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CONFIDENTIAL 50F. /CS /YC Guinea May 1973 NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY CONFIDENTIAL APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070002 -6 NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY PUBLICATIONS The boric unit of the NIS is the General Survey, which is now rublishod in a bound-by-chapter format so that topics of greater per- ishability can be updated on an individual basis. These chapters� Country Profile, The Society, Government and Pal tics, The Economy, Military Geog- raphy, Transportation and Telecom municcltions, Armed Forces, Science, and Intelligence and Security, provide the primary NIS coverage. Some chapters, particularly Science and Intelligence and Security, that are not pertinent to all countries, are produced selectively. For small countries requiring only minimal NIS treatment, the General Survey coverage may be bound into one volume. Supplementing the General Survey is the NIS Basic Intelligence Fact book, a reac;y reference publication tntrt semiannually updates key sta- tistical data found in the Survey. An unclassified edition of the factbook omits some details on the economy, the defense forces, and the intelligence and security organizations. Although detailed sections on many topics were part of the NIS Program, production of these sections has been phased out. Those pre- viously produced will continue to be available as long as the major portion of the study is considered valid. A quarterly listing of all active NIS units is published in the Inventory of Available NIS Publications, which is also bound into the concurrent classified Factbook. The Inventory lists rtl NIS units by area name and number and includes classification and date of issue; it thus facilitates the ordering of NIS units as well as their filing, cataloging, and utilization. Initial dissemination, additional copies of NIS units, or separate chapters of the General Surveys can be obtained directly or through liaison channels from the Central Intelligence Agency. The General Survey is prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency and the Defense Intelligence Agency under the general direction of the NIS Committee. It is coordinated, edited, published, and dissemi- nated by the Central Intelligence Agency. VAR \I \G This document contains informati n affecting the national defense of the United States, within the meaning of title 18, sections 793 on.l 794 of the US code, as amended. Its transmission or revelation of its contents to or receipt by an unauthorized person is prohibited by law. CLASSIFIED BY G19641. EXEMPT FROM GENERAL DECLASSIFI� CATION SCHEDULE OF E. O. 11652 EXEMPTION CATEGORIES 5B (1), (2), (3). DECLASSIFIED ONLY ON APPROVAL OF THE DIRECTOR OF CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070002 -6 Y a WARNING the NIS is National Intelligence and may not be re- leased or shown to representatives of any foreign govern- ment or international body except by specific authorization of the Director of Central Intelligence in accordance with the provisions of National Security C:cum cil Intelligence bi- rective No. 1. For NIS containing unclassified material, however, the portions so marked may be made available for official pur- poses to foreign nationals and nongovernmenf personnel provided no attribution is made to National Intelligence or the National Intelligence Survey. Subsections and graphics are *-ndividually classified according to content. Classific-. ;on/control designa- tions are: (U /OU) Unclassified /For Official Use Only (C) Confidential (S) Secret APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA� RDP01- 00707R000200070002 -6 Th& ddpto wa peepm for the NIS by the t ejeroe /nte/l!�enm Agency. ltemrch waa sub sum*py ampleW by March 1973. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070002 -6 Guinea CONTENTS This General Survey supersedes the one dated July 1969, copies of which should be destroyed. A. Location and description 1. Topography 2. Climate B. Military geographic regions 1. Western Plains 2. Highlands 3. Eastern Plains C. Strategic area D. Internal routes E. Approaches 1 Land 2 Sea 3 Air CON MEMAL 4 4 5 5 6 7 7 7 7 10 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDP01-00707R000200070002-6 nGUXES ii 4 t APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070002 -6 Page Pop Fig. 1 Plains area (photo) 1 Fig. 8 Conakry strategic area (map) 8 Fig. 2 hills near Beyla photo) 1 Fig. 7 Aerial view of Conakry (photo) 7 Fig. 3 Niger River near Kouroussa (photo) 2 Fig. 8 Internal routes (table) 8 Fig. 4 Thatch roof housing photo) 2 Fig. 9 Boundaries (table) 9 Fig. 5 Precipitation, relative humidity, Fig. 10 Land approaches table) 9 thunderstorms, cloudiness, Fig. 11 Military Ceographic Factors temperature, and haze chart) 3 (map) f ohms 10 ii 4 t APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070002 -6 9 i Ar Military Geocrraphy A. Location And description (U /OU Gui:a�a i� 14,ealed on fill- af�.terit 10ulg4- of Africa. :tlnNta haitva% fill lhf� Wit "011114- 104�1%ee11 1.4111(14111. Isnplland. and �yn�'I'ftwn. Sfndh Afr.ea :1iltho11Kh far fn)m the .tralmie eetttem of the Afrie:ut c�fntinenl. Guinea i� sittnifieant 104�catt.e fit il% p04d4,ntialk valuable mineral Nealilt, pt4r�.e..intt 40114� of the %%orld largea k1141w11 n-.ene% of ha11%ilf� a. %ell a% large deltft+it� of inin fine. 111 addition. the e1011114% ha-1 t;ccKl attricult11ral land .11iiahk� for a Bide %arietc of crops. Thi� ir"11larl% .hayed comitr%. %ith area of altf11rt 95.111111 mlown� "tile.. i� appn0sintate1% the size of (A o. Penn�%hania. a11d %lar%latid ef0mhin4,d. The It40ptrlation 414 �littlttl% larger than that of filar% I;ttul. 1. Top apa11hy Guinea c�fn.i.t. of e%temi%e hill�. scattered 11t41untait�. and hn,ad 1110 plain% in the cast and if generall% flat cr0a.tal plain ttp to till mill�. %%icl4, Figure 11. the %Iilitan Gefn;raphic Factors trap at th4, end of .he chapter). The flat .urfaves of lh4, c�fastal plain arc interrupted It% ymr. of Im% hills exl4,nding close .o the c�frf.t at Cap Verga and Conakr% 1 Figure 11. '1114, c�fia.lal plain is mu:tll% 14,%. th:u :01 Feet afrne sea 14,r�I. is tttfstl% vint-re�d In dense hnnulleaf c.,rgnen lon�.t.. and has Ihick alluvial .ill and soils ,chic h are .oft nntc�h cif the tittle. The pl:in has sv%vral large ri%er. %%hieh nu�;udc r inh Ircad e.thwries and lidal cre4,k. horden�d h. tnangrov(- .%camps and tnar.he.: then� are nunu�rmi% small nr.ugrove cmrrecl i4atccls near ri%er tnoidlis and in pLives along the c'f:tst. '1 hills and ntonntains are mostl% flat topped or rotutd"d a11d c�ontpused of ha.alt. granite. and Lard ctul�ton4,. 'I'ltc�% ;n� covered laravlx h% open to m0d4,rat4,1% dense dec�idiums forests: on the higher .Inge.. there are scattered patches of hroaclleaf vvert;nrn fory %l. are predoininan1k 1.000 to :3.INN1 feel, although Here are scattered peaks ranging front :30N1 to o%vr 5.111111 feet. 'file highest pK�ak. 5.; -1ti feet. is Mont \inha in the e\tretnc- sontheastern part of the c�ountr%. Most slopes are I0"i to 311'; in hill. Figun� mid over :30`( in the mountains. \unu�rou% streams. t,enerall\ �less than 2511 feet %side. ha%e their sources in the highlands: the\ FIGURE 2. Hills in southeastern Guinea, such as these near Beyla, have flat to rounded summits seldom more than 800 feet above adjacent valleys. The slopes of these low hills are covered by patches of broadleaf evergreen forest. (U /OU) APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070002 -6 FIGURE 1. Plains area along road between Conakry and Forecarlah(C) flow in narrow valleys and have rock% bottoms and nutnerotis rapids. During high water �mid -June thnntgh October�the large steams are fre�yue�ntly over 20 feet deep and swiftfluwing, but during logy water mid january through April �they are less than i.5 feet deep, and niany of the small streams become d ry. The eastem plains, mostly between 650 and 1,(XX) feet above sea level, are covered chiefly by grass, scattered trees, and, near villages, small cultivated fields; narrow. dense stands of trees occur ,long most streams. I'he ground, consisting of silt sand generally less than 6 feet deep over hard laterite, is firm except for short periods during :lpril or early May through October, when it is frequently miry for Ix�riods from it fey hours to it day after heavN ruins. The plains contain broad, poorly drained valleys 1.50 to '3(X) feet below the adjoining interstream areas. The Niger River (Figure 3) is 5(X) to .(XX) feet wide in many places, -aid it major tributaries are I(X) to 51X) feet wide. Features of military significance are urban areas, rural villages, mines, and transportation facilities. The towns and villages are located mostly in the plains. The urban areas generally contain it commercial section and relatively modern residential sections with hard- stirfacod streets formitg it grid pattern; buildings are masonry and have tile or metal roofs. 'I'll(- tirban areas also have sections of mudhrick and wood huts with thatch roofs (Figure 4); in these sections, streets are generally narrow. winding, and timurfac�ed. The villages are mostly clusters of huts with thatch roofs and walls constructed of mudhrick over pole frames FIGURE 3. The Niger, the third longest river on the African continent, has its source in the highlands of southeastern Guinea and is already 500 feet wide here in its upper course near Kouroussa. In this stretch, the river is more than 20 feet deep and very swift during the high -water period, mid -June through October. (C) a and they are generally .urrounded by low wall. of rand or stone, thorn hedges, or wooden fences. Connecting the urban areas and villages is a sparse network of tracks and roads that have mostly earth. laterite, or crushed -stone surfaces and winding alignments and steep grades. Most of tile roads frequently have soft surfaces from early April or May through :)c toile r. Fcrrirs (!'igtm :3) and narrow wooden bridges are common. Roads with bituminous surfaces link Conakry with hissidougou and orec�ariah.' Single track railroads connect Conakry with Kankan and Fria. 2. Climate Guinea has a tropical monsoon climate. charac- terized by high te mperatures throughout the year and pronounced wet and drs seasons (Figure 5). The daily temperatures in the lowlanvis generally range between mean maximums in the 80's and 90's �F. and mean minimums in tits 60's and 0's. In the highlands mean maximum temperatures are copier by 10 to 20 Fahrenheit degrees or more, brit mean minimums are only slightly cooler than those in the Imylands. 1 he wet and dry seasons vary in time of occurrence from north to south as the Intertropical Convergence Zone (IC moves across the country. The IC% traverses Guh a twice a year. It enters the country_ from the south, usually in late March or early April, and moves across the northern border some time in early May. Unsettled, often violent, and rapidly changing Tor diacritics on place names see the list of names on the apron of the Military Geographic Factors map and the map itself. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070002 -6 FIGURE 4. Thatch roof housing in Kankan (U /OU) 12 CONAKRY KOUROUSSA MEAN ANNUAL PRECIPITATION (INCHES) MEAN RELATIVE HUMIDITY I AT SPECIFIED HOURS (LST) CONAKRY 30-7 20- i to- 0 IFMAM1 JASON KOUROUSSA 30 i 20 10- I 0 JFMAMJJASOND MEAN THUNDERSTORM DAYS CONAKRY 100 80 07000 1 700 60 40 20 0 JFMAMJIASONDJ CONAFAY 100, 1 601 60 404 i Il 201 0i JFMAMIJASON KOUROUSSA 100! tl0 60', I 401 20 01.. 1FMAM1IASON 6R TIA i 40, 60. 40 20 t 01 1FMAMIJASON MEAN MONTHLY PRECIPITATION (INCHES) CONAKRY so 60 LipO 40 20 0 1FMAMJIASONDI MAMOU 100 bo OS00� 0600 60 4 0 2000 20 0 1FMAMJJASONDII 6EYLA 110............ 60 60 40 20 0..- 1 FMAMJ JASONDI REYLA I00- b0 06 0 60 1700 40 23 0 1FMAMIJASONDI &AN CLOUDINESS AT SPECIFIED HOURS (LST( CONAKRY KOUROUSSA 100 so 1401 I e 07'0 0 i 120 1000 20 too! 1 I I I JFMAMJIASONDJ 60 I ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM 60 ��I�� rl� MEAN DAILY MAXIMUM MEAN DAILY MINIMUM l ABSOLUTE MINIMUM 4o i 20 ii'II 1FMAMJJASON TEMPERATURES �F) MALI 1 1401 120j 100' �!�I it 60 60 Jw 40 I III 20 0 JFMAMI IASON ELE". 4620 FT. KOUROUSSA 100 r 0200 90 60 QOD 1 40, 20 i 0 I JFMAMIJASONDII MEAN NUMlER OF DAYS WITH HAZE FIGURE 5. Precipitation, relative humidity, thunderstorms, cloudiness, temperature, and haze. (U/OU) 3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070002 -6 KOUROUSSA 100 so e 07'0 0 60 40 1000 20 0 JFMAMJIASONDJ MEAN NUMlER OF DAYS WITH HAZE FIGURE 5. Precipitation, relative humidity, thunderstorms, cloudiness, temperature, and haze. (U/OU) 3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070002 -6 wt,ath4'r is 1%1)X:111 tinting this Irusitiotn period. thundentonn% and line M11141111 art- diseilldhe teaturrs. 'The wet seas11ti grnerally paevinil� from earl May to late (Molo�r s1%er most of the country. with the peak prri0d in )11114' through Se�ptentler. This season is nutrkrd b widespread and often multilayt,n�d clondine�sr, with average tmnthly cloud cove�, varying mostly from 50 "i to Nei. Moderate to heavy showers eccur almost daily. Average monthly rainfall during tilt- peak period usu:ah e�xcecls Y inch(�% throughout tile country and, in sene� months� approaches .11) to N) inchv% at sryeral ,Laces along the coast. 'Thund r- %tornts are also freeltvnt. Ie�ginnin,g soinctinn� in April and continuing into No%etnlo�r. 11suL0. excreting on 111 to 1: d:e%s per month except fill ,,c, August lull. Visibility is generall goal r%c�pt daring showers. and the pre% ailing s erfac� winds art light %onthsee�%terly Relative humidity, however. is pe�rsi%twitly ado ve UP- and, L; combination with the high tempe�ratun�%, create enervating conditions during 11 +4 %e�a%et. The I(:!, recnsse�% the northeron border in late October, continnes sonthward. and crow% the southernmost border early in November. This transition period is shorter and the weather le�%% violent than during the first transition period. Tilt, dry wason extends from early Xovemher through March or early April, with the driest part of the period in December through March at most places. This season is distinguished by clear or partly cloud% skies: average monthly clonditims during lift- driest months varies ne "'tly betwer-a l iii and 45 "i. Showers and thunder.lorms we rare and monthly rainfall amounts are meager. Aftc neon relative humidity is low away from the coast. mostly le�low -Ilhi, and produces non� comfortable conditions than during tilt wet se�aseon. However, the light northeast winds (harmatta n) an- usually laden with dust and haze which fn�elueutly restrict visibility to less than 6 miles. S. Military geographic regions (C) Guinea has three military geographic regions �the Western Plains. Highlands, and Eastern Plains (Figure I I The Western Plains region is divided b% the Highlands region lint has similar environmental conditions throughout its extent and thus is treated as a single region. The combination of environmental conditions within eac�St region would have a relatively uniform effect on military operations. but there world be marked differences between the regions. 1. Western Plains Conditions are generally unfavorable for con- ventional ground operations because of wel areas. dense foresh. and streutm. Cros cnuottry movement of trucked lend wheeled vehicles would Ie� sevete�i' re %tricte�d by dense fort-M. by mangrove swamps and mar,lim along the wrest. by several broad and deep streams, and by flooding and mir% ground during April or ew Iy May through October. Unroad ntovetnent would he restricted generally to a sparse netuwk of earth roach and tracks, which are mostly itttpassable during tilt rainy season. Low- capacitY wooden bridges and ferries are potratial bottlenecks. Construction of ne�w roads would lit- difficult because of poor foundations in many places. the need for extensive clearing of forests. and the need for I, bridges with raised approaches. During the rainy season. frequent pe�riooh of miry ground and vxtensiyr flooding after heavy reins woedd halt construction. In addition. rook suitable for building stone and for crushing is lacking. Concealment fron air and gnnnnd olose�rvaliort would he afforded in most places by dense� forests. Coyer from flat trajectory fire geurrall% would e limited. 'There are few situ --citable for hunker -h p N installations le�e�anse� of a With %aler table, poor drainage, and flooding rnuc�h of tilt- yrar. Coss relief proh. its cnstnution of tunnel -htx� installations. Conditions are genrrall% nw-Hitable for airborne and airmobile� operations. Therr are few site�% %ail able for parachute drop helicopter landings because of mangrove %wantlr :cud marshes along the� coasts and generally drum- forests inland. Visibilit% is corn uonly restricted during April or earl% `las through (Mober In hea%% rain, and c�lond co %4'r and at time% during the remainder of tilt- %ear 1. haze. Assault -41w aircraft could land at the� large airfield near Conakry. In most place%, coommetion of additional airfields would lit- difficult liecaunse- of poor feoeundations. the� need for ettemive clearing of dome fore�st%, and because of miry ground and flooding. The region is un%oitable for large-wale :anphibious operation% be�cansr of hazardous sea approaches, extremely flat near%hore� gradie�nt%. muddy shores, and poor exit%. Offshore appnoachr% :ere partly obstructed by islands, islets, shoals. reef%� and roclks. extensive tidal flats fringe much of the coast. The coastal terrain is mostly low and bordered by pre�dominanth muddy. mangrove covered shores. marsh and swamp hack man% stretches. There are nn beachm suitable for large scale landings because of extremely flat nearshore gr. diems, fronting tidal flats. and. in places. coral reefs. The few marginal IwLche% where limited landings might Iw made are in tilt vicinity of Conakry and Cap Verga. They range in length from 4M yards to 3!': miler and art composed of %and and coral rock. Exit% are by track%. traik or c�o vountr% to nearby loose- %urfaced n,ad%. Movement inland would lit APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070002 -6 hindered b% 1111111g w alled% ifild 11ia r %lim mid. further iniund, by driest� hroadleol evemn�tn ton�sls. Conditions tin� generdlp Fair lair irregular ttino� tiloerulions. although nt:11 ;1ri I. 11dN�n- 1114.(.. 1111141 typhoid fever tin� endemic in the tt�gi awl. (:cNNI taau illincnt fnrm 11ir will gnnunl ailse�rvwtime would he afforded in maid plat'm near the Cowl 11% delis. bnudlruf evrrgreen forests anti, alonx the Ixndtr with I'urtugurst� Gninrll, b grilerally dtnst� dt�t�idtxnls A Adul) are Ili Iet11 mom 4f (lit. st�ilr. %itwelm�llt till fext would Ix� feasible ettepl in list matixnVe swuntils and munlim along the tmw- The %parse� network of xrnrr111% earth nuid% anti tracks is Impassable tit times during the raiM st�11w111 bet'allst of miry ground anti fhxcdetl si rtrht�s. I.innite�tl (eNNd supplies are available in widely xattered illage�s; wild berries and fish are prrvalenl. Fresh water is gentralh abundant halt turbid ;anti nviuirrs Imiling Ixdon- human oemsumptiain. Shelter nuateriak are pdrntitul ill the dense (.ants. limited supillirs tondd IN� ohtairle�d by uindnip, a t i t few sitrs, but landing tit supplies In Ixats would he difficult IN C of h az:lnlou. a fpnwclx�s abed ixNlr hulling silt�.. L Hixwll& Condition% are predoritinanth unfavorable for conventional mound operation.. becaose� of rux terrain. Cnss- eountn moventenl of tricked and wheeled Vrhich�s would Ili- se�Vrre l% hioden�ed or preluded by .dery 4111x�. &tied. (hiring high water. mid -junr thnuxh Washer. by stwanls wo dp to forri; moveme on feNt w ould lie difficult in ri nlor.t places. Onnwd nwovemrnt would he limited primarih It widrly %Ivi ed tracks and earth n:Itls it, xrntr111y peNr comdilion. Lela- c;1{xlcih ssoNNlell bridges and ferries are ixdrmial INItlenerks. The construction of ildldi(u1na1 roads would 1e difficult IN�catlse alignmrnh would IN- n�striovd. and inowl, cutting would he required, also, w her e rowks and hand laterite are near the �urfate. blasting wnmld he lle�tt.%mry N11mrnns hridxe% also) wetllld IN� lleedt�d. (.e/ll- cealmrnt fnrm air olm-r %alio11 would IN� p in platys by fon�sh, however. concralment ivnsihilili,�. are reduced fnrm alNut mid- )amalr% throuxh Man-h, when m int trues air leaflew Q NNI villlrr nt would Im provided by scattered pxltchm of Inaullej everxmrn fomsls on the higher slope%. Cover from flat trejmtono fire world he affonle�d by steep slopes alld surface inmoilaritim. There are 11mmx�nals site�. when� tunrtt�I pr i11sta11:etitwls v4vuld Ix- conortieted. with shoant adits and staWr overhead cower. in hand massive nwk%. but them air f m silm suitahle for bunker because of sleep shwa% :end, in the small arr :ls of plains. haul laterite near the sulfate. 0111dilions an� predominantly unfavorable for airlNrne and airmobile opt-rations b"cause of extensive sttoy slolx�s. Sites suitable for parachute drops and helicopter ("lading. are available till scattered ridges Mid 1 111"11 an-41% of plains. Assault -type aircraft couid lane) 111 airfield. near Mike, Labe, and `zerekore during the dry season (November to April or early Ma% Movement from most sites, however, Would ht'. hitiden�d h% steep slopes. There :Ire few sites suitable fill mew irfields because of the need for extensive ,trilling and for much blasting of hard rock or Laterite; aho. the orientation of ninways :,till approaches Would lie n�stricte�d by hills anti nlouutains. Terrain conditions gem�rally are favorable for irn�gidar force operations, but tropical diseases such as malaria. trip aimsomiasis, trachoma. and )a%VS pose w�rious medical problems. (:on :ealmew from air obse million would Ix- provided b% forests except from i1boid mid- jaimar% through March hen most trees tin� leafless; good concealtnerlt throughout the veer, howeVe t. would br provided b% scattered patches of hn:Idleaf evergreen forest fill the higher slopes. The stV"p %lope% and" Ininmr surface irregularities provide c,ncealiner,t from ground ok- en atitin mid good cover trill" flat- trajrc�tol' fire. Romis are sparse and. daring %pril or earl Ala% through October. are often 11111rafficable. MoVrinent on foot is Itasible, but deep :Ind swiftlt flowing streams severely hinder m ovetnent enuring high water. The stwanls are fordable during Ina water. N4Vein1wr to raid -junr; hout-ver. they are infe %lo- d with c�roc�exliles :laid the snail hosts of an organism That causes sc�hi.stosorniasis. Irregular force U 1111141 have to delN�nd nlustl% on natural foods such as lierries and fish; also, limited attunu,ts of food arc� :IVa'LIN" at wide�IV spaced settlements. Shelter malerials are obtainable from forests. which cover large parts of the region. Water is generally plentiful but 11110 Iw boiled before human c�onsunlptitir. Supplim could be airdroplwd at scattered sites. 3. Eastern Plains (:o11dilions geIerally are favorable for conventional ,;round operations onk during the dry season, early NovernlN�r through March or April. During this p�riml. tracko�ed and wheeled Vehicles could move cross coountr% fairh easily on predoininmitlV open, flat to rolling surfaces. Miring the rainy season. April or early May through 0dolN�r. frequent periods of mill xmund :and floodhig along streans Would hamper oPeratiolm in addition, the riven are generally too deep to ford. Onroad movelnent Would be limited to it sparse network of mostly earth roads and tracks, which would deteriorate rapidly if subjected to sustained 3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070002 -6 m military traffic; during the rainy season, man stretches arc impassable. Ne%% roads could he constructed with generally unrestricted alignments and on good foundations, but grading would be hindered in many places by hard laterite at or near the surface. In addition, construction would he frequently halted by mire gratind during the rainy season. Concealment front ground observation would he provided by tall grass, which covers most of the region, but concealment from air observation would be limited ntai,tly to narrow, dense stands of trees along streams. Cover front flat trajectory fire is generally lacking c ept for streambanks and minor surface irregulari,if In most places, bunker -type installations could be constructed in soils nwre than 20 feet deep, but power tools would be needed it many places because hard laterite is at or near the surface. Because of loty relief there are few sites suitable for tunnel hype installations. Conditions are generally favorable for airborne and airmobile operations. There are many sites suitable For parachute drops and helicopter I.ndings in grassy areas; (luring the rainy season, ho frequent periods of miry ground and fl oding would li. nni er landings, and cloudy skies and rainstorms would restrict visibility. Visibility is also restricted at times during the dry season, early November through March or April, by haze resulting from grass fires and front duststorms ove the Sahara. Assault -type aircr could land at airfields near Kankan and Faranah during the dry season. Construction of new airfields would be feasible in most place orientation of runways generally would he unrestricted, and natural foundations are good. Only small to noderate amounts of clearing and grading wouk! he needed; however, in places. hared laterite is at or near the surf and blasting would he required. Construction would he halted frequently by miry ground Iuring tit(- rainy season. Conditions are generally poor for irregular force operations. In most places, concealment from air observation would he scarce except for narrow bands of trees along streams. Concealment from ground observation primarily would be limited to areas of tall grass, but (luring the dry season concealment possibilities are reduced because of dead grass and are cleared of grass by numerous fires. Movement on foot generally would he ease although restricted in places by streams too deep to ford and by flooding during the rainy season. During most of the rainy season, the Niger River and its larger tributaries arc important transportation routes, but the few roads and tracks are impassable at times after heavy rains. 6 Ilookwornt infestation is widespread. Moderate amounts of food would he available from cultivated fields around villages, but natural foods, such as wild berries and fruits, are scarce. Dish, however, are plentiful in the larger streams. Shelter materials are available from the few forests and areas of tall grass. Supplies could be airdropped in most places in the region. C. Strategic area (C) The most important area in Guinea is Conakry, the capital, la-gest city (population 2.12,0(X) as of mid 1970), chief port, and major c�ontmercial, cultural, and transportation center (Figures 6 and 7 Conakry serves as Guinea's railroad terminus, and the largest all weather airport in the c�ottntry, capable of handling heavy jet transports, is located immediately northeast of the built -up area. Important installations incl -de storage facilities for 550,W) barrels of 1- (refined petroleum products). !arge silo storage facilities for alumina, railroad repair shops, an oxygen and acetylene plant, all clectric pomerplanl, a textile mill. an aluminum fabricating plant, and a truck ass *mhly plant. The port has conveyor systems for hat fling alumina and iron ore and about 250.0)0 square feet of covered storage spite(-. Additional covered storage space at other locations in the- city totals approximately I(X),(XX) square fee Immediately f roa..' Breakwaters r' Road L Mangrove and marsh T Railroad -I Forest Airfield .106 Spot height (in feet) 0 t p 3 4 Statute Miles FIGURE 6. Conakry strategic area (C) APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070002 -6 FIGURE 7. The central core of Conakry is located on an island that is joined to the mainland by causeways; much of the area between the causeways has been filled. The city has modern buildings and hard surfaced streets that form a grid pattern. (U /OU) northeast of the cite is an iron mine, an iron -ore processing plant, and a mining equipment mainte- nance shop. The only polytechnical institute in the country, built by the Soviet Union in 1962, is located here. The major facilities outside the strategic area are the bauxite mining complexes at Fria (population 13,((X)) and Boke (population 15,000) and the hydroelectric powervlant at Grandes Chutes. b. Internal routes (C) The internal routes provide the easiest avenues of movement from the best land approaches to the Conakry strategic area (Figure 11). A description of each route is provided in Figure 8. E. Approaches The perimeter of Guinea, about 2.:373 miles, is unfortified; approximately 215 miles are coastline (excluding the offshore islands). The country claims 130 nautical miles from its shores as territorial waters. The boundaries with Portuguese Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone are demarcated, and those with Senegal and Ivory Coast are defined. None is in dispute. Figure 9 presents data on land boundaries. (U /OU 1. Land (C) Conditions for cross country movement in the border areas are often poor because of steep hills and, in the coastal plain bordering Portuguese Guinea and Sierra Leone, because of dense forests. Near the coast, there are mangrove swamps and marshes. Along much of the Mali border, which is covered mainly by grass and scattered trees, conditions art fair in plains arc: during November through April or early May; during the remainder of the year, movement would be slowed or precluded much of the time by miry ground and flooding. Streams forming part of the borders are potential barriers to movement during high water, about mid -June through October. Crossing the borders are widely spaced tracks and earth, laterite, and gravel surfaced roads all of %%hich are impassable after heavy rains. The approaches shown in Figure I I are the best means of land access to (;ui,ea. Figure 1{) provides data on individual approaches. 2. Sea (C) Offshore approaches are partly obstructed b shoals. Nearshore approaches are partly obstructed by islands, islets, shoals, reefs, and rocks; extensive tidal flats fringe most shores. Nearshore bottom slopes are extremely flat and would preclude landings by most amphibious craft; the 16 1 /2 -foot depth curve generally is about 7 nautical miles offshore, although in places it extends seaward as far as 35 nautical miles. Nearshore bottom material is sand and mud. Surf 4 feet or higher mw occur at any time of the year, with a maximum occurrence of :31 Si during July through September. "fides are semidiurnal, with spring ranges averaging from 10 to 14 feet. The few beaches are located near Conakry and Cap Verga. They are -omposed of sand and coral rock and vary i length from 00 yards to 3'/2 miles; they are narrow and have moderate to steep gradients. Most are backed by mangrove swamp and marsh. Exits from the beaches are by tracks, trails, or cross country movement to nearby loose- surfaccd roads. W APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070002 -6 T O a E c cc D 0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070002 -6 j O b d C S O L a L C G v L 0 5 0 0 v d T t Z x CL O �7_ a'' O C C m a bc a s r L c L J z a o j m e a i Y a _o a. ,t v. c ro e X 94 c E L Cd a a n e o 0 v to 0 cr 4) 06 W a Z c` w x L A c s ad a G p c o Cd o as m o of x= c J di m L 3 L Y C j 6 a x C b N w C O o `o to z a a x a �C C c I C7 x C J x 1 O r L G A O f L v Y s i r r Y Y j? o� 3 q 3 o i o E' e O c E E c z e L C s to s J. I O O 0. C C 7 �r. O C J C G A f: 'l. 1 O p p C Y Y� n a' 1. f C. Y i x� p u 3 r x o a bt C` i bL r x q A N x a+ O A Y C L, 7 t, f 7 C 'E O C L a' �7 L Y p L C Q I Y x A 7 Y za CL 3 U d z s a x x x is Y 7 x C C C 7 V C G v A y x APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070002 -6 i FIGURE 9. Boundaries (U /OU) BOUNDARY LEMOTII TrRRA1N 111 flCv Portuguese Guinea....... 235 Primarily flat to rolling plains covered by deciduous forest except near coast Y. here covered by mangrove; central segment forest covered hills. Short section of boundary in north marked by Tomine river. Senegal 205 Forest- covered flat to rolling plains in the west and brush- or grass- euvered hills in the a ist. Mali 535 Steer hills in the west and flat to rolling plains in the east; both hills and plains covered by grass and brush. Sections of boundary along winding streams. Ivory Coast. 420 Rolling plains and low hills covered by broadleaf evergreen forest in southern half and by tall -grass savanna in northern half. Winding streams mark sections of boundary. Liberia.. 350 Forested and grass covered hills, mountains, and discontinuous plains; sections along streams, which are deep and swift much of the year. Sierra Leone 415 Dissected plain: and hills covered by grass and scattered patches of trees except along the Kolepte, deli, and Makona rivers, where there is dense forest, and near the coast. where there is mangrove. FIGURE 10. land approaches (C) APPROACH ROAD From Ganta. Liberia, to border south of Nzerekore. Across forested hills. From Danane. Ivory Coast, to horder southwest of Nzerekore. %cross densely forested hills. From Bamako. Mali, to border north- east of Siguiri. In north, traverses mostly steep hills covered by brush; in south, across flat to gently rolling plains covered by grass and brush. From Kedougou, Senegal, to border north of Mali. Across mostly flat to rolling plains covered by clumps of deciduous trees and brush sepu- rated by grassy areas. From Bafata. Portuguese Guinea. to border northwest of Doke. Tra- verses mainly grass covered coastal plains; near border, fringed by mangrove swamps and marsh. From Kambia, Sierra Leone, to bor- der south of Forecariah. Across low coastal plain covered by brush. tall grass, and patches of dense broadleaf evergreen forest; in places. across tidal rivers fringed by man- grove swarlps. One lane, gravel, in fair condition. Generally two lane, laterite in fair condition. Numerous sharp curves. Impassable at times during April or early May through Oct. because of miry ground. Mostly one lane, laterite, in poor condition. Sharp curves common in hills. Fording necessary at some small streams. One lane, earth, in poor condition; impassable at times during April or early %lay through Oct. because of miry ground. Dust and hair restrict visibility at times during Nov. through April or early %lay. Bafata to approx. 12 mi. S.W. of Bafata at Dambadinea is two lanes. bituminous, good condition. Re- mainder one lane, earth, in poor condition; impassable at times during April or early %lay through Oct. because of miry ground. Mostly two lane, laterite, in fair condition; during April or early May through Oct.. miry surfaces would frequently hinder on -road movement. Ferry at Kambia is a potential bottleneck. O"NOAD DINI'MAL AND CROrr- RAILROAD Cot�YTRY MOVZMENT None....... Generally precluded by steep slopes and dense forest. None....... Do. None....... Restricted by steep slopes in north; fairly easy in south except during April or early May through Oct.. when frequent periods of miry ground and flooding hinder movement. None....... Fairly rasy except after heavy rains. when restricted or precluded by miry ground for short periods. Re- stricte:l locally by densr vegetation. None....... Generally favorable except during April or early May through Oct.. restricted locally by mangrove swamps and marshes near border. None....... Motirrairly restricted in direction by patches of forest, brush, and large streams. Mowed or precluded much of time during April or early May through Oct. by miry ground and flooding. 9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070002 -6 3. Air (V /OV) The air approaches' to Guinea are divided into two parts, those from south of 12 0 N. and those from north of 12 0 N. Adverse weather conditions in the air approaches generally are associated with the Intertropical Convergence 'Lone (ICZ) and its north south movement. Weather conditions within and south of the ICZ arc: generally less favorable for flying than are conditions north of the ICZ. In both appmaches the height of the freezing level is about 15,000 to 16,000 feet all year. The greatest risk of severe icing and severe turbulence is present in thunderstorms and well- developed line squalls. In the northern approach, thunderstorms occur most frequently (eight to 15 a month) in July througl. ?The discussion zone for air approaches extends approximately 300 nautical miles beyond the lmrders of Guinea. September. They are most frequent in the southern approach in March through May and September through November, when five to 20 a month occur. In both approaches, the minimum number of thunder- storms, genei..11y less than five a month, occur during the period December through February. Mean cloudiness ranges between 60% to 85% in July through September and 25% to 55% in some months during December through April. Glowing sand and dust frequently restrict visibility north of the ICZ. Upper winds are light to moderate (generally less than 50 knots) in both approaches except in the northern approaches during December through February, when mean speeds in th( westerlies reach about 60 knots between 30,000 and 40,000 feet. There are scattered elevations up to 3,000 feet in the southern approach and up to 5,000 feet in the northern approach; the highest peak, 6,390 fe --t, is in northeastern Sierra Leone, about 25 nautical miles from the border. 10 CO%FInE.XTIAL APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070002 -6 =AW Places and features referred to in this General Survey (u /ou) COORDINATES i i m V o R -10 F 4N anal Confide APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070002 -6 o ..1' o fit' o F a ,11'. Bafati, Portuguese Guinea 12 10 14 40 Kouremale, Mali....................... 11 57 8 47 Bale siren 9 52 9 43 Kourou 11 28 9 13 Ballay (rr sta) 10 :31 11 55 K ouroussa.... 10 39 9 53 Barn badinca, Portuguese Guinea 12 02 14 52 Labe 11 19 12 17 Basse -G uinee (region) 10 00 14 00 Le bekere 12 07 12 24 Benti 9 10 13 13 M aeenta 8 33 9 28 Beyla 8 41 Z 38 Makona (strm) 6 59 11 36 Boffa 10 10 14 02 Mali... 12 05 12 18 Bokc 10 56 14 18 Man ou 10 23 12 05 Buchanan, Liberia 5 53 10 03 Meli( sirm 8 17 10 41 Canlayenne, Presqu'ile de (peninsula) 9 33 13 40 Melikhoure (atrm) 9 10 13 10 Cap Verga (cape) 10 12 14 27 Milo strm 11 04 9 14 Conakry 9 31 13 43 Monrovia, Liberia...................... 6 19 10 48 Dabola 10 45 11 07 Moyenne -G uinee (region) 11 00 12 30 Dakar, Senegal 14 40 17 26 Niandan (sirm) 10 39 9 41 Dalaba 10 42 12 15 Niger sirm 5 33 6 33 Danane,Ivory Coast 7 16 8 09 Nim ba, Mont (peak) 7 37 8 25 Dinguiraye 11 l8 10 43 Nim ba, Monts (mts).................... 7 35 8 28 Dubreka 9 48 13 31 Nunez, Rio (strm) 10 50 14 32 Faranah 10 02 10 44 Nzcrekore 7 45 8 49 Fodecontea 10 50 14 22 Pita... 11 05 12 24 Forecariah 9 26 13 06 Pongo, Rio (estuary) 10 03 14 04 Fouta Diallon (region) 11 30 12 30 Port- Kakande 10 39 14 37 Freetown, Sierra Leone 8 30 13 15 Sanlou strm) 9 56 13 14 Fria 10 27 13 32 Sangaredyi (mine)...................... 11 06 13 46 Ganta, Liberia 14 8 59 Sankarani (strm)....................... 12 01 8 19 Grandes Chutes 9 55 13 07 Sansale. 11 07 14 51 G uPcked .au 8 33 10 09 Seredou 8 23 9 17 Guinea Highlands (upland) 9 30 10 00 Siguiri. 11 25 9 10 G uinee Forestiere (region) 8 30 9 00 Sissela (rr sta) 10 50 10 38 Haute -G uinee (region) 10 30 9 30 Sougeta 10 09 12 32 Kambia, Sierra Leone 9 07 12 55 Souloumandou (mis) 9 10 9 10 Kankan 10 23 9 18 Tamara, Ile (isl) 9 29 13 49 Kanlsar 10 40 14 36 Telimele 10 54 1- 02 Kassa, Ile (isl) 9 29 13 45 Tinguilinta (strm) 10 56 14 18 Kedcugou, Senegal 12 33 12 Il Tinkisso (slrm)......................... 11 21 9 10 Kcrouane 9 16 9 01 Tombo, Ile (ial)........................ 9 31 13 43 Kinlbo 10 24 13 33 Tougue 11 27 11 41 Kindia 10 04 12 51 Victoria 10 50 14 33 Kiniero 10 24 9 45 Vridi, Ivory Coast...................... 5 15 4 02 Kissidougou 9 11 10 06 Wassou 10 02 13 39 Kobeya 10 44 10 22 Kogon (sirm) 11 01 14 42 Kolente (siren) 8 55 13 08 Selected Airfields Koliba strm) 11 57 15 06 Konkoure (sirm) 9 58 13 42 Conakry 9 35 13 37 Konkoure 11 59 12 06 Faranah 10 02 10 46 Koundara 12 29 13 18 Kankan 10 24 9 18 i i m V o R -10 F 4N anal Confide APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070002 -6 to 1 Sambatlo V Youkounk K*dou Koundar0t- WESTERN RLAINS Ma saba \1 Lam %0` a fat8 n G pclr -12 Bambadinca G n 1 Koumbia Garruair r \1 Bub �j bai Tuuba/ DourAba Popa ne o r a Ouassou Khor r r soul v t a Ddmn G oaa lF econtea O l t 2251. 1 `KoLya.� Fri �ti J k Cap Verga I 1V. Ind a wadi` 13 53 P agbe `1 :MRdrna --y 17 24 Tao e p 28 l 18 05 41 r 3' of y' +'"1 10 Conakry y r 14 !te /r r. r t Kamakw,e 48 30 Tamara lie Kassa 41 r J' r 33 l 25 FajrerQrOY t: Sca,cies 28 J u N "e 32 49 A t l a n t i c amb,a 24 04 a e 37 14 Ocean Gr 46 i Makeni 19 .t 17 Guinea Por1L 10 Military Geographic Factors Lunse M pa 10 PLAINS .l e r r 49 Difference in elevation of adjacent features generally Freeto n Mf a r 02 --I less than 500 feet Most slopes less than 10 h 1- a 18 HILLS Rib mbana 10 Difference in elevation of adjacent features generally I 3 between 500 feet and 2,000 feet. Most slopes between w 30 o and 45 many slopes between 30`b and 45 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070002 -6 l 1 Kadq L figm l J 1 1 Balak h Fan If i 1 1 aRlbenng -f Fafata f t Tuuge Y- J �3094 j La rranya Fatako Paa J Bo-t If f Damn 26at {Dabatuu 2753, N,agaso4 i Kourouj Ult�1 f uuay y 0 C S I N andan KotO J I I /r L Dalaba X33 .9 1 T i 'Ma^�uu i f I ,e I 11 ierr Tintiba Mas ngbe L eone Jaama I c 13 1Bamar S..tadu I I 3192 7 KoU rou S S a vf I Batele f Douakn I I f A ssd BendAti :y i M� Kvupdru GWlcked K du 0 1 *Koba RN/ p I ankan I 1 A Mortbaya i a Korou lugou Y0noma -)l! -I o 3658 u ;Mac e nta' APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070002 -6 Confidential T li B Bamako i i Nayasn!e i r N\vEP I I ouremale 2753. labatou r i.0.* Kourou iri Buugoun f Mandan k Coro Kouroussa Na ad r Mangy ana 0 r'f Koba RN' PLAINS. f /I ankan j j' E4afele E l kh 10 jMonbaya c Douakn f f anfara Banian Kerouan JJ P:. isanko O 36S8 f 4035 cuic 1 Macent r .i APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070002 -6 Duumba 10 Z ur Po w ne -ii-- Q Ouassou Kho BokA econtea 9 35 13 37 10 02 10 46 10 24 9 is A t a n t i c O ce an 11"I 0 0 T F o 7 Y a Cap Verga "L' Indl 4z lkagb6 es ;Mod G ran r, rna a a PX 0 1111 11 57 8 47 f 11 28 9 13 Conakry 10 39 9 53 Luns 11 19 12 17 12 07 12 24 8 33 9 28 6 59 11 36 J rit? 12 05 12 IS 10 23 12 05 8 17 10 41 between 500 feet and 2,000 feet. Most slopes between 9 10 13 10 It 04 9 14 6 19 10 48 11 00 12 30 10 39 9 41 5 33 6 33 7 37 8 25 7 35 8 28 10 50 14 32 7 45 8 49 11 05 12 24 10 03 14 04 10 39 14 37 9 56 13 14 11 06 13 46 12 01 8 19 It 07 14 51 8 23 9 17 11 25 9 10 10 50 10 38 10 09 12 32 9 10 9 10 9 29 13 49 10 54 13 02 10 56 14 IS 11 21 9 10 9 31 13 43 11 27 11 41 10 50 14 33 5 15 4 02 10 02 13 39 9 35 13 37 10 02 10 46 10 24 9 is A t a n t i c O ce an 11"I 0 0 T F o 7 Y a Cap Verga "L' Indl 4z lkagb6 es ;Mod G ran r, rna a Guinea l Marrib,a o c' f W -77 JJ Conakry Lung, Luns Tema'. he J Kassa z -41 Difference in elevation of adjacent features generally Freetovf,, less than 500 feet Most slopes less than 10 F J rit? HILLS ambia Difference in elevation of adjacent features generally Ribi between 500 feet and 2,000 feet. Most slopes between 10 and 45',,; many slopes between 30',, and 45"., Guinea l Port Loko Military Geographic Factors W -77 Lung, Luns PLAINS pe- 0 Difference in elevation of adjacent features generally Freetovf,, less than 500 feet Most slopes less than 10 HILLS Difference in elevation of adjacent features generally Ribi between 500 feet and 2,000 feet. Most slopes between 10 and 45',,; many slopes between 30',, and 45"., WatQr MOUNTAINS Difference in elevation of adjacent features generally s. more than 2,000 feet. Most sloes more than 45"- Military Geographic Region Boundary "d vawri Strategic area Bay Internal route bolo Gt -"*AMC Approach Shenge si;' Si Sherbro Bonth 19 Turners Peninsula Escarpment .3500 Spot height (feet) Major stream (more than 500 feet wide and 3.5 feet deep year round or part of year) Forest (Dense broadleaf evergreen forest) Marsh or swamp Scale 1.1,510,000 CON F I D E N T I A L Confidential 71320 .4006 J Pita TM,mele ulldr& Bomb(, ol 16 UHLANb%c 2257. Koni u; N-- and ho d., APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDP01-00707R000200070002-6 VItU qWKt ZUUU/Ub/lb: UArKUl -7 7� lou'lu La N, t Faljko P ita Dilmn bs D p DalaP)a Pi Tm,bo,/ j mamvu 13 Kabala Kouluu N, nor o "or (I IIN Koha J2 ankan Y nah A Mo ba Douak lonfaral Ban.a- MdFfldKwie Bagbe L Son /on Kerouanj gou Uankc Makeni agb raka pa Mas.-igbe Sefadu M e i r Leone Ja,ama Macenta' nibana K du Ka,lah I Ine is Pend bu Ma Kenema Z- Koribunau L i b e i a -j-K(tram Pulchun mers tl Z,mrn. insula tj, Cau