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CONFIDENTIAL 95A /GS /S Guyana June 1973 NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY CONFIDENTIAL NO FOREIGN DISSEM APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070007 -1 NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY PUBLICATIONS The basic unit of the NIS is the General Survey, which is now published in a bound- by- chooter format so that topics of greater per- ishability can be updated on an individual basis. These chapters Country Profile, The Society, Government and Politics, The Economy, Military Geog- raphy, Trc- .nsportation and Telecommunications, Armed Forces, Science, and Intelligence and Security, provide the primary NIS coverage. Some chapters, particularly Science and Intelligence and Security, that are not pertinent to all countries, are produced selectively. For small countries requiring only minimal NIS treatment, the General Survey coverage may be bound into one volume. Supplementing the General Survey is the NIS Basic Intelligence Fact book, a ready reference publication that semiannually updates key sta- tistical data found in the Survey. An unclassified edition of the factbook omits some details on the economy, the defense forces, and the intelligence and security organizations. Although detailed sections on many topics were part of the NIS Program, production of these sections has been phased out. Those pre- viously produced will continue to be available as long as the major portion of the study is considered valid. A quarterly listing of all active NIS units is published in the Inventory of Available NIS Publications, which is also bound into the concurrent classified Factbook. The Inventory lists all NIS units by area name and number and includes classification and date of issue; it thus facilitates the ordering of NIS units as well as their filing, cataloging, and utilization. Initial dissemination, additional copies of NIS units, or separate chapters of the General Surveys can be obtained directly or through liaison channels from the Central Intelligence Agency. The General Survey is prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency and the Defense Intelligence Agency under the general direction of the NIS Committee. It is coordinated, edited, published, and dissemi- nated by the Central Intelligence Agency. WAR \ING This document c0nta.ns information affecting the national defense of the United Stctes, within the meaning of title 18, sections 793 and 794 of tho US code, as amended. Its transmission or revelation of its contents to or receipt by an unauthorized person is prchibited b/ law. CL /,SIFIED BY 019641. EXEMPT FROM GENERAL DECLASSIFI- CA I ION SCHEDULE OF E. O. 11652 EXEMPTION CATEGORIES 5B (1), (2), (3). DECLASSIFIED ONLY ON APPROVAL OF THE DIRECTOR OF CENTRAL INTELLIC ENCE. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070007 -1 WARNING The NIS is National Intelligence and may not be re- leased or shown to representatives of any foreign govern- ment or international body except by specific authorization of the Director of Central Intelligence i;i accordance with tke provisions of National Security Cowicil Intelligence Di- rective No. 1. For NIS containing unclassified material, however, the por �ions so marked may be made available for official pur- poses to foreign nationals and nongovernment personnel provided no a+rribution is made to National Intelligence or the National intelligence Survey. Subsections and graphics are individually classified according to content. Classification /control designa- tions are: (U /OU) Unclassified /For Official Use On./ (C) Confidential (S) Secret APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070007 -1 This chapter was prepared for the NIS by 1.he Bureau of Economic Analysis, Social and Economic Statistics Administration, Department of Commerce, under the general supervision of the Central Intel- ligence Agency. Research was substantially com- pleted by January 1973. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070007 -1 CONTENTS This chaper supersedes the sociological cover- age in the General Survey elated July 1969. A. Introduction Ethnic rivalries impede development of national cohesiveness; origins of racial and ethnic dif- ferences; formation of political parties and polari- zation of party loyalties along racial lines; self help programs and cooperatives. B. Structure and characteristics of society Largest ethnic groups; Burnham administration represents black community primarily. 1 3 1. Ethnic and cultural Groups 4 Major groups �East Indians, largest single ethnic group; Africans second largest; mixed category next individuals with two or more blood strains, one usually Negro; urban -rural distribution. CONFIDENTIAL NO FOREIGN DISSEM APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070007 -1 Page a. Physical characteristics 6 Skin color and build. b. Languages 7 English� official language; Creolese spok- en among lower classes. 2. Social classes 7 Traditional determinants F status; origins of social structure; changes in attitudes and social structure. 3. Social groups and social values Disparate racial and cultural backgrounds and attitudes. a. East Indian Traditional family and social patterns; au- thoritative father figure; changing atti- tudes; customs. b. African Traditional family and social patterns; mother centered orientation; influence of Ftavery on family form; consensual unions; common law marriages; values. e. Other ethnic communities Cultural characteristics of the Amer- indians; family patterns and customs; other minor ethnic communities. Page E. Living ,nditi -ns and social problems 22 Lc. s of living and social problems; large -scale unemployment and underemployment; idleness and crime; alcoholism and drug abuse; housing; National Insurance and Social Security Scheme benefits. A F. Health 27 Environmental factors affecting health; disease eradication programs; diseases; nutrition; de- ficiuncies in supply and distribution of food; efforts to raise nutritional level; environmental sanitation; sewage disposal facilities; m fa- cilities and personnJ; folk remedies. G. Religion 30 Religious affiliations and beliefs; slaves barred 11 from religious activities in colonial times; mis- sionary activities; predominance of Christianity among newly emancipated slaves; status of major religions. 1.2 H. Education Quality of instruction and literacy; level of edu- cational attainment; increase in educational op- portunity; strengths and weaknesses of the free compulsory educational system; educational re- forms and public expenditures on education; enrollment; educational system; major problems; vocational training; higher education. C. Population 13 Population growth; opposition to family pla-u- ning; geographic distribution; resettlement, birth and death statistics; immigration. 1.. Size and distribution 14 Latest estimate; urban and rural distribution; internal and seasonal migration. 2. Age sex structure 16 Median age; age distribution; differences in age structures of the urban and rural popu- lations; sex ratio. D. Societal aspects of labor 17 1. The people and work 17 Human and natural resources; attitudes to- ward work; preferences for certain occupa- tions; greater educational opportunities; abate- ment of discrimination; resistance to the employment of women; employmert of chil- dren. 2. Labor legislation 19 Major labor ordnances: enactment of the Na- tional Insurance and Uocial Security Scheme; lack of controls over organized labor. 3. Labor and management 20 Organized labor; background of labor move- ment; status of labor movement; labor organi- zations; participation in international labor affairs; special- interest groups. ii I. Cultural expression Dominance of British nfluence in literature; best known authors; British, Dutch, and French dominance in art; most productive artists; dra- matists; music, especially calypso; musical ex- pression integral part of Guyanese life; limited folk arts. 35 40 J. Public information 42 Radio and press coverage; informal oral com- munication significant; no television; only a few book t. iblishing houses; no motion picture pro- duction; limited governmental controls. 1. Printed matter 43 Journalistic standards; newspapers and peri- odicals; library system. 2. Radio 44 Extensive radio coverage; broadcasting sta- tions; programing; foreign broadcasts. 3. Motion pictures 45 Films imported from the United States, Eu- ropean countries, and India; film libraries. K. Selected bibliography 45 Glossary 46 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070007 -1 FIGURES Page Fig. 12 Guyanese riding bicycles photo) 24 Fig. 13 Consumer price index chart) 24 Fig. 14 'Typical dwellings (photos) 25 15 Slum area in Georgetown photo) 26 Fig. 16 Estimated per capita daily cal( is intake (table) 28 Fig. 17 Vendor selling wares at outdoor market photo) 28 Fig. .18 "Cottage- type" general hospital photo) 29 Fig. 19 Religious composition of the popu- lation chart) 31 Fig. 20 Representative houses of -worship I photos) 32 Fig. 21 Typical schools (photos) 36 Fig. 22 Educational attainment of the popu- lation (chart) 37 Fig. 23 Primary and secondary enrollment table 38 I'ig. 24 Structure of the educatiot,al system (chart) 39 Fig. 25 Library at University of Guyana (Photo) 44 iii APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP0l- 00707R000200070007 -1 Page Fig. 1 Geographic distribution of ethnic groups (snap) 4 Fig. 2 Identificati(.n. of locat: i of Am- crindian tribes (map) 5 Fig. 3 Ethnic groups, by urban -rural resi- dence tchart) 6 Fig. 4 Childrrn representing Guyana's seen ethnic groups (photo) 6 Fig 5 Vital rates chart) 14 Fig. 6 Population density, by administra- tiv(. district (map! 15 Fig. 7 Population, area, and population density, by administrative district table) 15 Fig. 8 Estimated population, by age -group and sex table) 16 Fig. 9 Age -sex structure, Guyana and the United .Mates chart) 17 Fig, 10 Population, by administrative dis- trict and sex stable) 17 Fig. 11 Labor strikes and man -days lost (chart) 20 Page Fig. 12 Guyanese riding bicycles photo) 24 Fig. 13 Consumer price index chart) 24 Fig. 14 'Typical dwellings (photos) 25 15 Slum area in Georgetown photo) 26 Fig. 16 Estimated per capita daily cal( is intake (table) 28 Fig. 17 Vendor selling wares at outdoor market photo) 28 Fig. .18 "Cottage- type" general hospital photo) 29 Fig. 19 Religious composition of the popu- lation chart) 31 Fig. 20 Representative houses of -worship I photos) 32 Fig. 21 Typical schools (photos) 36 Fig. 22 Educational attainment of the popu- lation (chart) 37 Fig. 23 Primary and secondary enrollment table 38 I'ig. 24 Structure of the educatiot,al system (chart) 39 Fig. 25 Library at University of Guyana (Photo) 44 iii APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP0l- 00707R000200070007 -1 the Society A. Introduction (C) Ethnic rivalries c�untintt(� to inyede the dcyelop- Incttt of a national cohesiveness ill Guy,uta. despite periodic cfforls by those in povyer to diminish the antakouisnts existing between the co(tnlry's tye(: Iarl;e ethnic cunurt(t Ili ties�the Fast Indians. yyftu constitute about :)I r(* of the perp(tlation. and the Africans' and persons of mixed descent. It( (ontprise approx- intatcly The basic rivalry is political and ('eortonIle and concerns yyhich group vyiII %yield political poker and have preferred access to the limited number of better employment opportunities. ()tltural differences provide additional dimensions to the co.tllic�t. (:ompetition for the dominant role has served largel\ to unite the African and East Indiall peoples behind their respective political leaders. I'orbes Burnham of the Peoples National (:ortgre�ss (PNC) and Dr. (:he�ddi Jagau of the Peoples Progressive Party (PPP). ;Aggravation of racial tensions. stenuning in part from the Marxist orientation of the East Indian leudersWp, led to politically inspired race riots it the early 1960*s. resulting in nuuty deaths and much destruction. The turmoil of the early 1960's has not reoccurred. but it Ieft the Guyanese vyith a profound sense of insecurity and reinforced the distrust behyeen East Indian and Mric�an. it situation yyhich not only prevents the dcyclopnu�nt of it unifie(I nation but also threatens periodically to bring on renevyed violence. The Africans. in control of the polit' I processes since 196 1. have made sonic serious attempts to reduce racial tensions. hill milt\ 1 ?ast Indi:uts. abetted by PPP progagan(la, Ifeel that the Burnham administration (lots not truly represent them. does not really trust tht�nt. and will heel alloy\ than to a(Itieye v,hat they regard its their rightful role in national life. A1'estern contact with Guyana Oates from 1 -199 yylien Spanish sailors, their interest centered on gold. investigated the coast: when nu gold was found. however. Spain emote no attempt at c�oloni British awareness of the area goes hack to 1505 when Sir Walter Raleigh explored the coast and rivers. also 'TIIV d- it' IIitIlml eunu mold e used and pn leered In the e Ivwvn limk of the Ne,;ro da\v% broi Lhl to (:11\;111:1 from Africa ill Cllr 1701. Ietlh, and 19th cenlurirs. Uhler terms slrnletime, used to identife Ihese persons include "Nvgro,�s "Irlac�k. it "AIro- (:ueit in search of g(rld. ;1g.tiu, no attellipl \\.Is nta(le to colonize. British interest lying primarily ill harassing Spain and pirating gold bullion and other ric�hcs front Spanish galleons. In anise luence. the First settlements ill the area that is rtoyy Gm �aua core made by Dtitc�h traders vyhcr. as early as 1:550. provided knives. uses. and beads to :1nn�rilldians along the Ponu�roou 11ker in cxc�hange for vyuods. dyes, itnd hclltp. In 1621. the DIItcll West India (;ontp:uty \\as granted the right to establish pernutrtcnt settlements on the Berbice. Demerara. and l�:ssecluibo Ris ers and to monopolize the ;kf'rican slave trade in those colonies. WiI" the inl� .ntc�tion of slavery, l(wal trading bec�:(tue of secondary importance, being supplanted by the c�ullou. tobacco. and sugar plantation agriculture Of the Dutch. Initially located inland along lh,-� rivers. the plantations m�re nn,ycd to the c rastal area as the soil became exhausted early in the 18th (erttury. This area. nosy the Insist densely populated part of (:uy:uut. \\as reclaimed front the sea by the Dutch planters and their slaves. Since much of the region lies bel(m sea leycl. extensive system of dikes. (�anaIN. an(I sluices vyas built to (Irain the marshlands and ut:utgn,ye s\% amps and to control the tides. In addition to creating it it(-\% e(�ononty. the introduction of slaves also resulted in the establish- nu�nt of it nevy society in which a small, ruling class of (:auc�asians found itsclI vastly outuutnbc�recl. on the one hand Iry slaves and on the other by it ncrt alyyays friendly .-\nu�rindi.ut population IIlia Controlled the forests and mountains of the i:ttcrior. ('nder the circumstances. it vv as essential for I tc Dutch to cultiyale the sitl;porl of the :Amerindians. vyith the result that the latter vyere :ic�c�orded special Ireat men I. No :1nu�rindian could Ire enslaye(I unless he e�unte from it great distance and \\as sol(I by the local :\merindians as :t prisoner- of -vvar. The Dutch 11�est India C(mipam also regnlarl\ proyide(I special gifts to the :kmeritidians. vyho vycrc enlisted to bunt down rmum ay slaycs. :1s treatment of. slaves Kas harsh. revolts \%cry fairly fre(ptent an(I ere crrtelly suppressed. 'I'hc vyorst revolt yyus that of l i(i yyhen some 1.IIIIl1 slay; �s, the properl) of about 300 planters in Berbice. virtually controlled the colony f *or I I months. Under the leadership of a Negro mined (:rtffy. who proclaimed himself governor of Berbice. the slaves offered to share tit(- APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP0l- 00707R000200070007 -1 colony \\ith the Dutch on condition Ihat (hc\ he Iwell \Ville the ;till (d :kincrindia and rciuforcenu�nl, 11(1111 F.tirope and the \1'esl ludic,, the rc\oll ;u Iinally put d(m n. Shorn\ thcreafter. British interest in Ilu� arva tkindled b\ Bal,�rgll in the l6th ce11tnr\ I \\a, rc\i\ed. In 178 1 as a result of \\Ir Iwt\\ven the I' Ili led Kingdmn and the Ne�tlu�rfunel,, British Ironp, occupied the settfenu�nls of B crbicc. Dvinerant, and Essciluibo. Tilt (101mlics NllbsveluentI changed hand, ;t n1nr111c�r of times. Ix�canu� pernl:un�nll\ occupicd b, the h1iled king(Imn in 1S03, and \ctrl finall\ ccdcd to the British in 1511. In IS.11 the British cm I'll the three colonies into one British (Irian ;t. shortage of Lthor follo\\e(I the almlilion of the slave trade in 15();, and \\;u intensified b\ the enlancilMh011 Of slaves ill 15:38. These c\cnt, brought about extcrtske changes in Cu\anese soviet\ ;Intl laic) the groundwork for the present day racial disharmmi\. dally of flu� freed sla\es IIImed a\\;ty from the plantations, and those remaining, demanded \\ages that most planters cmild not pa\. (tn:rna's exports fe ll rapidly because of the inability of it, products to compete in the \\orid market wit It those from u(imilries here slayen still existed, such as :ill )it and Brazil. Three quarters of the plantations \yen� either abandoned or cot is( li (lit ted for \\;art of \\orkcrs. Some Irish� NI:dtese, lortuguese. (:11 ine,e� and other \\orkcrs were brought to the country on labor contracts, but not in sufficient nnndwrs. ,o that the planter, had to seek-' elsewhere for other sources of cheap. abundant labor. The problem \\as resolved ill 153,5 \\hen a group of indentured laborers \\:ts brought in from India. Thereafter. more and more 1� :ast Indians arrived. Although immigration of srrc�It I;Ibor its halted temporarily as it result elf pressrrrc from the \nti- Slavery Socicty, which labeled the indenture s\stenl a disguiscd form of slaver\. it ;is rene\\ed nn(Icr government supervision in I8-15 and c�ontiitiwd until 191 T. when it its finally abolished. Slavery and the indenture system it ffected the \egroes and I�:list ludiaus in 11uoly \\ays. although the latter wort affec�tcd Iess. Of necrssit\. the workers adopted the language of their master,. (Corm real patterns were larger replaced by the reginu�ntcd str11ct1;re of the plantation and its immagerial system. The caste� s\'stcttl of till- Nast Indians \\its destroyed, as \\erc aspects of kinship and fancily patterns of both :\fric�ans and Nast Indian;. The religious belief, of the :\fricims slaves we re larger suppressed; yet the Ahicans were denied access to Christianity because of the close association in the planters minds betwverl missionary activit\ and the cnranc�ipation nu,ycnu�nt. Slaves \\ere denied the right of Christian marriage lentil l 125, and se of their families \vas not prollibilcd lull if IS:) I III-11 l llc I,t\ c c.lucli!rd ,I bcc InctI IIll.\ Ic ;li nc(I \IIt 11U `.1 cif Me lt' ;111 c ill lurc: Ilrc�reforc Ihe\ av(-c�I)lc�II Ilu� prc\ ;iil IiritIsh c�Illlurc�. \\itIt hick tic\ \\crc most I ;I III iIIitr It tIll. :\hicall, left (hl- Illaillaticlu ,chat- of the ill inlerm Irricd \\iII the 1 ur nc�,I� ;Intl (:IIII11 'l he Fast Indian,. h(mv\t�r. di(I nil mmit tll\ cnlcr inlo miwd union,. v\ (-it idler the\ had utimplcicd Ihcir I eriml of indent llrc IIIIt r1�r11;li IH�d ;dot ll Ire fill Ills' rc�,I of No Will TI it I ho II�II Ills� )lit lit ;Ilion, ullc -r (-r\ilit! their in(lentum le�n(led If congrcg;Itc ill area of Ilrc�ir ImII. frcc bct\ing land \\itI their a\ing, m particip;tling in official land re chcnle in,tcad oI returning to India Tllc\ gcncraff\ it:norcd till� wcl(�t.\ "tat w till nll alld. Ill of ml( ptlllg local ni(m rclaincd man\ oil their o\\ it custom, ;Ind hm Iheir rcmmrc(,. \Ilholli;h cnlpha,izi111 lllcir cpa lit tcm these practice rc in \\id(�,prcad acquisition (d land and tIc l- of ,ball bu,inc �c hick w er;tuall\ provided tIe mean of Iilm;Ird nmbiIiI\ forsonu�. Bccau ethic groups contpo,i11g the cs(;IIdkhed soviet\ ere Il mid lot;cthcr lhmugh conluloll participation in the s)cial. canonic. ;out pnliticul file oI the colultr\. and to mmic dct;rcc had c�lo,m(I rank,, the Fa Indimis initia-11\ Imind that np\\aal mohilit'\ Ior than la\ princ�ip,Ill\ in occupation from \\hick the\ could not easily be cxclncicd. such as la\\. Inc(licinc. ;111(1 c�ornnlercc. To ,olnc (Ict;rcc, the \;hell ,\,tcnl of the F. :i Indian, tended to prcycnt their as,imilation into the estahlidwd societ\. !illations \\ith other t;rollps \crc not close, and iulcrmarriat;c \\as rare. The occupation (if the Fast Indians as indentured laborers, their rcln,al to send their child- ,I to Christian denominational schools (Ihe only outs available 1. and the po �ibility oI their retnnIing to India upon completion o their indenture fostered resistancc to assimi lit tion and the de\eloprncnt of it ,cparalc conrtnnnit\. On the other hand, the \fricans recognizc(I (:II\ana ;IS their nuctherland. a(hyted the ;Ilrres of it, estalli oc�ict y and. through effort and ed neat if )I bec�anle art indispensable conlpocicnt of that iargcr conununil\ Since 1911. \\hen the indenture s\stcm Is abandoned. hat other (u\ancsc refer to slighliugl) as tFlc coolie culture� (11' the Fast Indians has been giving way to local c�erstorns and u that are uol ill c1011flic�t with their (I\% it clhnic� \aluc,. Vestiges ccf Fast India ll languages have bccn supplanted by English or the rural patois based on English. F.ask- Indian children arc Icing sent to school. \\ith gr(I Iig mindwrs Itic�II(IiIIg secondary and higher cdllc�ational institutions. Despite earlier rebuffs. more and more East Indians arc participating ill public life. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070007 -1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070007 -1 25X1 \mvri it( ians. tihost� couLacls Milli ;n\ant social I:%� aI%a.I\s been tenuous, li\c in ititick scattered tribal Net lla-nients I,1 1111- IIIinl\ popul :Iled Il aurt ;sins Mill lmv%ts of lie inlerior and harm it grim apart \Ithuugh suun� Ill 4d a \aricti of nuIr�rII lutes, nuasl. especiall\ the older vviieration. ara- canlenl to lira- their forefathers did in primilke. lrih:alk arg:uriicd Cap tr Ill IIIIiIivs. \\�ill the e\ception of tlr� itlita-, Iargelt British e )it tri:tes. Ilia- F IIrapa-an and (:hinesa- curunmilitia hate tended to hec all u� ,as sinai lit ta-d inlo the gcncr:aI p( pulation. \lint lit art laic intermaIIicd it IIte \fricates and think of themsekes :as o v.m a-sa-. .0111)ugh the (:hilluw h a \l� also hccaua- alone ;u\anese in onllook and hao,v adapted :hrisli,u nit their ca mmmiti ra-nwins litirlt endwise: interitim- riage itith atlier rata-s dues not occur fret lucnlls. liec�amc Ilia- British colonialists Iookctl dim it on Ilia- P.arhrgut�se. Ibis attitmle etas ahsorlied hs the \1ric,mN and the fast Indians ttlro u1 ten rcler tar Iln�na I Ilit da-rugaturi term I'ntat;cv. The IN art cri;ucsc. hoii a-\ cr. n�i;ard Iiensckes as srperior to hull Ilia- %Iric,a it, ,and Ina- Fast Indian�. .\II ch-mvnts look thmit on In a- .\merindi:uas. ho arc aftcn dcri.i%ck termed lip, A pcoplt� The administration of 1'rinu� Minister Func's liunrhanr. sshiclr is nnlliracial hill n�pn�st�nts prim aril\ Ilia- Mriru cmmmmilt. leas mada- soim t� ffurt� Ira pnnmte national units. stabilih. and ccunouric dct elopn ent mid has tried to a\ oid antat;mliii[lit the Fast Indian p pill ilia I it pit. \c\ertlic- It�ss, racial tension. illthonglr it still remains IWIlVatIt th su e rface aof national life. I. Elhnic� and cultural groups \IthougF (:u\ana has hca-n callc(I :a land of si\ people%. official t�nnnn�ralians of tic pupul:atian hair included s %cn classifications \thich are primaril\ ethnic and largt�li indicatke of arc:: al origin: First Indian. \fric:ua. \liwd. \rncrindi :ua. I'ortngucsc. Chinese. and Dthcr I�:uro pean.'' l sa- of (here la-nm originalcd in Ilia- I9th center\ follimini; the emancipation of the \a-gna sl:ces hell Ilaansalid" of indentumd laborers m-re hroiatio into tic countrx. nmalorih of these lahor(�rs tier(- Fast Indians inrt tics� \acre smaller nunrha-rs al 1'ortuguesa- and (:trim .m.. Tlm%. the lours "hirlugiiese :uul "011wr Fiii o pcan a�nablecl it distinction to he drain bel\teen the indentured I'ortm mess labomr,mid thc'.�olan\ 's rulinit class. Tie t;cagrap:ic dislribntion al the population b% ethnic grutep is sh,mii in Figure I. The Fast Indians, Ilia largest single ethnic t;ronp. comprised an a-slrrnaled 51 of the population :as of ve S George lawn FIGURE 1. Geographic distribution of ethnic groups, 1960 (U OU) jm man 197 1 irtn:II all itcre lit li\ays of ;III :our. being da-scc ,de(I Irony IlldcnIIIred lahurcrs larau from Ind iii "flit� n lit lurih it a- re IIindm fron the l nitcd farm inces it(m l ltcr l'r,rdc in lh(� north of Ildia: ahuut 16', \ta-rc \1 ii \liens. I.vss than ant� -t Ili rd ul tic IIindii\ %%vrc ad lost cra air autcastt orii;in. \chile 12', m-ra- Brahmans and Ksh:alri\as. the highest caste gnnaps. Dic dislinc�lians al caste. the Indian immigrants i\crc all trcatt�tl alike in their nc\\ role its field lahort�rs. and the clahar:atc ritual distinctions conuuun to tha- different Ilindu castes in India heumne .nhtncrgcd in Iii- harsh rcu!itics al plantation life. Silica- Ilia- beginning al Iha- 211th ccntur\. tha- lard Indians Ilia\(- c\peria-nccd ;r dccliuimi death r;rtc resulting lain itnl)roscen,�nts in riral health candilians. %thilc the\ h;rNa- maintained it high birth rate. \s a cimmomit\. the incre ascd in si /e ht an ;I\vragc oaf I. la, per :alm mn in Ina- period 19:11 1 a 19 Ili and Ire ;Ica it\cr,agc of :i.(i', per :annuli bet 191(i :Intl 19601 �:r higher rate of i;r( mIIt lh;ua that of any al her clhnic grasp. \cc rting far ;Ippra \imatel Ii', of the tip rli ilia Iian in 19 Ili :uad Ili in I Wit l. bi the late 190 the\ comprised it slight majarit\. In I9, 1. tic \fricans cmistitwed 31 1 al the population. Like the Fast Indians. thc\ \acre also ratite (:uc:uu�sa-. (Icsc�cuda-d fmn slacs originating on the ;Ili Ilea ca:ast of West \frica and frail sonic 56,ll(111 indentwed scr\ :alit, Imeght franc the West Indies anti lfrica after Ina- abolition of slater\. Intpra\cd Ilea IIIt conditions during the first half of tha- 20th crntcrm had II�ss impact an the 14rtriih rate of Ilia-: \fric�ans as nun\ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070007 -1 \rcre iii-oan (1\\rllers It( illrc:rd\ the,( ad\anlagcs. "I eonununit. inc�r-ased in siz( I average of I.O`i Iwo Anna(), let n 19 :3 1 and 1916 ur,d b\ an average oI 2.; per annual ill Ih- period I9_1(i to 1960. TI �is, gro\\ing :,t it slo\\er rats- than t w 1�::sl I "(I iii n c Ill un Ill ih. the Alric:u, grout, dro Iron, :i5`'r oI tl,(� pylilation in 1946 lc, :i :i' in I)(ill and to I(.ss Ilr�,n it third in the I:,l(� IJ(i() 's. The li.x(�(I� categor\ includes in(fiNi(111:1Is \\ill, h\o or nu,r- blood strains, MIC oll \\hick imrinall\ is \cgro. Ill the earl\ da\s ,f' :11( colon\. persons )F mixed descent (also kno\\n its color(.dsi \\ere nu,stl\ the offsl)ring cif \c�gro sla\- \\omen and British or Dutch Ines. Later, afrieans ,,n(I colorccl, alike ,natal \\ill, the Portuguese. An,crindi :u,s. (:Irincsc. :sal it small nun,her ol' Filst Indians. 'I'll( t)rot)ortionalc size of the n,i\ed grout) has remained largely uuc�h(u,gcd in rec�cnt (.ars: in 11)1(i the\ account-(! for aI)t)ro\i- n,utc�I_ 10(( of the population and in 1969. about 12 1. 'I'l actual size of the gn)ul). t)robabl\ snnu \chat greater than rermi tcd hcc :,uu 114111\ to rsons of rnixc(l (I(.sc�cnt i(l(.r,til lh(.nseke, is Af'ric�ans: in Fact� thv inixcd grout) is usuall\ considcwd as it Dart of the African c�on,nl�nih. Most present (la\ Anu�rin(lians arc desc�cn(Icd Iron, h\o main aboriginal gronln. the Ara\\akan- and the (:crib- siwaking tribes, both of \\Frick arrivcd in the ar(�a that is I�w Cli ana Iron, south of the Orinoco Biver in about the IOtfi ecnt,in. The proportion of Amerindians in the I)ot)(Ilalion drot)lwd (Inic�kl\ after the IwgiIIitiIIg of the colonial cm as it ncs,III r,l n,istreatinent and c\postirc to diseases introch,ced I,\ Furopeans ;(n(I AFric�cins. OI itppr(,xin lit lel\ 16 subgroups inhabiting the area at the beginning of the coloni:(1 occutrition. onl\ nine winitin (Fi( o 21. These \ar\ in c�ult(Ire. stage of de\rlol)IlU�nt. ar,(I (Icgree of assinlilatioii into the national sncieh. In i 97 1, the Amerindians c� )Ili priscd about 1` oI the I)ol)ulalion. it protu)rtion little ch :urgc ctluii(� line. thus crciitini; ti>o au(1 ti>u I( cal ,u\erning authorities. I�'(ir Hit- must Bart. ho\irw�r. rural African, and Fast In(Iian li\e peac::dil side h. si(lc. Of the Allierilidiari population. appro\iniatck (rtu� (Bird inhabit the of the coastal area. (tile the remainder are disposed throui;hout the interior. nsualk in small ill;a es of front 11111 t0 200 resident,. a. Physical characteristics 1 ariels of plaisical Mies. cnsloniaril\ recokniz- able to (insiders. rcflccl the ethnic (li\crsit\ of the counts (Fit,ire II. The aver.i Fii,t III(Iial! is of II IV( Ii>IIII st atur( i t I I a rather slight biil(I. Ilis hair is black, either straight or a ;a no. I Iiis cies dark. Skin color ranges Irani Inediint to (lark I) rO\in. Becaise the \fric;uisdescen(I front \ariois \egroi(I triI )es alon." the cst coast nf:\fric.i. skin color ranges front light bro\\n to black. \lales aw�rage about 5 feet ,5 iichcs in height and arc apt to be muscular. An :\friciitt tends to li a\c black kink\ hair. if broad nose. and ciertcd lips. \s most persons of mixed :uicestn descend front Africans and Firopeans. the\ characteristics associated (>ith these groups. Most obvious is skin color. hick APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070007 -1 r ;urges front il it vvililc Vocally Wri. d "high c�olor to variou, darker shades. :\Incrindia ns arc get it it little over 5 fvet i1( height, stockily built. ;crd IIII ar. xxitIi I it/.(- skin color. straight (lark flair. and brow it eves. Slightly Mongoloid fiattncs arc a >pun�nl. b. I. im 1(a -es E nglish is :tn;tna's official lankuatc. It is used on the radio, in tilt- newspapers, and for instruction in tilt public sc�lImds here ;tttemlimcc lhewetic�ally Ilan bt-cn com ilson since 1876. \1'itll mitior exceptions, partic�ularl itnong the older \inerindiais. it is universally spokt-lt. Because corrcc�t usage of tilt- language is umc of the prinic criteria of social st :this. all echo consider thcrosclves in the IIIi(I (Ilc class urabove Make even effort to speak its grammatically as possihlc. AIm the lower class. It( wcyer, tilt- spoken language. called Cr(�olese. is :tut ungralnnatical patois based on I ?rlglish and containing Portuguese. Dutch. IIin&. :\frican. and n \merindia \Ards. \cverthcics,, it ears usually he Understood by ;1(l outsider after a few brief contacts. nunbcr of :\iiwriIidi;oIs ,peak dial :�c�ts of three indigenous languages� (:iirib. :\rmakan. or \\'arrau. Bctwecn one -half ;111( two thirds of tilt- \incrindians. how ever. have k%imed to speak. read, and w rite some Fyidish in ,c hoc,i. ;111(1 it fcvv in the southwestern part of the c�ountry bor(iering Brazil arc also able to speak Brazilian P)rtuguese. The F irst hidian Izm9iial;cs, prim trily I lindi. Bengali. and Oriyit. have been displaced by 1�:nglish except anitrng some of the older East Indi;ins. The use of CIiuest- ;111(1 Porlug(rese has virtually died ont. an(I the \frican languages of tilt- Negro slaves have been conlplch ly forgotten. 2. Social classes Self government aril subseclrreut independence have provided the impetus for it rcc�asting of social classes. .'dthou it maiorit\ of individuals on the bottom ruug of the ,oc�ial laddcr renulin the least privilcgt-d group. the more able of tilt- old middle class have moved ulmard into bigh stahls pos lions rcplac�iog the forme British elite, while the middle class has expanded substantially. During the colonial occupation. the :\frican and mixed groups ac�ceptc(1 the culture of the 1� :11glisli- slwaking white po pulation. among whom the principal determinants of status were skin color. education, occupation. and wealth. Of !hose. the ovcrridin,g consideration was the degree of \%hiteness of skin. To be horn of mixed parentage and to have light skin color ation better than to be pure Ncgro; to Itt� :ter o It rolit it Idler t [tit rt to Ito� it cltcalroill. :ctrro�c�t list- ref' tit( Engli,lt L11tgrlagc% iochiding the ability to read and rite�. and knovvle(Ige of proper dress and behavior were other marks of .tattis and privilcgc. sultjec�t alvv:tvs to the insuperable barrier of skin color. \s late� as the 1950*s. for i�vimple. the mixed soc�ic�t\ of Getirgetovcn \vas described its 11ty world vv here 'high color and 'lovv c�olor' arc prem-cupalio ns. jerc parents plan for IIwi, (lit ughters to Inarn lit (-I with lighter skins plan their oa n. and vv hits skin is the hope and aid of all." Ila\illt; accepted the social s\stcnl of the Hfltglislt. miln\ of the \fric; ns and persons of ntixe(1 descent acquired an education and nurvecl into nliciclle clans oc�ctlpat it Ms. such as teaching. the civil sen ice. and other white- collar arras of sonic re�.ponsibilily an(l prestige. As the hutugucsc itild Chint.". also acoluired I� :nglish education and c�ulturc. the\. too. gradually iIM into higher status gr( ill)\%ard fimbilily Irving facilitated b\ their skin color imd the wealth that manly had acquired. Most of the 1� :ast 111th :11cs. however, made little effort to enter (;Imanwc society. Because their children were rarefy sent to sc�honl, the nmiority remained illiterate until wrC into, the 20th c�cntiirv.�k of cducatiou and it tendency toiv(arcl aloofness, eouplecl with rural residence imd alt initial refusal to accept filim\ of the status svntbol> of ;nvancse soc�icly. ;aa(!e upw;trd mobility virtualb i MP( ssible� for man years. F\c1ltually. however. their tencicncc to save and their belated willingness to spend moue\ fnr their childwn's t-dtic�ation pro\ided MM" with the nit�;111s of gaining higher tilt ns. Sinc�c the turn of the ecnturv. iiwi number, have IMRCd into middle -class oc�c�upalitm �film,. the social structure at mid 20th c�crti m c�orlsisted of it white aristoc�racv comp )sed of c�olorlial a(Inrinistralors. c�onnmcrcial and ind,istrial executives. and plantation ow errs and managers: it middle. generally cowwrv;tticc. �lass c�ousisting of .\fricaos. persoits of ulixecl descent. hutu;-uese. (:hirtese. and educated F;�st medians oecupciog the upper. middle. and lower tiers of the proli �ions. eonlnterc�e. and gor n vi 11 an uv d a loer etas, cmlillosud of skilled. ,t-nli,kiIled. itnd unskilled urban workers. it nost all of them \fricans. and of I:aa Indian and \fric�an agricultural luborcr, and small farmers. The advent of turiversal suffrage. the crcatioii of mass political parties. and the introduction of constitutimial re forms in the IS 50's and of self- goyernncnl in the Imitl have brought about signifi(-alit e�hanges in the c�onlposition of the upper and nliciclle classes. Mov irtt; into position, of amthority in the lop cc�hchm 01' the nations political and social structure arc� former ;uetnhers of the nliciclle c lus> who hay c clu;llifit-d by 8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070007 -1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070007 -1 25X1 ren lit iled on the ,Agar III;Inlall(iIIN. Ili lt, (iIht,rs IwcaIIIt' indt,peudt,nt rice I';urners. In Iht, rict,gro\\iug a re; is. n;uI\ FiINI IIldians ha\c tar elf rc%erted !o the c\telldc(I faIlliI s (ins renaimnit in their parental home, after rh ;trriagv f(ir a \ear (ir nur(� (ir until the hirth of one or I\\o children. On lilt sugar estates. h(i\\e\er. a son ur.ur\ Itt� allntic�cl it house inunc(liatel\ up m Inarriagv. If there iN ;I scarcit\ of houses. a nutffli(�r of,ons an(I Iltc�ir lit milic, nut\ Ii\e i t I I their part,ul,. ItII t;(�IIc�r;III ill shch t,ast,, (�it c�II famiI\ ha, its o\\ if room. it if kitc�h(�n. and a ,t, fit rate hudi,1et. FasI Indian cushmi rc�(Iitirc�, t fit I it \aunt; \\ife Ii\ is in lh(� house of 1wr nrcttIwr- in -la\\ he ,uhscr\ient to her. .\s the \\i\eN l'iII(I thi, Ifrac�tict- int,reasiIigI\ ohjec�tionitIde. hm if( IN ,r�t up their mII ("I;11)Ii Iis fit ll\ Iva nc\. if No ;t, cc( n(iuti- call\ possible. In cmi'v(ti(�nc�c�. the Fast III(Ii;III %illage i, get writ Ik di\ ided into a serieN of Lunil\ t,lu,I rs \%ho,(� nit�nht,rs arc� related to one an(itI r throcn;h tic, of blocto het\%een males. .\nitmg rice larnit�rN. thest. Tamil\ c�! Istcr, frc(lut,ntl\ form a c(upontte economic grout) for gr(t\%ing rice as if crop. East Indian grids are e\pecled to ntarn belme at(c 20 and ho" bt,fom age 25 unle� thc\ are actlhiring hight�r cdctcation. Pcrson;Il choice is Iec(inting iIIc�rcasinglc important in the selt,c�tim, ntalt,s. ;In(I n o� cOIIIdc lulu� if I)iIr(�nlal opp( )siIion is ,Iron,; \crertltcles,. arranging tilt marriatte of one's children c( IIIiIIIIcs to be a n;Ijor parental responsibiIiI\. at Ieast in coral areas. Mt Ili m:;h caste h lildv sigffific;tncc in mist its pec�ts of c(iII vIIIonIr% lift,. Ilincln parcel prefer marriage \%it III the ,amt, or higher caste. \rung nun' fnhtrt, prospccl,, ho\\c\cr, arc ;Ils() important c�offsideratiuns. and art, iikek t(i ftc of paramount concern to url )if n pawnts. :k, marriage is mgariled its a major rite marking the transition froth 1th to ad lilt lit o(l. a clahoratc a \\cdding its nean, \%ill permit iN ;c nct,essar\ affirmation (if Nocial preNIige. IurtictI lit rl\ among ndu,. \I itriIiII union, Ina\ be esl ;IhliNht�(1 h\ a IIindII or NIllslint religions cerenunt\. IA it legal, regish�r((I :narriagc \\ilh or \\ithoht it religions ceremou\, or h\ if c�ornnron Ia\\. or"c�Itstomar\ ffnion not c�cichrate First marriage, are gt ,olermtized h\ re!i0mis rites. Sincc 1957. ho\\c\cr. if Ilincln or Nkslim relit;iow, official. like it Christian c�lerp roan, eta\ perform if (egad ccrenton\: hence. first marriages rto\\ tend to ht, automatic�all\ registered and 1eg111. \e\erthcless. Iran\ Fast Indians cvnlimw to prefer if religious rite onl\ or it c�otnnwn la\\ union. Loth of which make it possible to a\vtid c�oNtl\ (li\orc�(- 1,rocce( ifIgs in cast, the marriage fails. .01mngh Christian churches olhjec�t to c�onuffon I ;I\% lotions. Ihe\ are sanc�tioncd b\ tilt IIindu and \lusliill cunl- ntunitic,. II, ho\\c\cr. an unret;i nt;rriauv endures for 6 ()r mm \vms. it is n,u:tll\ legilintizccl h\ rcgisl fill iill. Quilt� Ircclucnll\. \%hen ;I rtc\\I\ nl;trricd t,ouplc IiceN \\ills llle Imshan(I'N p ;trent, fur ;In co-ndc(I period, the \dung gift� \\ill Iu�conu IissaIisliecl a If( I return If( tic: cort\crsel\. Ilt�r II(1,1 )it t1(I ur IIiN I)arc:tIN Ina fort,�(� her to k%i\e iI I li Iind her not to their liking. \u Nocial Ntignut aIlat,he, to c�ohple, II(I It,rminato if I Ili( II, Ic�t;,tl (ir (ithent,isc, ;if id cNtahlish I n(.\\ Irun,(�hold..\ girl ;I\ ha\v� If iIfIicn Ir )if I Nc\craI nni(in, hefnrc ,ht, settle, (1()\% if penff;Inenll\ \%itlt if man [to. clffitc pr(ibabl\, ha, liml,imilare\periences. (A)scr\ers cslinmatc that (ine -t hi rd to (ine- fonrlh (if all Fast Indian couples ffn(Icrgo nmri tit I I;Iilures. III such cases, the fit( lbet IrsialI\ t;(kcs the children. but t,ust(int rt,clhires that the lather help ,Itltltorl them until the mot1wr remarries. In fact. a mother or her fantii\ nla\ in\oke Ic�g ;(I assist imcc It. insure their ,app ut. In the Iradilional Fast Indian h(iuschrtld the l ;Viler is it o�Npt,c�te(1 ,aid authoritarian figure. 111 ullit t members of the LttniI\ it re ill lorolinaI(� to pith. hi ishc, arc la\\. If(- controls lh(. Ilcti\ IIivs of hi \\ifc;tlid children. and he is the icltlgc of ri lit ;nit1 \\rong. in fact. t-0-mal n�t,ulation Notch it It t�.(I and It nal lit \%s, arc onl\ rc pvcIed after Ihc\ h;c\c Item in!crpreled h\ the central ligffrc of f ;(ntil\ autlulrit\. loffffg children arc tcrtdecl b\ their mother. hill it Ito\ gr(i\\N older he wile under Ili father' Nuper%ision. The killer ;cr for his c(lucation. teac�hcs hits lielcl\%(A. ()r find, hint if jol). I le Ina\ ;d eh(io,c his Non', \\itc. 'I'ht, No iN \heele( I I ho\% dcfercnc�c to hi, f ;clher. to rr�Ir ;tin froth f ;(IIIiIiitrII and nc\cr to challcngc palertud ;t tit ho it\. shoild the lather die, the oldest No (icing at I (mw gcnerAl\ iN rec(ignizvd a, ht,acl of the I'aI Ili I\ I);IIIghler rt�IIiiiiIi under their mother'. tfftclagc In(tiI marriage. She te;w1w, Ihent lu c�(iok, t�\\, keels house. and tcgard lilt, men (i(t the hoh,(�hold as their prcticc�t(irs and superiors. The Irmlili(mA Fast Indian \%(iman t,mg;(gcs in fc\\ act i\ itics outside the honk Iltat ;ere not ;(ssocialcd \\ith her role ;I ife and mother. .\n(ing orth(ido\ \1ltshInN. \\illicit ha\c If() \,ticc in the Janaal is \1uslim religions as anion 1 t(c! th( Ina\ n(it \\orshi1) in the nto Similarl\. ;Intone Iilldns. cer!ain ritual (ib ;(rc permil led onk to Inetl. \wmall\, ,pomse inherit from cac�h (tht,r. hill if it \\ill is dra\\n ffp the children ma\ sh;(rc ctlffall\. In practice. daffghterN rcc�ci\e It,� lht m stiffs. as tits� Inarria,gc eyense, and (1o\%rics (if the former ;Ire c hargcd ag;Iilist their ,hare.. 'I'll(- girl', (lo\\ r\ consist, of fit( wablv pro pert\, ,itch IN li\(- towk. nit)in�\. ;Ind I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070007 -1 je\celr, while the bu\ net\ receive his share of the patritmntc in land. In lliv kinship Imttc�ru of Itmcr stratrnt Nast IIRIiltlIS. the ife of the fit lher*s batwi (elder brother) plays it major rule in fantil\ life. Considered second in impurtance to the mother, she is kimmi as bar�ima. or as "big nturuna, to her nieces and nephc\\s on her husbaud*s side of the fans(!\. lu addition to cunsangcinal relatimiships, I'minal kinship terninnl- og is entplo\cd b\ moist Nast Indians as a uu�ans of expressing respect fur friends and c mupatriots. It is connon, ful' ex ;tnple, for \uung people to call old pec.ple ajult or nano and ajiv or nanie (paternal or ntateu;; I;randfather, paternal or maternal grand- mother); fur older people to call uung people beat t or Italic (son or daughter): and for net to refer to other men as b1lai (brother). In addition. it matt might call it close friend ba�kuh (eldest brother) and the friends \\ife bhotwic (sister- in- la\\). "Traditional famil\ mud kinship patterns are slo\\I\ changing its 1111111\ East Indians emerge from ethnic� isolation. \e\\ acquired educational and business uppurtuniltcs, along with participation in politics, have resulted in a gradual acculturation into national life. Change, ho \ce\er. \;tries bct\\ecn urban and rural areas and from illagc to village. &-pending un the degree of interaction \\ith other etlmic groups. Nevertheless� family ties and rural residence, together with distinctive relitrious behefs, have enabled must East Indians to maintain c�ultimil separation from the mainstream of (;u\;tnesc life and to preser\e traditiuna! \clues and customs. The t\pical Fast Indians idenlit\ is routed in his family and cunntunit\ role and in his religious beliefs. In this context, a fnndanu�ntal cure \;due is egalitarianism, referred to as mali. Probabl\ derived from the English \Nord "n;cte." mah denotes it blind bcl\\c�cn nu�n oc�c�up\ing the sartte slams. \Iali is enforced not oul\ b\ such cununon social controls as ;ussi1), ridicule, and scorn. Ilia also b\ lftc� so- called "eve pass a public redress of insult or humiliation in \\hic�h the accuser requires the offender to either reaffirm the blind of their equal status or to \alidatc his claim of soperiority. The c\c pass thus clisc�onrages individuals from adopting sonic of the \:dues and s\ mlmis of the modern Wcstern \world. Nevertheless. \\calth is valued, but u111\ as a cornnuxlity to be husbanded and used to discharge religious obligations. to make morc n umev. to cdrtc�ate ones c�Iildren. and to invest in land. O\\nership of land, in fact, carries \cith it a certain m sticluc. and most Fiist Indians \work their land intensively and c�arcfully. "Thrift and personal reserve are also highl\ y,t�Ilim! of l:insl ip lee m an� bawd on local usaj;v prized. "Thus, the Flast Indian \\arks hard and eunsutres fntgall\ an\onc \\Iio spends foolish(\ and exlra\agantl\ is derided as matt of lo\\ trite. The astral F.asl lucliatt Mm nut\es to tu\cn does clot c�tuttlat. the urban d\�,eller in conspicuous \\a\s but slri\cs te, establish econuntic independence. Cununuuit\ and religious leaders, nunro\er, tend tcu Ile clra\\rt front those Mm bare suc�cveded financiall\. :kIthuugh Nast Indians vwre dm\ to accept it and c�onlimic� to assail its F(irolwan bias. education has bec�onu� a param ;cunt \ahic mid one of the most inportanl forces t>runu,liug their iulegration into national life. It provides it knoMedge of th Fnglish language and c�nllure that are requisite for up\\ard social nd,bilit\, opening the \ca) to civil ser\ic�e and other \\Iite cull :cr entplo\mvnt. More and Inure. F,: ist Indian children are attending school. some thrmtgh the uni\rrsil\ level, and thereafterentering fields octet the almost exc�luske pres�r\e of African" and F.u rolx�ans. The East Indian is proud of his ori6n in India. \\hose independence has enhanced his ethnic bride and given added mciming to his traditional \ca\ of life. Ile esteems those It(, support the ethnic c�on Ill unit\� mvi c�haut I e\ample. \\hu sponsor radio programs of Indian Intuit. Con\ersel\, he disapproves of those \\ho fail to publicly sul,port the famil\, kinship group. ur ethnic c�uuurunit\. an altitude hic�h tends to exacerhale interracial tensions. nuntg the customs ohscr\cd b\ the East Indian cmium ntt\ are thecelebralioasussuciulcd \\ith lIindu or Islamic religious riles. such as Occpavali, it Ilindu festi\;tl of lights to placate Kali. the goddess of death and destruction. In addition. IIindus norm; all\ celebrate the \inch Da\. \\lien it ne\\Imm child is given his name b\ it pandit: muurcnt. hen a child rec�ei\es his first haircut. usuall\ about the age of 9 months: ritualized engagn cu�nts and \\eddin(s: funerals (dec�cased persons are buried, rather than cremated as in India I: c�erentonies in nte tit( r\ of ante \tors: atul the su called p /qtr. "I'he ya- is :t rile of thanksgiving for such events as a good crop. conpletion of it it(-\\ house. or :'eco\rr\ from an illness. Uepcnding nu the \\calth of the famil\. it qw Ina\ be an e\pensive affair. it large nntuber of friends and relatives being invited to share in the festivities \%hicit may l ast for several claws. Food and drink is supplied to all guests, and the officiating pandit is pre sented gilts in keeping \with the rc�sourc�es of the host. Religious obligations and duties. in fact, require� al least one fourth of all earnings if one expec, to be considered a "good ttinclu. I'hc demands of religious obseryancc account in part for the stress placed un m b\ the Fast Indian community. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070007 -1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070007 -1 25X1 are all popular; nu�n gather iu tit(- local ruts shop to exchange g)ssip and discuss pmlitic�s. x /ImIc\ also provides the mu�aus kith \\hich to ac({uin� good clothing, refrigerators, MCWIcs, St-Wing mtac�Itines, and rather items haVing a sl;ttus cmmnotati(n The :\fricans perceived the value ()f education much earlier than the Fast Indians and ctlilized it to ac({uim n dotnivancc in the civil ser'fce, !hc {>rofessi(ns. and other 1)rivileged occupations. nuuunity Ica( Ivrs are apt to be schoolteachers mr others who have acquired tilt education. Although the \frici ms continue to esteem education and patblic sere icc more highly than clo the Fast Indians, the latter have recently begun to compete witli theta for the higher ec�ononuc� and political positions ill social\, a that tnany :\fric�aits regard as it usurpation ()f their hereditar rights. Although the r\fric�ans had aI\va\s prized a light complexion above ail else and had sought sla\'ishl\ to imitate the British c()lonialisl, the middle and tipper classes have began to take a much greater interest ire their :\fric�an heritage and to dvvclop a g�nuime pride of race, reflected by interest in the international "black power nuWrmu�nt, "smII music, and the literature of M'rica. The\ are proud ref the former c�mlmnies in :Africa and the Nest Indies reek ruled b\ Negroes. The averagc :\fricam, ho\cc\er. althougl ;I wa re crf It is \friean Imc�kgrnmid. continues to maintain it Westernized (r "c�re()Ic outlook ota life. c. Other ethane communities :\nuntg Gti arms other ethnic groups, \mcrindiaus have the most distinctive life style. .-kitlimigh cultural change is resulting front increasing c�ontac�ls \\ith missionaries, g(wertiment agents. and others \\im vcnture into the interior, imam \mcrindians retain tliv:. traditional Ica\ of life and remutin (ntsidc the national social structure. The tropical forest culture of the \ari(us tribal groups shos\s trans points ref simtil:arit\. 'Tribal difrc ,entiation is recognized. but organization (lows not extend be\(md the village le\e1. None ()f the groups ac�kno%cic(Iges class r caste distinctions. Village hca(Is, k w n as "c�aptit ins, err as tushaus. and other leaders arc gencraII\ chosen informally on tic basis (f abilitc. "Tile extended family and nratril(c�al residence after marriage are traditional among most tribal groups (tile Wapishana are the principal exception 1, as the gro mil is expected to screw his wife's kinsmen. 'I'hais, it household with sm-cral daughters might contain 2 20 (r more people. Such aclivitics as hunting -and farming are undertaken in gr(nps, turd the ung obey and take care of the old. As it trial marriage cust(tnaril\ 12 precedes a permanent a rangenu�nt. tilt \mvritidian m muut mitt\ hay ;i child before she marries. \\'hemp er 'heir inflnen(�e 1m ails, missionaries hta\c insisted that after it religious cercinon\ a married c�(uple occupy a separate house. In such caws tilt� s�raa- in I'm, Iiving in his (mII house, mm longer feels obligated tar serve the old pecrtrle. and the littler mtit he It \%itiont their Ira(IitimnaI II Iva its of sappmrt. In tu�eas not i,Ifluenc�e(I bs missionaries p gnu\ is mfteu permitted. \s a ife gr( \\s crl(I :\mt(�rindian i cs do, most crf the heap \cmrk and ;tgc� rapidl\ 1, it is not canc�(nunon for her hushand to mam her (laughter k another than. Marriage to hm sisters suc�c�essivel\ also is not unusual. \\'(mien ()f the illagc assist at childbirth, at hic�h true, among sonic tribes, ((trade is practiced. a custmn in M ic�h the father gmcs to bed as if for childbearing. I'ubert\ riles sirs among the different tribes but generally include fasting, exposure to ant bites (an extremcl\ paiit fid experii- (c�e(, and flagellation. Burial is usual. although the final rites mra\ be delawd as long its a \var. Burial ceremonies mta ills() :aging and dancing ;(rcl, in some cases. mtnt i tl Ilagellation. \lost of thee- practices. 'hmccvcr, fame been disc( mlintu�d in areas under missionar\ influence. Spellc�asting, f(rmu�i practiced h\ till tribes. is n(m c�(ftfined to those ire the more remote areas. satc�h as the Mac�(tsi and Ialantona tribes. Spells are c� ;ast b\ 1 )1(scint< in the direction of the sictint and s ;a ttg appropriate mmis. The persons bre;ith. c�omsidered the pinsical part (f hi, spirit. is belie\cd to inter the iclimt's b()(I\. Miere it acts as dire(((ct be the spoken charm. The ohjec�t (f the bl,m ing. hoes es cr. is not al\\a\s a ftumtan being ;std the intent need not be harmful. 'Thus. blmming can be used to cur� illness. to exorcise spirits, to prcenl mr brine; rain. mr to ;acc�omiplish almost ;ua\ other purpose. I.i\iia,g patterns ()f the (:hieesc. F.umpean. and I c(mtminnilies are tielennined I:irs;el\ b\ British social norms ;ind \alncs. The (:Itincse distinguish bet\\cen "local -born" (horn in (:n\anai and "home -Imm'' (b.)rn in (:hina The formu�r ha\c fe\%. if an\ cmil"wis \\ith (:hina: tuam\ ha\ gi%rn up their (:hinesc names along \(iti the :himesc I ;anguagc. Since the earl\ 2 0th (�emir\, faindies hace not been organized along dial mr extended kinship lines. and most do not (race( their ancrstrt bc\(ud the first inuni ,rimt. Mane home -born Chinese plan. smnu Mhat \agnel\. to return to China at smite future dial,. Thee mua\ send their sous to Chi for their prelitminar\ e(luc�ati(n, bill for their a(kanced studies the\ are likel\ am send them tm England mr the t'nited APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070007 -1 States. A certain wsiduunr of Chinese behavior and y:lucs and a sesrse of group identity explain their tenderrc�y to marry am org thenuehe". The European c�onu11unity, Which numbered about 5,000 near t e� end of the colonial period, has decreased in relative size it ,(I in ec�onontic� 111(1 1::)litic�al influence siuc(� indcpeudenc�e. Although the I'ortuguesc have te11ded to I)CL-0111C lSSilllil into) the 9(-ncral population. their Ronan Ciltholicis and their general image dating from the nrid -19th c�entim as traders and pawnbrokers are factors in preseryirg their status as i t separate group. C. Population (U /OU) (:uvana's population, estinia` d at slightly more than three- (lu arters of it million at the end of 19 has more� than eloublcd since the end of W'orld \i-ut H. During the 19 -16 -60 intercensal period, the population greys at an average annual rate of 2.9`('. but a declining birth rate and increased emigration served to lower that rate to 2.51; during the period 1960- Should the population co:tinue to increase as it did in the 1960's, it would double in 28 years, reaching I Million in 1984. If the� birth rate continues to fall, however. Guyana's population will grow at a slightly slower pace, espcc�i1ll\- if the yolunu� of (�migration, largely responsive to changes in soc�ioecononric� conditions not only ire Guyana but also in the United Slates, Canada, and the United Kingdom. remains at tFrc Ieycl of rile 1960's. The current age stntcture, noncthcicss. is highlY conducive to rapid population growth in the future. whether or not fertility declines. :111 increasing number of women are entering tilt-- principal reproductive ages each \rar. and large birth cohorts are to be expcctcd annually in the near future even if there is some aciclitional decline in the birth rate. `lost Guyanese think of their country as underpopulat(�d. and nuury official" believe that increased numbers of residents are needed to dcvclop the vast� virtually uninfrabited interior. Accordingly. although public officials are aware of the socioeco- nomic problems attendant on rapid population growth, there has been little support for programs designed to limit that growth. Family planning is firmly opposed by the Prinz Minister and is a dclicat( subject in Guyana. 'I'll( racial charactcrof the political divisions wimin the c�ounln makes family planning activities particularly suspect, with political leaders being unwilling to endorse it program that might restrict the growth of their constituencies. As at result, there is no official family planning program in Guyana. although some Ministry of health personnel are kuowii to hope that the r:ratc�nral and child bealtfr clinic" might ire (ire lout; run p�)yide the nnc;t r" for such it pn)gram. In the nuaurtinre farnil, Ol;euring advice is available to tho"c \%lm uek it from thcir physiriam. Government action in the fiel(I of population has centered 11ruriuly ()it prot;ran:s to effect improyenu�ut in t!ic grossly uueyeu geographic distribution of tilt- pc;perlution and to attract immigrant". \either eudeayor ha" uret vyith ill uch succe file goyerntnent re"ettlemert project". designed "to populate the couutry'" rich interior ill order to meet ibe industrial and agricultural needs of future generations,.. have not had if significant i11rpact o11 the distribution of the pOpn fit linu. Moreover. ,ll It( uglr Guyana hishtricalI\ has been it laud of immigrant en)igrants have outnrrnrbered immigrant" in too" years since World War II. "I 'he Borrham admini"lra- tion has encouraged tilt- immigration of \egroes from the W Indies lend the "rei it r ill igrat if )it of earlier :lfric�ait emigr:u,ts. Its irn it iii, rat ion polic�ie from eyc r. are based mire on social and political con"iderartion" than on demographic factors, inrnrigration of \egroe" being seen as it means of reducing the nutrgin of the Fast Indian majority. I'he mgistration of births ;urcl death", exc pt ;unong the :ltnerindian c�onrnrunit\ hats be(n rr;nonably c�onrplete in the years since the end of World War 11. As ascertained by the registration of birth". the birth rate. rose during the 1950's. reaching a.t peak of -I 3.6 per IM00 population in 1955 -59. before beginning a general downward trend in the 1960*s (Figure 5). :11thu.rgh the rate for 19.O (x36.5 per 1.000 popur rtion is high when compared with that of cleyel,)ped nations. lh(� downward trend indicates that gra dilally increasing nundwrs of Guvauese are limiting the size of their families. nrtirrly for economic� reasons. RcfIvc�ting in part it decline ill the infant mortality rate, which dropped from 50.1 cicallrs of infants under age I per 1.000 live births in 1915 --19 to .I'10 ill 19 0. the dearth rate fell from I-1.1 per 1.000 population in 19- 15 -19 to 6.6 in 1970. The 1970 rule is Unite l(m. resulting from the fact that it large proportion of the population is in the younger age" where death rates are low. If Guyana had the same age distribution as the United Stales, for example. the death rate would be substantially higher. As it c�onse(;uence of' the declining death rate. life expectancy at birth has been increasing, as sli(mn in the following tabulation (ire veatrs): 1950 -55 55.8 1955 -60 593 1960 -65 51.6 1965 -70 64.7 Ili APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070007 -1 Per 1,000 population SD Births 40 30 20 10 Nutural Deaths increase 0 1945- 19So- 1955- 1964- 67 1970 49 S4 S9 64 FIGURE 5. Vital rates (U OU) F'we1)t for Arkt-ntina and Cruguax. lilt- e\l)cctanc\ at birth it Gun;ua in 1965 -70 \\as lougcr lhim it: any other South :\mcrican country. Finh4r:ation has III., cd an i:)tortant rule in lmwring Gmima's rate of L-ro"th. On the hasis of the ewess OI' births mer deatfts. the px)pntl ition %\0 have grm\n al an a\cragc annual rate of about 3.1 during the 1960-70 intcrc�cnsal period. but enigration cut that rate to 2.3 I� :uc�h \car during the 1960l's, cnrit; rants outnumbered immigrants subst:uttiall\. the excess of cmivants o\cr imtnit; rants throughunt the 10 -\var period sctrpraassing 111,11110. For 1970. the most recent \car fctr \%hic�h data arc a\ailable. cmigratats untnbcwd more than E200 and immk4rimts totaled almost 2,000. The cnigration. \chiclo has remained unc�ontr(dIed. is a nutttcr of c�uncorII to the s4( werttnacIIt. pri Ina riI\ because nun\ of those c\ ho end gratc arc skilled persorts \\hose tit lctits arc lived((! luc�ull\. Mosi emigrants leave (:tiana for economic rc:.isuns. and most are L)ound fur the l"nited States. (:anada, tilt- l'nited Kingcloni, ur the West Indies: the l'nited States is the destination of lftc largest single number. Beeansc of it lant;uagc barricr, I'c\\ 0i anesc cmigr:atc to I.alin .\mcrican c�ounlrics. Tlic largest ,inglc r.untht-r of immigcutts onu�s from the t'uited hi:.gdont, fI)II( ed b\ tit(' t'uited `malls and tit(- West ndics. 1. Sire and distribution According to tit(- p)reliminar\ resctlls of the c( Hsu. of pril 1970. GII\an:t load it population of 1 1.23:3.:1 27", iucreasc O %c r ill 1960. 1 lip tit(. (-tilt o1 1972. tit( 1)(yuhtion al csti "Ill It'd to reaeht-d i(i:i.(11111. (:ti\:unt tlus has inbabit,uots than am other hidepx�ndcnt South :knu�rican cmmtrs. altFough it, 1)op ulatiuu c\cceds that of Surinam and French Guiana. In both p(tl)ulatio n and arca, it is roughly c�omparablc \cith the state of Idaho. Bcc�ause its c\lcn,i\c fon�sled and sa:utna ar(as arc c\trcmcl\ ,1)arsel\ polntlatcd, li, it \crc log% dc�nsit\ of st-ttici n�nt. there being an estinualcd 9 1 p- i per scluarc milt- at mid\car 1972. '['fit- nalinnnl acragt-, norco\cr, musks lilt- trcnu�nduus .:arialion in density t-sistiug \cilhiu the c�ounlr\. (t gcncral. p op)ulation c�onceutrations and 1)o Imlatiotn (Icusilies :art- ht-:i\ in the eastern portion of the coastal plain. nutdc,t in the mestern portion, t-\trcut-l\ s1):arsc in the lomst rci6on immcdiatcl\ behind the plain. and %irtualls nouc\istent in tit(- rest of the comitrn (I igurc W. The coastal plain. c�otn1)risitm less Ihan .i( of the total area. contains nmrc than 90 of the cmintr\'s loprulution, aud densitit-s in this area often cwced 500 per square mile and rise \srll abort- 1.11011 in sonnu� section,. B\ contrast. t ^:c(�1)t fora fe\\ scattered mining and hnaherutt_; scttictnem Mod isolated ranc�hcs. much of tit( remaindcr of the comma\ is l irgcl\ uninhabited. \c ith dcnsilics of Ics, th:ot I person per s(luarc mill�. lnuntg (:n:ur.a s nine adminislratke district,. I -.ast Dements, in which tilt- national c�ap)ital is loeatc(I. is b\ for the most populous. In 197 it cont:riucd :alnmt half Iti(( of tilt- total 1op)ul:ation. but accounted for Icss than 2(, of the national lerritor\ r I. 1�:asl Bcrbicv. tilt sceo11(1 tuost p)olmlous district, had 1'e\ccr than one -haalf the number of inhabitants of Gast Demerara. it, an art-a morc than h\c tinit�s as larg(-. liulnntuni. lilt- largest of the miminisir:ati\c districts. inakcs u1) 15 of the total area of (:tnana but in 1970 had only 1 11 residt-nts, or 1.6)(( of the lot al pxtpntlaliou. Population (It-nsit\ in 1� :ast Demcram in 1970 c\us 25S persons pvr square toile. III the other eight districts, it ranged Iron :I high (d T I person, per s(p iare milt- in \\'cst Berble(� to it 1M\ of I persons for ever\ 111 syu.arc miles in Bctpununi. Gctv;uut poprtlation is predominantl\ rur the bulk of the cmmtrn *s inhabitants liVing in snutll rural comnomitics. Traditionally. the urban population bas APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070007 -1 MaDaruma I 2' 1 ser Os He Suddle., jee en Hoop GE n mC or e Fort Wellington 9artiea I ,5.. New Amsterdam 4 Administrative district boundary Administrative district capital National capital ADMINISTRATIVE DISTRICTS I. North West 2. Essequibo 3. Essequibo Islands 4. West Demerara S. East Demerara 6. West Berbice 7. East Be. bice 8. Mazaruni�Potaro 9. Rupununi Q persons per syu,re mile t r' 10 Soo E t 0 39 19J Person; par zp�e kilometer Cola I 1 196'; FIGURE 6. Population density, by administrative district, 1960 (U /OU) FIGURE 7. Population, area, and population density, by administrative district, 1970 (U /OU) 17 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070007 -1 IlEltsoNs PERCENT or Pt:al EM, 11F:II AUUINISTRA�I' 1% r: Ills 14l l' I' 1, ATI U N TIITA 1. Pt, I'1'LATIt,N uP SOl'.UtF: A H EA AIt EA NILE: 11.ast 13PrhiPl' I Ili, 630 -I1).:5 7, 1711 N, l) East Dvinentra 31:7,1172 ;W.1) I 19 6 ,32,ti Essequibo Isla nds /I N2� .i, i 20.1 Iltz ;lru11 i- Put:u'u 13, 137 22,.S North West I(i, 233 '..i S,21 _r .n liupununi 13,711 .4.;) 2.11 West 13r�rl)it'( /.9 :37, 133 i.. 1 11, West DvInerara. :Ili,!I'S3 S7,337 r 191S 1).t; il.l 12-2 2, 1117 ;r :111 IJY� tllu 711,233 1(11).1) Sa, 111111 11)0.11 17 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070007 -1 been eeluatt-d yvitl the residents()((:eorgetn\\n and its suburbs and of \ev\ Ai ster(Iam. l'nder this defini- tion, the rtrban population aecounled for2-I. I'i of the total population in 19t31, fur 27.6'; ill 19.16, and for 29.0'; in 1960. Applied to the 1970 census, ho%%e er, the traditional criterion fur "urban" in Gtnana yielded it proportion of uuly 25.9"1, a Figure which vvotIkI seen to indicate that the grad( tit l trend tu\%ur(I urbanization \vas reversed after 1960. It is a fact IIat the proportion of the total population represented b\ the inhabitants of Georgelo\vu and its suburbs declined between 1960 and 1970: oil the other hand, the traditiuuul definition e\cludes comimunities \vhc,se growth \uuld appear to (IualiF\ them fur urban status. During the 1960's, for v\,imple, the former luclenrie� \1'isnutr� (:hristi:uburg area, no%% Lin- den, grew rapidly, it(-\\ residents being attracted by e \pan(ling bau \ite production facilities there. According to one cstiniate. the population of hilden was about 30,000 in 1972. Tlly population of' Ceorgeto\cu, including suburbs� ruse from 1 18,391 in 1960 to 167,078 in 1970 (and to an estitnated 170,000 in 1972), but the population of the city itself (Ieelined from 72.96 to 66,0711 as the result of an exodus to the suburbs. Although it is the largest urban area and the center of national life�, greater Georgetown gm\v A it far slo\ver pace during tit( 1960 -70 intercensal period than the co(onlry as it \v hole, registering an average :rtu(oaI nite of growth of duly 1.2 This situation. i mi(ptc anung the capitals of South Anwric�an countries, stems front several factors. First, the birth rate in the greater Georgeto\\n area is lower than that in the c-mintrvside. Sec�on(Ily, the� area siiff'(�rs from a high rate of unenpl)} llwilt and has not attracted muuty in- migrants. Finally. it is believed that large nunbers of etnigratits, especially those witli some schooling or skill, conic from greater Georgei( Despite limited growl f during the iit tereensal period, the greater Georgeto\vn area :tccututed for 23. -Io of the total Guyanese population in 1970, compare(( with 26.7'1 in 1960. and it \\as more than nine tittles its large as \e\v Ansterdani. New Ainster(latn's p(q iii ition ruse from 1.1.05 in 1960 to 15.199 in 1970, an average of about 2.(i per year, and wa,, estimated at 27,000 in 1972. No measurement of the vohome of internal migration has been published since the 1960 census, when it was :ascertained that 26'1 of the nati ��-bunt were living in it district other than tit- one of their birth. Alnunt Wi of the native -bun. resident(s of the greater Georgetown area had bcerl Inn elx \\beer in Guyana. the proportion \vas e% higher in Ve\\ Amsterdam, and it exceeded i in \Mararuui Potaro District. Since 1960, there h:!s been co!itin ill ng 1 6 Int eru�rI of peoples. \\ilh migration patterns being close Iy linked to thine of economic development. conparison of d :ta fro in the 19(7(1 mid 1970 censuses shows that the vaHow, administnotice (listricls, although lhe\ all gained population, gwvv (Iil`feren- liall\. Presuntahls those districts registering increases abo\e the natiunul average�West Dencram, West Berbice, and liuptintini gained population as i t result of in mignotio n, while the other districts, all of vvhic�h sho\v('d an increase belt)\\ the national ivvr,1gc. lust population through out- migration. Ili addition to internal migration of it peruanent nature, sonic seasonal migration takes place, fimillly fr(mi coastal regions to the interior. (:01(1 and diunmild prospectors and tuincrs, known locally as porknoc�kers. constitute it large portion of seasonal migrants. but others \vork at Iunbering operations and in the stoic quarries. \ormutlly, these seasonal migrants mo \c to jobs in the iulerior (luring tfe (Iry season, hoot return to their pernaucnt homes when the rain\ season begins. 2. Age -sex structure \Ithoctgh data Iroin the 1970 census regarding the age composition of the G11\111lese population have nut eel hcen published, the pupul:(tiun is kno\vn 10 be (Iuite vo(ong. :\c�cnrding it l'.\. eslinutic. the nu�dian age at mid\ear 197'? \vas 17.1 vc :rs, figure more than I I ears Ielovv that for the ('nitecl Slates. Nonetheless, the 1, N. eslinn:te implies that tie trend since al least 1921 toward :u ever younger population \vas arrested (luring the \cars 19601 7(1 and had been revered h\ 19 (The me(lian age in 1960 \vas 1 \cars.) "11111s. the estimate accords \\itl the kno\vn decline in the birth rate (luring the 196(1's. FIGURE 8. Estimated population, by age group and sex, midyear 1970 (U /OU) (Percent) rr n WE G114111. MALK FEMALE SEX Es It I M. Iq.n Ir;,i :i 9 l:; .r; 1 1:;.(; Ili I I 13.:; Is 19 lI.r; �I 21 S. f; s'. ,s. 25 39 6. :ill :i1 ;.1 a5 $!t .;.3 ;.fi Itl II $.1 15 19 511 i 1 i.r, 3.(1 till 6 l 11 i.5 lilt 70 and (wer All at os 1(111, rl M0, 111),(1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070007 -1 United States I MALE FEMALE 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 F, 7 8 9 Percent Aq, 70 and 65 -69 60-64 55 -59 50 -54 45 -49 40-44 35 -19 30-34 25 -29 20-24 5 -19 0-14 5 -9 0-4 FIGURE 9. Age -sex structure, Guyana and the United States, midyear 1970 (U /OU) According to the U.V. estimate, 32.0`'( of the population at niicivear 1970 were under age 10 of proportion ill 1960 \was and 56.9 "1 \yerc tender age 20 (Figure 8). In contrast, oil\' 3.w'i of the population were age 65 or older and only 1 I.OS; were age 50 or older. All together, 19.01; of the population were in the dependent ages (()_I _j and 65 or older), %%hereas 51.06 were in the working ages (15 -1). providing it ratio of 963 persons of dependent we per 1,000 of working age, it figure sonic -W' higher than that in the United States, but sligfltlN. lo\wcr than the 985 registered in a 1960. Guyna s age -sex profile. compared with that of the United States (Figure 9), shows that the proportion of the Guyanese population tinder age ..3 is alnosl double that of the United States. attesting to much higher level of fertility. In fact, Guyana has a larger proportion of persons in all age groups under 35 than the United Stales. Conversely, the proportion of the U.S. popuL�ttion in the middle and older ages is markedly higher than that of Ctlya:la. The 1960 census n�ye;ded differences in the� age stnre-tures of the� urb;on ind rurtl populations, differences \yhich are� believed to laye persisted. Ill 1960, children under arc 15 wc�oiinted for 18` of the rural population, hilt for only 11''(' of the urban population, pointing 111 the higher hirth rate ill the coortryside. On the other hand, the proportion of persons in all age groiips 1 and over \\as higher in urban than in rural areas. lu urban areas there \%ere `i A persons i the deperldcrlt ages for ac�h i.O(t) i the \working ages. ill the countryside the ratio \\as 1.034 per 1,000. Aec�ording to prclinninary data train the 1970 C("Isus, the population c�onlprised :355,75 nodes and :358,480 females, or 99.2 male, per 100 femilles. it figure ,linos( identical ,%ith that registered in 1960. The sex ratio varied substantially. ho \%ever. b\ place of' residence. In urban areas (i.e.. greater (:eorg(�tc\wtl and New Aunster(am), there \\ere 91.8 nodes per 100 females, reflecting the predilection of \()lung \wommll and \yidow, \yith children to nove Front rural areas to urban centers. In c�onlrast. there \\as un excess of rnale; in rural areas, the sex ratio in the countryside being 102.0 males 100 fennalcs. Fenudes outnunthcred nudes oil\ in those adutinistratiye districts ill \yhic�h there \vas an urban center. Elsewhere. the uunnber of nudes exceeded the number of fenales. The sex ratio \was highest in Nlazarimi Potaro. an interior district \%here (1cononic� ac�tiwih centers on lumbering and mining (Figure 10). Ire 1960, sex ratios also varied \yidely by ethnic� cc:nutnimity. being lo\y aillong the :lfricau (93.9) and Mixed (95.1 groups :uld high inionng the Chinese (121.1 Other 1-;uropean (1 1 .1 F.asl Indian (110'17). and Anienndian 101.1 c�onnnunities. D. Societal aspects of labor (U /OU) 1. The people and work Ire view of the preponderance of the rural population, the lo\y levels of skill \yhic�h prey;til in the FIGURE 10. Population, by administrative district and sex, 1970 (U /OU) AU \II V ISTHATI\E: UISTRa9' MALES PER MALE: FEM A1.E 1111'111 SEXES 100 FEMALES -:ast lierbic�e East Dvinerart I':sSeq u i bo I-:sse-quibo Islands \I azat�uui- Potaro North Wvst Iiullununi West. lie+rbic( West Demerara 7:3, 1711 73, 151 I 16,630 99.11 167. 82 1 17.5,211 :1:),(172 95,1 2, \,759 2N, 1112 51),,~1)1 III_'.:; ti, 115 5,292 I:1, 137 I1;3.9 8,396 7,837 1 1i,233 107.1 7,1:11 6,6(rd 1:3,71 111 \.0 15,511 IS,37s 31),922 100.9 1:3,77:) 13,562 ~7,337 1110.5 All Guyana 355, 7:13 3:i\, N) 71.1,233 99.2 IN APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDPOl- 00707R000200070007 -1 labor force, and the ample scnppIN of arable land, agriculture� tra(I itiouall\ the leading ecc,nc,uic activity� \could appear to afford the i;rvatest oI) portctnity for emI)Io%ment. Agriculture, itO%%c%cr. is stronglc oriented to\\ard the produc�tiou of t\vo cash crops, sugar and rice, the first of \\Melt has beelrltle inc-easingly mechanized, thereby limiting the sectors capacity to absorb additionai numbers of \workers. The t\vo crops, moreover, are grown in the same areas and have Complementary seasons. so that, in some innaances, the cultivation of both is done by the sane� \workers, further restricting the c�apac�it\ of agriculture to reduce Gu%ana's almadw substantial labor surplus. Despite it critical need to lessen the nations dependence on sugar export revenues, as well as on imported foodstuffs, efforts to diversif*w agriculture have had onlw limited success. partk because of the difficult\ of enticing \workers a\wa\ from the established cash crop operations. Irt f:,et. bec,,usc of .t \widesp wit d predilection for cash incense cout- paratively fe w isdividct.ds practice scnbsistauce farming, and barter is considerably less commons than elsc\whcre in rural South America. The iabilit\ of the money economy ill rural Guyana notwithstanding, not all persons are attracted to agriculture. :Although upwards of one- fourth of all \\orkers are engaged in agriculture, the activity is gencrall\ shunned b\ numbers of' the ethnic minority groups. For them, ho% cvcr, alternative work opportunities are scarce. M sing, for example. \%hick is the nations second most important economic ac�livit, employs cont- parttkek fe\y workers: as of said -1972. moreover. sharp inimpo\wer cutbacks \were being made by the Reynolds Metal Co., operator of the largest private bauxite c�omplcx in Guyana. While the rate of growth in light manufacturing. construction. and transporta- tion "its hastened after indelwndenc�e, it dearth of modern occupations parallels the cc�ononty's early stage of development. Reversing the pattern that rem:dned ill effect during much of the colonial period. when African slaves served as plantation and farm laborers, the East Indians have it virtual man oply over cnnplo\nnent in agriculture. Most are wage laborers on large sugar plantations, hunt the diminrnlion is the demand for this type of labor increasingly has forced fast Indians to turn to \Jrd the c�cnitivation of rice oil small, rnsnally rented. parcels of land. Although most of the cultivators \work indvjl vndently, little of their production is destined for personal- consumption, as the bulk of the rice is sold to landlords or mill operators, many of \whom are also E.asl Indians. Some East Indians, however, have nim off the land to hccom e blue- collar \workers, merchants, civil servants, or professionals. 15 having abandoned agriculture \vbcm tile\cr\ its abolished ill I83S, lhc� Africans gencrctllc disdain manual labor. espec�iall\ farstiug. \onctfteless, those %\Io do :tot possess the rc�cluisite training for \vfnit(�- collar occupations appear to adapt readil\ to industrial and service oriented jobs, thus. Africans predominate in manufacturing. in mining. :std ill most urban scrvic�cs. The\ bold it majorit\ of civil service positions, pre\ail in the ranks of lbc Guyana Defcnse Force, and occupy most jobs ill lbc state enterprises. Ilatbcr than \wholly refleclint; a bias inn recruiting practices. bo\\cver, the dispropi)rtionate representation of Africans in public joys call be ascribed chieflw to lbe c�onc�entratiom of' F,ast ludi:cus in areas outside the cities and to the resulting disinterest and lack of" preparation for \work ill nonagricultural fields. Africans who bawe remained in the c�ountr\sicic hawe hucl little c�fnoicr but to emguge in subsistence faruio:;. I CII rising Subsistence farmers. hcr\\mcr, there is a tcndeh l for at lead one ncentber of the Tamil\. usually all adult snack, to obtain it emplo\ menl ou it temporary or seasonal basis so as to make possible the acquisition of muutufac�tured consumer goods. Although sonic seek such \work in the to\%its and cities, most lure to rural based operations. including plantations, mines. and lumber stills. Prefewnces for certain occupations arc also manifested b\ members of the lesser minorit\ groups. Eitro peaits work mainl\ in urban centers. as shopkeepers or as entrcprcneurs and professional": suury oc�c�upy tcc�hnical and managerial positions \with Icrrcign firms operating in the country. In the past. the upper levels of the entrepreneurship \were dominatcd by Caucasians. but their position bas been succ�essf'ully challenged b\ other groups. The Chiucse. ho are said to operate nearly every retail store in the mining areas and ill the small to\\ns of the interior, arc mostly engaged ill trade. Although a fe\w Amerindians bold public ser\ic�c jobs, most dislike the discipline of' regular work. Anunng those ho have abandoned it primitive life but are untrained for public jobs, some are loggers during the rainy season, some are miners. and others are cattle bands on the rauchcs of the Kupununi savalluas. People of Inked ;uttcc�edemts generally gravitate toward clerical positions ill offic�cs and shops. Until the early 20th century, fe\\ Dust Inldiams sought estploy sent in nonagricultural occupations. Is addition to being handicapped b\ it lack of training, t hc\ \were the subjects of outright discrimination by Africans it d Europeans. ho considered them socially and intellectually inferior. As a result, most mast Indians who migrated from the coustrysidc could only obtain menial employment. Eventually, it fc\w members of this group ac�clutircd APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP0l- 00707R000200070007 -1 training ii c( )fit lire. or nre�dicinc� fieIds I ck did not hold much attraction among :lfric;its. I,ut Nchich have remained I>.tprtlar aiutng middle and upper class Fist Indi:uis. (:reatcr educational opportiidtics. c�ouple�d %%ills an a )it t nu�nt in discrimination, sthscyucntk enabled l�:ast Indians to gain entr\ into, %%ider %,trio\ cif fieldk in loth private and public sectors. While discrimination lased cue race has tended to want-. there is considerable resislaicc to the enplo\ nu�it of %%miler, especiallN in the S: gar industn and ill other acti\itics \chore substatial uncmplm rent and undercmpl +rs ncnt csists among nude brc:alcciincrs. :fin official report. ho%%c\cr, ascribes the (I iffie�ttlt\ expericnccd b\ )nte�n jetb- seekers to the a\\akening of a "social conscience� concerning the perfornutiwe cif arduous tasks Its c(mc�n. The lo\% partic�ipalion rule b\ )if etI in slit� labor force and, for that rtuttter, the lu%\ participation rate b\ the population its it \%bile also results fron the Eiist Indi tr aditional pro bibition against the enplct\ iu�nt of \%onu�i outside the borsehold. This, the� bulk of feialc \wtrkers are 1l"ricais. Irrespec�ti%c cif cthiic Iackkround. entplo\ nu�nt opporl;rities for %ccnu�n arc greater ii the cities, icrc� tI it re is it greater \it rictv o! jobs and \chcrc social crstous tend to Iose their ri16(1it. :1lthougb earnings for %\ontt�n are loner thin lbose fur nu n, the moiler of %\miner job seekers has increased A if faster pace than availabilit% openings. Compamcl %\ith most other cauntrics of South :1nu�ric�a, wherc school attendance rates al the 1e\ (d of prinar\ education arc lo\\rr, frsc (:c ;icse c�11ildreiI under age I 1 bold juts. Ali ld lal tor lit \%s arc stric�tI enforced, cspec�ialI\ in the large industrial cool c� omntercial establishneits. 'thus, the cntplo\ oleos of children, partic�rlarl\ as unpaid Lunily \\orkcrs, is far nutm %\idcsprc�ad in the c� )if ntr\sidc, and mink ,rang ric�cgro\tcrs, than in the cities. 'I'Fe labor force participation rate rises sbarph, among youngstcrs osrr age I -I, earn though free ccbu'alion is a\ailuble through the scc�oidary Icvel: nam of those \\bo drep aril of school, bo\\rvcr, must pis for menial jolts and often (ace Iong periods of unemplo\nu�nt. ;knuug those ho re�nntin in school, on the other band, fe\\ pursue vocational or technical training. The dcnuid I'm skilled personnel at all levels far excrcds the supple. but mangy� Gu anew, partic�ularl\ the :Xfric�ans. are inc�linecl to equate n;cnual labor with 1mver social standing. 2. Labor legislation :Although some three dozen statutes front the e�oletnial periud have been presc�r',e(I, the basic labor dociia�it is Ordinance No. 2 191? c�ustonarik rcferred to as the Labor Ordinaic�c. %%hic�It authorizes the t omcrnmc�nl to.c�t laborstandards. inducting hours of cork and niniuuun \cagcs. and to n�.tiulate lalor- managencct relations. espec�ialk :t pertains to %%ork cotrtrac�ts. Tm otfcr Lms stand oil their impact on labor �the Factories Ordinance 19.17) and the coisoiidated Shops Ordinance 195S). these acts t;ovcrn conditions cif +ork.uil the naxitiunt length of the \%ork\\cek ill it IulI range industrial and coiunercial estaI)Iishtneuts. TI c rcn iii iid i it I ;:bor statutes are cithcr tailored to the needs of specific groups, such as rice. sugar, and dock \corkers. or deal \citb such spcc�ialized matters as rccmiting prac�tic�cs. apprenticeship, paid bolida\s. housing, hazardous occupations� industrial ac�c�idcnts. aid %wrkntcu's cuntpertsation: the specialized lams apply to \\ork,�rs if) ;t %ariet\ of industries. Suppl-nu�rticd b\ the (:onslilution. the current legislation rcpresents it cuntprelienskc c�ollec�tioi of safeguards for both labor and manas;cntcnt. 'through the Miuistr% of Lalo� and Social Sccurit\. \shich enplo\s if corps of inspectors, the goxernnxnt generally ath-mpls to cnforc�c cOuiplianc�e \sith the statutes. I'laces of cntplo\ ment are inspec�tcd periodicaIk. and official reIf reset tit ti\cs are mailable for hearing gric\aices ludge�d bs indi\idnal \tctrkcr�, or trade unions. Nonetheless, conpliallcc \\ith the egulations of the part of cmplocc�rs is said to be far Irons uniform. Inasiuc�h as the colonial labor statutes cMcrc�d a broad range of matters, there has bees a pauc�it\ of' such legislation in the postim1cpendeice p�riod. The most notable measure cnac�led since 1966 affecting labor \%as that \chich created the National Insimtnc�e aid Sctc�ial Security Scheme. In 1969, ho\%ckcr, the i;( crmnent drafted it proposed Industrial Relations 1ct. \%bic�h it sibmitted forc�oisideratinn b\ laborand managcntettt_ Featuring it conpulutn arbitration provision. as well as prohibitions against strikes and \catlkorts during the adjudication of labor disputes b\ incbstrial courts. tla� proposed) Aalutc met strenuous oppositicvr, from organized labor and, at last report. had not been cnac�tcd. 'I'll( go%crnmcnt eserc�ises little control mcr organized tabor bc\ond the nininntl degree of supervision presc�ribcd in the Trades Union Ordinance (1921). the nations oldest existing piece of labor le0slation.:kmong other things, the statute. together \\ith if supplementary ordinance enacted in 19 -1i. provides that any s( en wwkers may ;nionize, provided thcy file an official application for registration accompanied b it list nf. union officials aid it cope of the crrgmization's b\ laws. The bylaws 19 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070007 -1 itrc recluirc(I to outline the gnmi)'s of,ieclives and to contain detailed provisions concerning the collccli(I an(I disposition of union funds. Official registration c;ut be denied if the groups c,f,jectives :u iud to be illegal, and it registnttion c:ut I itbrc,gate(I if ;I union deviates front its slated objectives. FiIIwr aclitM. however, can be appealed lbroctgII the civil courts. :3. Labor and management TI c organized Iithc,r nu,vernent in (:uv:u lit which in recent \ears Irts served as an arena for trade unionists and ambitious politicians alike, is some fill \ears older than the nation. Cmiccived during the colonial era in the wake of it bloo(Ix rebellion I,\ clock and sugar workers. the are;t's first L�tbor organization. the British (:ui:(tta I�abw L'nion. struggled fc,r recognition I,v the business contntunit\ and general public for over two dcc�a(Ics, evert though it obtained legal sanction sonu�what earlier 1920 lit the face of managenu ut opposition. the colon\ s earl\ trade unions, most of which (Nrre organized along industrial lines and were pattcrned ;tfter those in the L'nitvd King(lont, nu�t limited success in furthering worker interests :end in promoting membership growth. I or example. it xva, not until 1939. \%lien organized labor conlprisv(I only about 5.000 inviiibers, that ;t rnun;tgvnelit group consented to engage in formal bargaining negotiations \(ilh trade unionists. Six \ears elapsvd, however. before the first ((ritlen agreement etas fonnnliled it the result of c�ollec�li\e bargaining. 'I'bc� labor nu,vcnu�nt ttriinivred strength during the 19 -10's, it dvc idc� of relative ec�om,ntic� prosperity :Intl rising evec�tations :(thong workers. The (�c,lony's first confederation of trade unions, the British (:Ilian;t Trades L'nion (:ounc�il (13C'I1'(:), was fOmAc I in 19 -10. an event that was h\ iftc passage of legislation calling for the appointment of it labor commissioner responsible for regulating worker nuuutgcntc I t relations and for assisting in the settlement of disputes between the two groups. Ry mideentury, (cork(.: (Icntands for higher wages. better working conditions, and an end to discriminatory vmploy mcnt practices increased timrkedI\ and were often it ttctided by strikes. \\'ilh lht accession to po\(er of the (:onunnnist- orientt(I PPP, political factors added to the IIIrblllence. I.iIrgvI y as a result of the PPP's attempt to broaden its b;tsc within ill(- labor movement after gaining control of certain unions, the country was plunge(( into it series of long and c �stly strikes, many of them violent, espcciallv in tbc� 1963 and 1961 In addition to exploiting political and cconontic issues, the PPI' proved to be adept at capitalizing on longstanding� but until then nu,stly 0 latent, riwi:,l aiit:igonism that I,( )I u,tl\ between I;Ibor and ntau ;tgcnn�nt bnl unong trade unionists as ((rll. hclative ;ill[] rclurued to the labor utovtnu�nl lolloing the ITI`s defeat :It the polls in 196.1. It Ill the I)IT's attempt Ic, gain control of the nu,venu�nt \(as cltcckt�d, ill(- I,art\ b;(s continued to ewrl cousidvrab!c inf1uenc�e over certain l(wids, parlicctlarly those n�pres�nling sugar \(orkers. Political involvenu�nl in trade union ;Iffairs has riot been confincd to I'PI' pit rtisaits, ho\\c\cr. While formaI lies bel\%vcn labor and political entities are nonexistent. a network of inform alignnn�nts t\ists bets%ren traclt unionists and the hatters of all politicid parties, including the P\(:. Even though org;tnizcd I;tbor has remained it fonim for political ;sues, the incidence of strikes and violent confroutalitnts tended to decline after 1966 (figure I I \s in the \ears preceding i it, cpcII(Icnce. workers iI the sugar in(IIistr\ usually have been responsiI)Ic for the hulk of stork stoppages. as cc ell as fur the IIigII(�sI losses in N(nrk Iinu�: in fact, during the (lec�acle c,f the 1960l's, sugar workers accounted for (ia`( of all strikes, cotnl,ri i I I g af,out i(i`i of the total mother of IIlitn (lays lost. '1 c an I() rtnt of \\ork time lost hc(�ause of strikes in 19W) \(;t lbc 1o((rsl since IwiI. but it Ill on the hecIs of Ilea\\ losses in 1968, it x ear in which sugar (corkers struck for and ((on (%ugt inc�reascs of from 7 :Inc! guarantees for generous prodtic�lion- incentive bonuses. In additirm ti, (be effect s0c Man-days Lost (in thousands) 400 300 200 100 Strikes 0 I I I I I 1960 61 62 63 64 65 66 .67 69 69 FIGURE 11. Labor strikes and man -days lost (UiOU) APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070007 -1 of having %eon those benefits, the downward trend in the� incidence and duration of strikes during 1969 appears to ha%e been related to it shift in government puliCN concerning its role during labor- manageneut disputes. I Living previously confined itself to the mediation of disputes after the initiation of strikes, the government begi"ning in late 1965 endeavored to act as an arbiter before the onset of work stoppages. As of the late 1960 roughly one- third of' all Goyanese corkers ..ere trade union no�nbers, a substantially higher proportion than that encountered in the United States or in most of the independent nations of South America. At that tithe, the claitmee: membership in Cuyama's 6: trade unions W;ts approximatel\ 70,000 corkers, over 85 "1 ol' whom belonged to one of the 12 iargest entities; about half of all unions had fewer than i00 ncnbers. "I'lle who of those ho paid union dues kits high (nearly 55 nutinlY because most employers \%ithhol(I the reeluired it sscssmo�nts from \%orkers' cages. As in the Past, most unions are organized along industrial lines, also, most are headquartered in CcorgetowII, with the larger organizations nutin- taining local branches elsewhere. With one notable exception, the major trade unions are affiiiated with the Goyana Trades Union Council succeeded the BGTUC as the major labor c�ou- federation." The only other significant labor central is the Federation of Unions of (:moment Employees (F1'CF). v;hose tmenbership has tended to gro\\ in relation to the cxpansiol in public services; FUCI: s rank and file is c�ollwosed almost entirel% of bloc- collar workers, most of whotn are also members of CTL(: local affiliates. White collar government emp!oMees are represented bs two organizations, the (;tn Civil Service Association ard the Govana Teachers Association, both of which are :TUC affiliates but independent of PUCE. The practice of segregating workers according to oc�cII pi tionul t vgo ry is widespread, as unions representing it single industr\, or c\en one plant, usually "maintain separate sections for blue collar and white- collar workers. Organized labor grew during the earl\ 19,0s. Embracing 21 affiliates, or about one -third of all unions. the CTUC alone claimed a total no�rnbcrship of 50,000 as of early 1972. As in past \cars, its largest and most powerful affiliate the Manpower Citizens ;Association (MI which represents the bulk of laborers in the sugar industry. In the mid I960�s, MPCA's membership reportedly stood at about 20,000, a figure that probably has fallen 'During; the ce�ars 1966-71 the GTUC \%as kno\%n as the i ;mana Traelrs t'ninn Council. wne hat ill \�ie\\ of the rigorous competition the union has recievecl (run its chiel' rival, the Cu\:uut Agricultural Workers I''i ioo (CAW['), during it period of declining job opportunities in the sugar industry. Ilacing nntinlained close links \citb the� I'I'I', the GAWU, the corutrs's largest unaffiliated union, had not obtained official recognition as of mid obstensihl\ becaosc it failed to represent a majorih of its comslituculs; it claims in excess of 1.1,000 na�ntbcrs, including Sono� echo belong to the MI'( as cell. Jurisdiction disputes belscret X11 :A and often involving C�IT(: and political groups, base been a major source of c�onfliet for over a decade. lu addition to CAWU, the oml\ other significant union tied to the PIT is the National Association of' Agricultural, Commercial, and Industrial Employees. it Cl. TC affiliate c\hich essentially represents white- collar emplmees in the sugar industn. "I�he oldest labor organization. the Gi aua Labor Union, former percer base for Forbes Bunham and it c�bosen instruno�nt during bis tenure as I'rino� linister. is also one of the natiou*s "lost influential groups; it maiul\ represents stevedores and lumbei trill and construc�lion %corkers. Because of the inI,orlance of the bauxite indostn. and despite the gmcmincids assumptior of a managerial role following nationali- zation of the Demerara Bauxite Co. in July 19 I. the Mineworkers' Ullien ((:alt' alread\ one oI' the largest and best organized unions in the� nation. c�at be expected to remain strong. at least un paper. Nlost all of the organizations 5,000 members are e"nploYed b\ the state bauxite complex, the others b\ Bey holds. Although it considerable overlapping of com�lituenc�ies exists in organized labor, other important unions represent office emplo\ees (other than professionals and toait agers). retail sales personnel, \\age earning rice corkers, transportation .corkers, postal entplmcc,. and sin- c�ialized \corkers in the sugar industry foremen and mill boiler operators). "The Cu\anese trade union movement has icngthv history of participation it" interiwtional labor affairs� having hosted the F irs; Caribbean Labour Conference Ili 1926. Since independence, the :'I'U(: has been affiliated with the Caribbean Congress of Labor. I'll Im�gionaI branch of the Inter-American Regional Organization cf Labor. which is in turn the Western Ilcnisphcrc division of the International Confcdera- tion of Free Trade Unions (I( :P "IT). Additionalk. most major unions are affiliates of International "Trade Secretariates: during the late 1960's, five unions were linked wit It the International "Transport Workers Federation and tIt rcc kith the i'ublic� Services International. The XIN :A is associated kith the 21 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070007 -1 International Federation of I'lantalion. AgricIIIturhl, and Allied, Workers, while GM U holds mendwrship ir1 the Internalion,el \lelal\\orkers Federation. During the 1960 's, the ICFTU and soffit� of its affiliates, notably the :1nu�ric�an Federation of Labor Congress of In(lustrial Orgmizatios, ac�lively assisted, (;Ilyanese unions in resisting the I'I'I' atle ',pt to domindtte the novena nl. �I�he CTUC and its affiliates have :dso rec-eived assistance from the Agency for International Developr neat (A11)). most of it channeled through the :1nieric�an Institute for Free Labor Developnu' ',t (AIF1,D): during the years 1962- 7? the institute trained som -TOO Gcryanese trade uuionistS. Limited external assistance� has also derived from the International Labour Organisation. vyhiclr Guyzarue joined i' after independence. Unionized sugar workers are among the nations hest organized Mud most disruptive ele ',u�uts, heel employers a managers in the same industry also comprise one of the ,lost powerful special interest groups. Essentially representing two firms whic�11 monopolize the industry. the Sugar Producers' Association (SPA) has been it trend- setter ill industrial relations for many years. While c�onevntretin oll the promotion of its nu�mbers' interests. tflc SI' :1 has also supported a minder of worker welfare programs, mainly in the realms of' health 1111(1 housing. :111 affiliate of the� West Indies Sugar Association, the SPA 111zei',thcins close liaison Wit11 the goyern met It, partic(tlarly as concerns economic affairs. Two ad(litioffal management organizations, the Georgetown Chamber of Commerce and the Rice Producers' Association (BPA). rank among the nations most active special interest groups. The former entity, :r1'a11a's oldest of its kind, is dedicat(�(1 to the promotion am(l prote'c'tion of track, both foreign mid domestic. The latter group, although less important from an ecouofflic� sian(lpoint, wields some political power. Co1111)osed of surdl -scale cultivators and landlords, the RNA, which has comsistc',tly opposed governmental measures affecting the rice industry, is controlled by the PPP. More than it dozen other management organizations operate in Guyana: they represent such varied groups as nulnufactures. shippers, retailers, comtrac�tors, engineers, nIi',e operators, automobile� and agricultural maebinery (list ributors, mine operators, lumber exploiters, bakery proprietors, rice millers, and riceland owners. Ma11a9cmcmlt is apt to he paternalistic i', its relationships with workers. Striving to cultivate am amicable working environment. ',lost nimagers are attentive to worker grievances and seek to apply solutions. This is particmlarly true in the nmmerous small establishments, where workers are seldom as organized and tlu� emplo\er is ill clo contact with thee. and ire the� large foreign owned firms. T1 e� govermient tended to cowl and fayor organized Labor (hiring the early poslindepemlenc�e period, bml its expanding role in ',atioual economic affairs, Troth as 111 entrepreneur and as it promoter of the c�uoperatk c 1110 veffheml, appears to be bringing about :e ehaege. I iudling itsell' in c�omepelition with private enterprise and h,eyirlg hee�onre more sensitise to econoneie imeperaliyes, the government during the varls 1970 dleycjoped if more ss ',palII01C outlook concerniug the problems of Ilitilageneellt. In this milieu. the charac'teristic's of labor leadership also appeared to ueulergo c�haege. Whereas ill the past labor leaders were roughly diyide(I I)et4Nee�n those who relied heavily off government support (the majorih grou and those who believed that labor's best interests Lev in an indepen(lent 111elye� ',u�nt devoid of gmernmeilt;d support or influen(v. to(ay mhosl seen) willithg to criticize Ille governine;,t on ucc�asiom au( to c�halletlge its actions. During the 1970's, this trend ffuey well result in an upturn of labor- mutiuegenu nt disputes concerning wages and suppIvmentars benefits traditionall_s the leading cause of friction in industrial n relatios. :1nd, in view of the high rates of time ',lplo)',neet ,till underempimnu�nl. efforts to nncelli mite industry can be expectrdl to meet the� opposition of' orga11izcd labor. E. Living conditions and social problems (U /OU) The Garyamese people e11jov levels of living that are equal to or surpass those of most of their neighbors, although these levels are far below those of" lh" United States. Since Itulepende11c�e. the goyermnu�t1l :es sought to raise living Ieyels by assigning High prioril to the dcyelopnu'ret of social services. While c�erfain riwasuremenls of living (�o',clitioms ((..g., edac�ation. health. and social sec�urits) have been encouraging. residual problems ol' housing� sanitation. une',plo- lmemt -ill(] u' and low per capita imc hay( fused with the restlessness of a society in transition to exacerbate the nations socioec�0110111ic problems and to retard advances in living levels. vloreoyer, diffic�ullies attributable in part to it world oversupply of bauxit(' and alumina and in part to the nationalization of the Citn:J(I It1l ovyne(I Demerara Bauxite Co.. now known as the Guyana Bauxite Co. (GUYBAU). have been followed by production a',(I marketing problems au(I a notable (lecline in government revenue's. Prime Minister Burnham has referred to his country's "poverty. backwardness, high unemployment, and primitive Social services, and he APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070007 -1 has a (k anc�ed progcuns designed to alley iale these ills. Declining rexenues ;aid a shortage of iucestnu nt capital. hoxteer, do not :IUgur e II for the� success of such programs. add to the g sernment's dilenlnsl. the gro%%ing population is exp(-e�te(I to 11aiIltain 1) re�ssun� oil the goxrrnnu�tt for v%er- mcn expenditures or1 social sen ;c�es. Besidenh of urban areas geiierillc enjo higher 1 (-eeIs Of living and greater access to social services than their rural counterparts, but extremes 0f xcealth, such as elist in nrnc South :\merit�: �I countries. are large) absent on the Guxana scene, and there is ne %ide or unbridgeable trap bet%%vell the hags and the "have hots Most Gil an(-se, even those of the luxe (-r social order, are oc�casi() naII% able to sac(- enough name% to prirc�hasc� a ��luxun item" such its it bicy cle (Figure 12 I, or to pro%ide for a firl it 11cial co nting(-nc. Nonetheless, the itcenIge fallliI% although neither starring nor really %erx pour. lilts it inc�onx�. Wages, h0cecc r. hacc been rising. In 1965. the ac(-rag(- \ce(-kl\ \gage of sugar field corkers seas G825.42, in 1970. it %city GS i I. -l.S. I'he c�orrespnnding figures for bauxite miners \%ere GSA .6 and GSA S.26. resp(-ctixek for c�onstnic�tion \corkers. thee %wre G843. 78 and G350.92. Because average earnings rose more rapidly daring the 1960's lh ;(ri the cost of living (Figure I :i), there has !teen it definite upward trend in real incmile. gains line( been reflected in per capita income Much rose Im allimst 0 in the \ears 1965 -69. \cectg(- fiIIIIiIY expenditures s!r()\c 100(l to br the largest single item of expense, ac�couuting for about Of total expenditure.. \pproxiniatelc Ili is spent un clothing and 12('(' on housing. including utilities. Health care absorbs about 6'('. and an e(1(ial amount is spent mi be\e�rages and tuba(-((-,. Contributions to religious or welfare organizations nulke up :i`r of total expenditures, educational costs account for 2"', and the� remainder (1 1 is d(-cote�cl to a variety of personal or miscellaneous it (.,,1s. Large -scale 11 Ile lob llcr t has long been a standard feature of national life and is a Illmor 0hstacl(- in attempts to r aise levels of living. \cc0rdiug N) preliminary data from the 1970 census, some 19,0(1(1 persons, representing 19.6 0f the total labor force, were un(-tnplc,)'e'd I'lu un(-nlplo\ IiIcIIt rate has fluctuated armind ?Oo sill(-(- at least tile mid- 1950�s, and increased 111(-c�11anizatioI in th(- bauxite, sugar, rice, and construction industries, together \yith an annual rise in the number 0f entrants it'-(() the labor market. does not presage and i Ill ncdiate d(-c�lin(- in th(- rate of tn (-mplo\mett. In fact, most observers feel that imemployme�nt will increase. farther eng(-udering a potential for serious soc�i0(-c�on()n1ic instability. I'he young and the inexperienced are� must apt to I,e� fuble�ss. 1965 sune\ rexe:deel that alrrr()sl 1O`( 0f the� Ituentplosed \core under age ?O and that >5` \sere seel:iug if jof, for the first time. Over T r of all the uneniplo >e�d in 1965 had been xcithout %cork for at least (i mouths. Even persons (\itlt nonnalk nuuketable� skills fre(picia k find it diffie alt to obtain a i0b. I'm example, there is an ucersuppl\ of 1%pists it,,(] steno p grahers in the greater Co ergetoA a area. anal so c�li persons often ;Ire %\it ;u,Iit enIpIt)\ neat. \IthOUgh unenipim nu� it is a serious problem, undere�mph,\ nle�til is v% nore gni\c. Oulc about one-half of the e111PIme�d ill 1965 %cnrke(1 at leant 10 months a %ear. \bmit Due -fifth 0f the ernplo\e(I at that time \cere engaged in taco jobs c�ouc�urreutic, and appre 1 -1`( of these \c0rked less than 1 mouths a year ill their main oc�cupati()ii. "fhr se statistic 1,. 11MI emer, (l) not reflect the entire un(Icrenlplo\ nu�nl picture. Ili addition to the nr:un \chu hold part -time or mvasional iol,s. there are more chose nc�cupati0ns require nnl\ a niininlunl anlonut of time or \%hose full potential is Liot utilized. Sizable numbers of rural nien %cc,rk a sinAl mirnber 0f hours each \ceek during it fe%c 11101 of the year and bite(- nothing to do the rest of the tinic. "I'he idleness that is the b; product of uneniplo nu nt and undereniple,\ na�ut. it i, gencrallc agreed. is a major factor contributing to one of the e0untn 's major social ills crime. The alarming rise in the incidence of robber(, burglar\, :aid biccci(- and auto theft has reached such pre espe(-iali iii greater Ge(agetomi, that residents are ()p(�nl\ expressing their fears to the authorities and to the press. Burglary i1, so \cidespread that (m ners of binifle-cs aiid residences containing possessions 0f Valrrc no\c norrnalk employ night \catc�hmen. Street crimes also are increasing, cununitted b "trong ann robbers, kno\cu lucallc as choke -and -rob bandits. echo victimize the pourer ('lass as \cell as the more affluent. dust criminal acts are c�0nimitted b1, iuxeniles or young adrtlts. Young male Guyanese. their aspirations betted b\ the promises of pulitici :uls :In(l by a(1verti see an(1 \\ant material possessions that are not available to thorn lhr(,ngh gainful enlplo nu ut. and 111ey seek Ill(-se item stealing. :\ItIlmigh crime is largely an urban manifestatie :n. the problem of idleness is also striking in rural areas. \Pith fe\\ recreational facilities an(I fe\% nation pic�lure theaters nr other places 0f entertainment, youI g rural :uyanes(� mill about their villages, engaging in cmivvr.ati0n 0r amusing t11en1s(-lyes \yith 9 "chich is (-n(I(-nlic� throughout G uyana. Blind youth, in particular. are restive bec�arts(- then find their existence enpt\. unpromising, and dr (-arils m0n04011011s. 3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDPOl- 00707R000200070007 -1 =3x t J J -,k- FIGURE 12. A status symbol among Guyanese, bicycles are used extensively for transportation, few persons beina able to afford an automobile (C) Index (1956 =100) 140 Food 130 120 110 100 L 1960 1965 1970 FIGURE 13. Consumer price index (U /OU) 21 ALL ITEMS Miscellaneous Housing Clothing c( lik;I! illuidelic�!� (d I! h:!Ic IIlulirn. I \c c nli! 1i111 tto %(.rr!rnr�nl report in 19 65, almost ,till', 0f III!� :I(11I1t 1 >lllaticnl clr:ulk alc(h01ic hc\crialvs, chiellc 111111. \ho11l 15.000 pers011,. (r alin0st .i of Ills� :1(11111 p(11)111:1tiun. cre cun,i(lere(1 alcohulic�s. ,cilh all (�stirn:ll(�(1 ii\c� addiliun:ll pruhlcin drinkers fur each knot\ n alcub0lic. Drug ab0,' is no( it inific;tnt pruldvin ill (:u\:1n hill it c\isl,. \pp:lrenll. lhon. has been it recent increa,c in the 11,e ul' 111:1rii1u1n:1. knocu a, wulj(t. illid 0l h:lrhiluralc,. O1(1 1lnc,c link s(rti;s nu noon the u,( (tl uttjn k sla\cs. :111(1 persons inclined lu\c:lr(I the use of anja Ir:1(Iitionaik h:!\(' r:lise(I ,nI :111 (Iclanlities (;4 it lu their ()\c a nceds. TOdilr, it sinal1, un0r,l:ulizc(I Irallic h:ts ari,eri. allh"1101 the g0%rrnnu�nt actkck di it 1111(1 has imposed steep lines un(1 jail senrcnces ou tho,(� ()I' n:1rc�olic�. \iulati(is. There is n(� c,i(ience 01' the ise of hard (Truk, h\ ;it\ ane hill th(� l)olic�(� orkanizc(I it narcotics nnil in I) I to precut the inilmrtitlion of such dr11ks it![( the c�ou11tr.\ :1nd to crack(loccrt on lr,tl4iAers in 11larijuaua anti I)ar- hituratc,. IlurrsiIli' is it speci are in \%11ich 0ffic�i:11 effurl Io raise lew�I, 114 lining h:1c been litrkcl rlelle(�tt1u11. Inadv(I11ai, 1( )1 has IOnk 1 )cc11 it riou prohle11l in (:1nuI1 :1. \IIIllmi i lucre arc charinink \c Ili te clapboard ri:0t resi(lenc�cs in (:curkctu%c n, in;jc h ul the ((atom, h0usink stock con,i,l, ul \c to (IcII hack Ihat arc (wercru\c(Ied an(l lacking in itnlenitic, (Divan� 1 -1). In Iwit), the lcpi(� 1,on,cho1(1 aw�ratkvd 2 r(0111s and c�onlpri,( 1.9 pci-mms. or al11losl l\cu pers(ms per room. I lo\o,c\cr. �i (4oll househol(ls h:I(l no more than t\%() ro()n1 and it \(:t, gcncrtlk these 11111:111cr Unit, that c�0nlailwd the Iarke,t number (f pers011s. Ina,nlnch as the c(n,truction 04 (kellink unit, diet not keep pace \%it11 pop11lalion kr(xclll (luring the IwiO the 1 )11,,i problem ill the hekin Ili nk (4 the 197, O's \%:t, c\ (-it 11ntrc acute than it had hccn earlier. The l\l>ic:ll hou,c is it WO -room \\uocicn trtic�turc almijt 20 feel h\ I I feet. %%ith it roof (4 shecl metal or N%u()(len sllinglcs. In rural area,. (kcllink, are (Ictache(1, each uc�(�up\iIlg an illdki(Iua1 plot. In urban ,111111, (Fignre 15). Ihe\ Ina\ abut other units. forming roc% h0rlsink. s(mw house,. kn0an as niticl- trash� d\%elliiigs. arc of,calllc ancl- (1:1uhc�onstrucli0n. invariahl\ %%ilh lhalc�h ro(fs: these honk,, most (�0111111011 in the c�ountr'side. are the residences (f the 10,%rst income groups. llarmcks I I)e units, called ranges, are 1 '(1111 (1 011 so111e sugar plantations. along s%ilh other kinds of housing often furnished to %%()rkcrs as part of their renluner:lli0n: ranges ciistonlarik are APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070007 -1 7 Z JL 1 ,Fm l l 1 1 t r ,M et m o Z t fa __.�+.rt �atF1f.. y 'ri FIGURE 14. Typical Guyanese dwellings (U OU) l i APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070007 -1 cii% ided into it nunibcr rrl' ;tpartntents.' each housing alt indi%idual fatnil. 'throughout Guana. home�. briil near riverbanks or sca%%all, nonualk .in� ccrnstnicted un stilts. B% I: cacb (kelliug unit is requimd to haze a pit latrine, but enlorc�cntc�nt crf the la%% is lax. In son e areas, c�rrntnimi it labile., arl- standard; in others, residents ivw the bush it the edge of the %ihagc�. For it varict\ of rviismis, the Bunihatn dininistra- tion has been in\ious to intpro\c the housing situation. number crf progr:uns ha%e been initialed since the end cif World War 11, hilt all ha\c fallen far short (IF meeting goals. let alone need.,. \t one title. the governioent \cas constructing housing cicvrlop- iwc tits for l()\%-inc�oncc group,,, ))lit present policy is to enc�ouritge private initiative b guanuilccing morlgagc loans utuule to indi ic)rtals, tit\ itc�enti\cs. housing cooperalives. and other entities .ponsoring the c�omtniction of honu s. The gow�ruuent still builds houses to rent to civil servants ;uu) i)dwr public officials. ho\\cvcr, and it is encouraging the use of more durable materials in home constr ;ic�tion. Sono� assistalic�e in the housing field ha, been mc�cked front abroad. The Conunon\%cmlth IA�srlopnic�nl Corpor7t- tio; has a program of housing cim tntc�tion througlimil G liana, and tits \11'1.1). with assistanc�c front \II) and others. has sponsored the construction of dwellings; 62 houses trere built under the latter progrttnt between 1962 and 1972. Traditionally, the lived., of the unentplored, tic aged, the infirm, tilt- incapacitated. and the dest�ilrtte 26 A T deol.,cd it) tlir� iniuicclia! f;tniik. hilt (.u,oic sc in large numbers Ita\c ills) :tinged to liions .uid benc%olcut s(ic�ivtic that prcr\ idc sonic Itnut, -d rornis of mutual assistance. 'I'!ic bene\ I v nt souil-t'.t-s. \\itli their rturt, ill the 19l(i c�cttlitrt. \%ere dc\ clnpcd originally to prcr\ ide nu�nibets cc ith it diguilied funeral. (:radiiAl\ ri\c�r the \car i. uunw r crf public :ig: nc ies and \(dini :,r\ bodie, toulertc rk \celfatc ac�ti\ities mud connnimit sc�rkic�c�s, but the NC( pc crf such prounini gcner.tlI to Iiniiled io Iwij11 !o meet needs. \s one of its ,tarsi popular and mikcrsmll; sup ported mcasrtres to efec�t iniprcr\enu�nt in the yualit of life and \vin the ,upport of :ell clelliclits of the population. tic Burnham adntiiiistrt- tion enacted it social insrir;oicc scheme in Jule 1969 granting cosrrc�c! persmis benefits in cash or kind for the cnnliageuc�ies of old :tge, insalidits. sickness, s%ork injury. or death. The program. knc:\cn as till- \rational Inslinince and Social 'Scheme at!d xl- ntinistered bs the \atimial Insimim.� Boa rd, provides for compulsory c�o\crat.;c of :ill sc;tgc earners aged 16 through 61 io are crtipl1 1 trot less Ih:ui 20 hours per \%eck and cant not l,�ss lhmn (:S per \Neck. 1 Ili nmtcic. it is en\isagcd Ibal co\crige ill also be e \tended to lbc self- cniplo\vd. Benefits consist of old -age pensions at age 65. as cc ell as trm\ inetls to help carer costs relating to sickness, disiIII r. lit :tleniiI ftniermis, and iob- cnnriecicd injure. disease, rrr dcalh. I'crisions range bciccrc�ri iO'( and 60('( (4 ii \%orker gages, depending on lenglb of c�orcnigc. Pensions to surrirors of c�orcred APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP0l- 00707R000200070007 -1 FIGURE 15. Slum area in Georgetown. The artesian well water tap at right is used by a number of families. (U OU) enlplo%ees are also authorized. I�'or instinct! workers %%IM have paid at least 50 weekly contributions and have� been in iusurahle cnrploy na�nl for at least 8 of the 1.3 weeks inunecliatel, preceding the onset of an illness nut clue to an c�nlAminc�ut hijury. a sickness henefit is granted tip to a maxinrunr of 21i weeks, al if daily rate of IO''i of the weekly wage. naleruih benefit for 6 weeks prior to and 6 weeks foll(ming confinement is pa;rble to cowered mmit -n ho have paid not less than 50 weekly contributions, including al least 0 in the 36 weeks ending (i weeks before� the expected date of confincnrent. The weekly benefit is 60'(' of wages. A funeral grant totaling C8I00 is paYablc on the death of an insured person or his spouse it at such tine the insured person had paid at least 50 weekly contributions. Workmen's compensa- tion, origin;rlly set up in 1916, was absorbed into the National Insurance and Social Securils I'rogranr ill 1969. It provides injure� disablement, and death benefits and free medical care for vic�tiIns 1(,f employment injuries. TllV cost of the National Insurance and Social Security Scheme is covered by a National Insurance Fund, to which both l,rrplo\'ecs and ernpImers contribute amounts determined by if wage -based formula. Contributions to the fund anwrnt to T.5c(' of the workers wage. including 1.5('(' paid by the employer and i`'i by the ernploee. 'I'll( goyenrnu�nt mikes no contribution. F. Health (U /OU) As if result of it fairly good public health program, levels of health in Cuy;uta are Imtter than those prevailing in much of the Caribbean area. By the standards of dl,yl,loped countries. however. conditions are poor. Contaminated \\Aer supplies, rudin1(�ritary or nonexistent sanitation services, and crowded dwellings all contribute to i t high incidl,ncl, of disease. 'I'll( tropicll climate ;urd the topograpli also have a bearing on th he ;clth of the population. "I'hl, Io\\. coastal lanel periodic�all inundated he helve rainf,rll. and ti c xlcnsiye swamps irr nu11n of the forest and sasanna region, ,ire breeding grc, als for disease vectors and parasites, while me h nalur;,l barriers as mountains find jungles make it diffic�crll to provide adequate� rnedic�al care for the people of the interior. Some conun in 'hl, hinterland can he reached only by river launch or airplane. In its various disease eradic�atiorr programs and health scryic�es, Cuyina has benefited from the assistance of tic United Kingdom, the United States, and other countries, as will as from international agencies. primarily the World Health Org;mization ("'IIO). "I'hi, :rssisLurcl, Iris included mcasnrc�s fur cc,ntrc,l c,f malari ;r, yellow feycr, filaria"is, and cl,rl;lin other diseases, and the introduction of programs fur improving nursing, I;clmralur\, and huspit ;d adminktration services. \lal;rril, c,nc�e widespread clung the coastal plains, Iris brl,n clinrinalecl iherc it', :1 result of a yigorom eradic�alion program. but the disease remains i problem ill purls of the interior. Similarly, ycllo\y feycr Intl Iila have been brought sul,sIanlially under c�outr( d :dt If( crgII sporadic ortbrl,nks still occur ill rural urea,. Ffforts t1() prevent the spread of these cliscasc�s focused priIwi )if llv m the elimination c,f n;usyuitnes ;111(1 caber vec�lors. :1llhough the overall IIca ItII sit uafioti is steadily inrpmying. (:u\:11uc continues to suffer fro nr a Iriglr incidence of infectious cli' :lscs. including gastrointes tinal ;cilnu�nls, typhoid and paratyphoid fc\ crs. tuberculosis and ntber respirator\ ills, helmitilhic infections, and venereal diseases. Diarrbe;d disorders and infec�licoils of the upper respiratory tract ire the principal c�acrses of death anuurg inf;11rls in the first year c,f life, anti typhoid ;111(1 paratyphoid fevers Ire not uncommon among c�IriIdwn in general. Although there has been i t decline in the tit( irtality rate fur tuberculosis because� 1(,f it cm, ti if Ili if g progrun of (lelec�lion, treatment. and hospitilizatinn, it is still a wrious health pro blem. particularly it the more remote rural areas. F ri )tit tiro� to time. influcrrza reaches epidemic. proportions: I x�yere outbreak nrcurcd in 1969, \yith a total of -1.692 cases reported. This figure did not represent the frill inrpic�t of the disease. howeycr. Officials of the Ministry of Ilcalth acknowledge that for III illnesses tie unreported caws probably' far exceed the nrrnrber of those reported. Beeausc of a substantial rcdtiction in nu,rtaIity resulting fro )if infcc�tious diseases and it c�onconri tit nt incmasv in life expcclanc�y. chronic iwd degencratM. Iilnrcnts hive hcc�urc important causes of death. (cart disease, nephritis, diabetcs. Intl vascular lesions of the c�entril nervous system have been among the leading causes in rec�cnt years. Levels of nutrition among the (:tiy;url,u� people as it whole arc only fair, and in many rural areas the population is Hourly nourished. In 1965. the latest year I \hitch information is uyailahlc, the l,slinurtccl cl;rily per capita intake ;unomited to 2.215 c�alorics. slightly more than the recommended daily nrininrum of 2.200 1lowvver, "wilt, fish, and diir4 products are rot consumed in sufficient cluanli;ics to provide I1( adecpate intake of protein a nd calcium. ;urd the average diet is deficit nl ill vitamins A and B. In !965. 50.W(- of the caloric int ake was matte oil) of cereals. While meat. fish. milk. and eggs together ac�c�ounled APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070007 -1 FIGURE 16. Estimated per capita daily caloric intake, 1965 (U; OU) I onli, I0.9', Fiuurc 16). Tlic (lict of the Fil I11di;ul is lik to he nu)re nutritious :uul better kiLi lcc(I lll :ln that of the \Irican hccauc :I lik4her percenLlt,'c I f Fzist In(liam r,Iis( co,. dice{). an(I l)oultr :ul(1 culti krcen \'clrctnhles for In r�onal con�un11)tioll: A fricans :Ire more apt to raise n(I to Lm .larcll\ rout I,cl(elahlc". (aiIIical rc vaI'dI :Inlunll; the ;II iInca� h;Is a >.ociatc(I certain ph I, ,icul ill, \%ill, (Iiet :In(I (Iictar habit I)articularlI, anIonl; (-hiIdren. I I)I t e>c (I is( r(ler,� iIIclu(lin ;In(�,Iiia. conjunctiI, ilis.:(n(I k\kashi -)rkor are 1(Ital. hnt all :Ire (Iehili t iIli! an(I rl clue(, the I, ictinl ahilit\ to I I ill a nornI;II le\cl. 'I'll rnu0hout (;u\ana there I it 1, lack u1 kno\% conccrnini.; nutritional re( IIIircnlcnts. I)elicie11 ciI- ill step lI an(I (Iistrillutilln d contrihnte to inlh ;Ilan(,(-, in the (list. lit ciIIIs( the cultiI, Ition o1 hI( I cr( Is h)r 111(' :II (-orl Ii;1> been rc,iIr(lc(I I ccon(I :Ire to the inaiit task I11 ro(in> I)nulul t� ru:Ii:ll Nuh:u an(l rile -lor clulrl. uluch of till' 1111111 cousunu�(l n1u.t hr inilml tc(I. little ;Illcntion h,Is been i;iccn (o the 111 more and h(1 [(-I \ariclics of 1111111 crops. and lack o1 ildvq[Ill(- lra l "I)nr o l lacililics i" :I Ilia in11u�,Iinu�ul I, efficient rnarketi11 Ii( )III I ,III(I ;I llll %iI traIIsI)11rI;1- Iion :Ire slo\\. and ;I. t ncks it( I h( 1; ll lack pro 1)cr II /rage \I)ac(� ,111(1 rclrit;cr;It I111L .111111:1 tit� I resillk I oo(I Ilalullilll ut the Selling; I)11iIIt :IImI 1(�u\(- much to he (II�sir(�(I. \ItII11111;h thl�r(� ;1 ;I 1c\% l .S. >t\If. "Ilpernulrkets iI: Ih(� url) ;Ili ;Irv:o. null Iresh pro (Iucc. In(;Its. ;unl other 1, 1( itenn :In dd I1\ 1, (�11(1or in Iml(loor market, mider uu Ire con(liliou, IFi);urc I In the lilt(, I Wit fs. the \liIIi tri( -s of alion;Il I)(�w el( I)nwiII ;rrul \i4ricull it re, I IcaItIt. ;In(I EdIwiltioll he to c(I( )rd lnaty I� IT( rts to IaiNe the I;cncraI nutriliu IiII 1(�\vI of the I Il)ul :thou. Igwr.11iu>; in it ilunnccr of I)ilOt :Ireas ceutere(1 an )mid .chnol". Be"i(Ics cl :I,.c, in nutrition. the prol;rinl leature(I i list ructitII in �toukr :Iisink. gar(leniII. it ,(I the nluinlcn If lull 1unul. :I rtlrrrclll ohj(-eli in the II,11 inIol\c(I all ex1 )it iii( )it u1 the 1)roi;ra it I to inclu(le it 1)l)ro\i Ina tel\ 11O�(IN) I) in it uu Ili her of sclecle(I co Ill nllnlitic.. \%it11 tochrlic nc(- pro i(led h\ \\'l l( the F'( o(I ;In( Orhanir.ati(m I \O I. :unl the 1, Ilited \nlion :hil(Ircll', FIIncl 1( \I( I. FIIII)II ;Isi, i on the I)rc\cnlion o1 (Iicl;Ir\ deficicncic. ;mull" child) cn itiid (-\I)cctant it nursi1114 mother". In a(I(liliorl to school pro jeo the c\paii ed cllort center, on pronultini; the cult i\;Itiou of lanlil\ tarllcn :r11(1 i list ructinL ho se es in the list of horn( u( Iruits itIld \chetandc" to prepilre hit lit [wed 111(:/1'. tiunlc 1111ppIcnlcnlan 1ecd;,nl; pro )Luanl arc also (wire, cit ric(/ FIGURE 17. Vendor selling wares at outdoor market. Meats and other food items are usually sold at these markets, where they are exposed to dirt and insects and are commonly handled by prospective customers. (UiOU) 2,5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070007 -1 I�I I:I P: \'I' 1 �.u.4 1( I Ks M 'I', T %I. I'!'KNI 1 I�:H 1. %I I ALIIIII VS rrva 1.111 ;11.11 TIIgal 31115 /.i .li li III 11.S curl SI:H'Vll. %rRrl:ibII........... ,5 i.S OIh(�r %VgVI:LbIV..1:uul Ilul,1'............. 7 1 1 Fruit 19 \I(�:II S. Fish 13 lilk II, Eggs II OIL alld la(.. rill ,i.:; 01:11. _._'1.1 /(111 .1/ I onli, I0.9', Fiuurc 16). Tlic (lict of the Fil I11di;ul is lik to he nu)re nutritious :uul better kiLi lcc(I lll :ln that of the \Irican hccauc :I lik4her percenLlt,'c I f Fzist In(liam r,Iis( co,. dice{). an(I l)oultr :ul(1 culti krcen \'clrctnhles for In r�onal con�un11)tioll: A fricans :Ire more apt to raise n(I to Lm .larcll\ rout I,cl(elahlc". (aiIIical rc vaI'dI :Inlunll; the ;II iInca� h;Is a >.ociatc(I certain ph I, ,icul ill, \%ill, (Iiet :In(I (Iictar habit I)articularlI, anIonl; (-hiIdren. I I)I t e>c (I is( r(ler,� iIIclu(lin ;In(�,Iiia. conjunctiI, ilis.:(n(I k\kashi -)rkor are 1(Ital. hnt all :Ire (Iehili t iIli! an(I rl clue(, the I, ictinl ahilit\ to I I ill a nornI;II le\cl. 'I'll rnu0hout (;u\ana there I it 1, lack u1 kno\% conccrnini.; nutritional re( IIIircnlcnts. I)elicie11 ciI- ill step lI an(I (Iistrillutilln d contrihnte to inlh ;Ilan(,(-, in the (list. lit ciIIIs( the cultiI, Ition o1 hI( I cr( Is h)r 111(' :II (-orl Ii;1> been rc,iIr(lc(I I ccon(I :Ire to the inaiit task I11 ro(in> I)nulul t� ru:Ii:ll Nuh:u an(l rile -lor clulrl. uluch of till' 1111111 cousunu�(l n1u.t hr inilml tc(I. little ;Illcntion h,Is been i;iccn (o the 111 more and h(1 [(-I \ariclics of 1111111 crops. and lack o1 ildvq[Ill(- lra l "I)nr o l lacililics i" :I Ilia in11u�,Iinu�ul I, efficient rnarketi11 Ii( )III I ,III(I ;I llll %iI traIIsI)11rI;1- Iion :Ire slo\\. and ;I. t ncks it( I h( 1; ll lack pro 1)cr II /rage \I)ac(� ,111(1 rclrit;cr;It I111L .111111:1 tit� I resillk I oo(I Ilalullilll ut the Selling; I)11iIIt :IImI 1(�u\(- much to he (II�sir(�(I. \ItII11111;h thl�r(� ;1 ;I 1c\% l .S. >t\If. "Ilpernulrkets iI: Ih(� url) ;Ili ;Irv:o. null Iresh pro (Iucc. In(;Its. ;unl other 1, 1( itenn :In dd I1\ 1, (�11(1or in Iml(loor market, mider uu Ire con(liliou, IFi);urc I In the lilt(, I Wit fs. the \liIIi tri( -s of alion;Il I)(�w el( I)nwiII ;rrul \i4ricull it re, I IcaItIt. ;In(I EdIwiltioll he to c(I( )rd lnaty I� IT( rts to IaiNe the I;cncraI nutriliu IiII 1(�\vI of the I Il)ul :thou. Igwr.11iu>; in it ilunnccr of I)ilOt :Ireas ceutere(1 an )mid .chnol". Be"i(Ics cl :I,.c, in nutrition. the prol;rinl leature(I i list ructitII in �toukr :Iisink. gar(leniII. it ,(I the nluinlcn If lull 1unul. :I rtlrrrclll ohj(-eli in the II,11 inIol\c(I all ex1 )it iii( )it u1 the 1)roi;ra it I to inclu(le it 1)l)ro\i Ina tel\ 11O�(IN) I) in it uu Ili her of sclecle(I co Ill nllnlitic.. \%it11 tochrlic nc(- pro i(led h\ \\'l l( the F'( o(I ;In( Orhanir.ati(m I \O I. :unl the 1, Ilited \nlion :hil(Ircll', FIIncl 1( \I( I. FIIII)II ;Isi, i on the I)rc\cnlion o1 (Iicl;Ir\ deficicncic. ;mull" child) cn itiid (-\I)cctant it nursi1114 mother". In a(I(liliorl to school pro jeo the c\paii ed cllort center, on pronultini; the cult i\;Itiou of lanlil\ tarllcn :r11(1 i list ructinL ho se es in the list of horn( u( Iruits itIld \chetandc" to prepilre hit lit [wed 111(:/1'. tiunlc 1111ppIcnlcnlan 1ecd;,nl; pro )Luanl arc also (wire, cit ric(/ FIGURE 17. Vendor selling wares at outdoor market. Meats and other food items are usually sold at these markets, where they are exposed to dirt and insects and are commonly handled by prospective customers. (UiOU) 2,5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070007 -1 I A nuuj,or faclor bearing on Ievcls of health i( Guiana is the problem of environniental simitation, and the scarcity of readily available ,afe %%atc�r is one of the most pressing difficulties. The main supple of \\ater on the coastal plain derives from artesian wells and is i list ributed by pipelines extending aloe :g the Coastal 'highWaV and some local roads. Outside the (rb ;m areas, eater is rarely potable. The nu,re shallow wells are polluted b\ seepage from drainage ditches, :u 11 the pressure in water pipes is often lo\\, particularly ill villages at the end of a line. In 19(15, 5Wi of the population in the coastal region had piped seater in their dwellings, another :30 "1 were using public taps or fomitains and the remaining 155; \%ere lm- stirred to he drawing their supple from the closest stream, which is invariably contaminated: there is no piped \\ater system in the interior of the c�ounlrc. A long range plan for supplxing potable \\:ter to the rural coastal population \%as detailed in it 1969 stucl\ joint',v financed by the Guyunese Governnu�nl and AID. Th e studs cuvisaged it three phase construction program to provide wells, treatn ent and storage facilities, and pumps and transmission lines over a ill yvar period. :1s of 1969, work was already in progress on it project to improve the water supply of an area extending 10 miles southeastward from Georgetown along the coast. and 20 miles southward along the east bank of the I)enerara River. Sewzige disposa4 facilities are limited. In 1968, according to it Guyanese government report, oil\ I�). Vi of the population were served bs it se\ ser it, e system. 'I'll(- main section of Georgetown has the benefit of it system operated mud maintained b the nunicipalil\. Newly developed housing on the outskirts of the capital is served chiefly by individual septic tanks. In New Xmstvrdam, septic tanks, cesspools, and pit latrines are in use. latrines arc� the mininum fuc�ilit\ for human \\-list(- disposal permitted by law, and most of the smaller towns and rural villages attenpt to corriplx. To c:., the difficulty arising from the high eater table in the coastal region, na,unds nest be built to accommodate tire� pits. Sonu� arelus, however, are unsuitable for this of privy: its it result, drainage ditches or the closest body of water are used for disposal purposes, leading to serious water pollution. Facilities for the disposal of garbage and trash are poor or nonexistent except in Georgetown proper, where refuse is collected in trucks and burned in a municipal incincralor. In \ew Amsterdam it is collected in carts and deposited on low -lying land along the Berbice River, where it attracts flies, mosquitocs, and rats. \lost people in the� c�ounlnside b(rn or bury list(- ncterials. Only it fc\% rural c�onnunities have garbage� (himps. The fact that Co ana maintains it fair stan(lard of fucalth despite log\ levels of sanitation and other problems must he attributed to the dilige nee� of its Imblic� health service. \%bich is dironicall\ bim(lic�ap- ped b\ shortages of staff and limited, outm#ded facilities. flesponsibilit\ for super ision of medical care is vested in the Miuistr% of IIvaltIt. \corking through the (ventral Bo ard of Ilealtb healed hx an official who hears the title of (thief Me�dicid Officer. In 1969, Guiana had 31 hospitals, 22 of schich were operated b\ the Ministr\ of Ileallh and 12 by prkate interests, including sugar estates and religious groups. Private medical facilities are e\pec�ted to adhere to standards and regulations of the \linistn of' Ilealth. 'three of the government -run hospitals are specialized institutions it tuberculosis sanatoriun al Best. it leprosarium at \lahiuc�:u, and it nent:d hospital al (::uje. The total number of hospital beds in 1969 %%as �),255, resulting in it ratio of' -1.6 beds per 1.000 population. and understaffed. Georgehm n Hospital is b far the largest (about 1,000 beds in 1969) and most important: although it is au old institution. built in 1900. \kith deteriorating equipment and inadequate personnel, it is still the focal point of medical care in Gn\mi:,. :111 but one of the hospitals an� located ill the coastal area. Manx arc� "cottage-type" hospitals. each consisting of it group of small. usuall\ wooden. structures (Figure IS), the number of beds ranging from half it dozen to -10 or 50. Out- patient care is provided ill it ariet\ of' other facilities. In 19(-S, these comprised .35 health centers, I S dispensaries, I I nu�clic�al aid posts, 102 first aid st:tions, and it nubile dispensary sen ice hic�h included sv\eral riper lamiches. 'There are also special r, FIGURE 18. "Cottage- type" general hospital o: Bartica, Mazuruni Potaro District (C) 29 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070007 -1 facilities devoted to maternal and child health. The health centers are the principal nu�ans of caring for the nedic�al needs of the rural population. Supers iced h district medical officers %%ho tra%cl twer %%ide areas, each center has at least one resident nurse- midwife and additional personnel according to its size. The smaller facilities� dispensaries, nu�dic�al aid posts, first -aid stations� as adjuncts of the health centers, offering treatment outs for niuor ailments and injuries. :1 special !medical officer !nukes periodic tours to proxide prvvenJve inoculations and other health services to the :kmerindians in renuste regions. He is assisied in his \%ork bx nurse- mi(kives stationed at ranger outposts of the inferior. Guiana has no facilities for training ph\sicians. \ledical students clsuallx go to the United kingdmn or to the Universitx of the West Indies in janai-a for training. and mill\ fail to retIIn! to (:u.:uua after conpleting their studies.:ks a result. there is it serious shortage of doctors in the c�oclntrx. Nvvertheless. some progress is signified bx the fact that the number of practicing phVsic�iaus rose from 160 in 1966 to 191 at the end of 1969, providing if national ratio of 2.6 per 10,1100 population. The actual ax:ailabililx of doctors I'm the hulk of the population is esrn less than thi Mild indicate since if disprc,portionatcix large munber are concentrated in the urban ccuters. :luxiIiarx health pe rsonne l are also in short supple. :1t the end of 1969 there %cre?,16:3 rc�gistercd nuncs,:i(i -I nursing ;auxiliaries, 1.42.1 mi(kkes, 29 dentists (all trained abroad), and 91 pharmua�ists. Nurses' training is provided within the c�ounlrx in four schools \\hiCII offer it 3 -sear course; mid\\iferx is taught in one SL-110(11, the course extending m er an 18-month period. The output of these schools in 1968 \s as 121 nurses and -17 midwives. Although nursing has attracted an increasing number of students in recent sears, the shortage ill this field remains acute as noun of the graduates leave (:a!s;an;e to \cork in the United Kingdou, the l'uited Stales, or elscsshere. Olhcrs remain in the c�ountrx hnt fail to p rac�lice the profession. In its rc�pc,rt for 1969� the \linktrx of Ilealth noted the high rate of x\astagC among graduate nurses and proposed that persons accepted for training he required to sign if contract to serve in public health activities for a stipulated period after becoming qualified to practice. A Goyernmenl Laboratory Service, linked to the major government hospitals, carries on some wwk in bacteriology, scrology, parasitology, and virology. If ri Ina riI\ in relation to public health pro bIvIfIs. Specimens for virus study are sent to the Trinidad Regional Virus Laboratory, an inporlant research center for viral diseases. Three of the private hospitals 31 l have clinical I:doratories of their m% if. I'har- nl:,,�eulic�als if most other medical supplies are im1mi-ted. "There are uo hwal drug manufacturing c�onpanies except the Bookers Manufacturing DrlIg :ouapan\, hick specializes ill the produc�tiou of \itamin capsules and elixirs. olk remedies are still popular it Gu\aua, espec�iall\ an!ong persons s% ho do not have access to regular medical care. It has been estimated that about ouc�- third of all Gu\anesc� families make their (mit busfl nrc�dic�inv� for colds and fevers. 'The help of' healers is alu, sos!glit oc�c�usionall is :a substitute for. or reiIIforcen!cIIt of. !core orthodox health services. hno\%n as 0bcal -men to Africans and Past Indians. and as Pia( -men to Amerindians. the healers use if xarietx of rituals and potions to "cure' disease. \Ithough these practices have been declared illegal bx the gmrrnnu�nl and haze been suppressed s\heueser possible bx Christian missionaries, )hex still surface from time to time in rural areas, and belief in their effec�tkeness reportedl\ remains \%idespread. G. Religion (U /OU) Religion has played an important part in the dailx life of Gclxanese of all faiths, and the ratio of ac�tive to nominal cl,!rc�h members reportedl\ is much higher in Guyana than in mans other countries. :1lthougli public involvenu�nl with political. co. and micial dc\rlopIIIents since the 1950's has tended to reduce the influence of religion and to diminish its significance as it force in sc,c�ielx, for most Gm anese religious affiliation continues to he if prink xehicie for reinforcing cultural identilx and expressing con munik prick. The taco major ethnic groups arc gencraII y divided along religious lines: the m-vm helm ing najorit\ of :\fricans are Christians, and most Fast Indians arc IIindus or \tusIinis. :ks of 1972. :If rist iii iIiI\ renailed the tImnivafit religion. I)!t the more rapid growth of the Fast Indian populalioaa is expected to bring about a prepondernnce of non Christiams b\ about 1980. Because it \\;as the religion c,f British colonial adniIIislralors and of those iIIdix idmals ss II cloninated the life of the countrx for ImaII\ \ears, :If rist iii uiI\ IradiIionaII\ carried considerable pre stige. if factor \%hich has induced sc me Past Imli:an I lindus to accept conversion. occasionally xyithout abandoning participation ill Ilindu rilm:als. Today, Ilo\yever. the Guyanese people as i t hole regard Ilinduism and Islam as generally comparable \yith Christianity in prestige yalcle. The Guyanese Government is tolerant of all faiths, exercising no control over religion or the religions beliefs of the people. i tic�le I I of the Constituti APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070007 -1 I)nt\ides for frl�e�dl,III of couscietce. and \\c subject only to the� w(Itdicint-nts of inhlic order and safet\ :Intl to protec�lion (I the rights of all. (:eI\e niIIwit t to)Icr.Ine�e� of all religi�is e\tcuds to tlru\ iding fiIIIII al sutlilorl for ediwational aml Illvdical facilities (yeraled b\ au\ religious :;rout. Official infortnation concvrnint; the� sire c1; religious gnluIts in GuNana derives fron3 the 190 census: Ilrelininur\ resII!is ol' the !9711 ceusIIs released III1 to nlid -197 c(mlain no relevant data. In 1960l 56.7 01 the total Impitlation \\ere enunu�raled as Christians :lld 12.:3'( as adherents r4 :Ion- (:hristian religions (Figure 19).:Xt the Iine of the IIre\iocs ceIIslrs 1916)1 the Christian co nu 3luuity had rein -se nted 59.0'I of the total Iwllltlatiot and nu�rllflcrs of non Christian religions :38.6 The Christian sector ill 1960 inc haled 231,1)1)9 Trott tams of %arious denominations :cul 5 :3.7 -11 Roman Catl:oli:�,. \lendwrshitl figures reiwrleel for the 1'n,testanl gr,eltliugs arc sho\\u in the full.,\\ iwg tabulation: Anglicans 109,561 ?Methodists 25,356 Seventh -day Adventists 8,927 Presbyterians 7,600 Jehovah's Witnesses 1,218 Baptists 415 Pentacostals 276 Other 80,656 Total 234,009 Irlc�luded in the "Other" c�ategon \\ere Christian Scientists. Congregationalists. Lutherans. \lava% i:uls. TOTAL POPULATION 560,330 Not stated ar no religion 1.0% Muslim 6. 9%\ y Anglican 19.6% Methodist 4.5% Hindu 33.4% pesbytei Roman Catholic 14.9% Christian venth Adventist 1.6% Non�Christion Other 14.7% �Indudin0 a negligible number or other nen ion sects. FIGURE 19. Religious composition of the population, 1960 (U/OU) :lull tu�nihcrs of If!(. 1rnn. :Is \\ell :is ;Ill unc!clernlined uunwhcr lit, sinit,l\ designated t1winseI\cs ;is "(:Ilrislians \\ithoul specificalliliatiorw. As of the late 1960's. the� church groups :t(�ti\(- ill the countr\ iia-hided sv\vral ,twill flulll: im-ntalist sects. In addition to llte .lfric�au cotuuuuil\, those� Ill itiiwd racial stock are it l Ili( st ewIiisi\el\ It :hristians. The suall I�:w0 pen :uid :hinesc grinds are also o\t (:hristian.:oul ntow than hill( of the 1nu�rilidians ha\e heeu c�ou\ertt-d. mainl\ to linvwlan (:a0mlic�isnw. In the 1960 cellsus. I0.6 of the I�:ast Indian ,i Ixrldalinn c r idvntihed as (1iristiaits: IIhidts accounted for 70.1)',: \lusliIli Is'.r3'(: and those \\itIt no religion or an unspecified religion. I. I Althou!dh (:hristiaus tlre(l)ninate in the clrfl :ul ccuters. reflecting the prepmidlerwnc�t- of AIric�:ois it their lu)wilatic,ns. adherents of each of the 1rinc�ipal faiIlls can flc f ill 1 d in the to This is part icul;trl\ true ill the capital. here the religious di\ersiI is reflected iit nunu�rous places of \\wshitl (Figure 20). A ucgligiflle nunwher of (;manes adherc to other fi)nnal religions. irwcludiug Ruehlhisnl arid Jueliisnl. Sono� of the Inure remote Anlcrin(hans c�nntituc Ili toll()\% animistic heliefs :;led practices. and certain trifles near the hwders oI' Kr:eiil and enciuela prac�tic�c hat is knes\\it :IS the Ilalleluja religio:l, a corruption e11 1'rotcstant u lcl :it t It( lic� te;ldIiugs. I inall\. \cstigial rviIIImllls of A1'ricaII cults arc still e.\taul anl,uwg snnwc iIIitcrale AI'ricans, v\ vi tlu,ugh I e\ claim ad wreuc�e to it :11 ristialI dcunn ii nation. 1ll Ill ugh both I'r )test anl and :al It( lic der* 1 \ere ;ic�ti\e during t!IC first t\\o centuries of colonial rule. their efforts \\c�re de\ole(1 almost enlirel\ to the religious needs of the Furoticarw settlers. The \(%ro slaves, It( c�orlstitutecl the largest sc�gnlent of the 11ot1ulalion, \\ere spvcif'icaII\ harred front recei\iug religious nwi list ra ti( ns and Frain attending ser\ic�es all the assuniption that a kno\\ledge of Christian ideals \\()111(1 tend to induce dissatisfaction \\ith their status as sla\es. The first successful inission to the slaves was pro\idc(I h\ the I.otdou \lissiorlar\ Soc�iet\, it flod\ (urinal in 1795 for the purlwsc of c�c,udItoitg evangelical \\ark ��a tit( ng the heat hell. Originally a nelndelmillinatitmal ba o d\. the sviet\ Iwcanle in effee�t .I I!wr'gaIional grollil: Its III rst IIIIssiUtl arri co: I 111 Gll\illia it 1808. Within the ue \t fe\\ \ears, nlissiouar\ cn:lea\or aniong the slaves gracluall\ increased. Additional clergy \\ere scna b\ the Lun(lou Missiouar\ Societ\: these \\ere follo\\ed b\ missionaries from the British Wesle\ans (Methodist), the Church of Sc�otlawl Wresb\terian). and the lionan Catholic Church. Somv of the colon\'s ,knglic�an churches subsectucntl\ began to conduct religious ser\iecs for slaves. The period between the abolition of the sla\e track in 1507 111(1 the final abolition of sla\er\ in 1838 :3 I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070007 -1 jk Hindu temple 71 1 Muslim mosque FIGURE 20. Representative religious structures (houses of wofship) in the Georgetown area (C) saw thc� emergence of a social system in which things British acid "white'* were highl\ valued and things \fric�an and ��Itlac�k** were ofenigr.ite(1. and the Christian churches (firing this period hecanu� tine of the chief instruments through which "white values were disseminated. \s the newly cm.uic�ipated slaves gradually moved off the land and into urban centers. or united to form tlicir own villages. their live s becanu increasingly influenced by Christian churches and schools. with the resift that they adopted most of the nc�w Values and accepted Christianity, with some modifications of their own. Until World War II, most Christian groups were mipportcd and maintained by their parent dcm inina- 32 If owes al161l8d 1 TV g Protestant (Anglican) church tions in the I'nite(I Kingdom. I firing the war and in the inuue(Ii ite Ix)sl\\ar Ix ri ocl. however. the British denominations were unable to ,ulil>I\ the funds or the staff to sultlxtrl tic� (:uv.uuse c�hiirchcs.:\(�(�cir(Iiiig1\. the\ sought assistance from ('.S. church grctul)s..uid by the late I960's ahnost every Christian do nomina- tion in the country was being helped ill some c�apacil\ by its counterpart in the United States. With an estimated nu�inbership of 1 70.000 at the Iwginiiing of 1970, the \ngIic.ui (:hurc�li is the largest (:IirisIt iun (lenoiuinatioii in Guyana and the single mist im1wriaot religious iii hence. The \ngliean Diocese of (:(i\iina, covering (:u\ana. Surinam. an(f Ca\enne, forms Irwin of the ecc�lesiastic�al I of 1' :Va 1r� n, t Roman Catholic church 7, Illl llt 1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP0l- 00707R000200070007 -1 the West Indies. :%s of 19 the Bishop of (:t :yard was also Bening as ;krchbishop of the Vest Indies and metropolitan of the province, which consists of the dioceses of :\ntigua, Barbados, British Il )if (I if rIs, Guyana, Jamaica, Nassau and the Bahamas, Trimi(Lid, and the Windward Islands. \ffairs of the church arc regulated h the archbishop an(I a convocation consisting of .,n upper house (composed of bishops) and a lower house (tuade tip of lower ranking clergy). Although :ciniing A sell' the Diocese of Guyana rcc�eives substantial aid front abroad. mainly front the Clitirch of England. Special efforts are being made to build tip an indigenous cIcrgy, hilt the (lioeese nirisl still clepee(I upon the ser-icc of foreign ministers for aboul half of its staffing reyuirc:.u�nts. Nlost of the clergy (totaling 53 ill 1970) lean toW High Church :knglicanisin, an orientation which i reflected in the c�htirch's liturgy acid senic�c, Of IL, :\nglicans recorded ill 11-, 1960 census. I1).9 lied in the Gcorgelo\yri or New �ucas. 19.51; in East Denierara, 6. 7 `'r in West Demerara, 1- 1.9`'; ill the enumeration district of Berbice (encompassing the administrative districts of East and \Vest Berbice). au(I 18.0`; in the enumeration district of 1 kencunipassing North West, Essequibo, Essequibo Islands, \l:i /anmi- Potaro, and Rupui!rini). Other Protestant groups of' muueric�al signif'leallev i the country arc the N1 et 11 o(lists. Lutherins. Presbyterians, and Seventh -day ;k(lyentists. Little information is available on the Xlethodist Church in Guyana exc�cpt that it is an outgrowth of the missionary endeavor begun b the British Wesle-ans earl- in the 19th century. In 1970, Xlelhodists were estimated to number about '30,000, about half of whom were believed to reside in Georgetown or New :\nisterdam. Although the� Iiftberaus were not specifically enumerated in the 1966 census, the- claim a incnibership of more than 10,000, organized into the Evangelical Lutheran (:lurch in Guyana, \yhich w:is established ill 19 -1:3 under Gci-anese leadership; it comprises IO parishes, served b- some 20 European Mid U.S. missionaries. synod, consisting of representatives from cac�h congregation, is the Icgislative bo(1- for the denomination an(1 an administrative council performs executive functions. Most of the approximately 8.000 1'resb-terian in Gilyana are ine fit bers of church conununitics sponsored by the Church of Scotland. others belong to congregations fostered i>y the Presbyterian Clitirch in Canada. The majority are found in I ?ast and West Berbice and 1�:ast Dcrnerara, districts which lave larger proportions of I?asl Indians than an- others ill the country. In addition to sonic converts among the Fist Indians, the 1'resbyteri:uis have a ntiridwr ol' small congregations in rural \I'ro :uyanese villages. Only alx)ul 800 nivinbers of' the denomiination were resident in the two principal urban cv�ntcrs in 1960. Presbyterians in 0 1yuna are organized into two presb\ terics which are part of th(� Ceueral Assembly ol' Eliglish- speaking I'resbvteriam (Amt relies in the Caribbean. 'I'll(- first Seventh day \dvenlist church seas cslablished in Georgetown in 1892. Since 1915, the denomination in Guyana has I'll let ioucd as it mission field under the Scvvnth -clay A(lveutist Caribbean t`nion Conference. \s of 1971 the c�hurc�li claina�d about -,000 adherents, served by nine ordained niiuisters and I I licensed ministers, as well as a mimberof missionaries, evangelists, and layworkcrs. Most of the traditional Protestant dc�noriiivations in Guyana have engaged in cducatioual and welfare services. TI e Anglicans .aid 1' resI-lcriuns, in particular, have been active in education, sponsoring numerous schools it both tic primar% and secondary levels. lu 1966 the \nglic�ans operated 86 governnu�nl- aicled educational institutions and the Presbyterians (Clmrc�h of Scotland). The Boman Catholic Church ill Guyana ela:nu�cl a membership of 107,000 in 191 I, mucking it second to the \nglic�an Clitirch ill size among Christian groups ill the counts. Its mendwrs are under the jurisdiction of the Diocese of Georgetown, which is suffragan to the :\rc�hdiocese of fort -of- Spain, Trinidad. The first ecclesiastical jurisdiction was established in Guyana in 1837 and was raised to the level of a (lioc�esc in 1956. Of the 8:3.T-11 Catholics enumerated in the 196() c�cnscis, more than half resided either in Georgetown or New \nisterdam. But the fact that the church has been aCtiVv in missionary endeavor among the lnicrindians since the earl 19th c�entifry was reflected in the relatively large proportion of Catholics (2 i.OS( reported in the I�:ssc(lriibo enumeration di'k"bt where most of the \riu�rindians live. \s of 190- tilt f)iot,, of Georgetown included 2-1 parishc, %lid 65 cltIoNi parishes. Ministering to tbe Of O'k\ faithful \w., i I priests -65 of whono \vrt� IIII'1111wl's of relio �.s orders �and 75 ifmv, t'jIIIIIIti t'Ulldncovd UI Catholic auspices urinilicrc,(f. till ;)1)(J eight institutions were� being operated 1 eAjurch per c%WVl. Vlore than Half of the C Itholic� deli;, ;ire rep -'ri'd to be foreign -horn. The bishop who heads tdi tllti -csc is a Scottish Jesuit. Relations between Protestants and Catholics are good, and cooperation between the two principal groups Anglicans and Catholics has resulted in a high degree of ecumenism. The two (lenoniimations have tacit "spheres of influenve in their missionary efforts, and the\ work together in a variety of programs. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDPOl- 00707R000200070007 -1 01' the 2 10.000 ur so bast Indians brought to Guyana as indentured farnmorkers between 15 :38artd 1911. apprtxinuttely 8-1"i were Hindus and 16 vv(.re \I uslinfs. While� plantation life� eliminated or m odified nurnv elements of their native culture, religious expression Was one of the c�ulturel aspects which if,(.v 11fana9vd to preserve, ou the ++hole the\ resisted attempts to couverl them to Christiauily. ;III Iliuclu and Muslim religious groups in the counts are organized along similar lines, with their o\vm local co nfutiutaining and operating it temple ur nu,s(Iue, hiring it priest or infant, (miring certain property used for commun c�\ and userally emfPlc,\ ing a teacher to run a c�on ill ill tal school, vvhicil the government ufav subsidize. Both Ifindu :crul -Muslim groups are becoming increasingly involved in m fare activities which parallel those conducted by Christian deuoruivatious. The earl\' Ilinder immigrants were divided into diverse small sects and cults, but as tint(. \vent on the conditions of life in Guyana grulually cre a broader definition of Ilinduisnf vvhic�h effectively united them. A1 important factor ill this development %vas th(. disintegration of the caste syst(.rft arrfong ill"" it systenf \\Miele has been one of the major distinguishing charac�teristic�s of traditional I linduisnt. The eventual redefinition of the religion led to the abamdonnu�ml of most of the separate cults and to cite acevptanc�e of the Sanalun /)/turns som elinfes call :d Brahmanical Ilinduisrn bv nfost Guvanes(. Ilin(lus. lit its form of worship, the Sunalan Marn recognizes the traditional gods of tit(. tinder pantheon, vvit!f particular devotion to \'isbnu in his incarnations as Banta and Krishna. It prescribes the performancev of many Brahnfanic�al rituals ill which hereclitan Brahmans conlimu(. to enjoy son traditional privileges. It also approves certain Braluuanical ideals, including it vegetarian diet and abstention fromf alcoholic beverages. (The fact that most Guv:umse Ilindus theomtically subscribe to such ideals has not resulted in scrupulous observance of them; 111(�at is often comsuued, although beef is generall\ avoided, and ill(' c�onsumPtion of alcoholic beverages is at least as high 11111011 I limcius as among other sectors of tit(. population.) 'I'll(. Sanalan /)hams has been organized lit the national levvI since 1927 as the Sanulan /)/term ;1 aha Sabha (Great Organization for the Mainte- nance of tit(. Orthodox Ijeligior). \1Iith its srrbsidian Pundits Council, which determines the Correct form of doctrine and ritual, it nuty be said t0 represent orthodox IIin(lnisrn (or the closest ll(ese (cllrivalemt) in the cucrntry, operating lhrcelgh Four regional divisions an(1 local branches. ;3.r Sums� :(tv :uu�se Ilir!dus have heed receptive to a4mmist mmem ents Mlic�h have appeared fern tim v to tirru�. The must significant of these leas been the Inle Samaj :1nau League). founded in India in 1875. Although the rmuvenfc�nt has existed in Guvurta I'm more than tit) +ears. it remains small. Ne%crtheless, it has exerted an influence Dirt of' proportion to its mur11bers, nurimly because it has particular appeal fur the active. educated. and pr,gressive members of the Iliuclu c�omtutuuity. The main theological differeuc�es bek%ven the Arya Samaj and the Semler Marm are threefold. 'I'll(- Arya Samaj refuses lc, accept the basic Sunulun Miami tenet that Gu(1 took buman lone ill the persons c,C limner and Krishna. busing its ubjcc�tiuu on the Vedas. the nu,st ancient sacred literature 0f liu(luisnr; it favor, a c�omsciously rnuuntheistic� fc,rm o1' Iliu(lui mf, denigrating the worship of the Dvity i,t pluralistic m ani(estaticrus; and it (lisntiss(.s Sunalun 1)hunt rites as "mtrn mvr\. substituting simpler Vedic rituals. I'll(- Ar11a Samaj also stresses a comgregatic,nal 4 ocial appruac�h to religion. urging that individr` �etic�isnt and detac�hnu�nl be replaced t l,\ t ird community betterment. reformist group is tit(- l3 /n }ff +tw`A ti (Indian Self -Ilelp Soci(-l +III) Ott" 1 -ce %+ithiu the fold of the Sat,) /I/ oid(.(1 all open breach with it. Its 1 11 themselves to be urthodux Iindus. ,t recognize the exclusive ritual privileges Br�,f,utans amcl have develr,ped their overt c�erenimnes vvhic�h, like those of' the :lrtlu Samaj, alloy\' for more active partic�ipatiom by the congregation. The Bharat Secashrum Satwh tolerates the worship 0f inutges as it usc�fu1 aid ill devotions an(1 presents its o\+n type of ritual only as an alternative to. rather than it replacement for, the orthodox rites. This compromise Imsition has \'von it more supporters than the more "extrem ce Arya Samaj. Signific�anlly, ome of the main trends uf" the reformers inmenu�nh has been to transform the "other- vvorl(lly" asceticism of the traditional religion into it concern with temporal affairs. The inspiratim !;!�hind reformist ethics from the I�eginning has been social rather than theological. According to informed observers, the pattern of religious beliefs of nu,st Guv:uu se Ilindus is it s%�nthesis of some orthodox and some ref mnist teachings, vvitlf few making total c�omrmfittnents that place themf irrevocably On oil(- side or the other. Most c,f the� country's Muslims belong to the orthodox Sunni sect, organized ill Guyana as the !munaltcal Jamaal (Organization of Sunnis). Like `AtAimts elsewlivre. Guyanese Muslims regard the Koran as the literal Word of God, the principal source APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070007 -1 of Islamic doctrine. The Doran is stipplenlentecl as it sonrc�e� of gi idaiwe for orthodox Muslims h% the Hadith.s (Traditions). contemporary accounts of the words ard deeds of the Prophet Xtulcatunlad. Orthodox worship has cluingcd little since the early \luslim era, lien the prescriptions for religu ios observaiwe were set. Foremost among these arc the five acts of religious duty kuowti as the five pillars of faith. The� first of these is the verbal profession of faith in one God.:? llall, and belief it( the prophethood of \luh:uuncad. 'I'll(- sec�oucl relates to prayer, five daily periods of prayer are enjoined by the Doran, with Friday, the Muslim holy clay, being set aside for communal pra\ers in a mosctuc (normally restricted to mines). \InlsgiVing, dad light fasting during the mouth Of Ilanadate. and it pilgrimage to \lecca are the remaining pillars. Little information is available� (,II the degree of observance of the first four pillars by Guyanese \Itlslints. It is k however, that fcwan finauc�ially able to snake the pilgrimage to Mec�c�u. The San nat teal .1atwat claims to represent most of Guyana \luslints, but it( the last two decades it has been challenged bya numberof small X1i1sliIll groups. The only one of sigmific�arlcc is the Ahmadiyya Anjuntam (Ahnrdiya Society). it reformist sect founded it( I879 in the Indian by \lirza Gltulam Minim]. who prodalu, M111 elk to he the person in whom were uuital t6- Christian \lessiah and the \luslin \1andi lit the late 0960's. the Ahmadiyya :1njuynan lmd I'e\\er than -10Madliereuls in ;Ilylttl:l, nustly ill Georgelo\yn and \e\\ :\nisterdam. They differ little from flit orthoclm Stennis in belief and practice. Ifmw%er, they interpret the rule of Jesus somewhat differently, alloy womlen to cuter it special section of the mtosque for I' ric'.,y graver. and permit the translation of the Doran into l.' sh. The fe\\ hundmd Mricans ho have been converted to (stun subscribe to the basic� tenets of the soc�icly; they refer to themselves as Black \luslints. IIindu- Muslifit relations have been generally friendly, largely because of the shared inunigrnt background of the blast Indians :rod the mutual effort ter preserve aspects of F1.1st Indian culture in an ethnically divided society. Minor frictions between the� two faiths hays usually been subordinated to their co Ill Indian interest. lit addition, stntctural similarities in religious ceremonies l ilt organization have enabled Guyanese Ifindcts and M uslims to I some understanding of one another's activities, even though they know little about the content of the relevant beliefs. Differences between 'In \1udim tradition. :u, expected spirihu,l and temporal ruler scho ilIIof establish an reign of righteousness throughout the wort d. the t\\o groups an� incrcasingl\ being described as "differcnces between brothers of the sant( fatlily. :uul as suc�Il they tend to be seen as permissible and alternative forms of religious practice. Iliudte- \luslint cooperation was advillic�ed early in 19T2 when a contnitlee \vas formed to "bring into one bo(ly all religious, cultural, and social organizations of 01y:u!ese East Indiars. General acceptance of the lion- Chrisliau religious groups b\ Christian denoni lil ions slo\y to develop, it reflection of the wide c�tIturallb istitig between the ;'.list ludians and the African I mtur\ of Iitrge unsuccessful missionary effort� both Protestant laud Catholic�, to convert the East Indians to Christianity did little to improve the situation. With goyernmenI eucouragenictit, cousidcrable progress has now been made in wd!!c�i!!g religious minositil." by emphasizing cicnt(�nts of agreement. based on the premise that all of the religions are similar to the extent that they affirm the existence of a Creator. H. Education (U /OU) Despite postindepcndence efforts to revise seboul curriculums and to mode rnize teaching ncethods� the Guyanese C(bicational system ret :phis many outmoded concepts and practices and' reflecting its British orientation. emphasizes traditional academic� studies .it tlle� expel!� ,d .'Illlical am] \�r ,lllllllill 11,,l114111-. Primary -level !t, tction is cxlctllye" 11111 IIIYI \Illt`s til majority of the population /ill) it I'lllllllelll;er\ education. Secondary -level inkt'llelio;l, 11(mv\cr, is limited both yuantilatively all) elnlllitali\el\_ only a sclec�t minority of student ill rrlau ccr rs receive Iigh- duality instruction. All uutllcr number of sludeuls have the opportrtnily to pursue higher education. By U.S. measurcnu�uts, most schools in Guyana are substandard and overcrowded (Figure 1 Must arc also ill- eetuipped and poorly staffed, and few provide training in the skills most needed by Guyana's developing cc�ononly. Because of cosy access at least to primary training. the Guyanese are among the most literate people of South i\merica. Furthermore. the jiteracy rate has been rising� having increased from 7 1ffi of the total population age 13 and over in 19.6 to :shout 86!71 in 1967. Ptmc�tional literacy, however. is low and probably does not cxc�ced field. Many children do not c�omtplctc the 4 years of schooling considered necessary for functional literacy, in rural areas where there is little occasion to read after leaving school. m:uly persons tend to lose their reading skills. Then' is more incentive in urban areas to remain literate, even '5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070007 -1 A1i sres nm i 1 R. FIGURE 21. Typical schools (C) :36 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070007 -1 NW m among those� yVho have gaiu('ei only it partial prinntry education, bee�a(tse literacy is it basic requirement fur entployn,nt in the better paving jobs. As is cuntnort elsewluve ill the World, literacy is higher anong urban residents than arcr g those who live in the c�o(ntrysidv. Beeanse they are a predominantly urban coil,,,tunit'. the Africans in Guyana are alnwst totally literate; the Just Incliaus are it less literate group than the Africans, a ll the Anierindians are the (cast literate people i tile country. N'lost illiterate I?ast Indians, however, are concentrated ill the older age groups; the younger East Indians generally are able to read and write. Increased educational opportunity' for Anerindians also is being reflected in rising literacy among these people. Altlough the 1960 census apparently did not determine levels of literacy, it did ascertain the level of educational attainment of the Guyanese population age 15 and over. Of this segment of the population, 12.95r' had no fornal education, 12. had less than (i years of primary tr aining. 2i.5`(' had 6 or i years of schooling. and ')18.6(' had tenninate(I their education after S or 9 years. 9 years of schooling covering the compulsory sector of education. I.,XCIu(ling the 1.5 of the population age 15 and over for whon the level of e(ucational attainnent %Vas not recorded, only 10.9i'; of the population had received training b,you(1 the primary level in 1960; these inc�lucle(1 i..1`'r Wilo hall completed the secondary cycle and 0. -1 yVho held a university degree. In 19(10, there were only 1,126 uniyersit graduates in Guyana, 925 nen and 198 Women. 1?xcept at the level of higher education an(I among those Who had received no schooling. there %%its little significant difference b,hve,n the sues in tit(- level of educational attainnett (F igure 2). Alnost twice as rttany Woru�rt tar; ncn. ilo%%eyer, had no formal training. The proportion of the total populatitru age 15 and over without any education ranged frun it lo%% of 2.5 in the city of Georgetown to it high of 63.3S(' in Rupununi District. More than two- thirds of the universit gradiw:tes were in the Georgetown or New Arnsterdanl areas. Throughout tile 20th century, and particularly since the end of World War Il, educ�alional opportunity has been increasing in Guyana. During the early 19:30*s, it \Vas estimated that approximately 62(1 of relevant age group was enrolled in primary school; this proportion had increased to about i5''i in the late 19-10*s all(.] to approximately 85ii in the early 1970's. Although in any given school year only about 85 of the relevant age group is enrolled in primary school, the proportion of children actually exposed to some priniary schooling al one tint, or another is believed to approach U)Wi. Largo- numbers of shul,nls attend Educated In a I 0.9 FOreipn t�ft 0s UNVERSRY %V% Sdwat o cerMhcate o No Sdwa Standard 6 Standard 7 a Standard I Stendard 5 Vreppr0101Y A Standard 3 NO EDUCATION n1OUSANM of vasowS MALE 0.3 FEMALE 60 11.1 0.i 0A f" dk 50.7 IhLr 376 A" FIGURE 22. Educational attainment of the population age 15 and over, by sex, 1960 (U/OU) primary sebool for less than the full c�Vele: sons(- attend for it year or tx%o, drop out, and sn linies reenter. there being no rigid age restrictions uu a(Intission �to the schools. Poor duality teaching. irrelevant curricult.nts. it lack of vocational guidance. and financial probl,ns contribute to high attrition at all levels of education. The dropout rate is most pronounced aj the end of the fourth, sixth. and ninth years. Both lb(- strengIIis and the Weaknesses of the present educational system derive larg,ly from policies established by the British during the colonial era. Although the colonial educational system fostered British Values, ctItural forms. au(1 standards of behavior in an alt,npl to unite the diverse racial elements "ithiu Guyanes� soc�iet, its prinar% function Was to train functionaries for the loyVer ranks of Ibe civil service and clerical au(1 ntiuos administrative personnel for the sugar plantations and business and financial houses. Moreover, despite the legal estahlisluncnt of conp(IsLrry sc�booliug in 1876. provisions of the act Were not Vigorously enforced until Well into the 20th century. "I'll(- compulsLrry segment of education in public schools is free. The Guyana Government has attempted since 1966 to nuul(-rnize the educational s%slen, ill, only partial success. Tile stated aim of the Burnbam administra- tion is "to produce in the shortest possible tints, c�ilizens Will adequate skills to steel the counts 's growing needs, and at the san(- lint(- to broaden the scups and to change the content of the c�urriculutn to provide for the total deVeltrpn e,it of each child. Toward this goal, it ne%% c�urric�ulunt %%as introduc APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070007 -1 into st:nte schools beginning in September 19(i;. 'I'lle ne" eurriculuht prt\ides for t-ourses ill S1,auisb and for increased emphasis th bottle ec�omMiles. hatidicrafts, soJv1lC4 tec�lutic�al training, and ph%sic�al education. In addition. attentitu is hov\ being given to agri.ultun and animal husbandr\, partictilarly in schools in the rural areas. Observers believe, ho"e\er, that it \%ill take ht;ut\ \ears to full\ intplehtt�nt these and other reforhs because of hurt atierttic inertia and the lack of trained instructors. The Gtl%'wwse Guverninent has been allocating increasing atuotints to education. tilt� total public expenditure on education haying risen from approxihtatel\ ;$S ntilliot in 19(il to CS2 million in 1970. As it proportion of total go\enunent spetiditig, alloc.atious for education during 1961 ill ranged fehyeeti a Iow of I11.:7`7 196 1 and a high of 15. i t; ('.9(75). Most spending on edileatioll is devoted to recurrent expenses, of wbic�h approxihtatel\ 70`; is absorbed by teachers and administrators' salaries. Although prihutny education continues to r; ciye the hulk (if the nt(me\ spent on ctlucation (70 in NMI. increasing1% I;irgcr ;tnrounts have been allocated ill recent years for sec�on(lar\ schooling, teacher training, and higher education. Fund. allotted to education represent the largest single item of expenditure in the national budget, wit11 spending cn ctlucation approximating Wi of gross donn�stie product. Ill yicv\ of it growing population, however, the goyernna�nl vvM be c�ontpc�Iled to allocate even larger stints in the future hu���I\ to maintain c�urreut levels of access to scftooli ng. TllV num' I of public prinmr\ and all -age schools ruse from n 1939 to 152 in 1965, but schools sponsor"'. 4v> CIkrkti in groups continue to ollImindwr those ('pert?' d 1�a !be government. In 1968, for example, more luxes halt c,I' all primary and all -age schools vyete nt pit gained by denuminalional groups. Other sc�hutris are� operated by sugar companies, mining firths, and other pri\:.tte entities. About half of the iWildentic� scco ndur\ schools are run b\ the government, trite remainder by private interests. Provided tlu�\ meet curricular re(Itiirvinents and other prescribed standards, titnpublic� schools receive government subsidies for teachers salaries, etluip- uu�hl, ;utd plant nuaihtchanc�e. Despite it considerable increase in enrollhchl at both primary anti secondary levels (Figure 23), enrollment is con.�entrated in the prinwr\ grades. During the 1952/5:3 to 1967 /65 period. enrollhurnt in secondary schools expandc(1 more nipidly I -Wr' than that its prihutr} schools (1 155; so that the ratio of primary stiulents to secondary students dropped front 35 FIGURE 23. Primary and secondary enrollme it (U /OU) seru%u.ut\ t :%nt,t.t.%lvvi ;shout 3.:3: 1 to 2.5: I. 'Thus, educational opportuhit\ at the sec�ondar\ level has been exp;cttde(I to ertc�orrtpass it sotrtev \bat larger proportion of those completing the prin lot ry c�\c�le. IIo%%ever, the bulk of all st�c�otidary students have been enrolled in the all -age schools. \v bich base been described b\ observers as the mwt %%astef ll and inefficient sector of the educational s\sleht. 'I'lle Gti\auese educational s\slertt consists of if 6 \ear prinmr cycle and a S 6 or \ear seconday c�yc h- Figure ?-1). The printar\ c�\cic is divided into six grades, kno%\n as Prepiimtor\ A, Preparaton B. and Standards I through 1. ":\11 -age Schools. \%Itic�h are ntunerous in Cu\;uta, offer 9 \e;ars of schooling ;ttt(I cover the period of comptilsor\ attendance (ages (i through 1.1). '1�hv�se schools include Ilie 6 -\ear prinutr\ program and it :3 \car secon(lar\ program (Forms through 111) that is nornall\ terminal. I�:arl\ in 1972. the goveruhertt began replacing the sec�oudar\ program iu the all ag" sc boots b\ "ntultilal"rtl junior sec�ondar\ schools which give 2 or i \ears of general sec�ondar\ education, and lead to entplo\ ovens. to vocational training. or to advanced schooling in various (Ii\ersifivd auras. Secondzir\ schools (as distinguished front the sec�ondar\ program is the ;dl- ag(- schools) are academic� institutions v\hic {t 1(�ad to higher education. All sec�ondar\ schools in Cti\ana provide at least a 5 \t�ar progrmn (Forms I through V). vyhich is it preretlinsite for admission to the Uniyersil\ Of Guyana, but cntl\ if handful offer the a(lditional2 \ears (Forn VI� I.ovver and Upper), which (lualif\ students for entrance into iiniycrsilies in the United kingdom. During the 1960's, lie government attacked the problems of oyererowding and insuffici(�l;t eyuiphu�nt in the nations schools by sponsoring self -help school construction projects and expending substantial stints APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070007 -1 Pit MAtt1 (At�adeflut� st� If( of, r:% ta)I.t.- A11 -age secottdsry I1�1.vtt N :V�P school, a�huul< Total 1452 53...... 61 ,fiLa Ix, 661 1,151 14,x1:, 1456 :i4...... 41 ,(ixa 26,675 5, 135 32, I l0 1461 65 1: 75s 31 700 12, 575 11 275 1465 66...... 131,217 32,04; 15,1x6 1466 67...... 135,017 :32,x71 16,552 14.12:3 1467 6x I:ix, 67 1 :32, 795 16.372 19, 167 \OTE' Excludes set�ondar -h�vu) tt�t�6nival and tut:oioual school enroUntt�n1. Pupils ill a11-39� st�11 hank� 1weli :tl,l,or- ,ioned at�t�,trdirig 10 the It. col :11 tthit�h t hvY Avry t�nn,lh�d. ;shout 3.:3: 1 to 2.5: I. 'Thus, educational opportuhit\ at the sec�ondar\ level has been exp;cttde(I to ertc�orrtpass it sotrtev \bat larger proportion of those completing the prin lot ry c�\c�le. IIo%%ever, the bulk of all st�c�otidary students have been enrolled in the all -age schools. \v bich base been described b\ observers as the mwt %%astef ll and inefficient sector of the educational s\sleht. 'I'lle Gti\auese educational s\slertt consists of if 6 \ear prinmr cycle and a S 6 or \ear seconday c�yc h- Figure ?-1). The printar\ c�\cic is divided into six grades, kno%\n as Prepiimtor\ A, Preparaton B. and Standards I through 1. ":\11 -age Schools. \%Itic�h are ntunerous in Cu\;uta, offer 9 \e;ars of schooling ;ttt(I cover the period of comptilsor\ attendance (ages (i through 1.1). '1�hv�se schools include Ilie 6 -\ear prinutr\ program and it :3 \car secon(lar\ program (Forms through 111) that is nornall\ terminal. I�:arl\ in 1972. the goveruhertt began replacing the sec�oudar\ program iu the all ag" sc boots b\ "ntultilal"rtl junior sec�ondar\ schools which give 2 or i \ears of general sec�ondar\ education, and lead to entplo\ ovens. to vocational training. or to advanced schooling in various (Ii\ersifivd auras. Secondzir\ schools (as distinguished front the sec�ondar\ program is the ;dl- ag(- schools) are academic� institutions v\hic {t 1(�ad to higher education. All sec�ondar\ schools in Cti\ana provide at least a 5 \t�ar progrmn (Forms I through V). vyhich is it preretlinsite for admission to the Uniyersil\ Of Guyana, but cntl\ if handful offer the a(lditional2 \ears (Forn VI� I.ovver and Upper), which (lualif\ students for entrance into iiniycrsilies in the United kingdom. During the 1960's, lie government attacked the problems of oyererowding and insuffici(�l;t eyuiphu�nt in the nations schools by sponsoring self -help school construction projects and expending substantial stints APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070007 -1 LJ I 7 8 9 f0 II 12 13 14 IS 16 17 18 19 i0 21 Normal Entering Age Diploma Course Preparatory Course El Part-time Course Advanced secondary preparation (or higher studies abroad. Courses of indefinite duration. Home Economics of Agricultural Training Technical Institute: Technical Courses Government Technical Institute: Crafts Courses Special Teacher Training Primary Scnool I 2 Degree Courses UNIVERSITY OF GUYANA I 2 3 4 SECONDARY SCHOOL II III IV V VI VI University abroad Lowe UePcr y Secondary Program within All -age School ALL -AGE SCHOOL FIGURE 24. Structure of the educational system, 1970 (U /0U) for ntaleri ;d aids. lict%trcn 1965 and 1965, Illaccs Inr ;ut addilumal 2-S.000 students %%ere Itro%ide(I and 6 1 sehnnl, iillchlditll. st�\rn sccun(larn in \terc hnilt lllrout;h self help Ilrojccts, thcreb coulrihuting sit;nificalItIN to the grncnlnfent go ;Il of prtrtiding facilities fur I(1,(AA additional I)!IIIiIs III I) ,2. Bot\cccn 1966 and Ill 1. ;SI.; million \%io, allocated Inr school c(IIIiI) nIL�nt au(l f;I(�ihtics, iI1(�In(Iiut; CSi(I(1,000 f(Ir Iihr;Iric,. (:511111.000 Inr audio\ isu Il aids. (;55(10,0(1(1 Inr school desks, ;S 150,1100 Inr lit oratories. ;SI(lMOO Iur I) h\sical c III (�atinn. ;Intl (:861 _'.0() 11 Inr Montt� economics and han(Ii(�rafl cyuiItnuvll. Kr 1972 th-se 1)ro14 ranls ha(I IIiiligale(I o%vrcr )\%ding iIntl h: td inlltrrned eOIidiIiuns in s() nte nl' the cnuntr\ s st hn( ls. I)(�spite i if, I)ro\ (-II wi I t in ~)ine itslu�cls of the edI Ica tiflim s..tclll. the shortage of Ir ;IiII(�(I Icacliers remains ac ulc. III 168( ()if I\ :35`f of the 5,121 prilniir\ and all -age s(�hool iustruclors, and l (hail ?T of Teachers Training Nurses Industrial Training (6 months or I year) lll(� 0) sccundiir\ s(Iuull irlstrrlc tws held i t (legrcc in education or had succ�\ conlltlelccl ;fit iipprutcd coarse of llrolcssion ;tl Iraiuint; at a !e;ICher lr,titIin"r cnllcge.:1 major I;rnlmi tion of teacher at the liri,ilar\ Iccl art� rec�rtlitvd idiom t;nidij ;ttittlt Intnl tht� ;ill-age sc�hou;s. 'I'liew rcc�ruils a ne ;IS Ittlltil- (ea the rs tnldcr e\I wrier cr(I i is! ni(�lors for if 1wri Id of I gars. al'tcr \thich lime (het arc cerliliecl a "(illidilied." 11ccenl gotcrnnu tit to ultt;ra(le tea(hcr (g lit lifi(�al if ns inc�lo(e pro tidiiu ��ltttltil- le;ichcrs" ttith III) to 2 gars cal inscr\ ice Iraittint. c:,imn(ling the teacher training facilitic.. and offering if 2- \ciirdiphmla course fur second ;ir\ level tc;Ic�hers the I'oi\ersilt of (;u\an ;I. Thesc and other Itrognitns increased lol:il teacher tr ;lining cnrollrtu�nl front ;iii estinlatc(I 215 in 1968 tc, 660 in I9; I. The gmernnienl offers ntnncrous schol;trsllips. lit\ c\enIptiuns. ;Ind nlher india-vi u�nls to allnic�t indit ideals to the tea ching Itrnlession: nonetheless, the recruitment and ;9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070007 -1 retention of concpetcolt instructors is diffic�ull f,ec�ause of low salaries (mere than hull' of all leachers earn less than G5150 per month) and poor working conditions. General acade!nic studies pn dominate at all l(-\(]s of the educational systenc. Since independence, however, basic vocational subjects hatye been introduced in primary schools, and tec�Itmic�al and vocational courses have been expanded at the Icyc Is of" secondary and higher education. Specialized training ill vorttioual amd technical studies is offered in four public and three private schools. Among these is the guycncnccnt- operated Guyana Industrial Training Center (GITC), establishccl in 1965 near Georgetown. Founded with assistance franc AID and AIFLD, (ITC offers 6 -month and 12- nonth courses in carpentry, masonry. Plutmbimg, welding, and other specialities, and graduates some 150 students annually. A few private commercial schools in Georgetown provide instruction in typing, shorthand, and bookkeeping. Opportunities to pursue higher educ�aliool in Guyana it re Iincited. The L'ni\e, sit\ of Guyauut, established in 1963, offers -sear diplonut programs in such fields as architecture, cdurtiun, engineering, nu�dical tc(!hrcolog), public administration, and tciccon IMMications, and -1 -year degree programs in the arts and the natural and soc�iai sciences. The Government Technical Institute an(! the :(I\ana School of Agriculture also offer some postsecondary courses. Both entities are scheduled to merge with the University of Guyana, becoming the fac u:tics of engineering and agriculture� respectively, bolt bec�ausc of a shortage of funds, the merger has not vet taken place. The University ol' Guyana oc�c�(Ipies it plant opened in February 1970 at 'I urkeyen. cast of Georgetown. Since moving to the new quarters. the university has initiattcd a fcv\ day Classes, but most offerings are given earl\ in the evening. A majority of students, oI' v\hone there were I, 168 in 1970%71, attend classes on it part tint(' batsis. -lost fac!!Ity members �there were 70 in 1970 �also serve only part time� being forced by economic necessity to nrtirctain at full -lints job o(Itsi(le� the university comuunnit\. Because the graduates of those secondary schools offering 7 -years of training study abroad if they are financially able, the University of Guyana enrolls nmink students with bolt 5 years of econdary schooling. As it result, standards at the university arc low. During the late 196O's, al last 1.000 Guyanese were pursuing higher echtcation abroad annually. In 1968, about one -third of these were thc� recipients of govencnu�nt scholarships and were following courses of study not offered in Guyana. Most Guyanese slu(I\ing abroad attend universities or colleges in the united Kingdom, Canada, or the United States. I. Cultural expression (U /OU) During most c,l' the lung colonial period, such limited cultural expmssio n as existed in the area w,I the cxdusi\c dountin of' the small group ol' ruling Fim pears. The (,:uticc of slavery and the later indenture system c�onslitolled it pov\crfoll barrier to rcatiyc (Icyclopnu�nl an!o!g the subseryicut peoples to v\honc c(lmc�ation was almost universally denied. British missionary efforts anuntg the Al'ric�aI!s ill the IM11 century. emphasizing the English language and British yalucs. laid the basis for the subse(joenl orientation of Guyanese cultural expression. With few exceptions. writers, poets, and artists have temle(I to imitate British models rather than to develop f that are peculiarly their own. Tlw country's atulhors have heen serious(\ han(licuppccl b\ the lincited local audience fur their v\orks. There arc I'cv\ domestic publishing facilities, and the newspapers and nagazimes Kaye clone little to support Guyanese literary cmdeayor. As it result, local writers have generally tunwd to the United Kim, m am have taken up residence there. 'I'll(- Burnhac administration acknowledges the problem anal ha pledged itself to lake measures which will create an atmosphere that \\ill viwourage those v\itll creative talent to remain in Guyana. Only it handful of :u\ancsc have gained it reputation in literature. Edgar A. \littelholzer. v\ho conln!ittcd suic�i(le in I ?nglancl ill 1965. \y its the foremost of' th A light skinned African, he was ncuch tronl,led by problems stenuccing (roue mixcd heredity. IIis first novel. Corenlllnc Thunder. published in 1911 while he \\as still living in Guyana. is considered the first !major v\ork of' "\Pest Indian!" literature. IIis last. A Sicarlhl Boy, wits writte ;I in 196�'6. During the intervening years he published M other books. -lost critics cite as his best v\ork 'I'Ih( Life and Oca Ili of :illlvia. a penetrating solely oi' (.et)rgelovyII soc�icty with its subllctics and color snobbery, and what the author called "lhc tangled mass of c�liyucs and clans and subdans." Also regarded as outstanding is the Ka\v\anu trilogy: Children of hayicana. The llarrou of lluherlu.s, and Kallacana Blood. "These� novels follovy the fortunes of it single fancily through more tham! 300 \cars of Cuya:.,�sc history. Olhcr recognized c�onlencporary writers are ;Nilson larris. Jan Carew, E. R. Brailhwaitc. and (:fcrislopher Nic�oly. all of whom ac�hicved prominence in the I960's. In his writings. I larris fre(Itientl\ deals with the efforts of the individual to nu�el the cfcallcnges of nature :urd to establish nu�aningful c�onununicatlion with his fellows. Among his better known works are Palace of Ili( Peacocks, Then Secret Ladder, a Tht APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070007 -1 Fate of the Sc�arecroc. "1'110 tltc�nc of Jan Carew's novels is the struggle of the N�oung to rise ahoy(' the disadvantages of poverty and racial discrimination. I II Peter ,11ida,s', (:crew's setting is the interior of Guyana, and it, The Wild Coast the background is it coastal Village. I lis more recent works treat the same theme in foreign settings. E. R. Braithwaite is hest known for To Sir with LON', all autobiographical study of race relations based on the author's experiences as it teacher in a London school. To Sir cith Loge received international recognition and has Fecn muulc ito a motion pic�tur0. 'I'll(- work of Christopher Nicole, excmPlificd nruinly by it 1962 novel, Ratoon, is regarded its of critical sigmificanc�c ill that it appears to show some progress in tit(' dcyelopm('nt of it freer "Guyanese" stvle. Ratoon centers on the \lahaica slave revolt of 182.3. The small, integrated literati of Georgetown are not Yet a potent force in Guyam('se life, but semc members of this group are exerting an increasing influence in their efforts to create it greater sense of cultural self srlfficiency. working to develop it pride in the folk traditions and modes of artistic expression of the various ethnic groups. Among their leaders is Arthur James Seymour, it sometime professor at the University of the West Indies in Jamaica. Poet, critic, and former editor of the literary journal Kyk- over -al Look Over All). Seymour advocates it (listinctiyc local literature, although h(' feels that the culture of Europe must continue to play 1 part in its growth. I lis writing deals with c�oloniai history. Amerindian folklore. and the 1 )ell"tY of the GUyam'sc landscape; h�pical of his work is a poem entitled There Runs a 17ream. Another poet of not(' identified with the group is Nlartin Carter, it onetime leader in tit(' PPP who served for a period ill the Burnham Cabinet. Like most C:uyane'se poets, he extols the merits of his natiy(' land, particularly emphasizing its physical aspects. lie also attempts to evoke it Setlse of national awakening. his collection, Nett' Day, cnyisions better times for his countrymen. Until the early 1900's. Guyanese art was doninated by British, Dutch, and French artists living in the colony. The first Guyanese to become known in the� field �vas Samuel Brooditage n. it sculptor and illustrator. 'Thereafter. it small circle led by the late E. R. Burrows begitrl to produce native sc�('nes� landscapes, markets, decaying slave (luarlers. and mas(prerade dancers. A painter, sculptor, and art teacher, Burrows worked throughout his life to promote Guyanese art, encouraging young wot11(I -be artists through the Working Peoples Art Society, Which he founded. Prim -.rily (('cause of the efforts of the soc�ietY, Painting has achieved considerable popularity� anteing the urban pupulatiou, but the eluality is not high. Like their literary counterparts, Most of the promising contemporary artists have chosct' to work outside Guyana. Promliucnt among the expatriates are Denis \1'illianls and Aubrey Williams (unrelated), \yhu have been living abroad for noun gars, mostly in F,nglun(l. Denis Williams was the first Gilyam se artist to he awarded it British Council scholarshil. Both rte,, have concerned themrselyes with the use of abstract svmhols to depict dramatic elemental forces. Amung the artists who have chosen to remain in Guyana are Finerson Saruuels, Cyril Kallhlti, David Singh, Alvin Bo\ynrau, Stanley Greaves, and Ronald Savory. 'I'll(- most productive painter in this group is Savory, ern impressionist. Sometimes termed "the artist of tit(- hinterland. he draws his inspiration from the savannas, forests, and mountain ranges of the interior. In recent years, the Guyanese Government has sought to encourage local artistic expression by sponsoring an annual National Arts Festival and by promoting participation in such regional cultural activities as the Caribbean Festival of Creative Arts. A formal theater tradition has existed it, C :uyana since the 1840's when i t public hall was built in Georgetown fur the purpose oi presenting dramatic entertainment. Sincr that time, local groups hays performed plays, operettas, and musical comedies and biwe sponsored appearances by companies from Europe and the Americas. Because of the sc�arc�ih ol dramatic writing in Guyana, the great ntuljorik. of theatrical productions over tit( years have been of foreign origin. The only Guyanese dramatist of significunc�e has been Norman Cameron. A mathe- matics teacher who wrote both prose and poetry, he turned to writing plays in the I9ti0's and subseclucntly authored several full length dramas, including Balthaser. Adoniza. and jamaic�a Joe. Local interest in the theater was renewed in 1957 when a Theater Guild was establish('d in an effort to promote greater participation ill the dramatic arts. The guild stages it number of major plays each year. conducts an annual playwriting competition, and sponsors countrywide drama festivals. It also maintains it lil rary and workshops. 'I'ite most popular form of cultnnrl expression is music. particularly calypso. \lany Guyanese enjoy singing, and virtually every village has one or more groups arrlong the younger generation wilo meet regularly to sing to the aceonlpa Ili nrent of banjos, guitars, drums, and maracas. \zany villages have a local calypso specialist who makes up topical songs, generally of a bawdy nature. Because of the national 41 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070007 -1 te11denc�v to gossip, scandalous happenings it re fre�(Itreut s111)jt.cts. Altftottgh still poorl% developed, serious nusic�al expression anwng Guyanese has been enhanc�el over the past 30 gars b% the fortuatio, of several music organizations and orchestras, ;tut increase in music� ;tl activities ill the schools, and the entcrgene e of it rtltmber of composers. Nuleworth% anu,ug the composers is Philip Pilgrim. whose- best known work is it 19 1 1 musical interpretation of Arthur 1 .111les Sevmuntr's the Ler;e,d of Kaiclenr. Others whe. have gained recognition in tit(. field of ntusic�al composition arc Ilugh Sant. Valerie 11odwav, florace L. Taitt. Cecile Nol raga, and Walter f ranker. Miring the I960's, the founding of a National Symphom Orchestra and it Ceorgetowtt Philharmonic stimulated interest in the classical concert tradition, but by 19 both were in decline. "traditional folk music is still heard and, in fact� is becoming incrcitsingly popular as a result of it gro\\ ing sense of* pride in the Cuvanese heritage. One tvpe of musical rendition utiyuc to Cuvuna is the yu(�h- (/,el(. which adapts Western verse to African chants and is sung in the local English patois. :ntottg the Fast Indian population, the traditional music of India has been kept alive. Mainly b\ Brahman priests. and is frequently performed in the course of religions ceremonies and festivals. Although its nu lactic patterns have been considerably modified by Western 11tusic�al influences, its East Indian c�harac�teristies still predominate. The orly information available with respect to native ,1nerindian music concerns the various instnunents in use. The most c�omuuon of these is it drum made of skills stretched across a hollow section (,f tree trunk and bound to it by rawhide thongs or heavy vines. Another is it crude flute constructed froth the long grasses abundant in the savannas. Gourd rattles, c�onchshells, whistles, an(I panpipes are also employed. Two special instruments fashioned of c�lav are regarded as sacred objects among certain tribes. These are the hol,to. a large, bulky wind instrument. and the taruna. which resembles it flute. Both are used in indigenous religious rites. Folk dances among the Anwrindians often imitate the flight of it bird, with the� participants, usually voeng men. dressed in feathers. Cuyanese folk arts are lintf!e(I. The ;lfric�an., appear to have lost whatever capabilities they 11nty once have had as artis,,ns. and while some 1�:ast ludians are engaged in the traditional crafts of India, this sphere of activity is fairly limited. In it few 1� :List In(lian corrtntunities the art of altar painting is still practiced, as is jad work, which consists of embroidering velvet with gold and silver thmad. The most important East Indian craft is the making of delicate filigree jewelry. 12 carried on b% at fey% golchntiths an