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�rwa�w a -r CONFIDENTIAL 95A /GS /TT Guyana June 1973 NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY CONFIDENTIAL NO FOREIGN DISSEM APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070009 -9 NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY PUBLICATIONS The basic unit of the NIS is the General Survey, which is now published in a bound -by- chapter format so that topics of greater per- ishability can be updated on an individual basis. These chapters� Country Profile, The Society, Government and Politic:., The Economy, Military Geog- raphy, Transportation and Telecommunications, Armed Forces, Science, and Intelligence and Security, provide the primary NIS coverage. Some chapters, particularly Science and Intelligence and Security, that are not pertinent to all countries, are produced selectively. For small countries requiring only minimal NIS treatment, the General Survey coverage may be bound into one volume. Supplementing the General Survey is the NIS Basic Intelligence Fact book, a ready reference publication that semiannually updates key sta- tistical data found in the Survey. An unclassified edition of the factbook omits some details on the economy, the defense forces, and the intelligence and security organizations. Although detailed sections on many topics were part of the NIS Program, production of these sections has been phased out. These pre- viously produced will continue to be available as long as the major portion of the study is zonsidered valid. A quarterly listing of all active NIS units is published in the Inventory of Available NIS Publications, which is also bound into the concurrent classified Factbook. The Inventory lists all NIS units by area name and number and includes classification and date of issue; it thus facilitates the ordering of NIS units as well as their filing, cataloging, and utilization. Initial dissemination, additional copies of NIS units, or separate chapters of the General Surveys can be obtained directly or through liaison channels from the Central Intelligence Agency. The General Survey is prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency and the Defense Intelligence Agency under the general direction of the NIS Committee. It is coordinated, edited, published, and dissemi- nated by the Central Intelligence Agency. WATINI \C This document contains information affecting the national defense of the United States, within the meaning of title 18, sections 793 and 794 of the US code, as amended. Its transmission or revelation of its contents to or receipt by an unauthorized person is prohibited by law. CLASSIFIED BY 019641. EXEMPT FROM GENERAL DECLASSIFI- CATION SCHEDULE OF E. O. 11652 EXEMPTION CATEGORIES 5B (1), (2), (3). DECLASSIFIED ONLY ON APPROVAL OF THE DIRECTOR OF CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070009 -9 WARNING The NIS is National Intelligence and may not be re- leased or shown to representatives of any foreign govern- ment or international body except by specific authorization of the Director of Central Intelligence in accordian-e with .he provisions of National Security Council Intelligence Di- rictive No. 1. For NIS containing unclassified material, however, the portions so marked may be made available for official pur- poses to foreign nationals and nongovernment personnel provided no attribution is made to National Intelligence or the National Intelligence Survey. Subsections and graphics are individually classified according to content. Classification /control designa- tions are: (U /OU) Unclassified /For Official Use Only (C) Confidential (S) Secret APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070009 -9 This chapter was prepared for the NIS by the Defense Intelligence Agency. It includes a con- tribution on airfields from the Defense Mapping Agency, Aerospace Centel, and a contribution on merchant marine from the Department of the Navy. Research was substantially completed by January 1973. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070009 -9 CONTENTS This chapter supersedes the iransporta- tion and telecommunication coccralue in the cneral Survey data! July 1969. A. Appraisal 1 Limited transportation facilities confined chiefly to coastal lowland area. Waterways only surface connection with adiaccnt countries. Contributions of transportation and telecom systems in times of military emergencies.. B. Strategic mobility 1 Contributions of transportation and telecom systems in times of military emergencies. C. Railroads 2 Characteristics of small and unimportant rail system. D. Highways 3 EAtent and characteristics of the highway system and administration thereof. Development policies and plans. Vehicle registrations and sources of supply. CONb1DENTIAL No YOREIGN DISSEM APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070009 -9 E. Inland waterways Extent and features of the inland waterway sys- tem. Tabulation of characteristics of principal waterways. F. Ports Significant features of Georgetown, the only major port. G. Merchant marine Characteristics of the single major unit in the merchant marine. Fig. 1 Characteristics of principal inland waterways (table) Fig. 2 Port of Georgetown photo) Fig. 3 Selected airfields table) ii Page Page 4 H. Civil air 7 Civil air a major means of access to regions not served by other media. Member of ICAO; formal agreement only with United States. 6 I. Airfields 8 Characteristics of air -iaciliiies system. Tabulation of characteristics of leading airfields. 7 J. Telecommunications 10 Characteristics of telecom system. Planned im- provements to the system. FIGURES Page Page Fig. 4 General telecorn patter: (rnap) 10 5 7 Fig. 5 Terrain and Transportation 8 (rnop) follotcs 11 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070009 -9 Transportation and Telecommunications A. Appraisal (C) The linnited transportation facilities of Guyana ark confined chiefly to tl coastal lowland area, particularl\ in the vicinity of Gcorgetown, the coentrv's commercial center and only major Mort (Pigur(� 5). A sparse population has not warranted expanding conun4nnications in the difficult terrain of the interior. Inland waterways anti civil air transport are the only mu�ans of access to large parts of the c�ouutrv. '1'(�iec�omnuications are significont in their role of tying together all areas of the nation. particularly by nu�ans of the radiotelephone network. W'aterways provide the only surface transportation connections with adjacent coentries. The boundary with Surinam and I.-rge portions of the boundary with Venezuela are formed by navigable streanns. Inland and coastal shipping arc the principal nu�ans of transportation: the major rivers a-e navigable by snnall oceangoing vessels for up to too miles inland. Rail transportation is of uninor importanee. The two (neonnee�te�d lines total but 103 miles, and one of the lines. IS miles long, will probable be abandoned in 1975. TIT lines do not compete with other tm nsportation modes but serve is a limited sense to complencent Iighway and waterway transport. The hig!wa\ system, underdeveloped and poorly integrated, is inadequate. Large areas are virtually roadless, zu:d, because of low deign standards, most routes are incapable of supporting and increases in traffic. Ilowevvr, highway transport does provide short -haul se rvice s bet-wcen agricultural areas and marketplaces and essential feeder services between interio: mines and timber- producing areas and inland waterway facilities. The importance of civil aviation has gro vii steadily. Development of mining regions in r� P(nntainops central Guyana and the cattle industry in tropical grassland grazing areas, where some settlements were formerly supplied only onc�c or twice a year via jungle trail, has greatly increased with the introduction of air transportation. Although most of the civil air activity is c:nicentrated in the Georgetown area, airfields are situated in almost all parts of the country. Georgetown is also the center o. tcleconnunication (telecom) activities: all of the cotitArv radiobroadcasl an(1 international facilities are here. The limited nce(ls if govennu�nt and private enlerpri.w ate mlvquatel met. Wire and radio -rela\ networks radiate frorn the capital to other important localitie!,. The remaining area is totally dcpenc nt cm scattered fixe(l uud mobile radio facilities. The most important nu�(lium is the domestic radioconmnunic�ation network, although the radio -relay network handles a greater volilinc of traffic. Administration o1 transportation and telec�onn- nnunic�ations is accomplished b\ subordinate organizations of the (Ministry of \Works an(1 Concnmieations. Innprovenents to the telecom systenn are underway. and a large :;tale progran of highwaay developnu�lit and innprovcnienl is being implemented. Planned improvements to other transport ncdia are minor. B. Strategic mobility (C) The support of military operations, except in the coastal lowlands, would he difficult_ Depths in the tidal reaches of the important rivers would allow the passage of oceangoing essels carryijg military supplies and ectuipment across the coastal belt. and. in Bonne instances� the riyrrs would permit militar landing craft to penetrate farther inland. E,xcepl for the Georgetown� Skeldon and Georgetown� Linden highways, most roads are in poorc�ondition and would be uuabie to support sustained military tr affic. The two short unconnected single -track rail lines maid also be inadequate in military operations. There are no international connections via railroad or highway. Georgetown, lbe only major port, is adaptable to military use, but access would he restricted by a bar at the month of the Demerara River. The only ship of 1,000 g.r.t. or over in the Guyana merchant marine is a -16 -year -old converted tanker that has a service speed of to knots. Four of Guyanat's 102 airfields have paved runways, but only Timu�hre International Airfield could support sustained jet craft operations. The two Caribous and APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070009 -9 four')(:-:3's of t Guyana Airways :orporation could be used for reconnaissance, search and re and minor police func�tious, but information is not available as to whether the number of civilian Guyanese pilots is adequate to operate the� aircraft. The telecon system could pr-! id,,- linited support for military operations. However. control facilities are concentrated in and round (:(-orgetoxyn, and vulnerability ill the area is high. C. Railroads (C) The railroads, totaling 10:3 route miles and consisting of two sugle -track unconnected goyern- inent -owned lines, play a minor role ill the� national econontx thev make no international connections. The West Coast Railroad, running between Vreed (-n Hoop and Parika, is an 18-milt- :3'6" narreny -gage common carrier operated by the Transport and Harbors Department of the Ministry of Works and Communications. The second line. TO" gate, extends 85 miles from Wismar and Linden oil tl,c Demerara River to Ituni. Primarily cc mining inn�, it was originally owned and operated by t'. u� Demerara Bauxite Co. (DEV1BA), but in ;oly 1971 the government nationalized the company and railroad. The fill(- is now operated by the govern m-tit under the Guyanc: Bauxite Company (GUYBAU). The flat topography of both areas presents no restriction to tit(- lines. GUYBAU employs about 150 people: personnel figures are not available for the West Coast line. Unskilled workers, who are available in adequate numbers, recei%c some on- the -job training, but there is a shortage of professional and clerica! personnel. 'I'll(- level of employee competence is logy for the West Coast line and fair to poor for GUYBAU. Ntimerous irrigation canals and watercourses in tit(- coastal plain over which the West Coast line operates necessitate a large it timber of bridges and culverts. The line has 95 bridges, which are primarily of the girder type. `lost of the small(- structures are concrete culverts that have reinforced concrete fl The longest bridge in Guyana, it combination 770-foot rail highway open -deck structure, spans the Demerara River between Lincl(-n and Wismar on the GUYBAU line. Both rail lines operate under the absolute manual block system and its(- the staff or ticket train control method. Telephone and ;:�legraph provide cotn- ntunrcations. The West Coast line uses diesel and gasoline locomotives, which are generally in fair to poor condition. TI e� diesels art- of U.5., British, and Cauadi.u manttfac�ture. The diest-lixed GUYBAU lint- hit units of U.S. and British ntawiloc�ture in good condition. West Coast rolli ig stock is generally old and in poor conditient but is adequate in quantity. Four axlt- units predominate amour; the t%vo three and four -axle passenger cars, and two -axle wooden t nits predomi- nate among sitnilarly t-yeripped freight cars. The freight cars have� an estimated capacity of 7 short torts. All units have side buffers, center were\ couplings, and Westinghouse ailhrak(-s. ditch of the egttiptneut is of British manufacture: but some units Kaye been bwilt locally on imp rted franes, and others \y :�rte obtained in 1945 from Bermuda when the goyenuneut railroad there was closed. GUYBAU rolling stock consists almost entirely of steel ore hoppers of I short tons capac�i(. in good condition and equipped with Westinghouse airbrakes. The� i'ollo\ying is it 1970 equipment inventor\ WEST COAST lilt. GUYBAU till. Locoutotiers: Die-sel 8 :37 Gasoline 3 V Rolliu- stock: Frei Lllt 52 tl�IG The West Coast repair facility. in Vreed ell Hoop. has locomotive sheds, maintenance shops, and a roundhouse. 1'h(- facilities are adequate for current requirements. but efficiviie\ is questionable c�onsidcr- ing the unusually long lints required to make repairs (3 months to 1 year for mayor locomotive r 'I'll(- GUYBAU railroad has adequate terminal facilities: its repair facilities are at Linden. Fuel for fit(- West Coast line is imported and probably stored at Vreed cn I loop: fit(- water supple is a.:egrraty and is also stored at Vreed en I loop. Data for the GUIBUA railroad arc not available. '['h( position of the railroads in x;rryana is tenuous. Service on the 61 -mile standard -gage W8 East Coast Railroad. rtutning between Georgetown and Rosignol, was discont nucd in June 1972. and the track is being disntantivd. Traffic formerly handled on this line llow moves by highway. The West Coast Railroad is in generally poor condition, virtually no maintenance haying been accomplished since 1960. The coastal highway in this area is being improved, and upon completion of th(- work the rail line is to be dismantled, probably by 1975. The GUYBAU line is in good condition and is regularly maintained. Since 1969, facilities in both APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070009 -9 Linden and Ituni have keen expanded and improved and the line capacity increased. Most of the business of the West Coast line, which operates at a loss, is passenger traffic; freight nusyenu ut consists primarily of sugar, rice, forest products, and fuel oil. Ahout nine passenger trains are run daily, primarily to transport workers cunt over 1,000 school children. Passenger trains are seldom on scltedttle, and because of inadequate ecluipnu�ut maintcnancc, an adequzulc number of cars is not available for service. The GUYBAU line operates linited conunou- carrier service bolt depends primarily upon the movement of ore to river ports. k daily aver:,cgc of 250 freight cars is hauled from Ituni to Linden. Passenger service consists of four trips per week to Ituni and daily nuts to nearer points. The Nest Coast Railroad uses flat bottomed 70- pound- per -yard T- section rail in 30- and 45 -foot kmgths. Tics are focally available and are either c�reosc'ted softwood or untreated hardwood spaced at 1,9:36 per mij'.. Ballast is burnt ^arth and crushed seashell, of which there are adequate. easily accessible local supplies. Grades out the lines are almost negligible, the maximtm being 0.6o flowever, train lengths are restricted by relatively short passing tracks (415 to 745 feet) located at an average distance of 5 miles. 'The line has it maximum axleload of 12.6 short tons and a minimum radius of curvature of 957 feet and for most of its length is on embankments above flood level. Traffic interruptions nrty he caused I >x� severe rainfall and seasonal flooding of the entire coastal area. The CUYBAU railroad also uses 70 -pound rail in 30- and 45 -foot lengths. Locally procured tics are mttreated hardwood and arc spaced at an estimated 2,600 per mile; ballast is crushed stone. Grades do not exceed L(Kc, the minimums radius of curvature is 717 feet, and the rmaximurm axleload is 15 short tons. D. Highways (C) The pattern of Guyana's highway system is characterized by disconnected and dead -end route segments. The greatest density of roads is in tile northeastern part of the country, centering on Georgetown, the capital and principal urban area; sparse isolated networks mainly trucks �in tilt� northwestern, central, and southwestern regions form the remainder of the system. The main road extends along the Atlantic coast from Charity on tit(. Pomeroon River to Skeldon on the Cotrrantvne River. "Three unbridged rivers on this road �the Esscquiho, Demerara, and Berbic�e �are crossed by ferry. Several branch roads extend inland it short distance, but the lunged, and ouly road of signific�auc�e, is the bituminous- surfac�cd highway, c�onrpleted in 19(i8, from Georgetown to Linden. 'Phis road provides access to Tim vhri International Airfield. I'll(- only other road serving the interior is t;e Bartica- Vlandia road. "There are many miles of earth roads in the Rupttnuni saya!nas1 but tie\ are not connected to the coasted road system. Guyamu has 1,450 miles of roads, including maliv motorable tracks and a consparatively snutll nunsber of private roads constructed b\ slitting. agricultural, and timber interests to serve their own needs. 01' this total, 580 miles are surfaced; 290 stiles are paved, and 290 miles are surfaced with gravel, laterite, or bauxite. 'I'll( renutirting mileage is unsurfaced: 3.30 stiles of the unsurfaced roads have improvements snc�h as grading and drainage, and 540 miles are umimproved tracks. There are no road connections with neighboring countries. Most roads are either single lane throughout or have some narrow stretches. The best roads, which have 22- foot bituminous surfaces, are the coastal route from Georgetown to Skeldon and the highway from Georgetown to Linden. Bas. courses on the bituminous surfaced roads are cithcr crushed stone, gravel, or bauxite. in general only tic above nurnlioned bituminous surfaced roads have shoulders; tile\- are 5 to 5 feet wide. Owing to inadecfuute tmsintertanc�e and the adverse effects of rainy weather, many roads are in poor condition. Drainage facilities, especially, are ire need of repair. Information on the total number of highway bridges is not available; however, there are numerous structures on the coastal plain .where drainage and irrigation canals abound. Nllosl bridges are 25 feet or less in !cngth and are either of timber -beam, concrete- beam, or concrete -slab construction. There are 15 bridges over 100 feet long, all of which are of steel, reinforced- concrete, or timber construction or combinations of these. materials. One of these, a 770 foot single -lane comb ?nation rail and highway bridge with a 90 -foot lift span, crosses tie Demerara River at Linden. Most steel bridges have deck -truss spans. Concrete bridges have either beam or deck- girder spans. Most structures have unlimited vertical clearances. Load capacities are estimated to he from 10 to 20 short tons on the steel and cones to druchmcs, but many of the snuiller bridges have capacities of 7 short tons or less. The road system has no tunne�Is. and there are few fords. r3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070009 -9 Responsibility for Constriction and nmiutenance of the pufilic romis rests with the Roads Division of the Ministry of Works and Comim mications. However. because of limited financial resources, some major road development projects are being ac�cotrtplishcd Iw a "self help plan. Under this Man, labor is furnished by civilian volunteers and the Guyana Defense Force (GDF). The civilian voiunteers .work for I week without compensation except food, lodging, and transportation. Naintenance activities are not performed on a regularly scheduled basis but only as necessary to keep roads open. 'Maintenance work consists mainly of working the unpaved roads to remove ruts and corrugations and patching potholes in the bituminous roads. Unskilled labor is plentiful, but there is it need for competent technicians and engineers. Construction and maintenance proble its arise from the lack of suitable construction materials. Chiefly stone and gravel. and the� damaging effect of rains upon the poor quality surfaces. Some rock is available from interior quarries, but the high cost of transporting it to crushing plants !year the c�oas has limited its use. Ample supplies of timber for v.,e in bridge construction are available locally, but hitut�ien. portland cement, and steel most he imported. Chief sources are the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. Available construction equipment, such as bitumen distributors, compactors, bulldozers. and rock crushers, is inadequate for present needs. The government favors highway development to the interior to encourage econonnic development in the sparsely settled area. Because of financial difficulties these: projects are to be accomplished by the "self help" plan. A road now under construction betw( Nlandia and Annai is to join the sparse network of earth roads in the 11upunoni area. It is planned to improve the earth road from Annai to Lethcnt oil the Brazilian border. A planned connection between Linden and the Bit rtica� Vlandia road west of Rockstone is to provide it through route from Georgetown to Brazil. Clearing of the section between Mandia and Annai was completed ill early 97 2. Completion of the road and bridges will he left to the GDF, and civilian volunteers will he assigned to other projects. Future plans and investment in the transport sector are to be determined by the transport planning unit recently established under the Ministry of Economic Development. Loans recently approved by international development organizations for it 3 -year development program are to be used for improvement of about 3.1 miles of roads in the densely populated area west of Georgetown, feasibi studies of about 200 miles of roads, and detailed engineering plans of about 100 miles of roads. 4 Hindrances to traffic. aside from the man\ narrow roadways, are five ferry crossings (three ou the Charit� Skeldon coastal route), sharp turns. narrow streets, marrow and lov.- capacity bridges it few fords, and sharp cun-cs and steep grades ou some inland routes. During the rainy seasons most roads are impassa!rle in places or difficult to travel. Roads situated in the low -lying coastal plain are subject to periodic inundation from high tides or flooded rivers. In the dry season excessive dust conditions pre wail om the unpaved roads, chiefly on those with eartl,-clay surfaces. Guyana has fvw highway transport firms o f any significant size. Most passenger and freight serk�ic�e is provided by owner operated vehicles. The larilest bus and truck firms are located in Georgcto two companies operate it norther of trucks and attinral- drawn conveyances over various routes on it nonscheduled basis. The largest bus ntpany offers scheduled services within Ceorvetcwn and to nearby areas. A single goycrnncnt operated highway transport service located in Barlic�a carries passengers. freight, and mail to interior rotting districts. Among the items hauled by trucks are sugar products, rice and other foodstuffs, bauxite, and timber. Traffic is growing hot is still light: the greatest volume of, vehicular traffic is generated on roads in the coastal region, prin lit rily between Georgetown and \ew A mtsterdamt. In 1990, motor vehicle registrations totaled 22,7 units and covered ;r? 095 passenger cars. -1 :3i i trucks, and 2- buses. However. registration figures include marry vehicles no longer in service� and the actual numbers in service are c�omiderably less. In geiwo al. the condition of motor vehicles is poor. Wi pair facilities and supplies of spare parts are inadequat- All automotive equipment is imported. Over the last 5 years between I and !.700 vehicles per year were imported. The United Kingdom is normally the source of most imports; the remainder come from the United States. West Germany, Canada. France, and Japan. E. Inland waterways (C) Some 3.700 miles of navigable inland waterways provide the major routes penetrating to the mineral and agricultural centers sleep in the interior. Freight carried on the waterways consists mainly of sugar. bauxite�, manganese�, lumber, and rice for export, and imported foodstuffs, machinery and manufactured goods. As in neighboring countries, the inland waterway fleet and facilities are barely adequate for present requirements. Local demands dictate the necessity of improvements and construction of facilities along the waterways. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070009 -9 The principal waterways, the 11 ssequibo, Demarara, and Berhice, and their larger tributaries carry the hulk of the waterway traffic. The inland waterways, larger unimproved natural streams, it re well distributed. Ilowever, it large part of the total navigable mileage c onsists of upriver reaches considerably obstructed by natural de:. and numerous rapids. Navigation across the coastal lowlands, which extend inland for from 60 to 100 miles, can be achieved on most of the rivers by small oceangoing vessels. Navigation above the coastal lowlands is limited to shallow -draft vessels such as launches and native craft. Although portaging around mane impassable rapids and falls is necessary, the streams do afford transport routes into remote areas. Characteristics of principal inland waterways are listed in Figure I. A network of s1w1low irrigation canals is located within the coastal belt; many of the canals are utilized for shipping agricultural products to markets and mills. FIGURE 1. Characteristics of principal inland waterways (C) \A %I t: Demerara River Improved stream..... Berbice River ....fill NACn- UAltl.t: n.F mvrn .II des 6 Waini Ricer, Mora Passage, Improved streams and appror Barima Ricer, Kaituma Ricer. passage. Iii The west hank of the Conrant forms the eastern boundary of Guyana, but the river itself lies within Surinam. Guyana has navigation rights along the waten\a, which is navigable by coastal vessels for about 60 notes. The falls and rapids, \whic�h restrict navigation to short reaches on navy of the rivers, are the chief traffic� interruption factors. 'I�ransportalion into numv regions is ac�complislwd by frequent portages or by shooting the rapids, it practice involving serious hazards to passengers and cargo. The rivers are encumbered with debris, and navigation after dark is not advisable. Increased %water levels during the long rung season from May through August and the shorter period of December and January. -according to locale. extend the limits of na\igabilit\ on many of the rivers and facilitate negotiation of rapids by river stemuers and launches. The narrowness of the channels on several of the streams prevents some of the large \esscls from turning, around: for this reason the\ go astern for SAVE naArr 1.11' I I W Feel mm i W Essequibo Ricer Natural stream....... iU till nu Data not uvuiluble. REMARKS 15 At high tide maritime vessels (-:in enter the Demerara Inver and navigate to Lin- den. Shallow-draft ricer steamers ascend the ricer for about 110 miles. and launc�hrs navigate to cicinitY of mile 1311. A new bridge with a vertical lift span crosses the ricer at linden: de- pending on the tide. underbridge clear- ance caries from 20 to 27 ft. when span is raised. 1.1 At high tide oceangoing vessels can enter the Berhice and, via a tortuous channel. navigate to Tak:una. Steamers and launches of 7 ft. draft are able to pro- ceed un additional 70 miles upstream from '1 Bauxite is barged down stream front Ktcakwani to 1:certon in :350 -ton barges. an Navigable depths controlled bY bar at mouth of Mora Passage. Orc vessels carrying export manganese front Kai tunta navigate the route. Lotter Barinut Ricer provides connection with Rio Orinoco system of Venezuela. 16.5 Largest ricer in Guyana. Oceangoing ves- sels can enter the ricer at high tide MId navigate to point S miles above Bartic�a; smaller coastal vessels can reach Rock- stone at mile ill. Native craft navigate throughout lower :310 miles of ricer. 7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070009 -9 portions of the return trip. orf� c�arrving vessels are espec iall\ hindered ill negotiating t,trs upriver. Structures on the inland N%ater\\ays consist of a few road and rail bridges. Passenger and vehicle ferries are in operation at crossings near the mouths of the F,sseeluibo, Demerara, and Berbice and at it point 66 stiles up the Demerara. Submarine cables; are laic) across sever;J of the principal rivers in the vicinity of the mouths. Inland waterwas ports consist generalIN (,I* minor facilities tit it uum1wr of plantation and mining sites. Much of the inlay waterway nmve�nu�nt centers on the� maritime poi of Georgetown and at \'e\\ \nisterdani. \yhich c�;ut easily handle all traffic calling there. Pari kit Port Kaitun l K\\ Ikwarai, and Springlands are also active inland waterway parts. Parika is it timber- ;�acting port at the mouth of the Esseg Ili I)o; Port Kai t tit t,, specializes in exporting manganese ore pia the Port Kaitiuna. Barron,. Mora Passage, and \\'aini waterways: K%\akwani is a bauxite shipment facility: and Springl;n ds is the port of entry for goods from Surinam. Tile inland watemay fleet is it mixture of publicly and privately owned vessels up to 561 gross register tons in size. For the most part, vessels are old and in need of repair or replacement. TlIv private fleet includes 27 tags. 60 barges. and about :311 c�argo' passe uger vessels plus motor and stcartt launches, ferries, acid nine ore lighters. Numerous native vessels ply the upper reaches of the waterways: mane are powered by outboard motors. The largest single owner of vessels is the govi-mmeut's 'Transport and Il;arbors Department. Its fleet is composed of three ferries (cacti of 561 gross register tons). 16 cargo; passenger vessels and launches. three tugs, six launches, two dredges, one lighter. and an undetermined number of barges. Inland waterways are under the control of tile "Transport and Harbors Department. \which is responsible to the Ministry of Works and Conum mic�a tions. loose� regulatory control is exercised over private operators. The Grtvana Government has no long -range plans for development of its inland watc�nvit y system. I owever, the addition of facilities at the main ports and smaller landings is carried out as the need arises: maintenance is performed regularly. F. Ports (C) Gnvana has one major and three minor ports: all are natural river ports. Georgetown (Figure 2), the major port. is situated at the mouth of the Demerara 13iver along the east bank. The dime minor ports are Linden. the center of the bauxite industrv: \e\% \mslerdam. the conunere�ial port for th(� som)unding agricultural districts: and Barlica, the (fort and trading center for the Essequibo :Ziv��r complex. Clearance from the ports is mainly b\ inland watemav: ts\o wharves at Georgetown are >erved by rail. The ports are administered b\ the 'Transport and harbors Department: however, most of the wharves it re mvued by private trading and shipping companies. Georgetown adequately steels normal shipping and recciying requirements, but capability for military use is limited by access restriction caused b\ it bar at the rker mouth. Georgetown is the center of c�onunerc�ial activities and handles most of the trade for the c�ounlry. It is the only maritime port of entry and is it transshipment point for small steamers and other riser craft. Among the principal exports are sugar. rice. ruin. molasses. and bauxite_ imports iuc�Irtele foodstuffs. beverages. tobacco, nt ;utufactured goods, nnehinery. and refined petrolemn products. The port has it squall improved harbor with ;about 1 1 2 square stiles of water area open from west through north. some protection is afforded by shoals and groins at the river mouth. Controlling depth over the bar in the approach channel. ;about miles north northeastward of the port, is 9 feet at mean low \%ater with a depth of 16 feet at mu�an high water ucaps. \t mean high water neaps. ships drawing 15 feet can enter by plowing through the soft. Ill id stud. alongside berths accommodate three small ocean -type cargo vessels, about 10 standard and small coaster-type cargo ycsscls. one standard coaster -type tanker. and several lighters. The exposed roadstead provides anchorage for large numbers of ocean -type and c�oastcr -type cargo vessels about I') miles norlh- rortlwastward of the harbor. The estimated military port capacity is `3.000 long tons. 'I'hc largest drydocking facilit\ is it graving dock with a length oft keel blocks of 20") feet. vll- equipped shops call effect above -eater repairs to hulls and cugines. 1 '1'11( estimated nilitan port Capacity is the naa.\innm amount of general cargo� exim -ssed in long tuns �that Can be unloaded onto the wharves and cleared from the wharf aprons during a period of one 2�1 -hour day (20 effective cargo working hours). The estimate is based on the static� cargo- transfer facilities of the port existing at the tine� the estimate is prepared ;end is desit n�d for comparison rather than for operational purposes: it cannot be projected be\ond a single dad bv straight nndtiplicalion. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP0l- 00707R000200070009 -9 v- G. Llerchant marine (C) Cuuna has one ship ()f I,I)OO gross register tons (g.r.t.) and (wer, it go% o%(ncd (Transport mmd larhors Departwent) hulk -cargo Unit (42.959t r.l. or 0.1 -19 (Icadcri,,lit tons (d -W-t. This scar --((Id co: nveitvd tanker has oil- firccl boilers ;ul(I it ser\ic�c speed of 10 knots. (:urrent inforns(ti(m ls not a(Ailablc on either the types of cargo c�arricci or roWcs sc�n(�(I. but this ship has tl'ansp)rted carg o !)ctccn and ports in the 1'cst Ill(lics an(I the (:nlf of Mc Several :;nlallvr ships ranging front aimul 11111 to (iO() gross tons carrn general cargo and Imssengers in c�oaslal .Ald river traffic. "these ships c,rc operated ill schcdulc(I service by the Transport and I larburs I)epar(nlctll. H. Civil air (C) Civil i,viation provides the oil\ trimspnrlalion connection, other than waterways. with neighboring colnitries and is it nntjor tncans of ac�ccss to tFlc alining regions of nuluntid not s central Gov inji :ul(I to the tropical cattle- grazing areas bevinid. :rtvana ;kinvays Corporation, whose present title wa, a(Inptcd in 196 is the conntn 's ulll\ scheduled tirlinc. F.slablishc(I in 1935 its British 0 iiana :lincass. IAA.. mid privatek ocned until I955. al Mich time� it :;(�cluired b\ the gocrrnnu�nt. The airline. it \(iu,11v go(rnuuenl- necl c�orpormtion \cilh a ch:lirnuul :md board of directors, operalcs intermit s(�heclulcd flights Irons (:c()rgct( ii to I dolllestie p()lniti. Selle(1(11,(I internmtio lit l scr\ ices ;Ire not operated b\ (:u\;ln:l linca but intcrn�(tiooml wrvic�c is pr(c\idc(I b\ eight fon�iga (�Arricrs h:cs ing scheduled ,crs ices to I'S (iti(�s in 13 c� Aiarter scn ic�c to ncigiburing c�uuntries a islands in the caster C:ln'ihcarl is supplied b\ mill four uthei shall c�olnp;ulics operating light aircraft. 11: estimated 55 cis it :lirc�r:lft arc rcgistercd in (:Il\a lit 'I'\%O de IIit vi I lit n(I I)I I(: -I (::lrihou an(I four I)ougl :ls I) :3's ussncd bk (:In:Ili, r\% it s. arc tic -ill\ aircrml't ill llcc 20 poun(1 greater gross \\eight c�atcgor\. The Airline also operates it few light mirc�raft. The rcnlainin,g light aircraft are o�,\ncd b\ c�hartcr services, acroclubs. business organiz:ltions. an(I private individii lj ;1lnursl all the 125 personncl in (�ivil aviation ac�tivitics in (:uv;u a arc entplovecl by :twain APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070009 -9 FIGURE 2. Port of Georgetown at the mouth of the Demerara River (U'OU) Airways. Civil pilot lrtining activit\ is finited to tr.tining provided by Guyana :kinvays for its own pilots. In tLe past, the company had sent pilots to private schools in the United Stales for pilot training co urses. There are no commercial enterprises devoted solely to tilt, maintenance of light aircraft, but I(I.A\' ;k M. a small ch.trtvr co tit pait y, sloes have a limited nritintt,nancc capability. Guyana imays has major DC Inairttenallee facilities at Tinu�hri International (Georgetown). (:ivil aviation in Guyana is regulated by the Department of Civi; kviation, under the \linisln of Works anti Communications. In addition to its regulator\ functions the department provides all essential aviation services at the international airfield, including air traffic control, flight information, and rescue coordination services. It is also responsible for overall direction of interior landing sites, inchtcling the lighting of amphibious landing areas. Guvana is a member of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). I?xchargc of air services is governed by informal agreements or arrangements with 12 countries; the only fornutl bilateral civil airagreement is with the l'nitecl Slates. I. Airfields'' The air facilities system in Guyana consists of 102 airfields and two seaplane stations. Of the airfields, i-I are civil. are privatc and 1 are former airfield sites. The iirfield distribution pattern generally follows the Guyana /Brazilian Border, but the only significant concentration is near Georgetown. which represents the area of greatest civil air activity. Tinu�hri International Airfield, 20 stiles southwest of Georgetown, is the principal air facility, handles the greatest volume of air traffic. and is the only designated airport of entr It can support sustained 'For detailed inlonnatiun on individuai airfieWs in Gucana See Volume 5, Airfields and Seaplane Stations of the World, published In the Defense flapping Agenc�c. Aerospace Center, for the Defense Intelligence Agency. operations of aircraft ct{ to and including tit(- C -1:35 class. Major D(: -:3 aircraft ntitintcnance fac�ililics arc operated by Guyana kimI\s; the international carriers using this aerodroi n� have c�recvs mailable to perform routine itmintemince nonnall\ assoc�iatcd with cn route sio ps. Only four airfields lmc hard surfaced runways� Tinu�hri lulerualional, M-,wKenzic, Barlic�a, and Ogle. N�lact(cnzic, second in ituporlance to Timehri International. is not compamblc to that airfield in terms of facilities and services available. The runsvaly is in good condition, and thcrc is a small asphalt surfac�cd parking apron. Other anc�illary scrviccs arc extremely limited, providing out\ minor support to the scheduled (;uvarta Aimays light transport operations. Bartic�a and Ogle are private landing strips used by light aircraft: set'vicvs and facilities arc adequate for operations conducted. The remaining airfields have natural or gravel surfaced runways. Of the 59 active fields, atboot i5 i arc in fair to good condition and can acc�onunodate light transport aircraft_ The I:) sites have been a ba Iidmwd for sc\ cral \ears and are considered unusable. Nei tIwr of the scaplalle stations has handling cc{tiipmcnt or services. Guyana :lirways operates ;rani man Goose aircraft out of the Georgetown anchorage. I mile southwest of Georgetown on the cast hank of the Demcmi a Biver, to river in the interior. The former seaplane station at I".ssec{nibo is inactive, curd the assnc�iated facilities arc in t,1 deteriorated c�oudition. :Airfield maintenance, requiring mininmin equip- ment and unskilled labor, is performed as w(luimd at the active airfields. Timehri International has adequate support and scnice equipment readily available for Iwoior ni aintenanc�e programs. Information does not indicate any plans for airfield construction, but construction is in progress to strengthen the runway and improve communications. aircraft parking. and support facilities at Timehri I ntcrnational i rf icld. higurc i lists chartetcri.,ties of the leading airfields. FIGURE 3. Selected airfields (C) LARGEST AIRcRArr NORMALLY EStY1. Sr'I'1'ORTEII REMARKS Po unds 1.1.250 DC 3......... Civil. t'scd hY donu�.tic� airline. No PU1,. 11,250 DC 3......... Do. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070009 -9 LONGEST RUNWAY: SURFACE; DIMENSIONS; ELRI'ATION ARO �F. NAME AND LOCATION SKA LEVEL Feet Aishalton Earth............... 2 �29 59 �151'11'. 3,600 x 150 ri5t:1 Annai Graeel.............. :3 59�OWW. :3,200 x hill :3011 Footnote at end elf table. U `l LARGEST AIRcRArr NORMALLY EStY1. Sr'I'1'ORTEII REMARKS Po unds 1.1.250 DC 3......... Civil. t'scd hY donu�.tic� airline. No PU1,. 11,250 DC 3......... Do. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070009 -9 FIGURE 3. Selected airfields (C) (Continued) IE APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDP01-00707R000200070009-9 LONGEST RUNWAY: LAUGEST SURFACE; DIMENSIONS: All(CRA!"' ELEVATION ABOVE N(IRMALLY NAME AND LOCATION SEA LEVEL k's N'1. SUPPORTED REMARKS Fed Pounds Apoteri EtL rt I i 1.1,�:50 DC CiVil- Used by domestic airline. No 1 -IoOtN., :5S �313'11'. :3,800 x 150 300 Barililit.1 Earth............... I 1, 2-50 DC :3......... Do. 7 611�30'10. 3,500 x 100 060 Bartiva Asphalt............. 28, 160 DC -1... 1h). V22 5S 3,960 x (if) 28.1 ('100d 1101W 1ALterite 1 .1 2-5m DC 3 Do. 3 59*35'11'. 3,500 x 70 350 I'llbaimatlai E'a rt I i 1-1.250 DC :3......... DO. ao-13'N., 60 .1,500 x 100 1,6150 Kamitrang Sand............. 15, �:50 DC :3......... Do. 5 0 53 1 N., 60'37'11'. 3,500 x 150 I Karanambo Laterite............. 11,2:511 M 3......... Do. 3o-113'N., 59'21'10. 5,500 x 100 300 Karasab,d Earth............... 1.1, 250 M 3......... Civil. Used be domestic airline except in -1 oOO'N., :59�:31'10- 5,000 x 50 rainx- season. No POL. -100 Kato E'arth 1.1,250 DC :3......... Civil. Used bY domestic airline. No POL. -lo39'N., 59o50'10. :3,000 x 100 2,300 Ixthem Gravel :15.500 L382 13 Do. :3*22'N., 59*-17'11'. 6,000 x 150 2.10 1,1111lid P,111 l":Lrth 1.1,250 DC :3 2 59 :1,500 x 150 550 1: 1 K e [I z i v Asphalt............. 28.160 DC 1......... Do. a 58 5,500 x 150 180 Monkey '%1011ntiLill Gravel 11,2511 M 3 Do. 4 59'38'10. :3,000 x 150 7 miles W. of Wandaik 1,700 Ogle Concrete a lid vart li 1,:305 Cessna 182 Civil. One of :3 hard surfaced runways in 6 W0(3 1,500 x :30 GmYalla. Avgas available. 1,00 ft. of 1 1loway .1 miles E. of Georgetown 10 unusable in wet weather. Orinduik E'artli 1.1,251) DC :3......... Civil. Used be (10111('Sti(' airline. No 1 60 3,500 x 100 I sm) Timeliri International....... Concrete. :5(3,(107 Boeing 707.... Civil. Infeniational airport. ?0l, available. 6 55 15'10. 7,430 x 150 is miles SSW. of George- 95 town. Wichabiti Earth............... 11,2:511 M :3......... ivil. ('sod b.\ domestic airline. No PO L. 2*53'N., 59 :3,000 x 150 120 ,quivalent, Single-Wheel loading: Capacity of all airfield rtiti%va.-, to sti.,tain the weight of and multiple -Wheel landing-gear air- an craft in terms of the single-wheel equivalent. IE APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDP01-00707R000200070009-9 J. "Telecommunications (C) CuxaIla has onc� c!f the nlatrc efficient telecom s\ste -ns of I.alin AIIwrica, and iu Irv( l of dc\eloltnu nt it c�oosistenlf, ranks in the top quarter. Drunk routes of the radio cola\ and \\ire uet\\orks e\tcod soulln\ard from the capital as \cell as nortimest aucl northeast .don" the coast. Iligh Ircctneuc\ (II1 radioconl immication links connect null\ ing areas- supplcinwit- ing the radio rela\ fac�ililics. The hulk of domestic traffic is curried over the ccr\ high-frc�yuenc\ (\'Ill I radio- rcla-, nct\cork. Ccorgelo\\n. Linden. and \e\\ Antsterdant scr\e as ke\ traffic- s\% itc�hing centers. Remaining traffic is carried h\ Icss important opcn- \cire telephone .end telegraph nct\\orks and -o\ ern ment. operated nulioc�ommuuic it ion facilities. I�:ffecti\c international communicotion are pro\idcd h\ a private c�osmnercial contpan\ 'I'll( ;it\aIla Tc�tccuur !it it nicaI it ll (:orpuratiou ;TC) it irmcrnnucrtt agencc, operates the dourestic S\ stem. including tcicphone, letegntpll, and wdio ser\ices :able and \firdess (\Vest Indies), I,td. provides international scrcice. A goccrtiment :tgenc�\. the ;it\ama l'nitc(! Broadcasting :ompan\. operates the radio broadcast stations. Special purpose radiocommunication facilities ser\c ntiniug, ranching. agric�ultnral, religious and polic�c organir;ttiotr. The domestic interc�iI\ s\ stem consists of interconnected \'III radio -relu\ open irc, cable, and IIF r;rctioconrnuLtticati(HI net\\,r I'll(- 12- chansel radio -mta\ uct\cork Iinkims (;corgelo\cn \\itb Charit\. Bartica. Lintten. msler- darrt. and Skeleton procidc, telephone. telegraph- ;Illd telex ser\ is c. Telegraph and lelephonc s: i re net\cork, are operated sep,cratcl\. each cmcrittg 10)mll :355 stiles. About 16,000 telephones scr\c the cortnlr\. a ratio of 2 per 1011 population. 'I'll(- stain cxc�hange in Georgct mII its 11.000 phase cotlnec�tions .0 rd is the center of a ne\c national telec�o:II s\stent heiIIg installed by ;I`( -AI`I r!f the L'IIited Kingdom. 1 Ic first section of a ne\\ ultra high (regnenc\ radio -rdac system is in operation, pro\idims dircc�t -distanc�e- dialing (DIM hcl\ceen the c;Ipital c�it\ of \c\c Amsterdam. As part of the program. 200 stiles of radio -rcla\ links mud 13 rela\ to\\crs are being constructed, as well as 20,000 n(�\\ local telephone lines, and 15 n( exchanges. Telegraph service, a\ailable at :TS offices. has been imtprove(I by the instdlation of teleprinters at important lordilics. The public III radioc�ommmiication Iwt\\ A ser\cs the interior. Dircc�t iulcrnall-!I!:d III telephone radioc�otu- immication, to Surivaul are furnished h\ the (:able and Wireless station in Ccorget4mii. 32- c�hamicl tropospheric- sc�alter iink exists het\ \een ;eorgeto\\n mud fort -of- Spain. Trinidad. Thcre are t\\o radiof!ro,ulc�ast stations. Radio I)e�n to rara and IIIc \atiotml Brcr,tdc�a,tiit, Ser\ice: bosh :ire located ill the� ;corgeto\\it urea. Radio 1)(�au�rara transmih short\%;t\v and nn�cliunr\\a\c A\1 bn)mlcasts, :Ind the \atioual Rroudc�astiug Scrcic�e Imnsmits ou short\ca\c, mcdimim\ !\c. :Ind I \1 oI!tlr�ts. The ntrnther hroadc�asl recei\cc; is c,tiul:rtcd to he 257 .000. inducting over 300 sets for c�ommimit\ amt school !Ise. Dense forests, s\caIIIis, ;lad rugged hill\ terrain hacc c!IrtaiI I dc\rlopntc�Ltt of an e\tcnsi\c \ire line I!( liecanse of the humid c�Iimatc. tropic�atira- tion of all radio and wire equipment is re(li ired. Sillce cootrcrl facililie, are concentrated in :corgeto\ cu. this area is the clllnerable link ill the scstenl. (;u\;o!,i has no c�apabilit\ for prodrtcing telecom equipment. \Iafur sources are the L'IIitecl Kingdom Oben .'re line PORT -OF- SPAIN, Hado relay TRINIDAD TrnPnspher is Mabaruma.. scatter radocor:,muncatwn I Intetnatwnal alther�s Ri1Pe r adwcommum cibor�. !'nar dy AK broadcast (VENEZUELA E) Fry� broadcast G P;vi4v ,eorgetewn B.afica Ne�w Amsterdam Litt ler Skeldin Pclxc. LandrnF i SURINAM Lethem BRAZIL I I BRAZIL FIGURE 4. General telecom pattern (C) APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070009 -9 Geneml Electric. .`.Iurph:- Stellman. ars(i Hedihou) and S%%eden (Ericsson). Broadc�:,sl rec�eicers are supplied 1 the \etherlands� J_span, and West Germane. Training for telecors employees is provided at tle Government Tec�hsical Institute at \'c�\% Amsterdam. Advanced training is arailuble in the United Kingdom