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CONFIDENTIAL 13 /GS /MG Honda August 1 &9,'3 NA f IONAL INT CONFIDENTIAL NO FOREIGN DISSEM APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070016 -1 NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY PUBLICATIONS The basic unit of the NIS is the General Survey, which is now published in a bound -by- chapter format so that topics of greater per- ishability can be updated on an individual basis. These chapters� Country Profile, The Society, Government and Politics, The Economy, Military Geog- raphy, Transportation and Telecommunications, Armed Forces, Science, and Intelligence and Security, provide the primary NIS coverage. Some chapters, particularly Science and Intelligence and Security, that are not pertinent to all countries, are produced selectively. For small countries requiring only minimal NiS treatment, the General Survey coverage may be bound into one volume. Supplementing the General Survey is the NIS Basic Intelligence Fact book, a ready reference publication that semiannually updates key sta- tistical data found in the Survey. An unclassified edition of the factbook omits some details on the economy, the defense forces, and the intelligence and security organizations. Although detailed sections on many topics were part of the NIS Program, production of these sections has been phased out. Those pre- viously produced will continue to be available as long as the major portion of the study is considered valid. A quarterly listing of all active NIS units is published in the Inventory of Available NIS Publications, which is also bound into the concurrent classified Factbook. The Inventory lists all NIS units by area name and number and includes classification and date of issue; it thus facilitates the ordering of NIS units as well as their filing, cataloging, and utilization. Initial dissemination, additional copies of NIS units, or separate chapters of the General Surveys can be obtained directly or through liaison channels from the Central Intelligence Agency. The General Survey is prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency and the Defense Intelligence Agency under the general direction of the NIS Committee. It i:; coordinated, edited, published, and dissemi- nated by the Central Intelligence Agency. NVAR\IN(:: This document contains information affecting the nationc! defense of the United States, within the meaning of title 18, sections 793 and 794 of the US code, as amended. Its transmission or revelation of its contents to or receipt by an unauthorized person is prohibi'ed by law. CLASSIFIED BY 019641. EXEMPT FROM GENERAL DECLASSIFI. CATION SCHEDULE OF E. O. 11652 EXEMPTION CATEGORIES 5B (1), (2), (3). DECLASSIFIED ONLY ON APPROVAL OF THE DIRECTOR OF CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE. k APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070016 -1 WARNING The NIS is National Intelligence and may not be re- leased or shown to representatives of any foreign govern- ment or international body except by specific authorization of the Director of Central Intelligence in accordance with the provisions of National Security Council Intelligence Di- rective No. 1. For NIS containing unclassified material, however, the portions so marked may be made available for official pur- poses to foreign nationals and nongovernment personnel provided no attribution is made to National Intelligence or the National Intelligence Survey. Subsections and graphics are individually classified according to content. Classification /control designa- tions are: (U /OU) Unclassified /For Official Use Only (C) Confidential (S) Secret APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070016 -1 This chapter was prepared for the NIS by the Defense Int -lligcnee Agency. Research was sub- stantially completed by May 1973. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070016 -1 M CONTENTS This rF.apter supersedes the geographic cou- ev,t in the General Surtwy dated August I9R9 A. Location 1 B. Topography 1 C. Climate 4 D. Military geographic regions 11 1. Caribbean Lowland 11 2. Interior Highland 12 3. Pacific Lowland 12 E. Strategic areas 13 1. San Pedro Sula 13 2. Tegu-:igalpa 14 3. Other significant area 15 F. Intem l routes 15 CONFIDENTIAL 110 FOREIGN DISSEM APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070016 -1 Page G. Approaches 15 1. Land 15 Page 2. Sea 15 3. Air 17 FIGURES ii Page Fig, 1 Location anu comparative area (map) 1 Fig. 2 Vegetation (map) 2 Fig. 3 Western interior highlands (photo). 3 Fig. 4 Dry scrub forest and savanna near Wet areas in the Pacific coastal San Lorenzo (photo) 4 Fig. 5 Open forests in the Montanas de Fig. 13 Comayagua photo) 5 Fig. 6 Tree- and grass covered valley near cloudiness, relative humidity, and Tegucigalpa photo) 5 Fig. 7 Scrub covered highlands in the south Fig. 14 (photo) 5 Fig. 8 Flat plain along the northeastern Tegucigalpa strategic area map) 14 coast photo) 5 Fig. 9 Broad meandering stream in the Fig. 17 western Caribbean lowland photo) 6 Fig. 10 Mangrove swamps near Puerto Boundaries table) 17 Castilla (photo) 7 ii APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070016 -1 Page Fig. 11 Banana plantation in Rio Ulua valley (,photo) 7 Fig. 12 Wet areas in the Pacific coastal lowland photo) 8 Fig. 13 Precipitation, thunderstorm days, cloudiness, relative humidity, and temperatures map and graphs) 10 Fig. 14 San Pedro Sula strategic area map) 13 Fig. 15 Tegucigalpa strategic area map) 14 Fig. 16 Tegucigalpa photo) 14 Fig. 17 Internal routes (table) 16 Fig. 18 Boundaries table) 17 Fig. 19 Amphibious landing areas table) 18 Fig. 20 Military geographic factors (,'nap) follows 18 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070016 -1 Military Geography A. Location (U /OU) Honduras .pans the nearly 200- mile -wide' Central Anrierican isthmus front t!te Pacific Ocean to the Caribbean Sea and has it east west extent of about 420 miles (Figure 20). N'; ithin 1,000 nautical miles are Cuba, the gulf coast of the United States, the oilfields of western Venezuela, and the Panama Canal (Figure I The second largest country in Central America, roughly triangular- shaped Honduras has an area of 43,300 square miles. slightly more than that of the state of Tennessee, and it population of about 2 ,813,000. B. Topography (U /OU) Honduras is an area of predominantly rugged interior highlands fringed along the coasts by narrow 'Distances are in statute miles unless nautical miles are spec�ific(I 501786 5.73 plains. Nearly four fifths of the country is forest- or scrub covered (Figure 2) mountainous terrain traversed by relatively tarn" flat- floored steep -sided valleys and interspersed with hills and scattered internontane basins (Figure The� plain along the Caribbean coast is forested except along streams in the west where subsistence and c�onuuerc�ial agriculture prevails and in the east where savannas occur. The I'acific coastal plain is predominantly scrub covered (Figure -1) behind the extensive coastal swamps that stretch along the entire distance front 1 ?1 Salvador to Nicaragua. 'There are some volcanoes, but they are dormant. Both coasts and a large area around "Tegucigalpa are subject to frequent but generally mild earthquakes. The highlands are most rugged in the west. where the highest peaks range front 8,000 to 0.400 feet above sera level. Other mountain peaks are inainly between :5,000 and 8.000 feet and are lowest and least rugged in the cast. Belts of hills, which are most extensive in the NC1,Ti1 :1isF k!Ca. 74.gucigalpa 1 FIGURE 1. Location and comparative area (U /OU) APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070016 -1 1 501787 573 east, generally border the plains. Slopes of the hills and lower motntains are mostly between 35 /i and 435: however, on nxtny higher mountains and some hills, slopes exceed 1005. Local relief (difference in elevation between tops and bottoms of adjacent topographic features) is generally 4,()O to 8.000 feet in the west and 1,300 to 3,000 feet in the east. The fey" intermontane basins commonly are :3,000 to 4,3(x) feet above sea level and have gentle rolling to hilly surfaces. Numerous streams descend from the highlands through steep, winding valleys and rocky canyons as much as :300 feet deep. Water supplies correspond closely to the rainfall regime and are subject to great seasonal fluctuations. During the we season, May or june through October streams increase greatly in size and many become torrential. During the remainder of the year, most streams greatly decrease in size, and many become mere trickles in their upper reaches. Most of the :mountains and hills are forested. Open forests (Figure 3) of pine and oak are predominant except in the east and north where dense broadleaf evergreen forests cover extensive areas. On many lower slopes, in valleys, and in the south, oak, scrub, and grass are common (Figures 6 and 7). Pasture and cultivated vegetation are common in river a 0 U uhcalpa i o Cap .wd, d. f.,,...., ...t�. .r1.. FIGURE 2. Vegetation (U OU) valleys, intermontane� basins, and on some of the lower Slopes of mountains. Most of the population lives in the basins and valleys, chiefly in small to%%its. villages, and a few large cities in the and central parts of the highlands. Settlements are small. and man" arc isolated. The principal transportation facility is the North Road, which connects the important centers of population in the highlands. H:Iscwhem, there is it sparse transportation network, consisting of tracks, trails, and a few poorly maintained roads. The flat to gentle rolling plains along the C: -ibbean coast (Figure 8) extend unbroken in a generally east �west alignment along the entire northern coast of 1I�mduras, in places they are nearly >�eparatcd by coastal ranges. Except for the %alleys of the Rio l'lua and Rio Aguan, the only major inland extension of the plains is in the east, where lowlands extend into the interior its much as 70 mules. Elcvativns range from sea level to nearly 1,000 feet at the base of the highlands. Lor�:il relief ranges from 50 to 150 feet and slopes generally are less than 2i7i. In the slightly higher parts of the eastern plains, some slopes range between 'For diacritics on place names, See the list of manor. on the apron of ill(- Militar% Geographic Factors map. the map itself. and map in the test. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070016 -1 10 SAW 2 -ind 5 and there are scattered ells (I hillocks. mostly less than 300 feet high, that have slopes ranging between 10% and 20r/('. N umcrous broad, meandering streams cross the plains (Figure 9). Most major streams are more than 3.5 feet deep all year, and many are over 250 feet wide. During the yet season, June through January, streams increase greatly in sire and frequently inundate large areas. Most of the plains are covered by dense broadleaf evergreen forest. In the east, however, the plains are covered by pine savanna dotted with palmettos and low clusters of scrub hardwood. Large marshes fringe much of the coast (Figure 10) and, in places, extend it considerable distance inland along the major streams. Cultivated areas consist mainly of banana p1wtations (Figure 1 I that ;re concentrated in the valleys of the Rio Ulua, Rio Chamelecon, and Rio Aguan. Most of the population lives in scattered settlements located mainly in the west, particularly in the hanana- growing areas. '1'ransporhtion facilities consist of a section of the North Road and a sparse network of roads serving the agricultural areas. A 3'6 and it 3'0" gage railroad connect the banana growing areas with the ports. Along the Pacific: coast there is a narrow, nearly flat to rolling coastal nlain containing isolated hills and %olcanic peaks. Most of the plain is barely above sea level and contains marshes and mangrove swamps that extend several miles inland. Tidal inundations cover much of this area. Inland, the plain is gentle rolling and nerges with the foothills of the highlands. Slopes are generally less than 3 and in most places local relief is 50 to 150 feet; however, local relief in some of the scattered hills and volcanic peaks ranges between about 500 and 2,500 feet and slopes are mainly over -IW,c, with some exceeding 10WL The strearns crossing the plains are relatively small, and some of the smallest are dry for short periods during the year. Iloweyer, during the wet season, Ma through October, all streams increase in width and depth and inundate large areas in many places. During this period, all the major streams are over 6 feet deep and range fron 250 to over 500 feet wide. Most of the plain is covered by extensive marshes, aril dense stands of mangrove border the streams along the coast (Figure 122). The interior is covered nainly by serb; there are grassy openings, and some deciduous broadleaf forest along the inland streams. Most of the population is located on %%idely dispersed subsistence farms and in small market towns; coastal areas are generally uninhabited. 1'ransportation facilities consist of it section of the Inter American Highway and a few poorly maintained roads. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070016 -1 FIGURE 4. Dry scrub forest and savanna are extensive in the southern lowlands near the Pacific coast. Here, near San Lorenzo, the low broadleaf deciduous trees are interspersed with areas of shrubs and bunchgrass and grassy clearings. The nearly flat to rolling surfaces of the coastal plain are interrupted by scattered hills along the margin where it merges with the foothills of the interior highlands. (C) FIGURE 5. Open forests of pine or oak or both are predominant in the central highlands. In this part of the Montanas de Comayagua, pine is dominant, and the trees have straight trunks 50 to 100 feet high and 1 to 4 feet in diameter. Undergrowth is sparse and consists of grass and herbaceous vegetation 1 to 3 feet high. Fire hazard is great, especially from March to May. (C) FIGURE b. Many valleys in the interior highlands are covered by broadleaf deciduous forests, scrub, and grass. In this area near Tegucigalpa, trees are mostly 'x s deciduous, have open and discontinuous canopies, are c 25 to 80 feet high, and have trunks mostly 1 to 3 feet in diameter. The open low scrub consists of shrubs 2 to T, 10 feet high and bunchgrass. The trees and shrubs r lose their leaves in the dry season, November through;. April. (C) FIGURE 7. Vegetation in the hills and low mountains in the southern part of the country is predominantly scrub, savanna, and open deciduous forests. In these areas, large timber is scarce or lacking, and forest and grass fires are common in the dry period. (U OU) FIGURE 8. A low coastal plain sweeps for about .400 f miles across across the entire northern part of Honduras. The flat to gently rolling surfaces have slopes mostly 2-1 or less and are less than 500 feet in elevation. Here, in the northeast, surfaces barely ?xceed sea level. Broad- leaf evergreen forest is prevalent. (C) -r �r 5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070016 -1 xr aye� r J y FIGURE 9. Broad streams snake their way across the almost flat surfaces of the Caribbean lowland. Banks are low and interstream areas barely exceed sea level and consequently parts of the lowland are often inundated, especially during the wet season, June through January. Marshes and swamps, such as shown here, border the lower reaches of many of the streams. In this area near the border with Guatemala, the Rio Motagua, right background, is 250 to 500 feet wide, more than 6 feet deep year round, relatively placid, and silt laden. (C) I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070016 -1 LVV.7IVV/ IV. %.01^ 1 VV1 VI FXVVVLVVVI VV I V ro- 01 n FIGURE 11. Banana plantations cover large areas of the Caribbean lowland, particularly the valleys, where the soil is rich. These plan- tations are in the Rio Ulua valley southeast of San Pedro Sula. The plants are 10 to 15 feet high and are generally planted in rows 10 to 15 feet apart. Harvest is continuous. An extensive network of drainage ditches forms a grid across the plantation. There is no fire hazard. (C) APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070016 -1 FIGURE 10. Mangrove swamps are common along much of the relatively flat Caribbean lowland. The dense growth consists of shrubs and trees 10 to 20 feet high that have slender arching prop roots 4 to 8 feet high. This area near Puerto Castilla is almost impenetrable for man and machines. (C) ti APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070016 -1 FIG! 12. Thr` Pacific coa,tal lowland has `xh`nsivo Nrrt arras bordering thr Inrv of most stream,. H along thr� sinuous Ric, rJjegro, at r` dens` tnangr vo ,hamPr, and jolt flog; th flat are� f by tid(`s xa"r`ding 9 frt, lC! C. Climate (U /OU) The climate, primarily tropical. is marked by distinct regional differences, notably in temperature and rainfall (Figure 13). "t'hc low latitude of the country and the nearby warn ocean waters bring about the tropical nature of the climate, and differences ill terrain and differences in exposum to the trade winds of both hemispheres cause most of the regional variations. It is invariably hot all year throughout the coastal lowlands. In contrast, it more temperate climate prevails in the highlands, where afternoons are comfortably warn and nights are comparatively cool. We�t .end dry seasons are pronounced in much of the country but in some sections they are ill defined and vary in length. The Caribbean lowlands have :u ![]healthy climate all year. Temperatures and relative humidities in this section are persistently high, causing sultry conditions that are extremely enervating. Average afternoon maximum temperatures are in the SO's �F.) and low 90's and afternoon Immidities are mostly in the 70", (I( During the early morning. mininun tempera- tures dip to the 65�1� to 75 �F. range but humidities climb to the upper 50 (o7 or 90's. Annual rainfall is abundant, averaging over 100 inches at exposed locations and occurs mainly as convective showers. The showers, often heavy, are most frequent in June through January, falling on 10 to 25 days per month. .\verage monthly amounts vary throughout this period and from place to place; the wettest months usually accumulate 10 to 20 inches or more. Thunderstorm activity is mainly confined to `-lay through October, when thunderstorms occur on 10 to 20 clays per month in []lost months. Minineni rainfall generally occurs in March and April throughout this region. Cloudiness is typical of the trade kind zone, and cunndiform clouds are the predominant type. The periods of greatest and Ivast cloudiness mirror those of rainfall; afternoons are the cloudiest time of clay all year. Visibility is generally good in ail months, the greatest restrictions to visibility occurring during shower activity. The northeast trades are predominant in this region throughout the year, they often enhance the afternoon sea breezes to produce moderate speeds of 10 to 15 knots. 'I'll( strongest winds are associated with tropical storms and hurricanes that enter the coast an average of once every 3 or 4 years during June through November; Nyinds and flooding from torrential rains cause great damage. The interior highlands have it healthier climate than the lowlands. Afternoon temperatures here are pleasantly warmed to the 70 �F. to 85 �F. range and nighttime temperatures are cooled to the -15 �F. to (i5 �1'. range. Infrequently, tenperatures may drop to near freezing in the high valleys and plateaus in December through February during outbreaks of cold polar air from the north. Lower relative humidity is most responsible for the more comfortable highlands climate. This is especially apparent in the afternoon when average values are mostly in the -10's (S(') and 50 thereby suppressing the srItry conditions that wouid result from higher humidity. Annual rainfall varies f:orn about .35 inches in the more sheltered sections to near 70 inches in the exposed locations. The highlands have a long .yet period. Xlay through October, and un eetually long dry period, November through April. The wet season is distinguished by it Jule August lull (called the verunillo) in most sections, resulting in a large range of average monthly rainfall for thr region, roughly 5 to 0 inches. Showers and thundershowers are frequent; the latter are most prevalent, oc�c�rrrring during thunderstorms on 10 to 0 days in most months of the wet season. Monthly rainfall during the dry season is more regular, \yith amounts gener.Ily less than 3 inc lies. Large lo\ycring cumrrlus and cumulonimbus cloud masses ar. abundant during the wet season. In contrast, clear to partly cloudy skids and fair weather c�umulrs prevail during the dry season. Visibilities are generally good all year except during early morning fog in the valleys. cluing afternoon showers, and hen clouds shroud the mountain slopes. Surface winds are sight and cpile variable: because of the rugged terrain. rno,n,tain- yalley breezes are common. "I'he Pacific loMands are oppressively hot and humid during part of the year and hot but less hurnid during the remainder of the year. Mean daily rmaxinum temperatures are in the 90's �F.) and logy 100's all year and the nean daily mininuns, in the middle 70's, offer marginal relief. TI,e heat is seemingly intolerable in May through October when high humidities, gencr, ted by moist onshore \rinds, combine with the high temperatures and c� re. tc extremely enervating conditions. Drier air overlays this region in the remaining months, resulting in lower humidities: this makes the afternoon heat more tolerable. Annual rainfall approaches 80 inches at most places and is distributed in pronounced .yet and dry seasons. Monthly rainfall during the wet season. May through October, averages 7 to 20 inches compared to monthly rainfall of less than inches during tFu� dry season. November through April. Showers and thundershowers arc frequent, often heavy, and sometimes torrential during the .yet months but are infrequent and moderate in intensity during the dry months. Cloudiness has if similar seasonal distribution. Throughout the wet season skies 9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070016 -1 O TE LA V =.GUA AIUt luncAtva LA E5PERAN2A J 1FL.UCIr:AI`A J 90 s0 AM A I MEAN ANNUAL PRECIPITATION IINCHESI I EGUCIGAIPA 30 201 10 1 0 1FMAM1IASON MEAN NUMBER OF DAYS WITH PRECIPITATION X0.004 INCH TEIA 30 1800 10 20 0,. 1FM4M11ASONDI A.. 100 180 so 60 40 20 1 FMAMI IASONDI 20 20 20 I 15 1$ 15 I 1 i 10 10 Jo s i s I s I 0 1FMAMJIASON 0- JFMAMJJASON 0 1FMAMJIASON MEAN MONTHLY PRECIPITATION INCHES 30 20 10 0 ;FMAMJJASOND I 10 1 FMAtA J J ASON UI MEAN THUNDERSTORM DAYS .1 MEAN CLOUDINESS (/.j AT SPECIFIED HOURS AST) MEAN RELATIVE HUMIDITY 'i AT SPECIFIED HOURS AST, TELA I 100i 80 60. 40. 30� j 1FMAMJ JASON ELEV I ?T PUERTO LEMPIRA 120- I 100 J 1JO 60 40 20 0... 1FMAMJJASON EtEv 41 FT TEMPERATURES! F.) 'E'.:_. I..At PA 100 60 I.OG 40 20 0.... JFMAMIJASOND! TE,',UCI -AtPA 120. 100 80� 60 40 r 20 0... JFMAMJIASON EIEV 3 304 FT 100 B0 60 40 20 JFMAMJIPSONDJ A %AAPAIA 120. 100v 80 60 40- 20 1FMAM1 lAON EIEV I6'T FIGURE 13. Precipitation, thunderstorm days, cloudiness, relative humidity, and temperatures. (U /OU) AHtiUIUTE MAl�1- .11j.+ r.1f AN DAII 'I A�I%!I1!,r S11A i IAII �':1 :'Il1' AH'-11Iif :11rllr.'l(I'.'I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070016 -1 La EcPERAN: A 120 100 UAIA NO: aV AIIaPLE 80 60 40 InIA N'0 AV A'IAW 20 0 JFMAMJIASON EIEV 5 351 FT AHtiUIUTE MAl�1- .11j.+ r.1f AN DAII 'I A�I%!I1!,r S11A i IAII �':1 :'Il1' AH'-11Iif :11rllr.'l(I'.'I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070016 -1 arc� profuse %%ith lniltming cuunulus cic.uds. %%Inich oft(-rr buil(i to the� cumnulonimnims stage and resift it-+ itl to 25 thunderstorms per month. 0%crcast skies :,rc almost d:ifx occurrences. During the otn sensor. particularly December througfn \larc�h, si mm skits abound and cloud conditions seldm n progress bcNmid the partly clowk state. Visibilities arc exudle:il during the do season and are geuerall\ %crN good ill the \yet season. e. %cept during shm%er actin itx :.end light earl\ morning fogs. Weak trade "iuds front- the South Pacific invade this region in tit(- %%vt period months and often reinforce the afternoon sere breezes. the predominant %%irnds all %ear. Tmpic�al ,�\clones onl\ rarely affect this coast. D. Military geographic regions (C) Differences in terrain afford a basis fur dicidimg the cmintrx into three rmilitar geographic rcgioms �the Caribbean L'mlamd, Interior Ilic;hland, and Pacific Lmvland (Figure 1 The combination of ens iro mwen- tal conditions within each region seurtld have a reIatixelc uniform effect un military operations. but there x\ould be marked differences betm-en region L Caribbean Loveland This region consists of to gentlx rolling plains covered nuntlx by dense broadleaf evergreen forests. Only along the \\estern portion of the coast and along son.:� large streams are tber, e.t(-nskv agricultural clearings. In tit(- cast the�c are some large giva nna arias. 'I'll( road neNork k sparse. TIt(-se plains arc poorl\ suited for large scale c(mvenFonal ground operations. The ro,,d netw(A is sparse and generalk inadequate for hoax mnilitarx traffic. its, potholes, mnud, and \%ashouts (luring the wet season wmdd grcatl\ hinder or preclude most oirroad movement. Offroad dispersal and cross countrx mmvi u�nt mild b(- so xereI hindered or 1) red IIded in most of the region b\ dense lor�st. nom Brous streams too deep to ford, -1 ground much of the \tear, and In marsh along the coast. Conditions for cross- c�ountrx movement are hest in the areas r,f pin(- sit xunna in the cast (leering the dr season. Comiderable effort x%orild be required to construct roads. In mangy places. exh�nsfve clearing would be necessan, and neon\ culverts, bridges, and stretches of raised roadbcd wooled h(- required. \tanfn(-s and seasonally flooded areas \could require large amounts of fill. 'I'll(- dense forests c�or (-ring most of the region afford good cover from small arms fire, limited cover from flat trajectory fire, and concealment from air and grciumd obscmition. Some additional cover and c�onc�(Ialment would be provided Iry nattiral levees dung the courses of stn�.tms and bx drainagc Glitches in the culti%ated area Sites suitahiv for tilt- cmistruc�tionr :)f type imstadlaliums are ;t \.Jlablc uulx ill the higfu�r, better drained plains in the cast. "there are fc%% sites suitable for th.- c�oustrictimi of tuturel t%pc iiistarllidiuns bec�auu� of inadl�quatc relief. it high eater tablc. and poor dr.cin:igc. Airmobile and airborne operations mmild be precluded in most of the region bx dense forests: exceptions are cultixated areas along strains. scic:u,in :es in the east, and along the shore. here there are a fey% areas suitable fur he�liculiter landings. Ili addition. lk img c�unditious are purr (rani \lax thrum li laminas because of rain. c1midiness, aucl fregnc�nt thunderstorm,. Sit� sicitahle for airdrops and I:oulint,s of ass ;mIt -tx Ill- airuraft acre restricted to the lei\ existim, Oirfiefds. some sacanuar plains ill the east. allot the cultic algid ri%er ;illes. Sites suitable fi,r the comtrrc�tion of airfields are lucatcd onl\ in the lamer stream salless arc; ore the interior margins of the eastern plains. In mangy places, ho\%c\er. rmma lengths and orientations \%mild 1 restricted b\ marshes, seasmiall\ Ilooded :,rears. and b.\ adjacent highlands. \alural fuundartioms are fair. atmd little granting ur clearing \%mild be required. Raised "Ill gr.ides. ho\\exer. \\r,uld be regsnir(-d in areas subject to flooding. ard t-xtemskc drainage facilities N\ould be necessarn. The Caribbcaun coast is onl.\ fairl\ \ell suited for large -scale amphibious operrtimv, The central part is poorly suited and the eastern part is almost holl unsuited largel\ because of 1m,hibitke exit conditions clue to s\%amp\ and mnarsh\ coastal terrain and it lack (of' transportation routes. Ilmvexer. the %\cstcrn part of the e-oast is fairly \%gill suited, Sea approaches to t!u� coast of the region are enc�undwred I numerous scattered islands. islets, reefs, rucks. shoals. and bars. \lost of the coast is fringed b\ sand\ shores. and there are 2I beaches imitable for large -scale landings. nu,stl\ Along the \\estern part. F\ils from the !reaches are primarily b\ c�ross- cmmtr nrmemviit short dirt :maces to roads. Fr,rn aout one third of the beaches tracks. streets, or rc,ucls h lead (lir(-cllx inland. Mane parts of the Caribbean L(mland are \\ell suited for irregidar forces. Fxtenske multilaNer hma(lleaf evergreen forests prm icle read\ axeoues fur c�lanotestine nimernent as xxell as areas for concealed camps ;md storage caches The track and trail system around settlenicnts in the more denselx populated areas \\mold facilitate movement. 11m%ever. soft and slippery soils, inundated areas, and flooded str(-amns xvo111(1 hinder p:cssage (miring the \vet season. scattered farms and shifting agriculture as \yell as consideral ;le amounts of natural foods cmild pro\icle sti.,tenance for APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070016 -1 irregulars. The extensive forests reach to the shore in m:uv places where nuttiorous small beaches provide opportunities to land small numbers of men and equipmertt. The isolated nature of much of the coastal plain facilitates escape and sanctuary in Ilonduras and across the borders into Nicaragua and Guatemala. 2. Interior Highland Covering four- fifths of the country, this region is characterized by rugged, mostly forested hills and nonntains. Some lower slopes and mnrny valleys are under grass or cultivation and, in the dryer regions of the South, scrub and grass are predtu,linant. The road network is sparse though it fair frail net connects most populated places. This region is the most difficult in which to conduct large -scale conventional ground operations. The road network, with the exception of the bituntinous- surfac�ed sr. tions of the North Road, is inadequate for large scale mo've'ment. Onroad movement would be severely lw.mpered by sharp curves, steep grades, numerous Single -lane low capacity bridges. fords, and narrow stre tches of road. In addition, heavy rains duri `g the wet sea.,or make many sections of roads imtussahle because of mud, landslides and washo(tts. and flood swollen fords. Offroad dispersal and cross comitry movement would be slowed or precluded by the Steep Slopes of the hills and mountains and by dense Vegetation ()It the forested slopes. Locally, movement would he possible in a few valleys andl basins during the dry season. Large areas are unsa!tcc! for the construction of roads, extensive grading. blasting, c�tttting, and filling would be required, and alignments would he severely restricted. In mr.ty places, considerable clearing would be necessary an( tunnels and tnat)y bridges required. The numerous surface irregularities provide abundant cover from flat trajectory fire, and the (case forests afford excellent concealment from ground and air observation. There are nuuty sites suitable for the construction of tunnel -type installations, but sites for the construction of bunker -type installations arc available only locally, mautly in valleys and basins. The Interior Highland is poorly suited for airmobile and airborne operations because of rugged terrain and dense forests. I Ielicopter landings would be limited to some ridgetops, valleys, and basins where grass or cultivated vegetation predominates and to existi:tg airfields. Sites for airdrops and landings of assault -type aircraft are even more restricted. Only some valleys, basins, and it few airfields are suitable. %irfields could be constructe(I in it few of the larger river valleys and on some of the upland plains and basins, bolt many 12 would have restricted appr:),c�Ies and runway orientations. The rugged nature of the Interior I lighlan(1 and the eaten. ;iye forests snake a. large portion of t1w region well suited for irregular warfare. Conditions for clandestine movement are good except on lower Slopes of the muuutains in the Sont4 and in Some valleys where grass and light scrub are predominant. Although the road network is sparse, it fair trail and track system connects ',lost uopttlalecl places. Sleep slopes and slippery soils and flooded streams during the wet season would hinder ,lutvenenl. Natural funds are available though not abun(.ut. In the southeast a nd western portions of the region numerous farms and villages in the valleys could provide food and shelter. In some areas, particularly in the so "th. surface water sources arc scarce to nonexistent during the dry season. Escape routes and say-'uary areas in forested, rugged terrain are plentiful, exten(lirg across the borders \yith Guatemala and Nicaragua. :3. Pacific Lowland This region is it nearly flat to rolling plain haying extensive m arshes and swamps along the coast; inland, the vegetation is mostly Scrub and grass. Except for the Inter- American Ilighwuy that extends across the region, there are fey roads. The plaits along the Pacific coast are poorly suited fog large -scale conventional ground operations. Tile extensive permanently art areas along tic coast and the large areas subject to stream flooding restrict movement in mane places to the f: \y roads. Vvbicular notVetjlent would be facilitated I,y the Inter- American I lighwa however, tic fcw secondary roads could not support st-tained mil;tary traffic. Offroad dispersal Mid cross country movcmeW would be severely hindered or precluded by the widespread nwrshes and mangrove swamps and by soft soils and ifuocicd streams during the wet season. On the inland margins of the plains, offroad dispersal and cross country n:oveno�nt would be feasible (tiring the dry season, but direction of noven�ent would be restricted b streams too deep to ford. Roads having generally unrestricted alignments and reclniring !ittle construc- tion effort could be cons,ruc�ted on the inland margins of the region. Ito �sever, in most of region Jignno�nts would be restricted heeadse of the large areas of swamps, marshes, and seasonally flooded land. \l any culverts, bridges, raised roadbeds, and large am:outts of fill would be required. Some c�ovcr from flat trajectory fire and concealment from ground and air observation wortld he available in patches of forest along the streams and in the swampy areas hilt would be limited elsewhere. Only i t few Sites are available for APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070016 -1 the construction of bunker- tyi installations in the interior margins of the region, and oust excavations wo Ill (I req iii re� support. Sites suitable for the construction of tunnel h pe installations are few. The Pacific Lowland is generally' unfavorable fur airnuibile and airborne eperations, although fair opportunities exist for helicopter landings in pastures, fields, and areas of light vegetation. Soft soils, flooded streams, and large inundated areas would restrict operations seasonally. 'There are some sites, away front the coast, suitable for airdrops, landings of issarlt- t pe aircraft, and airfield construction. IIoweyer, many sites are subject to seasonal flooding. The con- struction of airfields would require large anurunts of' fill. raised subgrades. a extensive drainage facilities. In addition, runway orientations and lengths be restricted in numv places b, swamps, marshes. season- ally flooded areas, and by the adjacent Itighl:utds. 111 coast is wholly unsuited for large -scale amphibious opereflons because of severely chan- nelired and obstrateted sea approaches and prohibitive exit cot ditions due to mangrove and fresh -water swamp. marsh, and it lack of transportation routes. Sea approaches are restricted to the relatively shallow Ccalfo de IFOnsec�a that contain; numerous islands, is islow and mostly fringetd a by 1idel f ljlts. co backed by swamp and marsh. "There are no beaches suitable for large -scale landings. The Pacific Lowland is not well suited for irregular force operations except for the extensive swamps and marshes along the coast. Nlost of the region provides little concealment froth ground and air observation. Food and other supplies are available from scattered farms and c ommerc ial agriculture but natural foods are scarce Small numbers of nen and cquipticnt could be landed at isolated points along the coast; movement would be slowed in the extensive swamps and marshes. Long -range escape routes and sanctuary areas are virtually nonexistent due to the limited possibilities fer concealment and lack of inhabited areas. E. Strategic areas (C) "There are two strategic areas, Pedro Sula and 'I egaacigalpa Figure 20). I'hc y ,.are the leading administrative, military, commercial, land and air transport, _and tcleco ill ill unicaIion hubs in the country, have 905; of all industrial plants, and, according to the 1970 census, over 40f" of the nations urban residents and 13ii of the total population. "I'he strategic areas contain the only two cities of more than 100,01111 inhabitants in the country. Of lesser signific�aoc�e is Puertcu :orlcs, the large�.t hurt ill the counts. 1. San Pedro Sula This strategic area, coul>risint; the city aucl its sub- urbs Figure 1.1 is I londttras' iuclustrial capital. most important distribution point for imports and e\ports silippecl In land between the interior and Puerto (:cartes, and principal military airc raft dispersal site. San Pedro Sula also is it departmental capital, has it population eslintatec in 1972 at 116,000, and is ca regional commercial, to lecornnauniealion, and transport center. 'I'll(- strategic area is connected by rail as well as by a good highsV;r\ to the nations stain port and the countrn,'s best airport, La Mesa International l I U ��I r r ,"!I4rr4' k v Ji t 1 ft f i G Road Radroad Bridge o I i Statute mile FIGURE 14. San Pedro Sula Strategic Area (S) 13 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP0l- 00707R000200070016 -1 r S� \Tegucgalpa v l.. co'layagueia` Tocontrn International Airfield i. L FIGURE 15. Tegucigalpa Strategic Area (S) lirfic�I(I, is mile, cluth(� IsI. 'I�IIi, i the ortl\ :ii rIil�I(I in the cmmtrc %ijmble of acconunodatint! III( I :Irte.t conttn(rei :d jeth: it i :II >o tiwd It\ thc� Ilonduran fir Force I. a (fincnal biow for lhcir contlr,lt aircraft. \pother ntsjor niilitar\ iwtallalion. al the northvin outskirts oll S:ul Pedro Sala. contain" hilletin, fac�ilitie., and all underknnnnl ammunition .torai;e depot for the hcad(luartcr emit of the 11 Arm\ Zone and the r Infantr\ liatudion.. \t least :i, 1(111 barrcl of pclrolcilni pro(luck are ,t,)r( lhrnui;houl tfle Ntrate14ic arc:(. �I'hc di\ersifi(-d tnanufaclurini; c0ahli in the area ac�c�ount for T.:` of all plants :n the coontr\. elan\ of \11111'11 111.1\ 111'\ Si,iiificanl industrial plant include one of the pla rll:olulacturer, in Latin Anic�rica anuI III I po1\ellt\ Icne cap :u Il\ i.)Illi tune. a tvcl- ndlin, :tntl \\ire dr.I(\im, twill. :ul :intinion\ rrrc- e\tr.r('tion plant. the \\orld' tar eat maiiiifacturer of Iron�n kitiana purcc. alit the Liri;e.t prildli ,�r- in :c�ntral Aiiicric.i of diirt and undvr\\c:tr. Other plmit pre.uc: natural :Ind lit lictic� lc\tile. (-(-tools and otILet con ulaterictk, I)Iiartnaeerttieak r,IIdto r. Ilcer :Ind foul�.. :Ind other con t;4)mk egilicig 'I lik �tr itc�t;iu arc .i, e tmipri itt,F 'Fclt lluivalp:I and the adjacent pit\ (!f (:otua\'t, :Ind their it rroundiII, Ithltrh ;Fi II re 15 find l6i. k ii!niliciolt ehiefl\ hl�callm. it colltaill" the natiuu:ll cal'ital. It i' the principal political,\. ;old teleconuuunicatiotl cciitc�r in the cctnntr\ 'I'll( Ic t ueialpa- (:on1;I\aluela orlon area i the lari;c l'c'pulatiun center it: Ilondura and had an e"tinlated 256.000 inhahitank in 1972. It aLo k a rvi0onal ro ;id Auld :lit trawl) (0 �tltlr and indu trial center. road in mood c)ncliti(m cunnc�(�t it to tit( IIIIcr- .1n it ric�aII Ilikh\\:I\ tit( mouthenl part of !It(- countr\ near Lw 1 coat. Intl aimthc�r road in i:ood errnd',tiol, II :ICk norllr\\ :I rd to litwrlo torte.: roach (�otl\t rt;c� on it Iront the c wt. foe mtill International AirfivId pr t\i(I(� dome, tic Ind inlenlalional (-r\iee. Manu(acturink etuhlihnn nt in tlic :area. repre almut 15', rtf the� national total, are primaril\ in the lii;ht inclu >tr\ catei;or\. their production k chiefl\ for hwal conuniption. �I'he snore include :i di,tillerr. and a hre\\er\. %\caring apimr��1 ni :olnfactun�r a\\milk. eenicut prodtick l!lanl and food proee. 1'etroleiiin product" torat;e laeilitie in the ,tr :itcvic area total almilt 7, .6110 FIGURE 16. The twin -city complex of Tegucigalpa Comayaguela is in the valley of the Rio Choluteca in the south central interior highlands. The continued growth of the cities has pushed the built -up areas up the sides of the mountains enclosing the valley. (C) APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070016 -1 barrels. The most significant militar imlallations arc: the Ministry of Defense, %%ith facilities for the Chiefs of Staff. and the GiTicers Advanced School (1a1�14(�111 de Aplicacione�s Militures), %client jumior arm% officers up to the rant: of captain are trained, at the nortimest and northeast cciges of 'I'cgucigalpa, r�specti%v1%. the General Francisco Morazan Mililar Acadvm%, N%here elementarn school graduates are trained to become army and air force officer, in central Coma\aguclu; Ist Brigade installations. south of Conra\a- guela: and, adjacent to the airfield, all the Ilonduran :fir Force principal installations, including their Militarc Aviation School. The foremost 1- gislativc and educational institutions in the country also are in the strategic area: the Presidential I'al :rc�c and the National -autonomous Vnivrrsity of llonduras, the latter has an en rollment of c,bout 3,000. :3. Othe significant area Puerto Corles, the fourth largest toy\ if in l londuras. had if population estimated at 2�I.5-19 in rd" and is the countr's largest port, handling N i "i of the national maritime traffic in 19 0. It also is the site of llonduras only petrole n refiner', which has it daily crude throughput capacit\ of 1 1.000 barrels. Petroleune stowage facilities ire the area total 911.0(10 barrels, including tankage for :360.000 barrels of crude oil and 323,000 b arre ls of products at the refiner\. Puerto Cortes also is an important land transport center: it is the northern terminal of the Honduras National llailvvay line. with associated railroad repair facilities and classification yard, as \vrll as the terminal of the main highwa\ south card to the national capital. F. Internal routes (C) The internal routes prop ide the easiest uivcmws of movement bet\ceen land and sea approaches and tlu- strategic� areas and bet eeu the strategic areas (Figure 20). Information on these routes is gi%cn in Figurc I G. Approaches The perimeter of llonduras, 1,460 Wailes, consists of 950 miles of land boundaries and 310 miles of coastline. I londnres c�luirms territorial raters extending 12 nautical Wailes offshore. Data on boundaries is presented in Figure 18. l' Ol' 1. Land (C) ')'here arc f v \v snitaf,lc land approacfcs to Honduras. Most of the land boundaries arc across nuggcd, fon� mountains ar,cl hills or \\�t or forested plains. :cruel cross- countrx nec,xcna III t \%ould hr (lit ficidt. F.wepl for a Ic\c trails, the oul\ tnonsportation lines leading to tfec Ilonduncs borders are those of the Inter American Iligimak from E Salvador and Nicaragua. 'I'll(- best approach is from FI Salvador. I'he :e {,grouch (nmu Sara Miguel, F Salvml�r, cxtends southcast\\:erd mainly_ across rolling to dissected and cultkated plains :end rugged, brush co�.-crcd hills. It contains a kw -lzme road that bars it bituneinons- treated scarlacc in fair to good condiiion and- for part of the appn,ach. if 3'0" gage single truck railroad. The railroad clots root rcac�h the bonier, terminating at the port of I.a l'niou but the ro id bends northcast\\ard to enter Ilouduras..\rr allcraatc, m direct road vxlcnds northeast from San Miguel through rnostl\ brush covered hills and joins the Inter merican I liglma\ -1 miles from the border. This road is t\\o lanes \\ids and bitrenainous surfaced. In the approach� offroacl clispersal \\mild be leasiblc. but cross- c�ountr moscment %could be limited b\ steel; slopes. rugged terra in� a nd. from \lay through Oc�tobcr, b cl soils. lilac approach from San Sit Iva tor. FI Salvador. crosses mgtl brush- cmured morurtains and hills. It contains a road that is 20 to 2 :3 feel N\idc and bus it bitcanainous surrfacc and 1400t shoulders. In the north. there are it fc\\ short sections hero� the road has a gra\el surface. Offroad clispersal and cross- c�ounutr nu,xrnu�nl of \ehides \\ocald be precluded b the elisse�cted terrain. The approach from Estch. Nicaragua. is mainly wross sleep hills and mountairus and sc\ crek dissected plains: there arc small areas of culti\ :atcd ficiclr: intermingled \\itla patches of forest and grassland. This approach contains a road that is t\\o lanes \\ide. has a bitrrnainous- trcatccl surface, and is in fair c�ouclition; the road is a sect ior. c,f Ilse Inter- AIIIcricaII IIigh\\:I\ I c,r the urc,st part. offroacl clispersal and cross- cvmuatr movement \could be difficult because of the rugged terrain. 2. Sea C) Offshore approaches to the Caribbean coast are nc�unubered b a chain of reef- fringed islands, which rourghl\ parallels the central part of the coast. and b nunu�rous reefs. shoals. and several islets and islands. 'I'll( ncurshore approaches are partly obstructed by scattered reefs. rocks, and shoals. In addition, shifting bars c�losel\ front mangy stretches of coast. Average 13 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070016 -1 16 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDP01-00707R000200070016-1 'a Z bc g tc hc Tc tz 7. bc Y. tc t4 tc t4 bc bc 0 bc 77 -c v. L L CG LIJ bc cc hc 16 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDP01-00707R000200070016-1 FIGURE 18. Boundaries (U /OU) BOUNDARY 1. EN(rrll :I1 ilrs Nicaragua......... 570 STATUS DC nlil I tell and undisputed......... EI Salvador.... 220 In dispute, undefined except for it section in the east along the Rio Goascoran. Guatemala........ 160 Demarcated and undisputed......... nearshore bottom slopes range from I on 36 to I on 262. Surf 4 feet or higher ranges from infrequent in all seasons on several beaches to it tnaxinaum of approximately 40c of the tit-.- on exposed hcaches during October through March. 'fides are diurnal with a rnar,imum range of about 1 l feet. Offshore approaches to the Pacific coast arc clear but are restricted to the Golfo de Fonseca and severely channelized within the gulf by islets, islands, shoals, rocks, and reefs. The nearshore approaches arc partly obstructed by islands, shoals, reefs, and mudflats. Tider, in the gulf are sernidiurnal, and the spring range is from S t 10 feet. Surf 4 feet or higher seldom occurs. The coast is low, swampy, muddy, and largely fringed by mangrove. The 24 beaches (,it the Caribbean coast arc mostly located in groups scattered along the western two thirds. About two thirds of the [)caches are over I mile long and the longest is 1 miles. Beach materials arc predominantly sand and average widths range from 10 to 90 yards at low water and from 5 to 55 yards at high water. Average low -water to high -water gradients f ange from 1 on 19 to I on 132, and it, the high -water zone gradients are estimated to range from I on 10 to I oil 20. The beaches are backed by partly cultivated plains and areas of swamp and forest. Mostly forested hills and mountains back the plains. Exits from the beaches are generally cross country for short distances to roads, tracks, and trails. There are no beaches suitable for large -scale amphibious operations on the Pacific coast; however, there is one extremely poor landing place at Cedeno on the eastern shore of the Golfo de Fonseca and one landing place on Isla del Tigre within the gulf. The two amphibious landing areas shown on Figure 20 provide the best access to internal routes leading to the strategic area. Data on the landing areas are presented in Figure 19. TERRAIN Mostly across forested or scrub- covered coastal plains, hills, and rugged mountains. In west, mainly along river courses and ridge crests. In cast, mainly along; Rio C OCO, Mostly across forested mountains. However, near Pacific coast along Rio Goascoran across pre- dominantly scrub- covered coastal plain. Mostly across rugged forested mountains. A short portion near Caribbean coast aligned alon;! Rio Nlotagua. 3. Air (U /OU) Air approaches" to Honduras from the northwest are over Mexico, Gnatenala, El Salvador, and British Honduras; from the north and east over the Caribbean Sea; frow !be southeast over Nicaragua and Costa Mew and front the southwest over the Pacific Ocean. a Opographic hazards in the air approaches consist of high mountains in Guatemala, El Salvador, and Nicaragua. 1 ?Ievalions range up to 1:3,800 feet in Guatemala, 9,200 feet in El Salvador, and 6,900 feet in Nicaragua. Weather conditions in all approaches arc generally favorable for flying throughout the year. I owever, conditions arc generally hest in December through March, when cloudiness (20'li to 555 is at a mininium, thunde rstorms are infrequent, in(] the risk of severe turbulence or aircraft icing is remote. Weather is generally least favorable in May through October, when cloudiness (50% to 90ii is at a maximum, thunderstorms are most numerous, and the risk of turbulence or aircraft icing is greatest. During the latter period, thunderstorms are most freque (5 to 15 per 'north) over land areas, especially along exposed ridges and slopes. "I'hcy are most likely to occur during the afternoon over land and at night over water. Tropical cyclones may affect the approaches over the two water bodies. [lowever, they are rare in the Pacific approach and average only one or two per ycar in the Caribbean approach, usually in June through October. 'These storms generally are accompanied by widespread cloudiness, heavy showers, turbulence, and strong winds. In all approaches upper winds below about 20,000 feet arc predominantly easterly; above this level to at (cast :55,000 feet, winds are mostly westerly in December through May, easterly in ]tine through August, and variable in September through November. Mean speeds are less than 50 knots at all levels throughout the year. "l'he discussion zone for air approaches extends approximately 300 nautical miles hcvon(1 the borders of Ilonduras. IN APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070016 -1 CON F[ DENTIAL W -2 E LU ix U- is 5 -7 Z t:c -4 tc f: 19 bL c Z Tj bL be v bc CL -L7 C C C c Z; Z Qc cq NO F013EIGN I)ISSEM :ONVIDENTIAL APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDP0l-00707R000200070016-1 B r i t i s Poplun Ho n u r P,wa Go,da udes!u /r T L/) Places ar, I features referred to in this chapter (u,ou) 001MINATES IN H Bara� oa 15 1:3 S7 5 2 Cedeflo 1:3 Its 87 25 Comity.1glia I 1-1 25 Si :37 Comayaguela I I S7 1:3 El .1aral 1.1 54 SS 03 El Progreso 15 21 S'7 49 Esteli, Nicaragua 13 86 2:3 Golfo (it Fonseca (yld r; 1:3 Itt s7 j(I Isla &.i Tigre (isl) 1:3 Ifi 87 Ts La Fragua 1.5 38 S7 19 La Uni6n, El Salvador 1:3 20 87 51 Montafias de ComaYagua t m1s) 1.1 23 S7 26 Nacaome 1:3 :31 S7 30 Potreriflos 15 11 S7 5S Puerto Castilla 16 (11 M; 01 Puerto Corti 15 -1 S s7 5 t Ilio Aguim 15 7 tin 11 Rio Chanielevi'm (strm) l: 1 S7 .19 Rio Choluteca (strm) 1:3 (17 S7 19 R io Coco (ntrm) 15 00 S3 11) R io GoascorAn (sine) 1:3 25 87 Is Rio Motagua, Guatemala (slrm) 15 .1.1 SIS I I R io Negro (strm) 1:3 02 S7 17 Rio Ulfia (stryn) I 5:3 S'7 .1-1 Sa Lorenzo 13 2- S7 27 San Miguel, E'I Salvador 1:3 29 SS I I San Pedro Sula 15 27 02 San Salvador, El Salvador 13 -12 S! 1 12 sula 15 15 SS 33 Tegucigalpa 1.1 06 S7 1:1 Tela 15 .1-1 S7 27 Villa de San Antonio 1.1 16 S7 36 Rio Hondo Santa Ana Sonsnnatc Gjalan pa uimula Santa Rosa de Cop;kfl v4 �ttoo 060 San Sa El Salvz San Vicente; )Zacat6coluca Confidential 71337 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDP01-00707R000200070016-1 Pur ;rto Barrios r,1o; a utt.s,, 8050 San Pedro Sula y B RE y r L 1 r 7200 of- NO -7309 .11 r i\+ p t V. 99x P L D A G u1' 0 A-L. i .5700 7 I 6300 ?..�...t J t L' �77001. 7100 7100. 7100 .5500 .7800 A Zacapa l Fll:n.,r 9300 6300 .6900 .6500 �Chigwmula Q S S,,,p,- ,r,Le.u.r�9 .840U .7300 U/ 1, 3 01, .6100 9.400 7300. 8000 8100. O 7100 m ..1 8200 JE C> `o O A O VP r o t 8400 GE O vG, 7 400 u r OPI> 1,iul.'LVceie. n 59 7578 7600 Tegucigalpa .7300 L c D Santa Ana V .5900 I �.6 1 6500 I p 1 San Salvador .4200 J San'' Vicente Zacatecoluca J p San Miguel Usulutan �4000 N:usrtn:� t I Confidential 71337 Chinandega APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070016 -1 T, r i 10 La Ceiba 3700. up't 8050 Onclqu, t -M,KfU Olaoch,lo 360 1 Q P 5900 J. 'o El Rva,bo San Marcos de Colnn 5706 T T-A r it 0 cJ I -G i n 11 C El ME APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDP01-00707R000200070016-1 I, LS wt I ME APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDP01-00707R000200070016-1 ^o/ F!,IqK-S Confidential w.`"`. Military geographic factors Figure 20 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-R0PD1-00707R0D0200070016-1