan SIPTI Ltn wu. Chu.cho P'mg ang g yang rn'ttan VT\ ch'eng Hsin thou HSIU Shu yang rch'un Kan k' eng yang Yung hstn Ch'ing ytian 0 ; Te,ching Citing Chiar %II. En 1).'n a-chou trig Ytzu ch'uan ,----Cr Yang cflairig 0 , T'at shah' * Tzu Ch'en hslen Nan ang Feskang ar,g oti '..iliANG-CH'UA A MACAO f Port. ( Kan-cho Shang yu Huan an -he Lung,nan n (Sh inochUn) OON OR IA HONG KONG (U.K. Dan .4u sha Te an ro�' fin ,,tar, � Yueh Na Ii *Yung e g Nan Ar yuan � ' Lung ch 1.Z.1�Thttt Chief yang Ch-a 18 pproved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 it120 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 ofsmg wig L.,. hua I :1 1-1u a an - � /,/15-; Hsua ng-t rai-p ing Yu-shr rai-chou IAN Ch n -- hou Lan Ch Ch'utsten Huang t'an-It'ou -shan Chien-ou a'nsiOn ,)//4 CNang-p*, Mei,shto.k'e Ch h n g ch'e "Po-yang -fei ,Ch'ao- Ch'un Hu Lo-ong ing-van P'eng-it'ou ung-yen ) ng-ting Cha ch TUNG-SHAN TAO PENGHU NAN AO TAO (PESCADORES) , _ ,CHIN-MEN TAO) Tung-ting Tao ; , Kban-t'otic! MA-TSU LIEN-TAO Nang yin Chia-Etsin -hsin Chu chi a0 an-t'ung ."1. ' 1-1NEAN 'mu Wtpch'iu Hsu h'ao-yang II Ka0-hsiUng,, ' _ t Fang,hao. ANGHAi SHA GHAI cipALVT I A ; - H t it N hat hilfig110 h nFOsie N tiing-ha in-hal Tung-yin Lieh-tao PHILIPPINES _ man REPUBLIC OF CHINA - San vtcente E A S 7 C � Senkaku Shoto \�� NA International boundary Internal administrative boundary EQ7CHOU Internal administrative capital Railroad Road Populated Places 0 Over 500,000 0 20,000-100,000 �2, 100,000-500,000 � Under 20,000 Spot elevanor,-; ;n teot a 6 � L oag Aparri MI I� Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Scale 1:4,000,000 110 200 Miles � LUZON B,ggao 100 200 K �met., s SOUTH 19 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Southwest Southwest China includes the Szechwan Basin and the Yunnan�Kweichow Uplands�two contrasting regions that differ in physical character, historical development, and in population density and composition. They are alike, however, in that they share a common disadvantage�separation from eastern China by vast distances and difficult terrain. Their consequent isolation, modified only by limited transport, has complicated their economic and political integration into the mainstream of the nation. The Szechwan Basin�sometimes called the Red Basin because of the predominant color of its soil�is surrounded by mountains and drained by four major tributaries of the Yangtze (the name Szechwan, in fact, means "four rivers" in Chinese). One of the most densely settled and productive agricultural regions of China, it has hot summers, mild winters, and adequate rainfall for an almost year-round growing season. Much of the land in the Basin is hilly�a notable exception being the Ch'eng-tu Plain�but many slopes are gentle and easily terraced; approximately 35 percent of the total area is under cultivation. Ch'eng-tu, located in the most productive agricultural part of the Basin, was established as Szechwan's political and cultural center by about 300 B.C. The Ch'eng-tu Plain and the city of Ch'eng-tu mirror the agricultural systems and urban designs of early North China civilization. As a result of this contact with the north and subsequent Han settlement, the Szechwan Basin from early times has had a large Han Chinese population, but because of its insular location, the Basin has remained a distinctive region that has historically maintained at various times considerable administrative independence. The Yunnan�Kweichow Uplands include most of the provinces of Yunnan and Kweichow as well as the mountains of southern Szechwan. Interspersed within the rugged, sparsely inhabited highlands are numerous saucer-shaped and densely populated intermontane basins. The high proportion of steep slopes and high elevations has restricted the amount of cultivated land to only 10 percent of the total, although reclamation of fertile lake basins in central Yunnan and the terracing of forested highland areas are expanding the cultivated area. Large-scale Han Chinese settlement of the Yunnan�Kweichow Plateau did not begin until the Ming rulers (1368-1644 A.D.) encouraged people in the area of the Yangtze Delta to migrate into Yunnan and Kweichow. As the Chinese expanded into the fertile basins of the uplands, they displaced indigenous ethnic groups, forcing them to migrate into remote valleys and highlands. Despite a large influx of Han Chinese in recent decades, the provinces of Yunnan and Kweichow still have large numbers of these minority peoples, who comprise an estimated 30 percent of the population. In each of these provinces much effort has been directed toward political and economic integration of these minority groups. The modern economic development of Southwest China began shortly after the eruption of the Sino-Japanese war in 1937. As the Chinese Nationalists retreated into the Southwest, they brought industrial plants piecemeal from eastern China; some indispensable parts of the Chinese machine industry, for example, were moved from Shanghai and Han-krou into K'un-ming and Ch'ung-ch'ing (Chungking), which become the wartime capital. By 1938 K'un-ming had doubled and Kuei-yang, the capital of Kweichow, tripled in population. The relocation of industry to the Southwest rather than to the Northwest was largely determined by the extent, relative location, and quality of coal and iron ore deposits. The movement of the industries and the subsequent migration of students, craftsmen, skilled labor, and technicians laid the foundation for the industrial expansion that has taken place in Southwest China since 1950. The key to economic development of the Southwest has been the construction of transportation lines that link areas of heavy industry to their sources of raw materials and to the markets of eastern China. Szechwan was the focus of early railroad construction, initially with the linking by rail in 1952 of its two major industrial cities�Ch'eng-tu and Ch'ung-ch'ing. The first external rail link from the province was completed in 1956 when Pao-chi, located in the Wei Ho Valley to the north, was connected to Ch'eng-tu. Subsequently, several other railroads have been built that connect the three provinces of the Southwest and serve the developing heavy industrial areas around Kuei-yang, K'un- ming, and Ch'ung-ch'ing. In addition, numerous roads have been built, particularly in the frontier regions of Yunnan bordering Burma and Laos. The economic development of Yunnan and Kweichow and the increase in the Han Chinese population of these provinces have resulted in further political and cultural pressures upon the numerous non-Han Chinese ethnic groups. A measure of autonomy for these minority nationalities exists in the form of sub-provincial autonomous administrative units. They have been established over large areas of Yunnan, where the greatest variety of ethnic groups is found and where minorities form a proportionately larger percentage of the population. The heaviest concentrations of Han Chinese are found in the larger lake basins around K'un-ming and Ta-li; their numbers decrease to the south and west. The Chinese have traditionally shunned the tropical valleys and basins of southern Yunnan and have been equally deterred by the rugged mountain lands to the west. Although the Chinese appear to have succeeded in pacifying most of the southwestern borderlands, some minorities, particularly along the Burma border, with long traditions of independence and anti-Chinese attitudes, still hinder total political consolidation of the Southwest. 20 pproved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Cotton drying in Szechwan. This province produces 90 percent of the cotton grown in Southwest China. Most of the crop is raised in the northwest portion of the Szechwan Basin, and many of the cotton textile mills are located in Ch'eng-tu. Plowing in Kweichow Province. A green manure crop is being plowed under in the preparation of the field for rice. Kweichow. traditionally one of the poorest and most backward provinces in China. is mostly hilly and mountainous with only isolated and scattered small basins suited for agriculture. A section of the Pao-cheng railroad between Pao-chi and Ch'eng-tu. The railroad traverses the rugged west- ern extensions of the Tsinling and Ta-pa ranges. The completion of the line in 1956 ended the isolation of Szechwan and opened the Szechwan Basin to economic exploitation. Terracing in the Szechwan Basin. Most of the Szechwan Basin is hilly, but fertile and easily tilled soils throughout the lowlands and on the slopes, a near year-round growing season, and usually adequate precipitation make this one of China's most productive agricultural regions. SOUTHWEST Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 21 T r'!? cb�,ng .Pen pa Yu s ( .�. C4 .0.-- - Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06931189(' III, `�... / \ ) Southwest 776 L. AL/TON Ch'ing to Sai k hoa Ghat -Ledo \\-- ang ta Chiang-ta. ch' ang4u-z. Ch'a ya hsien � 0 : 16 ' Ye -cnitl 2. Le ko � u a-tang 0 '4\ Pula% � OP. wei-tist TChieng 'Ts T iirtldnth: Wuntho U R Theebo Sagain MYakylna 463 Hon Katha ashio Hs.Paw 'eng Cu0 Kan tzu .Hifl Jung Li-t'an "s,ang ch'eng .10070 Madaya an-ts'ang dalay nrnana Toungoo Loi k : � GI? PLATEAU Men lien A Tao fu Chien nu! hs,en Ya chiang Ma Wang. K angling Wu ting. Hnt,e YUN u N PLATuch /�En-lo /6) / Yuan chian Mo-chians yaboury Phdng Sally L uong Muong Sai ouangphraba�n-g Vang Vieng 'ENT' Sung-wan *Mao wen Wen ch' !Alen chu Kuan hsien Ch'ing pal, -thong I-' so yun Chen hs.on � Lo shan oWll-T'ung ch'Iao Tzu eun wei h'u-ching Lo-p len tzu � Hsi ctro len 8men Phu n.- Son La Ban Ban xiangkhoan ksane Ha Ct R Phu Th Han-chu'n k ang yuan Pa thong. ung charg ) Chen-an� � ,,h7�N_ Approved for Release: 2022102110006931189H 0 N Su An k'ang Van yu ""1-. 3" Yalg Cno ma te yun.hsient. Pai-ho �� angho eng's� ang n'tn .Cheng an c � Kueivng Hut shur� Tu-yLin EICHOW PLIATEAUTUh Cao Ba HaiphOdg- Na t�ch'uan Ch'ien c � SSu-nan T'ung ;en� .Yti�ch'ing Shin-Wing . �K'atit 425 Jung chiang. � y I'len o Nan -tan a .Ltng yltn G�ang Hon Gay trig kuo �Shang ssu Ch'in-chou g Ca. Ch ang�chlan (Stith lu) Pet it Tung-fang (Pa-so) CPu chh �Fanosien c len. hin c (:nidn9 Yun shun � Hua.yuan � 1-ac. Che-c Chin h'ang-te Chtn-c ang-ta Nrng hs Ch .chla li Cherio yang Si Wu 1,, � Shao yan�g---.N / g- ang .4 -.Z" 0 -Z` CPU rig hsang Ying c yang s' art sin-ning ;,.. Ch'ang rung� rung tag . .. U /....�.--- g hng .., ., 4 Ch'uan, o �Hsintren � Ta�nua0-Shan Lu-chat at-pin Kuei.lin PIng lo � Meng-shan\ F?TG!0N Ping nan � Kue� Wtng Kuel fisten Jung hsren� � Tao.hsien P'' Lin wu � S. KNo aLing shan f�' -- Yueh yang Kuang shut Hsrao HA_ Han Yan .ANG-SHA er yang ng yuan ch'Ing Chia Po pat� . En p'in5 risin ang-ch'un I Kao-chou �Yangchiang Mao-ming ii Ch�Lia, Chan-chia Hal licarig -wen Tan-hs,_en AChia-lai ch*ang) J 'HAI-NAN 00 ch.,,,g cp' wan.n, 5" ,�?. c nikshin .1.;61) T Huang u t ling shut vn ko ha; .ya, ch�eng Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 0 T'ar s � . CANTON � ymg te, sho rite '- Chung sha Fulang Y..0.11 3 cn'eng Hshfl Chau g � rer-ehar-_, Tu-than, W uehtt .Huan84"ne' NAN-CH'ANG - � Feng-Ch''en Ch'ing-chian -----_ _4r Yung hstn ui-ch'u � Shang-yu a yUAr- hao "Wan kCh'U.Chiang S h lung "MACAO Lu-S /Kung cb" 6 �yung terra Cr ai-ha UO 3a, Yu ru YKan-chou !Hsu, fang ; An yuar' Lung ch'uan tpiCbirr o-yuant.- Hai teng soumchOni OON ORIA HONG KONG International boundary Internal administrative boundary Internal administrative capital Railroad Road Populated Places � Over 500,000 o 20,000-100,000 c!) 100,000-500,000 � Under 20,000 Spot e!E-, ons tr Scale 1:4,000,000 1?0 ?CO Ii SOUTHWEST 23 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Sinkiang Sinkiang is a vast region of deserts and high mountains, lightly populated and largely undeveloped. Mountains rim the province on three sides, and the west-to-east trending ranges of the Tien Shan separate the two major physical regions�the Dzungarian Basin, with its deserts and steppe lands to the north, and the larger and more arid Tarim Basin in the south. Sinkiang occupies a pivotal position in Central Asia, and it shares an 1,800-mile-long boundary with the Soviet Union. The Chinese have throughout history tried, by direct or indirect means, to prevent the region from falling into potentially hostile hands by controlling key areas and routes within it. Perhaps in no other part of China is the overworked expression, "land of extremes and paradoxes," more appropriate than in Sinkiang. In area the province comprises one-sixth of China, but in population it accounts for barely one percent of the total. Temperatures may reach 130�F. in the Turfan Depression, while on the steppes of Dzungaria, lows of �40�F. have been recorded. Sinkiang contains China's lowest and driest areas; the Turfan Depression is 505 feet below sea level; and at Charkhlik (Jo-chlang) in the southern Tarim Basin, the annual precipita- tion averages only one-fifth of an inch. Sinkiang's yearly precipitation is inadequate for agriculture, yet some of its oasis agricultural products�Ha-mi melons and Turfan seedless grapes and dried fruits�are renowned throughout China. Although Sinkiang is physically isolated by mountains, deserts, and sheer distance, routes crossing it served for centuries as China's major means of contact with the rest of the world. The Tarim Basin is Sinkiang's most striking physical feature. Sharply defined by encircling mountains, it comprises just over half of the provincial area. It is almost devoid of vegetation. The bare, shifting sands of the Takla Makan Desert and the salt wastes of Lop Nor account for over one-third of its area. Ribbons of poplars, willows, and often lush undergrowth along the water courses give way to drought- and salt-resistant grass and scrub as the streams thin and disappear into the desert sands. Dry river channels are marked by dead forests and cone-shaped mounds of sand, formed and held in place by dead tamarisk bushes. Nevertheless, life exists along the channels of the Yarkand-Tarim River that winds across the western and northern rim of the Basin and at the base of the encircling mountains where streams spill out in fan- shaped form to create oases of great fertility. Dependable sup- plies of water in these oases are obtained from streams that are fed by snowmelt in the high mountains. The Tarim oases are populated primarily by Uighurs, people of Turkic stock. Over the centuries they have built intricate systems of canals and dug wells to supply water for fields in which various grains, fruit, vegetables, and cotton are grown. Agricultural areas have expanded in recent years, particularly along the Basin's northern margin, where a growing number of earthen dams on the Tarim River provide water for irrigation, drinking, and fish culture. Northern Sinkiang, comprised principally of the Dzungarian Basin and the Tien Shan, has traditionally been an area inhabited by nomadic herdsmen. An average of 10 inches of precipitation annually, with somewhat higher amounts in the mountains, produces extensive grasslands that enable Kazakh, Mongol, and Kirghiz herders to graze large numbers of sheep, cattle, and horses. Dry farming, with wheat and other grains predominating, is practiced in parts of the Dzungarian Basin. Extensive irrigated tracts also are present. The Ma-na-ssu (Manas) River, which flows northward from the Tien Shan into the Basin, is the site of a major irrigation scheme that provides water for the cultivation of wheat, cotton, sugar beets, and rice. Important oil discoveries have been made at Karamai and Tu- shan-tzu in the Dzungarian Basin. The economic base also has been enlarged through the construction of a number of manufacturing plants, mostly in and near Urumchi. Included in the industrial complex are an iron and steel works and factories producing cement, farm machinery, fertilizers, and textiles. In addition there are tanneries, rendering plants, and fruit-and- vegetable canning centers. A number of mines of local importance also have been opened. The oases located both north and south of the Takla Makan Desert were stopping points for travelers of the ancient Silk Route that led from China through Central Asia and eventually to Europe. The alignments of the Silk Route remain today as a major segment of southern Sinkiang's roadnet, improved in places by grading and gravel, but in many places poorly maintained and ill defined. A number of new roads, however, have been built, particularly those providing access to sensitive and strategic frontier areas�most notably in northern Sinkiang adjacent to the Soviet frontier. A significant transportation development was the completion of the Trans-Sinkiang Railroad to Urumchi in the early 1960's, which finally connected Sinkiang by rail to the rest of China. Although originally scheduled to extend west and connect with the Soviet rail system at Druzhba at the border, the linkup has not been completed because of the dispute between the two great powers. Since 1953, and particularly since 1960, Peking has sent massive numbers of Han Chinese, both workers and party cadres, to Sinkiang to help develop the province. Many have been placed in the Production and Construction Corps, a paramilitary organization now under the People's Liberation Army, which is assigned major land reclamation and water conservancy projects. The influx of Han Chinese has drastically altered the traditional population balance of the region, in which the Uighurs and other non-Han Chinese groups for outnumbered the Han. Of the 8 to 10 million people in Sinkiang today, perhaps as many as two-fifths are Han Chinese. pproved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 A pass (elevation 15,600 feet) in the barren Kunlun Mountains along Sinkiang's southern border. Melt water derived from the snow- capped summits feeds this meandering stream, a tributary of the Yarkand river. The Yarkand is being increasingly used for irrigation be- fore emptying into Lop Nor, 1000 miles away. A Chinese geological survey party in the Takla such terrain. A northeast wind constantly shifts Makan Desert. This team of geologists is using the sand, forming it into classic examples of the most efficient form of surface transport for ripple and crescent-shaped dunes. Kazakh herdsmen grazing their flocks The scene is in the Altai Mountains near the Mongolian border where precipitation is sufficient to support luxuriant grasslands and occasional stands of coniferous forests. Members of the Sinkiang Production and Construction Corps clear land in the Tarim Basin preparatory to planting. The dead trees and undergrowth being removed are the remains of a dense poplar-willow-tamarisk jungle that once flourished along the banks of a now dry stream channel. Live trees and bushes in the background indicate an active watercourse. A vineyard in the Turfan Oasis, southeast of Urumchi Raisin-curing flues are on the slopes in the background. Many kinds of fruit and long staple cotton thrive in this area of arid conditions, high temperatures, and long growing season. SINKIANG Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 SaTY-Sha oKok.Yangak AFoH ng,ztob KarkaraImApproved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189,, USEenskiy Sinkiang Khantau a ty Frunze 36,v K H RtBET '020? Skardu 9013E4; atZuk'a Kurgh tk'ash .,'Pryhach'ye 7027;, hih) A-ATA SaryDzek Chalk P zh arsk (P'i-shan) epsy Tekelf Ayagu tich-Aral Sarkand Pantilo Narynk � Wu�shrh� (Lich Turfan hrtherh-46' ATeo so K;0-p'ing A a .5364 'Khotan (hio,then) Ke iy (Yt). pproved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 niakanc Dzerzhrisko e P'u IrY\ ehhlan 2075 yevka Ka"kla'ek SerebryTk ,Samarskoy . Aksuat Z PEGAPHAN GATE Hstn yuan Perk h)ssu Hsu-Thu .21739 ='Ku ha) Zyryanovsk . Kurchurn � Akzhar chhehla Karat han tz K'ulu-rnu-1 Zaysa .70197 Eterer a Ha p ho Y RE,,P,SENTAT1ON -Y -rt4OR TA- F A- le-t� ,rtYchin GARIAN BASIN KaraShah ('i) .3422 a,Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 C06931189 Chit Chi '179" F AN 505 ESSION Ku mushih ioism-ko-erh SHAN-MO T h, k'o arkhlik ch'iang) US REGI Ch'tng,h. .Bulgan uIei �8155 Shan shan LJIG HUH 1224 7 chiao-chin T'a�erh A SHAN- MO on hit N A Urumchi RUU Toy AttaY N S 12 339 ing-hsla 0j0tung n4Isi uang ,Su.Pei International boundary, International boundary indefinite or in dispute Internal administrative boundary Internal administrative capital Railroad tti Road Pass Populated Places C) Over 500,000 0 20,000-100,000 100,000-500,000 � Under 20,000 Spot elevations in feet Scale 14,000,000 0 100 \ Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 200 Kdometers SINKIANG: 27 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Tibetan Highlands The Tibetan Highlands, containing more than one-fourth the area of China but less than one percent of the population, is the highest and most extensive plateau on earth. It is the mother of many rivers: its eastern slopes are the sources of the Huang Ho, Yangtze, Mekong and Salween; along its southern edge are the sources of the Indus, Sutlej, and Brahmaputra (Tsangpo). Rimmed by even higher mountain ranges, this region's physical seclusion has produced a unique civilization relatively unchanged by outside forces until the Chinese occupation in 1951. The region is the homeland of the Tibetan peoples, who ethnically predominate almost everywhere in the Highlands, parts of which ore now incorporated into the provinces of Tsinghai, Szechwan, and Yunnan. The southern half of the region, designated as the Tibetan Autonomous Region by the Chinese, coincides territorially with the former extent of the political entity of Tibet. This vast region traditionally was held together by three unifying influences: a form of Buddhism administered from Lhasa through numerous powerful monasteries; a common written form of the various dialects of the Tibetan language; and the propensity of Tibetans to be traders. The Highlands comprise three natural divisions: the Chlang- t'ang (north plain); the populous cultivated valleys of the south and southeast; and a large peripheral area in the east and northeast. The arid, wind-swept Ch'iang-t'ang�bounded by the Kunlun, Karakoram, and Kailas mountain ranges and by the high grasslands of Tsinghai�is a gigantic basin of internal drainage; its surface, almost everywhere 3 miles high, is a complex of mountain ranges, broad valleys, and plains that are liberally strewn with lakes varying in degree of salinity. Life is sustained by meager short grasses and by fresh water supplied from springs or from melting snow and ice. In the southern part of the Ch'iang-fang, the Tibetan nomads tend herds of yaks, sheep, and goats; throughout the uninhabited northern part there are only large numbers of wild yaks, antelope, and assorted predators. Elsewhere the scanty population�both Tibetan and Chinese�is concentrated in the far west, principally in a few ancient settlements in the Indus and Solej valleys. Although the Chinese mission in western Tibet is primarily military, they have taken over much of the area's agricultural and sheep breeding activities. The populous cultivated valleys in the south and southeast are located at elevations generally below 12,000 feet, At the lower elevations pockets of rich loam and somewhat greater precipitation permit a limited amount of agriculture. The Tsangpo Valley, together with its tributary valleys, is the heartland of Tibet. Over the centuries it was the focus of ancient trade routes from India, China, and Central Asia. Lhasa, the capital, formerly was also the residence of the Dalai Lama, who headed the religious- civil government in Tibet. Until recently, farmers, traders, and monks inhabited the cultivated valleys, while nomads roamed the surrounding grasslands at higher elevations. Under the Chinese, trade has been sharply curtailed and the monks have fled or been eliminated. The major centers of population other than Lhasa are Jih-k'a-tse and Chiang-tzu, southwest of Lhasa, Ch'ang-tu in the Mekong Valley of eastern Tibet, and the new Chinese-built town of Lin-chih, located in southeastern Tibet. Chinese military and administrative personnel are stationed in these key areas, where small-scale industrialization and the expansion of cultivated areas are being undertaken on a very limited basis. The third natural division of the Tibetan Highlands consists of the old Tibetan districts of Amdo, now the province of Tsinghai, and Kham, now western Szechwan and northwestern Yunnan�traditionally a region of petty kingdoms and grasslands controlled by unruly nomadic peoples. Most of Tsinghai is grassland, and it has a large nomadic population�mainly in the southeast. But in western Szechwan and northern Yunnan, an area of rugged mountain ranges, separated by deep valleys and narrow canyons, there is little grazing land and few upland valleys that are suitable for agriculture. The people here (Khambas) are fierce, brigandish warriors, who stoutly resisted the Chinese invasion and were instrumental in preventing Chinese control of the area until 1959. Except for industrial development around Hsi- ning in northeastern Tsinghai and oil exploitation in the Tsaidam Basin, the Chinese have expended their greatest effort on the construction and maintenance of access roads to Lhasa and the other key areas of southern Tibet. This was particularly difficult through Szechwan where roods had to be built "against the grain" of the mountain ranges. The Tibetan Highlands, because of their remoteness and difficult access, have yielded limited economic returns to China for the amount of resources invested. Although the Tibetan Highlands are politically more firmly integrated with China than at any other time in history, control and administration of this region have been difficult to achieve and occasional acts of Tibetan resistance still are recorded. 28 pproved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Ganden Monastery near Lhasa. This monastery, one of the largest and most important In Tibet, was gutted and its contents destroyed by the Chinese as an aftermath of the 1959 revolt. It Is now used as the central granary for stor- ing grain from all parts of the Tibetan Autonomous Region. All of the monasteries, except a few preserved as "show places," have suffered similar treatment by the Chinese In their attempt to eradicate religion In Tibet. The buildings are rarely destroyed, however, because they are useful for offices, barracks, prisons, or storage. Valley west of Lhasa. The stacked grain is barley, the principal grain crop In farms, agriculture continues in the old patterns. Here Chinese plows and dzo Tibet. Ground and mixed with butter and tea, It becomes tsampa, the staple (a yak-cattle hybrid), traditional draft animals of Tibet, are being used. Grain Of the Tibetan diet. Although the Chinese have instituted a few experimental Is still winnowed by hand, as indicated by the cloud of chaff in background. Tibetan nomad camp near Na-ch'U on the high plateau north of Lhasa. No- mads have only one variety of sheep; they are longer legged and have coar- ser wool than other varieties of Tibetan sheep found at lower elevations. These pasturage sheep are used both for wool and as pack animals; they can carry a 30-pound toad for great distances. Salt from the old lake beds on the Ch'iang-t'ang is transported down to trading centers where the sheep are unloaded and sheared and the salt and wool are bartered. The town of Lin-chih in southeastern Tibet. The tributary valley of the Tsangpo in which it is located is below 10,000 feet and receives considerable rainfall. Slopes are covered with shrubs and trees, most of which are suitable for timber. The valley is among the most productive in Tibet, and along with similar valleys to the east, has a physical environment that is more hospitable for the Han Chinese than are the higher, drier, and more barren parts of Tibet. Valley south of Tee-tang. This valley, one of the many tributary valleys of the Tsangpo, is typical of the cultivated valleys of southern Tibet. The slopes here are more barren of vegetation than those in southeastern Tibet, but the valley floors are equally as fertile The tree clusters, some of which are fruit trees, mark the location of houses and monasteries. Barley, and maize, along with hardy vegetables, are grown. TIBETAN HIGHLANDS 29 Kargbahk (Yeh ch'eng) Chetrty.; ka9 Qi) -er 'tOk Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 To-let C '43& (raklakhar) pno' ng-hsien IlNizeju Cha.4,1 Ku You rea: In. JItki tSe' (Zhtkatse) n:e!-� nigur .VON . tin . . NAMES AO BOUNDARY REPRESENTATION ARE NOT. NECFSEA.`" AUttIOR,TATIV Mang yat I viJfrr fill Ch'u shut (Gyangtse) Kan l'a�erh .4617 - _ � /- 9055 _ A , --.. � Ha ya erh KUN _ Mo chu kung* Kr:ies4. ia40 Lo cha t rig ka 90, h voc UN g u cimg 4. Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 41L.1"GaR h u an g y (t_ao,CHOW,a0) .su rn r �0820 Te ing ha II )Pu-hc fi/I4 "ItnA. (3,1u ng ilWoa G t e c /'(Al�"Tamanthi Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 -y u�hc 7, � Over e 100.0 itnaii bo n Into ti bo inde o �n Interne dron 19 Iva o r1feE � 00.00. 61,ang.yeh g�h NOR Heu-Yen ILA Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Administrative Divisions The administrative structure of the People's Republic of China (PRC) was established by the Constitution adopted at the First National People's Congress in September 1954. The accompany- ing table, Administrative Divisions, lists the number of adminis- trative subdivisions, at various levels, within the 21 provinces, the five autonomous regions, and the three municipalities directly under Central Government control. Administrative Changes (1949-58)�The political structure inherited by the PRC in 1949 had experienced considerable stress during the preceding decodes of civil unrest, warlordism, foreign occupation, and civil war. In many remote frontier provinces, local administration had even supplanted national control. The country then consisted of 35 provinces, including Tibet but excluding Taiwan. Between 1949 and 1958 considerable reorganization of the provincial structure occurred, involving mainly the abolition of provinces principally in the Northeast and the incorporation of their territory into adjacent provinces. Numerous but minor readjustments of provincial boundaries were also made during this time period. Autonomous Administrative Units�Nearly 60 percent of China is inhabited by various non-Han Chinese ethnolinguistic groups, and the provinces in which they predominate have been redesignated as "autonomous regions." Autonomy, as conceived by the PRC, is not outside the Chinese tradition. Essentially it involves symbolic cultural indulgence of local minorities, along with the appointment of local people who are sufficiently reliable to assure effective administration of Peking's policies. Autonomous regions were established in Inner Mongolia, Kwangsi, Sinkiang, and Ningsia between 1947 and 1958. Tibet did not gain full- fledged status as an autonomous region until 1965, when its rebellious people were finally judged to be sufficiently under Chinese control to permit such a step. In the five autonomous regions, the non-Chinese peoples outnumber the Han only in Tibet and Sinkiang. An autonomous structure at subprovincial and lower administrative levels also occurs in some parts of other provinces inhabited by sizable numbers of non-Chinese peoples. Administrative Changes (1959-71)�During the last decade, the first-order administrative structure has remained comparatively stable. The number of administrative units directly under central control has been increased by one, some provincial boundaries have been realigned, and a provincial capital has been relocated. The addition of one first-order administrative unit, directly under central control, occurred with the re-elevation in 1967 of Tientsin (T'ien-chin) to a province-level municipality on a par with Peking and Shanghai. No official announcement giving the date of this action is known. Concurrent with the elevation of Tientsin to its new status was the relocation of the Hopeh Province capital from Tientsin to Shih-chia-chuang, some 160 miles southwest of Peking. During 1969 a series of administrative changes appear to have occurred in the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region (IMAR). Several special district-level units (meng) in the east were apparently taken from IMAR and subordinated to Heilungkiang, Kirin, and Liaoning provinces. About two-thirds of western IMAR was detached, part being assigned to Kansu and part subordinated to the Ningsia Hui Autonomous Region. There has been neither a formal publication of these boundary changes nor an official pronouncement concerning the administrative structure of the area retained as IMAR. These changes were apparently motivated by heightened tensions and border incidents along the Sino-Soviet border in 1969 and by the consequent need for a simplified and centrally controlled military defense system opposite the sensitive and strategic border with Mongolia and the USSR. Aside from the military implications, the shifting of subprovincial units to adjacent provinces has probably simplified administration and tightened political control. At lower administrative levels changes have been more numerous and frequent, particularly in the wake of the administrative confusion caused by the creation of communes after 1958. The administrative organization was further upset and possibly modified by the Cultural Revolution (1966-69). Administrative Divisions Province Level' (First Order) (Intermediate) (Second Order) Suborovince Level b County Level Province Auton. Chou Special District Munici- Munici- pality ;Why County Autom County Anhwei 9 6 2 70 Chekiang 8 3 63 Fukien 7 2 4 62 Heilungkian 6 a 1 64 1 Honan 10 3 11 110 Hopei 10 1 a 142 2 Hunan 9 2 5 84 4 Hupeh a 2 3 72 Kansu 2 8 2 2 66 Kiangsi 6 2 s 80 Kiangsu 8 7 4 64 Kirin d 1 5 2 7 36 2 Kwangtung 1 7 1 9 94 3 Kweic how 2 5 1 3 69 9 Liaoning d 4 10 41 2 Shansi 5 3 1 96 Shantung 9 4 5 107 She 8 1 3 93 Szechwan 3 12 3 5 181 3 Tsinghai 6 1 32 5 Yunnan 8 7 2 2 107' 15 Autonomous Region Inner Mongolia 75 2 874h 3 Kwangsi Chuang 8 6 72 Ningsia Hui d 1 2 16 Sinkiang Uighur 6 2 2 73 6 Tibet 5 1 70 Municipality Peking Shanghai 10 Tientsin Total 29 178 79 90 2,057 69 a The country r divided into 29 first-order units-21 provinces (anon), 5 autonomous tegiuns (tzutchih' chon), and 3 municipalities (shin)�directly under the central authority. b At the subprovince (intermediate) level, provinces and autonomous regrons are citvided into special districts (chtien-atS0) or autonomous ultou (tzu-chin chod). A number of Municipaqttes aisa exist St This level, c Co unties (hulas) are the basic sacendtorder unit. Other second-order units include autonomous haien (tzutchih Osten) and hsien-level shit), The term hsien is normally used instead of its English equivalent d Subprovinciat telefs do not rot/eat changes caused by the presumed reapportionment and realignment of the Inner Mongolian Autonomems Region OMAR) because of lack of data, e fiwangtung has an atypical unit�administrative district (hsingrcheng ch'n)�comprising the iserld of Hainan, It functions as the top administrative organization of the island. f Includes one tows (Oen) in Yunnan that functions et the second-order hsien leel, g The subprovince level unit in /MAR is officially designated as league (mertgii. h Includes 52 hamlets (chi), a helen-fevel unit in 'MAR. t !MAR autonomous Osten-level unit is termed train/7in chi, j Hslen information unavailable, pproved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 HEILUNGKIANG Province-level Administrative Divisions Province t Autonomous region Municipality Conventional Anhwei Chekiang Fukien Heilongkiang Hon an Hopeh Hunan Hupeh Inner Mongolia Kansu Kiangsi Kiangsu Kirin Kwangsi Kwangtung Guide to Pronunciation of Major Administrative Divisions Wade-Giles Romanization An- hui ahn - way Che - chiang Luh - jee_ong Fu -chien too - jee_en Hei- lung - chiang hay - loong jee_iong Ho - nen huh-non Ho - pei huh bay Hu - nan hoc-non Hu - pei hoo -bay Nei - meng - ku nay - mung - goo Kan -su gahn - soo Chiang - hsi jee_ong -she Chiang - su jee_ong-soo Chi- lin jee - lynn Kuang - hsi g wong - she Kuang -tung g wong - doong Pronunciation estern &louse" cu e Sea" /"Honorabld�' ...,Distect o (Cu, cnvo) e a Eau "River West- I"Prosperi Found" Terf ace Peac&u Honor" Au; .;;;;+) Chinese place names may take on picturesque qualities when rendered in literal translation. This view of China from the east suggests the geographic origins of many of the ancient province names. Geographic features frequently comprising elements of place names include: pei- north, nan - south, tung - east, hsi- west, ho and chiang - river, hu -lake, and shan- mountain. Kweichow Liaoning Ningsia Peking Shanghai Shansi Shantung Shensi Sinkiang Szechwan Tibet Tientsin Tsinghai Yunnan New Fro t Kuei- chou g vvay joe Liao - ning lee_ow-fling Ning - hsia fling - she_ah Pei - ching bay - jing Shang � hai shong - hi Shari-hsi shahn - she Shan - tung shahn - doong Shen-hsi shun -she Hsin chiang shin - jee_ong Ssu ch'uan ssu ch_wan Hsi - tsang she - dzong Tien � chin teen - jin Ch'ing hai ching- hi YOn nan y_oon - non k Dragon Riv ,ung-,-tpa Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS 33 Administrative Divisions SINKIANG UIGHUR AUTONOMOUS REGION HAI-H.51 MONGOL-TIBETAN-KAZAKH SINGHA,1 ( Yli-5111,1 TIBETAN AUTONOMOUS REGION Province-level boundary Subprovince-level boundary 11111 Shih (municipality) Chuan-ch'ii (special district) Tzu-chih-chou (autonomous district) Hsing-cheng-ch'U (administrative district) Meng (league) Area under direct province-level administration NOTE: in i969, four Meng of the Inner Mango.Iron Autonomous Region were trans- ferred, ln whale or in port, to achararna provinces. Their nornes or type of trarn, unre are not known. Limits of Viro�kong, Chia-mu-ssu, Shuanu-yo-shon, Chi-hsi, trod Mu-ton-chiono Municipalities in Heilungkiong end Shih-chio-chuany Municipality in hiPpeh are not known. 090 Scale 1:10,000.000 200 300 490 500 Miles 0 100 200 300 400 500 KilorrielerS NO,'i-t,airml t106Pld� nil ale not n,c, authoe,latwe 34 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 AN ETV!. NINGSIA I A 14 14:."1:tu ECHWAN Tru.konsit n-en lag A N S H ! srsulAsf.1 kftftClitqi 411hpeleigoi KWANd�Si CHUANG. AUTONOMOUS REGION irownisig - PEI< MUNICt 1ENTS:N ICIPALtTY HOPEH r!, tsao�chu A N _ HONG KONG MACAO (U.K.) (Port) .;; Yhtg-Vou it�yint-kang - K IAN GS U ''t�ha�orts -1 r . _wilan�t'uho - NIng-pie HEK ANG Vtow.oh oy -chou HANGMA: UNICIPALITY 'hal /TAIWAN I Ta-ch'ing and A-lo-eai in Sinkiang are special districts subordinote to Ili Kazakh Autonomous District. * 14e.-nan Li-Mioo in Kruanptung is on autonomous district suborchnote to Hainan Using-droop-ch.�. YEN-Pith If GIRDS"! Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS 35 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Population Nearly one-fourth of the people of the world live in the People's Republic of China. The number is speculative because official population data have not been announced for more than a decade. Estimates of the total population, therefore, vary widely�from approximately 750 million to nearly 900 million� and reflect alternative projections from the 583 million people officially reported by the 1953 census. Population density varies strikingly, with the greatest contrasts being between the eastern and western halves of the country. The high mountains, plateaus, and arid basins of the Tibetan Highlands and the Sinkiang-Mongolia Region comprise slightly more than 50 percent of the area of China, but this vast territory contains only about 5 percent of the total population, and large areas are uninhabited. Sharply contrasting are small nodes of comparatively high population density in oases areas where dependable amounts of water are present. In the eastern half of China population densities generally range upward from 130 per square mile. Major areas in which the population density is in excess of 520 persons per square mile coincide with level-to-rolling alluvial plains on which intensive agriculture is centered. A major exception is the moderately hilly Szechwan Basin; it contains little level land, but extensive terracing and a long growing season permit high rural population densities. Areas of lower population density in the eastern part of China usually denote marginal or nonagricultural land. Urban areas with populations in excess of 50,000 are classified by size on the map, and a few selected cities with fewer than 50,000 people are shown�principally in western China. An accurate classification of all urban areas is not possible because of the lack of data and the very rapid growth of many Chinese cities during the past decade or so. Approximately 90 percent of the 216 urban centers with populations of 50,000 or more are located in eastern China; of the 16 cities with populations exceeding 1 million, only Canton is located south of the Yangtze River. This pattern results in part from the longer period of Han Chinese settlement and the political and economic primacy of the Yangtze Valley and the North China Plain, in contrast, most of the provinces of South China have been more recently settled (in the long view of Chinese history), and they possess fewer and more dispersed natural resources sizable enough to support large urban agglomerations. Five cities in Northeast China have a population of 1 million or more�Shen-yang, Chiang-chlun, Fu-shun, la-erh-pin, and LU- ta�reflecting the development of this region as China's first major base of heavy industry. To the northwest, the cities of Sian and T'ai- yLion, each with over 1 million population, have experienced very rapid growth during the past 15 years, benefiting from Chinese policies to develop and expand industrial bases in the interior provinces. Lan-chou, which probably has almost 1 million people, has also shared in the great industrial expansion of this region. Other urban concentrations include the large number of cities located on the North China Plain and the string of Yangtze River ports and cities located nearby on navigable tributaries. 36 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Cleve!arid 750,903 Irdianapolis 744,624 tvlilwau,ee 717,099 Sa-. Francisco 715.674 San Diego 696,769 Sac Actonio 654.153 Boston 641.071 Population Per square mile 0 26 260 [11.11 0 10 ioo Per square kilometer Sixteen Most Populous Cities u.s.' Chinab Shanghai 6.900,000 Peking 4,010,000 Tientsin 3.220,000 Shen-yang 2,411,000 Wu-harr. 2,146.000 Ch'ung-ch'ing 2.121.000 Cantor. 1.840,000 Ha-erti-p.n 1.552,000 WasCi.ciciton, D.C.756,510 Lii-ta 1.508,000 Nan-chicly 1,419,000 Sian 1,310,000 Tsingtao 1,121,000 1.107.000 Taeynac 1.020.000 Fu-shun 1.000.000 Chang-chun 1000.000 New York 7.867,760 Chicago 3.366,957 Li3S Acries 2.816,061 Philadelphia 1.948,609 Detroit 1,511.482 Houston 1,232,802 Baltirro,e 905.759 Dallas 844.401 Censc�s, /970 Othc,a' 1957 estunates based on /953 Census. Mani, c,t,es have wow!, ,ery rapid:v:n (1,5 /as: decade and CL,' pops1a(ions (nay be cont,,de�ahly than the tioures shown. Cities Over One Million in Population Area and Population (1957)* 11a-erh-pin, Ch'ang-chito. Shen-vang** Pelong, Icentssn' rat-yitan* Nan-chalq. .1.71-feng-tu 1.711ung, Wing Canton Northeast Area Population Square Miles Percent of National Total Thousands Percent of National Total Heilungkiang 272,300 7.4 16,100 2.5 Kirin 104,900 2.8 13,800 2.1 Liaoning 88,600 2.4 26,100 4.0 North Honan 64,400 1.8 48,700 7.5 Hopeh and Tientsin Municipality 76,100 2.0 44,700 6.9 Inner Mongolian Auton. Region 163,900 4.4 4,200 .6 Kansu and Ningsia Hui Auton. Region 303,700 8.2 15,100 2.3 Shansi 60,700 1.6 16,000 2.5 Shantung 59,300 1.6 54,000 8.3 Shensi 75,600 2.0 18,100 2.8 Peking Municipality 6,600 0.2 4,000 .6 South Anhwei 54.000 1.5 33,600 5.2 Chekiang 39,300 1.1 25,300 3.9 Fukien 47,500 1.3 14,700 2.3 Hunan 81,300 2.2 36,200 5.6 Hupeh 72,400 2.0 30,800 4.8 Kiangsi 63,600 1.7 18,600 2.9 Kiangsu 39,500 11 45,200 7.0 Kwangsi Chuang Auton. Region 92,700 2.5 21,400 3.3 Kwangtung 81,700 2.2 35,900 5.6 Shanghai Municipality 2,200 0.1 6,900 1.1 Southwest Kweichow 67,200 1.8 16,900 2.6 Szechwan 219,700 6.0 72,200 11.2 Yunnan 168,400 4.6 19,100 3.0 Tibetan Highlands Tibetan Auton. Region 471,700 12.8 1,300 .2 Tsinghai 278,400 7.5 2,100 .3 Sinkiang Uighur Auton. Region 635,800 17.2 5,600 .9 Total 3,691,500 100.0 646,600 100.0 This table is based �pen 1957 eraftmelea, (lie loot �Mc., Adjuat- ments have been made to reflect post-1957 territorial-administrative changes. POPULATION 37 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Population 0 � 0 RURAL POPULATION Persons per square mile 2.6 26 LJO 260 52 10 50 100 2 Persons per square kilometer URBAN POPULATION Over 3,000,000 1,000,000-3,000,000 500,000-1,000,000 CI 100,000-500,000 � 50,000- 100,000 � Under 50,000 (selected) Sca:e i:ionoo.000 190 200 300 400 590 Miles 0 100 200 300 400 500 Kilomelers Names dr, to�mMamy remesentabon are not necessary authorMatme pproved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 681- I-86900 01-/ZO/ZZOZ :eseeej J04 08A0JddV 6C NOI1V1rld0d NVN-1VH dO�1\��.4 \-\ � � mc;e:t 401" 0'103 au�t% � , 0,d lows'o kitkis-04 0,0� � 00'00 0 tle0-14/1-' *10.',442 t 0-tiZaapotroils.r., 0 us.03 , . � 0 81-141,4'D . � ',10d1 ovpvw ONO ON01-11 deys-DU Isagyv.t( n, l'� oeus'aUi4 � osii7aVe.n4 " ; ;04c(04-1.110 ' � %,,koe � 1 ti 0 I? lir,�d�o4 .14* n A- iv,i" .� , :u01.1.4ip-.. ,-i'd i� - � . 4,'\" .;_, $ueno-glip111.4S ., ....., 600-stitAl ,:. � y .1 dalA .1104?ci 0.i ...tS1i ' Jr1A-11. ilue4-4�11 Yr,0 1-0ed :intOier_tsH 0a,voe4 0'4.0:14 .010:ittet40) � � .nzo.,,ofie 0 4 �.) VS11,,) notp-oei� .4..t1 681- I-86900 01-/ZO/ZZOZ :eseeIej J04 08A0JddV Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Ethnolinguistic Groups Almost all inhabitants of mainland China are of Mongoloid stock, and ethnic distinctions in the country are largely linguistic rather than racial. The Han comprise nearly 95 percent of the population; the remaining 5 percent, consisting of approximately 50 groups, are termed "minority nationalities" by Peking. Although non-Han peoples are relatively few in number, they are politically significant; most inhabit strategic frontier territory, and some have religious or ethnic ties with groups in adjoining nations. The traditional preponderance of non-Han groups in western China, however, is lessening because Han Chinese have entered these remote regions in increasing numbers since 1950. Major Language Families�Four major language families are represented in China�the Sino-Tibetan, Altaic, Indo-European, and Austroasiatic. The Sino-Tibetan family is numerically and areally the most important, and within it the several languages and dialects of Chinese predominate. Although unified by tradition, written language, and many cultural traits, the Han Chinese speak several mutually unintelligible tongues. Most Han Chinese use the northern dialect, or one of its variants, commonly called Mandarin; a national vernacular based on this dialect has been popularized. Several different Chinese languages are spoken south of the Yangtze. They include Wu, Hsiang, Kan, Min, Cantonese, and Hakka, each of which is used by several million persons, with lesser numbers speaking other local languages and dialects. Tibeto-Burman Groups�Politically the most potent of the several Sino-Tibetan language groups, aside from the Han Chinese, are the Tibeto-Burman-speaking people who inhabit much of the rough mountainous country of western and southwestern China. The Tibetans, inhabiting a vast sweep of territory from Kansu and Szechwan westward to Kashmir, are the most important group. Totaling only about 3 million, they have retained their cultural identity and political unity largely through the bond of Lamaism�the Tibetan variant of Buddhism. The former ecclesiastical power base provided by Lamaism, at whose apex was the Dalai Lama, has been greatly reduced and weakened since suppression of the 1959 Tibetan revolt. The three dialects spoken in Tibet�western, central, and eastern�are mutually intelligible. The Hui, or Chinese Muslims, number about 3 million and are intermingled with the Han throughout much of China. Their heaviest concentration is in the Northwest, particularly in the Ningsia Hui Autonomous Region and in Kansu, where nearly one- third of the Hui reside. Although the Hui speak Mandarin or regional Chinese languages and use Chinese characters, they generally live in separate communities and their history is marked by uprisings against the Han. The other Tibeto-Burman-speaking groups are divided into hill people�whose way of life is characterized by a subsistence economy based upon varying mixtures of agriculture, animal husbandry, and hunting�and lowland people such as the several Tai-speaking groups. Of the hill groups, the Yi (Lobo) are the most numerous. Those living in the mountains of southern Szechwan between the Yangtze and its tributary, the Ya-lung Chiang, share with the Tibetans a cultural identity and a tradition of independ- ence marked by frequent conflict with the Han Chinese. Two sizable Tibeto-Burman-speaking groups�the Pai (Min-chia) and Tuchia�are valley dwellers engaged in wet-rice agriculture. Miao-Yao�The Miao-Yao group of the Sino-Tibetan family is widely scattered throughout the mountains of South and Southwest China; a number also live in northern Southeast Asia. Although the Miao and Yao exhibit some cultural variations, in general they are upland dwellers. Their traditional slash-and-burn agriculture reportedly has been curbed, and more stable and intensive agricultural practices have been promoted. In spite of a history of suppression and dispersal throughout Southwest China, the Miao have retained independent ways that are marked by initiative and adaptability to changing physical and political conditions. Tai�Tai-speaking peoples comprise the fourth major group of the Sino-Tibetan family. They appear to be differentiated by minor linguistic dissimilarities�although Tai dialects reportedly are mutually intelligible�and partly by locational and minor cultural variations. The largest group is the Chuang, who total nearly 7 million and inhabit western Kwangsi. Unlike many hill-dwelling groups, most Tai groups have been strongly influenced by Chinese culture. Nearly all of the Tai inhabit lowlands and their economy is based upon growing irrigated rice. Altaic Family�People of the Altaic language family are widely dispersed from the forests of Northeast China to the basins of Sinkiang. They include the Mongols, several Tungusic groups in Northeast China, and the Turkic groups in Sinkiang's oases and grasslands. The Mongols are the most widely dispersed of the Altaic language speakers, and several dialects are recognized. Most of the Mongol population live in the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region, but small Mongol and Mongol-related groups are scattered from Sinkiang through Tsinghai and into the provinces of the Northeast. Some retain their tribal divisions and are pastoralists, but most now live in permanent settlements and are engaged in a mixed crop and livestock economy. Turkic Groups�Turkic-speaking groups predominate in Sinkiang and are scattered in Tsinghai and Kansu. The productive oases of Sinkiang have felt the impress of different peoples and cultures from ancient times; consequently the racial, linguistic, and cultural origins of the present-day inhabitants are blurred and complex. The Uighurs are the most numerous of the Turkic speakers, numbering about 5 million, they predominate in the oases of southern Sinkiang where they comprise an estimated 90 percent of the population. The Kazakhs, who rank second in number, inhabit areas adjacent to the USSR and Mongolian borders. The third largest group is the Kirghiz, high mountain pastoralists inhabiting southwestern Sinkiang. Other smaller Turkic- speaking groups occupy valleys of the Tien Shan and the oases and grasslands of northern Sinkiang. Other Altaic Groups�Other members of the Altaic language family include such Tungusic groups as the seminomadic Evenki and Oronchon, the Sibos, and the Manchus. The Evenki, Oronchon, and Sibos together number only a few thousand. Although the 1953 Chinese census recognized the Manchus as a separate nationality and enumerated some 2.4 million of them, they appear to have been almost entirely assimilated by the Han Chinese and therefore are not separately identified on the map. Slightly more than 1 million Koreans live in China, primarily in Kirin Province adjacent to the North Korean border. The exact affinities of the Korean language are unclear, but because of strong structural similarities it is included with the Altaic family. Indo-European and Austroasiatic Families�The Indo- European and Austroasiatic language families are both represented by relatively insignificant numbers; representatives of these language families live in southwestern Sinkiang and in Yunnan. The Kowa, a Mon-Khmer-speaking group, inhabit the rugged mountain country of the Burma-China border. The Indo- European family is represented by the Tadzhiks who live in the valleys and surrounding uplands of southwestern Sinkiang. 40 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 SINO-TIBETAN JO Han (Chinese Hui (Chinese Muslim) Tibeto-Burman Tai Miao-Yao INDO-EUROPEAN MIN Tadzhik AUSTROASIATIC ME Mon-Khmer Linguistic Groups SINO-TIBETAN EA Mandarin 1. Northern 2. Eastern 3. Southwestern Southern dialects 1, Wu 2. Kan 3, Hsiang 4, Min 5, Hakka 6. Cantonese E.E2 Tibetan 1. Western 2, Central 3. Eastern Tai ALTAIC :a: Turkic M Mongolian III Tungusic Yao IN Tadzhik AUSTROASIATIC Mon-Khmer ALTAIC 77.3 Turkic 1. Kazakh 2. Uighur 3. Kirghiz Mongolian I. Western (Torgun 2. Western (Khoshot) 3, Western (Oirat) 4. Southern (ardor) 5. Southern (Chabasi 6. Eastern (Khalkha) INN Tungusic EN Korean Ethnic Groups Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 ETHNOLINGUISTIC GROUPS Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Ethnolinguistic Groups 3 * . r A group ot Tibetans The dress and articles thown ii this recent (and posed) photograph are those ut the Tibetan middle class prior to the Chinese occupation Intended to show ciii lite IMO today, the group pictured is probably more typical of a prosperous family on a picnic 42 ALTAIC* TURKIC 1. Uitttiur 2 KaZakit Ko MONGOLIAN 6 M 7 Tue.; h�,,,ini-; TUNGUSIC iC) Oronchon 11 Sax) KOR FAN INDO EUROPEAN TADZHIK AUSTROASIATIC MON-KHMER 1.1 KaAa 14 Purnan Pulain Uninhnoiled SINO-TIBETAN HAN CHINESE 4 Salar F. lit MOrlgOr DOUr 12. LvenLi ;"--; UIGHUR HUI iCHINESE MUSLIW TIBETO-BURMAN ,bc�tan Yi Loud 17 Pal Min chia Tuchia TA 23 PuYi iChung,chha, 2.1 MIAO-YAO Mn Yao I anguage or hale 19_ Han, ,Woni. 20. Lisu,Chinppo 21. Lahu 22. Nast 25 Tar 25. Chuang 2'. (.,trui in. She Languago tensity men-shih. A village habitants dorrunant) Uighur's T rooted hot ihteriSC SU WES MONG (01R Sia k$it/t r-1(7) r - �lit' INtorriE, 432'5' 20) V 41- as -- 31 _.� �13 f7r 19,5 pproved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Mongol encampment, This traditional form of Mongol life -- portable yurts. camels and accompanying herds -- is rapidly passing Most Mongol families now live in permanent quarters, have fixed pastures, and grow vegetables, fodder crops. and grain Khotan (Ho rieni In- nklang oases are pre ic stock, and most are vines adjoining flat- ide shade from the n. SOL/IRE-PO, ON6604,14 (ORDOS) 6 yin.chluan .7')Ldll-ChOU LIFT six A. L'a SL. CH Kuei-yan 28 -28 n-nungA 0,01466 cit Hu_ho_hao�tle" 6 Ct-VOU NOR T sOUTWY 28 � 29 N3ri-rt Hill tribe vilage .n Yunnan Province, Numerous TMetc-Burman speaking groups iii jtAltlIWUSt i.h'ii. iV Si w,dc:y tr.!Mti Sort soiaiod moiinia.nviiaqos Their tradenal way of life commonly oased on shifting agriculture, is giving way to a more stabikzed ecOroribc sys tern that often mvblves grew:rig irrigat- ed rice E R N I. Lo-yang Naniya HSIANG tit cnua n A N D CANTONESE 0 - Hai.wou . MIN ud..- � Li Al.NAN TAO ' �Cheng-chou man.ctl'ang one 2.1 CANTON 0 ISM� poen_ EAsTERt' z" 30 MIN svotov40:, HAKKA MACAO HONG KONG (port Fu-ctai� n ch.nes,! ,tuderib-. and teachers in study session Educational 0911C,C�; ern- phasit,, Inc ctine)nalion ot fo,mal edu- isation and want nal working exoeroint Cirl farms and m facto's 1- a: in YUn", Pr�),..1!,Ce The Lai one of the more numerous in:nor:hes m Southwest China Use :inmost exclusively tfunnaii Province They inhatiot lowland, where they glow wot rice arid troiticai oruw, v1�1,10eo goror,O," ' beside finwing water and the !muses are surrounded rtv bamboo fences ETHNOLINGUISTIC GROUPS 43 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Railroads Railroads are the principal component of China's transportation system. Despite many difficulties, China has added more than 11,000 miles of main and branch lines to the railroad system since 1950, thereby greatly improving the integrity and flexibility of the 25,000-mile rail network as of early 1971. Every province and re- gion except Tibet is connected to the railroad network by at least one main line. China has 11 international rail connections (5 with North Korea, 2 each with the USSR and North Vietnam, and 1 each with Mongolia and Hong Kong). The Chinese have made ef- forts to improve the railroad system in order to solidify central gov- ernment control, to disperse the industrial base, and to provide more efficient logistical support to the military. In furthering these goals they not only have built new lines, but also have increased the number of industrial spurs and have expanded numerous railroad yards. Repair and Rehabilitation (1949-52)�The railroad network inherited by the Chinese Communists in 1949 was badly damaged, poorly distributed, disconnected, and heavily oriented toward North and Northeast China. Much of China south of the Yangtze and all of western China were without rail lines. The principal construction effort initially was directed toward restoration, and more than half of all the track laid during the period 1949-52 was for this purpose. During this period emphasis also was placed on the completion or extension of three new lines started by the Nationalists: (1) extension of the major east-west line between T'ien-shui and Lan-chou, (2) completion of the line between Ch'eng- tu and Ch'ung-ch'ing in the Szechwan Basin, and (3) extension of a line southward from near Li-t'ang to the border of Viet- nam, primarily for the purpose of supporting the Vietnamese Communists in their war against the French. Expansion of the Rail Network (1953-60)�Once the basic repair and rehabilitation work had been completed, the Chinese shifted their emphasis to expanding the basic network. The travel distance between Moscow and Peking was shortened by 700 miles in 1954 with the completion of a railroad across Mongolia. During the 1950's steady progress also was made on the Trans-Sinkiang line that led west from Lan-chou and was designed to link with the Soviet rail net at the border; however, the line has not been extended beyond Urumchi, the capital of Sinkiang. Both these lines had high economic and strategic priorities. In 1955 military Mechanized tracklayer on the Lan-chou to Urumchi line. The Trans-Sinkiang Railroad connects the oil and mineral regions of the Northwest with the in- dustrial centers of North China considerations were evident in the rapid building of the line from Ying-t'on to Amoy on the Fukien coast opposite Taiwan and other Nationalist-held islands. Two important lines linking key areas in China were opened to traffic in 1956 and 1958, respectively: (1) the Pao-chi-Ch'eng-tu line, traversing very rugged mountainous terrain and affording a rail connection between North China and the Szechwan Basin, and (2) the Pao-t'ou-Lan-chou line, connecting two developing economic centers in the interior. Post-1960 Development�The collapse of the Leap Forward in 1960 significantly curtailed further expansion of the rail system for several years. Construction activity revived in the mid-1960's when the Chinese began preparations for a Third Five-Year Plan (1966-70), but this revival was interrupted in 1967-68 by the upheavals of the Cultural Revolution. After the Cultural Revolution the Chinese again initiated long-term economic planning, and the scope and intensity of railroad construction increased significantly. Only a few major projects, however, were started during the Yangtze river bridge at Nan-ching. This bridge, opened to rail traffic in 1968, carries a roadway on its upper deck and a double-track railway on its lower deck. A strategic link on the important Peking to Shanghai rail line, con- struction continued during the turmoil of the Cultural Revolution. This bridge is the third across the Yangtze, the others are near Chung-ch'ing and Wu-han. 1960's. Much of the recent activity represents the continuation of work started in the 1950's. Since 1964 railroad construction has focused primarily on southwest China. During the mid-1960's lines were completed to link Kweichow Province with both Yunnan and Szechwan provinces. A line linking Ch'eng-tu directly with K'un-ming in Yunnan Province was recently completed after more than a decade of construction activity. This new line provides a shorter and more direct access route to Yunnan Province from the Szechwan Basin and establishes the means for promoting the overall economic development of the southwestern region. Another major north-south line has been constructed roughly parallel to the Peking-Canton line as far south as the Yangtze river. This new line establishes an alternate route for heavy north- south traffic and opens up parts of Honan and Hupeh provinces for industrial development. Another important line is the Wu- han-Ch'ung-ch'ing line, presently under construction. When completed this line will provide the first direct rail route between the Szechwan Basin and the middle-Yangtze Basin. The results of nearly 20 years of new railroad construction are considerable in terms of trackage added. Nevertheless, the regional distribution of the network, while improved, remains uneven. Although much remains to be done, the Chinese have made impressive progress toward achieving their goal of developing a modern, efficient railroad system to carry the increased traffic expected during the Fourth Five-Year Plan (1971- 75). The photo shows a reinforced concrete beam being em- placed on completed piers. Opening up rail lines through this rugged and remote area is a striking example of the central governments determination to develop the South- west and to firmly integrate it with the rest of the country 44 imiiiApproved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 RAILROADS 45 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 *SHnla Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 8( A-Ar4 STANDARD GAUGE (4'81/2") Double track Single track Projected BROAD GAUGE (5'6" in India, 5'0" in U.S.S.R. and Mongolia) Double track Single track Projected NARROW GAUGE (various widths) ----- Single track Scale 1,10,000.000 0 100 290 390 490 0 100 260 360 460 560 Kilometers ,01 tarii � kul tang 590 Miles pproved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Ctm m o HSI I.UK: Ct., hi VIEN T Ant �0,1 I -u An-pen u 41 uang r Wecning) K W E hul-ch'eng y '4- / t.� 1 I 1,1an -chlung , ,-) 1 .-,..; -,-_,63f4 9, cv,,g. pa,Lh.,0 41.-- itCh'i; t'S to ;,----- A N . I i t, (., R ,----- - -, : ,-, -_,\_ -1,_ _ - /....� r� CH UNG-CWIN, ( ,7 lei .chlang t ,._ . �._,--.. Ch an; tei, c ' ,;,,.." r---. ' 1/4 1 \,-.._,,- ,� tistang.t.a_ ositvii 'shac t!hae\-hi q _ H U N N, Shao- yang H 0 4/51/ ' 1 , ti Henoan Kuo-vAV 6.---. Hpflgti Kue, -h In shut Hsing 4 r- , r� i 4, A , N ) \ 441cal yuan Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 120 40,696 a 1.� LA EE REPUBLICS cha Wan -Ude pa, pf� 0 4Igan 4Chang hla cm) Pab-t'Ou, 41.4 "3' ikt.tec ClteNtu Wain-Chi 1)..) 4). Hut. ma . , %SIAN T6-Psia \ "s_,,a,�.44:..a � 4 I; Pan: SH EN Li 0 WI '''' C.Ith'^o'l'" Ferg-C; ,r. 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SIS.t.040 't) 41g.44.)1R Swats) YI7 C H \ S Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 1.10.0 RAILROADS 47 Roads and Inland Waterways In China roads supplement other forms of transport, particularly the railroads, and provide short-haul, farm-to-market service. Direct through routes linking widely separated parts of the country are few, and there is no coordinated national highway system. Roads are of greatest relative significance in the west, where in many areas, as in Tibet, there may be no other means of transport. China has more than 300,000 miles of road. More than one-half of this total consists of natural earth roads; the remainder are soil- aggregate roads (primarily gravel) along with a few thousand miles of bituminous-treated or concrete road. Most of the network is low-grade by Western standards and requires constant maintenance; on the other hand, traffic density is extremely light. Expansion of the Road Network (1949-60)�in 1949 there were only some 50,000 miles of serviceable roads in the 124,000- mile highway network. At that time most major roads�approximately 75 percent of the total�were located in the eastern half of the country, particularly in the coastal areas and on the larger plains of the northern and northeastern provinces. From 1949 through 1952 emphasis was placed on the maintenance and restoration of the existing network, and only a limited amount of new construction�mostly highways of military significance in Liaoning, Shantung, and Fukien and on Hai-non Too�was completed. After 1952, major construction projects were begun in western and southwestern frontier provinces inhabited by large non-Chinese population groups. Several new roads in Kwangsi and Yunnan were extended to the Indochina border, thus helping to provide logistical support for the Vietnamese Communists, then fighting the French. In recent years this part of the system has been further improved and enlarged. Between 1954 and 1956, major roads were completed to link the Szechwan Basin, eastern Tsinghai, and Sinkiang with Tibet and its capital at Lhasa. New roads also were built to permit the exploitation of the petroleum deposits of Karamai in western Sinkiang and of the Tsaidam Basin in western Tsinghai. The extensive road construction program in the remote western and southwestern provinces thus served several Chinese objectives: political control was greatly aided by improved communications; Chinese military capabilities (as demonstrated in the 1962 Sino- Indian border war) were greatly enhanced; and economic exploitation and development has been fostered. Recent Developments�More recently the Chinese constructed or improved numerous roads in the Sino-Soviet border area in the Northeast and made a few additions to the road network in the Northwest. Other new roads were constructed to the vicinity of the borders of Burma and Laos; one Chinese- constructed road extends into Laos to the town of Muong Sai. The Karakoram Highway, which connects Sinkiang Province with Pakistan through the Khunjerab Pass, was also recently completed. Inland Waterways�Water transport was traditionally the major form of transportation in pre-1949 China. Much of its capacity was destroyed by war, however, and as a result, China's navigable waterways totaled only 46,000 miles in 1949. At that time a program of restoration and expansion was begun; locks were constructed, navigational facilities installed, and ports, harbors, and shipyards renovated. The completion of a number of large-scale water conservation projects, primarily for flood control, also contributed to the extension of the system. By 1958, China's navigable inland waterways had more than doubled in length, and at present they probably total more than 100,000 miles. Routes on streams suitable for modern motorized vessels total some 25,000 miles. Regional Characteristics�Regionally, about 65 percent of the inland waterway network is located in South China, where the Yangtze and Hsi Chiang form the principal river basins, and about 30 percent is in North and Northeast China, where the Amur, Ussuri, Sungari, Huang, and Huai are the principal rivers. The Amur and Ussuri rivers along the USSR border are also used by the Soviet Union. In the Northeast, much of the network is closed to traffic for upwards of 180 days per year because of ice. The Huang Ho and most of the waterways in North China, including much of the Grand Canal, are of limited use as navigable waterways because of considerable silting and very low water during winter and spring. Because the major rivers of China flow from west to east, north- south inland waterway traffic is limited. Some cargo, however, is moved on three of the southern tributaries of the Yangtze (the YUan, Hsiang, and Kan Chiang), on the Han Shui north of the Yangtze, on the southern section of the Grand Canal, and on other minor waterways. The lack of usable north-south connections between the predominantly west-east oriented waterways and the obvious economic advantages that would result from an integrated system have been recognized by Chinese Communist planners. Long-range plans were drawn up in the early 1950's to interconnect the basins of the Amur, Huang, Yangtze, and Hsi rivers through the construction of new canals and the repair and improvement of existing waterways. Except for improvement of the southern half of the Grand Canal, however, little has been accomplished. Importance of Waterways�Modern water transport is recognized by the Chinese to be important as a carrier of bulk cargoes over long distances when speed is not of major importance. Furthermore, inland waterways have played an important role in the Chinese Communist efforts to enlarge and expand their industrial bases, particularly to the west. Much effort has gone into the maintenance and improvement of the Yangtze�historically the great commercial artery of China and the major transportation route into the interior. At present no large-scale inland waterway expansion program appears to be underway, but the maintenance and improvement of existing systems continue. Primitive Transport�Vast amounts of cargo in China are moved by animal-drawn and manually drawn carts, carried by a variety of pack animals, or shouldered by humans. Distances involved in moving this cargo are short. Huge quantities of freight are also carried by sampans, junks, and similar small craft on the major waterways as well as on the innumerable small streams and canals. Animal-drawn carts hauling fertilizer. Traditional means of transport -- ani- mals, carrying poles, carts, and small boats -- still play a very important role in the movement of vast amounts of materials in China. Rubber-tired wheels on carts, a relatively recent innovation, reduce wear-and-tear on road surfaces and permit easy movement in fields. 48 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 A traditional means of transport-the carrying pole-still plays a very important role in the movement of vast amounts of material in China_ Two baskets multiplied by millions of shoulders carry everything from fertilizer to vegetables. Roads in Kweichow Province Roads in low-lying areas are built on levees. This road is typical of those found in the principal plains and basins of eastern China. Road from Peking to the Great Wall, Hopeh Province. Only a few thousand miles of roads in China have high- grade surfaces such as the bituminous-treated surface here Road surfaces may vary from section to section: this road, for example, has a concrete sur face in the vicinity of Peking, although concrete surfaces are rare in China. Near oil refineries, residual oils or tars are applied to harden or stabilize the surface. Army trucks on the Szechwan- Tibet road. This is a soil-aggre- gate type of construction, classified as a loose-surface, all-weather road. Constant maintenance, including snow removal, is required to keep this main access road to Tibet open to traffic_ Barges in the Yangtze Gorge upstream from l-ch'ang. The Yangtze River is the major water transportation route to the interior of China. The Chinese have improved the river channel so that barges can now navigate the treach- erous gorge area, as shown here, in comparative safety Principal Improved Inland Waterways Road in western China. Looping precipitous roads, such as this one, are common through- out the mountainous country of China. Road loops are often so numerous that road mile- age is doubled or tripled compared to the "crow- fly- distance. Mountains in eastern China, although not as high as those shown here, often are as rugged and as troublesome for construction, maintenance, and -transit Station on the Szechwan-Tibet road. This road, like most of the main roads in western China, stretches for hundreds of miles through sparsely inhabited areas. Rest, refueling, and supply stations, constructed about one day's drive apart, vary in size and services offered, and often accommodate road maintenance crews. The station shown here is one of the larger and more complex ones. Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 ROADS AND INLAND WATERWAYS 49 Yarkan *Debra 044 \\Vishakhe tne (Tahf8hhoci Attahabad *WO, flares Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 K4THMANDU inlekhgeni UN latinsk ha k -Ch'eng; Urtirhc Wt. ai Scale 1:10400,000 o 100 290 390 490 o 100 200 360 460 560 Kdometers 500 Miles pproved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 90 ang-gai No Lakhi Lebg-hu '11-shui VIET Alt Hs a1un Ta-ch'ai-tan rnen ch'ang.tu Cherl S 0 C teat 4-- setserlee Shuang-ch'e ch'uah : .,Chang�ye Kan-tzu Hsi A pa K'ang-t /ti-thing Hsia-itua Wing-lang VIEP Lin-hsia len NG TU Dothan andalgovi Teng-leou T'ien�shu 'Peng rhang ei.chian u-chu SaYnshandi. g-ch'ua TO-yun Nan-tan Tung-she Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 12 Lics Chi-ning u-tna-hao-re Lo-yang t'ung-kuan P'mg-ting sh ang-te Shao.V Liu-chou chia-I Thanh Hoa TNAM Pei-ti. Tung-fang, (Pa-so) Huang 1�01 thtiu� Cheng- Heng-ya Ch-en-hsie chiang- un cwilotong.ta -chia-chu Nan-ch-an Yang 41s-ten to.cbou 10.ta $114_ ta shu anWOW ranot, Yen chou siesn-y-nn:.1.(8 '--. met . cto'a vg*G, ,.mAcAo 1024- 1, (Pod.) (UA) , Lien-On-tong StIol3n ching-tg-1-h" shan Yung-an -Chang einn.hua hien-ou fu- Ch'uan-ch swam" vierchon vu-cho Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 lc at-100 " pen-a� ofosU 10 A00-hsinng sui-hOa ikethung bnSan 1,,6nito ROADS 51 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Climate The climate of China directly and often dramatically affects the lives of millions of its inhabitants. Each year the thin margin between agricultural production and population growth is threatened by too much or too little rainfall, unseasonable cold, and other climatic factors. No history of China is complete without reference to its floods and droughts, some of which were of great importance in sparking peasant discontent and rebellion. General Climatic Patterns�The climate of most of China resembles that of the United States (excluding the Pacific coastal states) because of similar latitudinal locations, a comparable continental position, and general similarities in atmospheric circulation. Selected climatic data for representative cities occupying comparable locations in China and the United States are as follows: In general, Chinese cities have lower winier temperatures, higher summer temperatures, and less precipitation than their United States counterparts. Rainfall in China is much more seasonal, being highly concentrated during the summer months. The principal reason for these differences arises from the greater size of Asia and the greater intensity of its air masses and their movement. The most significant climatic division in China is between the semiarid-to-arid western regions and the humid eastern half of the country. An arbitrary line separating these two climatic divisions would extend northeast from the northern tip of Burma to a point where the Greater Khingan Range reaches the Amur river. During summer, warm, moist maritime air masses prevail over eastern China and heavy rains fall over much of the area. Hot, oppressive summer weather is typical, with the water-logged middle and lower Yangtze plains being notoriously hot and humid. Winter offers a sharp contrast when very cold and dry Siberian air masses dominate and often penetrate�though greatly modified�to the southern provinces. Little precipitation falls during the colder months; clear days with low temperatures and very low humidities are common. During late winter and spring, strong winds sweep across North China, and hazy days caused by dust storms are common. In western China the effects of the Asian circulation patterns are modified by mountain ranges, elevation, and other physical factors. There is little precipitation due to the alignment, extent, and high elevations of the mountain ranges that form the eastern and southern borders of the region. Temperatures exhibit great extremes�from the intense heat of the Turf an Depression to the bitter cold in the high mountains and plateaus. Microclimates are common in mountainous areas where local conditions of wind, sun, and elevation are the critical climatic factors. Precipitation Regions�Precipitation is the single most important climatic element in China because of its vital relationship to agriculture. Two major precipitation regions exist: 1) subhumid- to-humid eastern China, including all of South China and most of North and Northeast China, where annual precipitation is at least 20 inches, and 2) semiarid-to-arid western China, comprising nearly all of Sinkiang and most of the Tibetan Highlands and Inner Mongolia, where the mean annual precipitation ranges from less than 5 to 20 inches. In eastern China, which contains nearly all of the population and agricultural land, the amount of precipitation varies significantly from north to south. Mean annual precipitation averages 20 to 30 inches in much of North and Northeast China, increasing southward to approximately 40 inches along the Yangtze river. South of the Yangtze the annual precipitation is at least 40 inches almost everywhere, and in some areas it is nearly double this amount. Western China is isolated by high mountain barriers and by distance from significant sources of moisture. The mean annual precipitation in the Tibetan Highlands varies from less than 10 inches in the west to 20 inches or more in the east and northeast. In Sinkiang and Inner Mongolia precipitation almost everywhere is less than 10 inches annually. North and Northeast China�The amount and timing of summer rains in North and Northeast China largely determine the size of the autumn harvest. A disproportionate amount of rainfall is concentrated during the mid-June through mid-September period� Ha-erh-pin and Peking receive 65 and 76 percent, respectively, of their annual total during summer. The erratic character of the precipitation is indicated by the recording at some stations of two-thirds or more of the entire annual precipitation in a single month. In both the North and Northeast the agriculturally important spring months are deficient in precipitation�Peking receives an average of only 2.5 inches for the period March through May. A pattern of spring drought followed by summer floods is common. South and Southwest China�Greater amounts of precipitation are recorded in South and Southwest China than in the North, and an appreciably higher proportion occurs during the autumn-spring period. Rainfall is adequate everywhere for growing irrigated rice, but the timing of the rains and variations in amounts are critical to highest yields and to the extent of feasible double-cropping. For example, summer drought is at times a problem in the middle Yangtze valley, including parts of the agriculturally rich provinces of Hunan and Kiangsi, and it is a limiting factor in the extension of the area of double- cropped rice. The most dependable precipitation is in the mountain-rimmed Szechwan Basin, where the mean annual pre- cipitation varies from about 37 to 45 inches. Although these yearly totals are somewhat lower than for many stations in Southwest and South China, spring and autumn precipitation is ample and reliable, contributing to the noted agricultural productivity of the region. 52 pproved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Spot e4,vat o-, trt WYOMING The North American locations indicated have temperatures and rainfall somewhat similar to areas in China. Comparisons such as these can only be suggestive. Climatic Analogues Annual Precipitation inch: Millimeters20 Elevations Feet 9842 3281 85 PUERTO RICO MINNESOTA Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 CLIMATE Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Precipitation ,l(r.ashear ANNUAL PR EC I PI TATIO N Inches 3.9 9.8 19,7 29.5 39.4 49.2 59.1 68.9 78.7 160 250 500 750 1 Millimeters 190 160 260 Scale 1:10,000,000 290 390 490 360 460 500 Kilometers Names and boundary representation are not necessartly authoritative � 590 Miles ChtsniIyek) pproved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 ang Y U.2 Lar,( sulo � c'ac.rou 0 T FMAMJ TA SONO TOTAL 22.6 Inches �Kuang-yaan NAN-NING J F MAMJ 3 AS OND TOTAL: 42.9 IncIles I FMAMJI A SOND TOTAL 52.0 Inches IC PEKING � J M AM JJAS OND TOTAL 24 7 IncFes Chan 0 1 F MAMI A SONO TOTAL 282 Inches Cn esE't PI-JOG oTenv' �P80 stsh cts.a tt.slang ,Yang T'A! YUAN ' Tstnan Han IS Loyag� Cheng.Mou �snang han pb.s Laill,tin.tong.striho lioNG KONG MACAO K) (Port HA1-NAN TAO ' - sticho* gl-S"�31.4 emvshani CPUatTer\ chei0.0 t a' Is IC TUNG-T'Al IF MAM / I A SOND TOTAL 36 1 I,chm Tortg�V t,4 cotG tIA sti-ctie� Ss..atow SWATOW IF MAMJJASOND TOTAL 59 7 rches CH'ANG-SHA I T FMATAJJ A SOND TOTAL. 52.1 Irthes IT Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 PRECIPITATION 55 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Agriculture Agriculture is the pivotal sector of the Chinese economy. In spite of intensive and highly publicized efforts to industrialize and to develop a nuclear energy capability, most Chinese today�as in centuries past�make their living from the land. Agriculture must not only provide food and clothing for some 750 to perhaps 900 million people, increasing at the rate of nearly 20 million a year, but it also must produce raw materials for industry and agricultural products for export. Thus one of China's most pressing and persistent challenges has long been not only to maintain but to increase the supply of food and agricultural products. Expansion of Cultivated Area�It appears unlikely that agricultural output can be significantly increased by bringing new lands into cultivation. Almost all cultivated land�about 11 percent of China's land area�is located in the eastern half of the country. Although some new land has been brought into cultivation during the past 20 years, it has not offset losses caused by the expansion of urban and industrial areas, the construction of reservoirs, and the salinization and erosion of productive land. The potential for opening new land in western China or the Northeast to cultivation is limited because of aridity, short growing season, and other inhibiting physical factors. Institutional Changes�Initially, the PRC relied upon institutional changes�the collectivization of rural life�rather than the investment of capital and the application of scientific resources as the principal vehicle to stimulate agricultural growth. Collectivization did produce short-term results in remedying such problems as land fragmentation, small holdings, excessive field division strips and burial sites, and the lack of cooperative development and use of irrigation facilities. Accomplishments, however, fell short of the needs. The establishment of the commune (1958) probably was a final effort to use institutional change as a means to markedly boost agricultural production. Post-1960 Developments�Three successive years of very poor harvests (1959-61) led to a reexamination of agricultural policy. One consequence of these poor harvests was the import of grain, in the amount of about 3 to 6 million tons annually, a practice that has continued until the present. In 1962, in a major break with past development policies, China allocated a larger share of state investment to agriculture, and industry was directed to produce, for example, more chemical fertilizer and electric pumps for agriculture. Increased industrial support to agriculture and the concentration of effort on the most productive farmlands has Field preparation and application of liquid manure. Although output of chemical fertilizers is increasing, night soil remains the agricultural fertilizer in most widespread use in China. Composting, also common, is similarly more widely used than chemical fertiliza- tioft enabled the Chinese to substantially increase grain production in recent years. Agricultural productivity has also been enhanced by the avoidance of policies that would further restrict peasant incentives. In particular, productivity has been stimulated by abandonment of restrictive measures inhibiting private enterprise. The cultivation of small private plots and the encouragement of private pig and poultry raising have been beneficial to production. Recent agricultural priorities have been directed toward increased use of chemical fertilizer, improved seed, greater quantities of insecticides, additional pumps for irrigation, and improved tools. Basic to all plans for increased agricultural production is the need for continued improvement in land management and the coordination of land and water conservancy programs. Maintenance of proper soil moisture is essential during the growing season for maximum crop yield. Most irriga- tion pumping systems are powered by animals, humans, or wind; the precise combinations depend on local circum- stances and resources, Use of electric power to pump irrigation water recently has become more common in some areas, 56 pproved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Maximum Length of Growing Season The maximum length of the plant-growing season is defined as that period of time dur- ing which daily mean temperatures are above 42.8�F (6�C). Though frosts may occur near the beginning and end of this period, they are not commonly killing frosts. The plant-growing season as defined does not indicate the spe- cific growing season for any particular crop. Composition of Average Daily Diet People's Republic of China other* meat. eggs, fish and milk vegetables and fruits cereals, potatoes, and other starchy foods 'Includes fats; oils, pulses, nuts, seeds, sugar, and other sweets Rice harvesting in Kwangtung Province. Hand labor remains the rule for most fieldwork in most areas of China. Harvesting of certain crops, how- ever, particularly those grown in large, relatively flat dry fields, is some- times mechanized, Increasing official emphasis is being given to the me- chanization of agriculture, other United States cereals, potatoes, and other starchy foods vegetables and fruits meat, eggs, fish. and milk Drying rice on threshing floor, Rice is being circular rice grain storage bins seen in the spread in neat rows to dry after threshing. background. The degree of mechanization The products resulting from threshing are be- evident here is usually found only in larger ing stored in rectangular rice straw piles and farm units such as communes or state farms, AGRICULTURE Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 57 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Agriculture ASEs U I G 1_1 j arkhii PERCENT IN CULTIVATION 0 10 30 50 Non- co Ira Lod Oasis Oases�Agricultural potential limited by availability of irrigation water. Wide variety of food grains, industrial crops (cotton), and fruit and vegetable specialties�grapes and melons. � TS Tibetan Highlands�Nigh elevations limit cultivation mainly to fast-maturing barley. Some tubers and hardy vegetables grown: wheat and other grains planted at lower elevations. Millet-Corn-Winter Whec in combination, assuming than winter wheat. Kaolii and buckwheat widespre the uplands. .Hsia 4ung (Lan,chiin .Ta-ch"ai.tan NG HA ^ ng-tu Szechwan Rice�Single crop rice followed by wheat, rape, or peas is common cropping system. Corn and sweet potatoes extensively cultivated in non-irrigated fields. Agricultural region boundary Seale 118.000,000 O 100 200 300 400 500 Miles O 100 200 300 400 500 Kflometwa Nwnes and boundary represereaLon we few noceUsenly adnorual ue A tiai,yen" he So pr green Corn, secon grow 58 pproved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 Approved for Release: 2022/02/10 006931189 let and corn, importance mmon. Oats rticularly in in � � WII P s,en La a Corn-Kaoliang-Soybeans � Corn acreage recently increased; grown in rotation with kooliang and leguminous crops, such as soybeans. Spring wheat, millet and other food grains grown; sugar beets locally important. Spring Wheat�Spring wheat predominant grain. Yields fluctuate widely, except where irrigation water available. Millet, oats, buckwheat and oilseeds also significant crops. INNER Tenv.-k ou � Sp Y,n c an. ; Ifu-cnund'' Chung-wei t Ch'ing-yana, ho � et-Corn- f "len shut � .1(11-11Pn�Ii10.:*e chi -inn% 0 Pas CU Hu- 0-haO't'a o Wheat� � T fling stieng JJ 1 Yu-lin Yen-an � Yen-th* � ---"tung-ch'uan 0Pao-chi Szechwan Rice i-IWAN Nan-ch'ung� 'FNG.TU an �P'eng� � shan Tzu kung 0- �Sui�ning Wan.hsien-shih el-chrana IiUN Wang) olsint I-ha g chieh KWEICHO W Kuei-yang_, in rs CO An-shun � n , Tu-yun K'un ng An. � Ch en.ckang tantii( e Nan-jdn ' A N c';1 C. Vang-C 0 YU-tf U eat Chi o. Lola T'ung.kuan yaflf� r t�-�