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SECRET 73 /GS /S SECRET NO FOREIGN DISSEM APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070018 -9 NATIONAL INTELUSENCE SURVEY PUBLICATIONS The basic unit of the NIS is the General Survey, which is now published in a bound -by- chapter format so that topics of greater per- ishability can be updated on an individual basis. These chapters� Country Profile, The Society, Government and Politics, The Economy, Military Geog- raphy, Transportation and Telecommunications, Armed Forces, Science, and Intelligence and Security, provide she primary NIS coverage. Some chapters, particularly Science and Intelligence and Seclrity, that are not pertinent to all countries, are produced selectively. For small countries requiring only minimal NIS treatment, the General Survey coverage may be bound into one volume. Supplementing the General Survey is the NIS Basic Intelligence Fact book, a ready reference publication that semiannually updates key sta- tistical data found in the Survey. An unclassifit:d ed +tion of the factbook omits some details on the economy, the defense forces, and the intelligence and security organizations. Although detailed sections on many topics were part of the NIS Program, production of these sections has been phased out. Those pre- viously produced will continue to be available as long as the major portion of the study is considered valid. A quarterly listing of all active NIS units is published in the Inventory of Available NIS Publications, which is also bound into the concurrent classified Factbook. The Inventory lists all NIS units by area name and number and includes classification and date of issue; it thus facilitates the ordering of NIS units as well as their filing, cataloging, and utilization. Initial dissemination, additional copies of NIS units, or separate chapters of the General Surveys can be obtained directly or through liaison channels from the Central Intelligence Agency. The Gen ral Survey is prepared for The NIS by the Centra! Intelligence Agency and t;le Defense Intelligence Agency under the general direction of the NIS Committee. It is coordinated, edited, published, and dissemi- nated by the Centr I Intelligence Agency. WAR \I \C This document contains information affecting the nwional defense of the United States, within the meaning of title 18, sectioris 793 and 794 of the US code, as amended. Its transmission or revelation of its contents to or receipt by on unauthorized person is prohibited by law. CLASSIFIED BY 019641. EXEMPT FROM GENERAL DECLASS IFl- CATION SCHEDULE OF E. O. 11652 EXEMPTION CATEGORIES 5B (1), (2), (3). DECLASSIFIED ONLY ON APPROVAL OF THE DIRECTOR OF CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070018 -9 r WARNING The NIS is National Intelligence and may not be re- leased or shown to representatives of any foreign govern- ment or international body except by specific authorization of the Director of Central Intelligence in accordance with the provisions of National Security Council Intelligence Di- rective No. 1. For NIS containing unclassified mwerial, however, the portions so marked may be made available for official pur- poses to foreign nationals and nongovernment personnel provided no attribution is made to National Intelligence or the National Intelligence Survey. Subsections and graphics are individually classified according to content. Classification /control designa- tions are: (U /OU) Unclassified /For Official Use Only (C) Confidential (S) Secret APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070018 -9 This chapter was prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency. Research was sub- stantially completed by March 1973. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070018 -9 Honduras CONTENTS This chapter supersedes the sociniogical cover- age in the General Surce.1 dated August 1969. A. Introduction 1 B. Structure; and characteristics of the society. 1 1. Racial composition 1 2. Language 2 3. Social structure 2 4. Values and attitudes 3 a. Race, minority group,, and foreigners 3 b. Status 3 c. Family and the role of women 3 C. Population 4 1. Size and growth 4 2. Age -sex structure and distribution 5 3. Population policy 6 SECRET No FOREIGN DISSEM APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070018 -9 Page D. The role of labor 7 1. Employment opportunities and main 17 occupations 7 2. Labor �rnd management organizations 7 3. Labor legislation 9 E. Living conditions and social problems 9 1. Material welfare 9 2. Government programs 12 3. Private action and foreign assistance 13 4. Social problems 13 F. Health 13 1. Environmental factors affecting health 14 2. Medical care 15 G. Religion 16 1. Roman Catholic Church 16 FIGURES Page Fig. 1 Page 2. Protestant denominations 17 3. Other religions 17 H. Education 17 1. Bole of education in society 17 2. Educational system 19 3. Noncurricular student activities 21 I. Artistic and cultural expression .22 1. Painting and sculpture 22 2. Literature 23 3. Music and dance 24 J. Public information 25 1. Radio and television 26 2. Newspapers, magazines, books, and films 27 K. Selected bibliography 28 Glossary 29 FIGURES Page Fig. 1 Registered vital rates table) 3 Fig. 2 Age -sex structure, Honduras and the 8 Bahareque house under construction United States (chart) 5 Fig. 3 Population data, selected countries 12 Fig. (chart) 6 Fig. 4 Population and administrative Fruit Company labor union photo) divisions (map) 6 Fig. 5 Upper class home, San Pedro Sula (photo) 10 Fig. 6 Middle class dwellings (photos) 10 Fig. 7 Substandard housing photos) 11 ii APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070018 -9 Page Fig. 8 Bahareque house under construction (photo) 12 Fig. 9 Workers' housing built by the United Fruit Company labor union photo) 13 Fig. 10 Data on Protestant denominations and missions (table) 18 Fig. 11 Educational system chart) 19 Fig. 12 Number of schools, students, and teachers (table) 20 Fig. 13 Leading daily newspapers table) 27 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070018 -9 The Society A. Introduction (U /OU) Honduras is one of the poorest, most under developed countries of the Western Ilemispbere: its society is characterized by widespread puyert). Door health, substandard living conditions, and ill atle till te educational facilities. Hondurans liVe in rural areas or small country villages and are dependent (directly or indirectly) upon agriculture zinc forestry fora living. Although ']lost I londur.tns cultivate small Plots of land un it subsistence or near subsistence basis, sortie of them work on the Unittd Fruit and Startclard Fruit plantations in the northern part of the country. 'I'll( m prosperous raise coffee, cattle. andl other commercial crops on individual plantation or homesteads. Although population pressure on available land has not become as great it problem as in many other countries, there is it high internal migration trend, indicating it search for grcut( opportunity. Industry has not develop-ti sufficientlx to provide this opportunity, resulting in a lame number of unemployed andl unde�erttploN in the urban areas. This is especially true in till- ease of unskilled \corkers, who are plentiful and poorly paid. Thery is a small landocyning upper class sl status is partially based on fancily background, butt this group is not as ccc.dthc' as the upper class in roost other Latin ;krnericai. countries, nor is it as socially exclusive. Bec�ausl- of till- homogeneous character of Ilonduran society mostly mestizo and Ijt,In.tlt Catholic �the class stntc�ture has developed along cconornic rather than racial or religions lines. Fwcpt for small ;ksian and Negro minorities, which are considered socially ccldtal to others of similar wealth and education, there is little discrimination against ethnic and religious minorities. A fairly high degree of Potential social rtc,bility exists, therefore, based on an individual's economic advattcentent. The codtntry narrow economic base, poor health conditions, arid limited educational opportunities, however, prevent all but a few from realizing this potcn;ial. B. Structure and characteristics of the society 'I'be homogeneous character of' soc-iety .uul the Absence of large, unassimilated r:tinority grouj)s have shared Ilonduras the strains and instability that iretluently accompany poverty and a itiglt degree of internal mobility. :\Iso favoring stability ill the shortrun period is a high degre. of apatit\. -lost Ilondurans see little Possibility of improving their lot and seem instinctively to dismiss as political rhetoric promises to the conit,.ry. The degree of apalbx. however, also inhibits c�bange..utdl Ilonduran society 110s changed little in decades. (L'/(W) 1. Racial coolposit on (U!0U) Racially, I londurts is it :nestizo country. Over 90(1 of the total population i of rutixcd syhite-- generally Spanidl �anti Indian &-scent in varying degrees. The Indian element is d!rriyed mostly from one of the several %layan sttbgroups. I londurans tend to be short in stature with g:-neral body types ranging from the slender build of the Spanish to the stocky \layan appearance. !;ontpll-xion shades range from olive to Clark brocy, hair is mostly dark brocyn or black and srnooti, in teMutre. In the northern part of the country. some Negro mixture is oc�casionaily evident in the mestizo elentetit. manifested generull\ in the coarser, curlier texture of the hair. 'I'hc ntl-stizo majority dominates political, economic. and social life: in 19 -15. whin the last census ascertaining racial composition leas taken, mestizos predominated numerically in all but two of the 18 departments. and the mestizo portion of the total population is increasing. The Indians, mostly Jicacitte (\icactues) and Lenca, c�ortstitute the second largest racial group, which totals about i of the population. I'bcc are found tbrougbout the country and, for the most part. I;O�e as part of Ilonduran society. Indians predominate rttimeric'ally in the Departnu'ttt of Intibuca, where 3 0 i, of the Indian population is located. and Cortstitdtte a large minority of the population of the Department of La Paz. Indian groups in the APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070018 -9 Department of Olancho tend to live apart front the rest of the Honduran community, but this is believed to be because of their owa preference and not the result of social or economic discrimination against them. A small group of primitive Miskito (Mosquito) Indians lives in the northeastem lowlands along the Caribbean coast. Negroes make tp about 2% of the total population and are located mostly alcag the north coast in the banana-growing region and in the Islas de la Bahia' (also known as the Bay Islands), where they comprise the numerically dominant group. The majority of the Bay Island Negroes are of British West Indian descent, a fact which explains the presence of a number of English names in that region. White persons make up about I of the total population. The largest concentration of whites, many of foreign nationality, coincides with the location of mining and plantation operations. About 22!i of this small white minority are Bay Islanders of English extras -an. 2. Language (U /OU) Spanish is he official language throughout Honduras. Several small Indian tribal groups, however, spe,,k their own aboriginal tongues. In most such _c,es, the head of the family has a working kioowledge of Spanish. Most of the Negroes along the north coast ared in the Islas de la Bahia, as well as some of the whites it. those areas, speak English as their native language. Also, most well- educated lfon- durans, especially those in professional and technical fields, speak English, since many of them were educated in the United States. :3. Social structure (r) The class structure in londuras is based almost entirely on econoriic factors and therefore is not nearly as rigid as that of many other Latin American countries. The society is basicaily rural and relatively primitive. Most Hondurans share a heritage of poverty, for even the upper class is much less wealthy than its counterpart in other Central American countries. A study in 1968 indicates the following class structure based on family income: PERCENT Upper over $6,000 yearly) 1 Middle ($1,000 to $6,000 yearly) 19 Lower less than $1,000 yearly) 80 No estimate was made as to what urban and rural percentages existed within each class. 'U.S. Government and U.N. statisticians believe this represents an undercount of about i.:i9r. All projections are adjusted accordingly. The upper class is largely urban; other than a few resident owners of large plantations, it consists r Candy of top government and military officials. well -to -do professionals. especially in the medical and legal fields, and the more successful merehatits at:i industrialists. Except for a fey very Iuxurious, expensive homes, upper class families generally have homes similar to those of the middle 4or upper middle class in the United States. These families generally have at least one full -time servant and several other part -time employees to perform specific tasks. such as gardening and ironing. The middle class, also mainly urban, consists of lower level government and military officials. white collar workers, teachers, and professionals. In urban areas, middle class families generally have electricity. running water, and indoor toilet facilities in their modest residences. Some employ a domestic servant either fell or part time. The rural portion of the middle class includes teachers, merchants, and farriers with holdings large enough to raise commercial crops. Houses of this group are ustially more substantial than the majority of rural residences, frequently of sandstone with tile roofs. Furniture is usually reasonably comfortable. but the rural middle class rarely has a piped water supply or indoor sanitary facilities. Farriers in this class may employ additional labor to help with the farm work, but donestic servants are rare. The lower class, which includes most of the pe,pulation, is largc!y rural. Member% of this class usually are subsistence fartners who extract it shin existence front 3 acres or 1(- using agricultural methods that have changed little since colonial times. Ilouses are typically of mud and wood with thatched roofs and are illuminated by pine torches or kerosene lamps. Furniture ;s sparse, and mats placed on the floor or ground serve as bet.- On the large plantations of United Fruit and Standard Fruit companies, workers and their families are housed in wooden, generally two-family, buildings raised on stilts above the flood level. Each family has its own two-room unit, with kitchen and washing space in the rear. Toilet and bathing facilities are separate and shared with other families. Lower class urban dwellers are, in one respect, more poorly housed because of the overcrowding of urban shun areas. Many recent arrivals from rural areas live tinder makeshift shelters of packing crates, discarded lumber, and serap tin. Honduran society is characterized by it fairly high degree of geographic mobility; in some areas as many us half of the people were horn outside the municipality in which they reside. Most of the APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070018 -9 migration is from farms to urban areas by persons searching for greater economic opportunity. Because of limited industrial development and inadequate educational facilities, few are able to better their standard of living substantially. Those who are able. to advance upward on the economic scale find that within Honduran society there are few social attitudes blocking vertical mobility. Aside from the prestige derived from being at member of one of the older, wealthier families, social status appears to depend for the most part cm the individual's own accomplishments, regardless of race, membership in it minority group, or previous economic condition. 4. Values and attitudes a. Race, minority groups, and foreigners (C) Racial characteristics count for relatively little in determining the individual's position in Honduran society. There are no institutional or social restraints which prohibit members of minority groups from participating in all branches and levels of government, and all enjoy the same public accommodations. White persons do not appear to enjoy any special position because of their race. Niany whites are found in the upper social and economic strata, but they have not controlled political life since the early 19th century. Although Negroes have generally been represented in government far out of proportion to their actual numbers, there seems to be subtle discrimination against them. *Most Negroes belong to the servant or common laborer class. A few are taxi drivers or mechanics, but hardly any are merchants or white collar workers. Despite the� generally logy economic position of the Negro, the literacy rate, according to the 1961 census, in the predominantly Negro Bay Islands was the highest of any department in Honduras (93%), while the average for the entire country was only 4 7 4.3% Negroes along the north coast also place a high value on education. There is some evidence of discrimination against the small Levantine (primarily Lebanese and Palestinians known locally as Turcos) and Chinese minorities. They constitute it very small fraction of 1% of the do Pulation, but are generally prominent in the business community. They are rarely offered (nor do they seek) government employment and are only slowly being recognized socially to it degree commensurate with their economic status. Resentment against them is related to their rapid economic success and their tendency toward clannishness. Other Ilondurans also fear that their strong financial position ns.ty give them political power which Honduran; would rather retain for "Hondurans," notwithsca.Ading the fact that matte Turcos are second generation Hondurans. Divisions anong Ilondurans, even though siight, arc more cultural than racial. Mainland Ilondurans generally think of the predominantly Protestant, English- speaking Bay Islanders as it group apart from other Hondurans. Bay [slanders consider themselves somewhat superior to the yards' (as nainlan(I Hondurans are called by Bay [slanders), at least insofar as education is concerned. The only other foreign group against which some discrimination is practiced consists of immigrants from EI Salvador. Hondurans believ. that Salvadoran i tit migr.tits are more highly skilled in their respective trades and more ambitious than the Hondurans among whom they settle. Consequently, Salvadoran immigrants engender a degree of resentment which exceeds the true economic siv.nificance of their presence. In 1969 Hondurans roused to renew the bilateral migration agreement between EI Salvador and Honduras, and in July of that year the two countries briefly went to war over alleged mistreat- ment of one another's nationals. Relations ha.� not yet been restored. Although the Agrarian Reform La restricts the distribution of government land to native born Hondurans, and it provision of the Labor Code limits the percentage of non- Honduran employed in any given firm, these provisions are applied no more strictly to Salvadorans than to any other foreigners. b. Status (U /OU) As in most Latin American countries, several factors either lend or indicate social status. A person stay acquire social status through the ansount and type of education he has: professional degrees, such as those in law and medicine, are preferred. Urban residence is more desirable than rural, but land ownership lends status wheth: r the person lives on the land or is an absentee landlord. The kind of work it person does and the way he dresses also are indicators of social status: Most middle and tipper class Hondurans, therefore, avoid manual labor and tend to dress more formally. e. Family and the role of wornen (U/OU) In Honduras, the nuclear and the extended family traditionally have been the basic units of the social structure. Although the habitual cohesiveness of the wider kin group has lessened over the past three decades, family ties in Honduras remain stronger than APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070018 -9 in the United States. Kin group identification generally extends to aunts, uncles, and second or third cousins, and involves a loyalty That transcends the abstract notion of civic responsibility. 'I'll(- result is that it high degree of nepotism is tacitly_ accepted in public life. Paralleling the kinship structure based on blood is the contpadrazgo, or godparent system which is derived from the bonds formed betycen godparents (padrinos) and godchildren (ahijados) at baptisn. Although in some circles compadraz o has becone more ceremonial than functional, large numbers of Hondurans still consider it important. 'I'll(- godparents assume it protective responsibility for the go,lehild. Nell -to -do Hondurans of high standing in the community are frequently preferred as godparents in the hope that their weaith awd prestige will be advantageous to the child. A leading citizen of a community may in time Sponsor dozens of children in baptism. Although legal marriage requires it civil ceremony, which may be followed by it religious ceremony if the couple chooses, it is only aniong the upper and middle classes that legal marriage is the Horn. In the lower class, consensual rations are more prevalent than formal matrimony. ivlany of these common la%y marriages are its lasting and stable its legal ones and entail the same level of responsibility on the part of the husband. Others, however, are of short duration. Officially, the government recognizes consensual unions as valid if both parties are legally free to marry. Because of the prevalence of common law unions, ill igitiniacy �about 605i of all births �does not carry the stigma that it does in more developed, industrialized countries. The widespread occurrence of consensual unions, furthermore, causes Honduras to have one of the lowest rates for legal marriage in Latin `,merica. There are normally three to four legal marriages per 1,000 persons age 1.1 and over �about one -third the usual rate for theTiflted States. Divorce is legal in Honduras, but the divorce rate 0.15 per 1,000 persons in 1966 �is insignificant. Social and religious pressures against it are very strong, and at least among the tipper class, marriages are almost never dissolved, although separation sometimes occurs. Honduran families, like those elsewhere in Latin America, are generally dominated by the husband. The double standard I exists; men generally feel nu obligation to remain faithful to their wives, arn.l those who can afford it frequently keep one or more i:istresses. The wife, on the other hand, is not only expected to remain faithfu'l and subservient but to ac�eept the situation without complaint. In upper class households the wife usually Icads a sheltered life of leisure. WiddIe class women frexluently continue employnu�nl outside the home after marriage, and for lower class worsen cniploynu�nt is nearly always an economic necessity, as they nav he the only steadily employed wage e;.tnur in the family. Women have political, civil, and woperty rights equal to those of men. Women were permitted to vote for the first lime in 1977: at that time only one third as many wonen voted as diet nten. The number of wonen who registered for the 1965 election, however, increased to approximately 9Wi of the number of Hies registered. Three percent of the country's doctors and 13 ii of its university professors :ire women. In governncnt entploynu�nt there is no discrimination against wotnen with good education or technical training, and most government clerical jobs :ire held by women. 'I'll(- proportion of wuniert adequately prepared for positions of responsibility, however, is !o%y. To speak exclusively of Icgal equality for women leaves a distorted picture of Ilonduran societ. There is it high proportion of uunmrried women with illegitimate children; they usually receive no financial or moral assistance from the fathers of their childre�e. 'This unequal distribution of responsibility within the society has resulted in the development within the lower classes of strong family ties centered almost e xclusiyely on the neither. C. Population (U /OU) 1. Size and growth :lccording to the most recent census for Ilondurts. taken in April 1961, the total population was 1,88.1,765." A projection based on this figure estimates the� total population as of I January 19 1.3 to he 2 ,81 3,000. llondtiras population grew at the rate of approximately 3. -1`i per year during the 1965 -70 period� a rate of growth higher than that in any .ether Central American country, except Costa Rica. lvlorc�oycr, projections of trends in !irths, deaths, and migration indicate that the growth rate will increase, rising to 3.5 per year in the 197.5 -80 period before leveling off and subsequently declining somewhat in 1985 -90. The Latin American Center of Demography has projcctrd it population of about :3 million by 1975� 3.7 million by 1980, 4.4 million by 1955, and 5.2 million by 1990. Population growth in Ilonduras is Tor clinc�ritics on place names see the list of Hann�% at tilt encl of t1w chapter. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070018 -9 I primarily a result of the excess of births over dcalbs. Births and deaths hare� been registered ill Ilondimis since� 1926, but the n�porling of thew events has he-eu deficient. Whilc there has been continuing inlprorenu�nt in the registration process, the system still suffers from incompleteness of reporting and from a practice that permits births and deaths in one scar to be ree�ordcd ill any setbseeluent year. The reported birth rate increased from :39.9 per 1.000 in 1950 to �1.1.0 per 1,000 in 1967. while the reported death rate decreased from 1 1.8 per 1,001) to 8A per 1,000 during the same period. A significant decrease in the infant mortality rate is indicated by the reported statistics. In 1950. infant deaths during the first year of life per 1.11011 lire births amo mated to 55.(5. By 1967 the infant mortality rate had decreased to 55.5 per 1,000. Since the Honduran Government has not been able to enforce- the rceli iretnent that all births and deaths be reported pntmtptl%, especially in rural areas, it is possible that the Into figure is still Sonte%%hilt higher. higure I gives this information in tabular form. The Ilonduran Government eSHIllittes life e\pectunc\ for persons born in 1960 to be 52.6 %cars for males and 55.6 years for females. 2. Age -sex structure and distribution The Population is one of the yountest in the Ayorld. In 1970 an estimated 20"1 of the population %vas below the age of 5 years. and 16.5 was behm 15 years of age; the median age I6A. l igur� 2 shoes the estimated age -sex distribution in 1970 compared to FIGURE 1. Registered vital rates (U /OU) (Rate per 1,000 population) I %VA ]ATI'It AI. NI0IrI'. \I.1 "1'1 %It when IWATII Is! If EAse: It. %I't: 1926 33. 1 16. 1 17.11 101.2 1930 31.......... 33.5 11.!1 11.15 !II.s 1935 3!1, 33.:5 Ili, l 19. 1 9 1!`111 II....... 36.7 17.3 19. 1 Ill 5 191:5 1!1.. 31.:5 11.3 21.2 92.1 1!1.511 .11... I 111,1 I1.6 2!1.2 155.7 1955 .5!I.......... 12. 1 111.5 31 Al 37. 1 1960....... II. 1 !1.7 :31.7 52.11 1961 I1.!1 9, 1 33.5 111,11 1962 16.7 11.5 37.2 113.6 1963 15.!1 !1.6 36.3 17.11 1961 17.7 !1.7 31.11 I5.1 1965 13.1 9,11 315.1 11.2 IIpi6 11. 1 !I, 1 35 .3 :37.1 1967 11.0 1.1 35.6 35.5 *Deaths of persons under age I per 1,000 live- births 10 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 PERCENT All. 70 and 65 -69 60-64 55. -59 50-54 45 -49 40-44 75 -)9 70-34 2S -29 70.74 15 -19 10-14 5 -9 o-4 FIGURE 2. Age -sex structure, Honduras and the United States, 1970 (U/ 0U) that of the l oiled ~kites. 'I'll(- \eorking age population (usn�IIly defined as 15 cow4ituted 511.8 of the total, ii nl those over 65 ahmit 2. V,. Thus lbere \yere 970 persons in the dependent ages for ecru 1.11011 of syorkint; :ego. A dependency ratio hosed on age groups :done. ho\%c\er, serinusl\ understates the degree of clependenc\ ill I londnrts. With a i;thor force of shoot 91111.111111 in July 1972 rnughl\ of the tog ;11 population -it is apparent that eery umplo\ed person is supporting an average of tsso others. f nrthermore, some 4 those employed are not heads of households but youngsters. some under 15. echo are %%orking to supplement the Tamil% income. This situation i, uhonl average for roost of Cciitml America. The population has mainl;tined a Liirly even distribution bet\%ven the sues: in 15150 for instance, there \%ere 100.5 males per 100 letnales, and in 1961 there m-re 911.:5 stales per 100 lvmJcs. The estiretated distribution in 1970 ryas 11111 males per 11111 fena!es. londimis has an overall average clensit\ of romjd\ 15:5.9 persons per mpmre mile. slightly higher than the I "thee States, flnl AWIlt half that of Ghiltentala and one secnth that of 1�:I Sakmlor I`igure :3). More than (illti of ;he land area. bo\%eycr, is ill( mll tai Ill Ills. wdtwing the polential to support additional popmlalion. f igure 1 shet%%s the density per,ctrl ;are stile by department acc-ording to the 1961 census. The most densely populated departments are I. :ortes ()it the north coast and Valle in the south. The most sparsel\ populated department is (:racial ;t Dios in the eastern part of the country. The Government of Ilondunts defines an urlmn area as one haying a popttlalion of 1.000 or more persons and the following servic-es: 1 a complete 5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070018 -9 HONDURAS I (UNITED STATES MALES fEMAIES 10 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 PERCENT All. 70 and 65 -69 60-64 55. -59 50-54 45 -49 40-44 75 -)9 70-34 2S -29 70.74 15 -19 10-14 5 -9 o-4 FIGURE 2. Age -sex structure, Honduras and the United States, 1970 (U/ 0U) that of the l oiled ~kites. 'I'll(- \eorking age population (usn�IIly defined as 15 cow4ituted 511.8 of the total, ii nl those over 65 ahmit 2. V,. Thus lbere \yere 970 persons in the dependent ages for ecru 1.11011 of syorkint; :ego. A dependency ratio hosed on age groups :done. ho\%c\er, serinusl\ understates the degree of clependenc\ ill I londnrts. With a i;thor force of shoot 91111.111111 in July 1972 rnughl\ of the tog ;11 population -it is apparent that eery umplo\ed person is supporting an average of tsso others. f nrthermore, some 4 those employed are not heads of households but youngsters. some under 15. echo are %%orking to supplement the Tamil% income. This situation i, uhonl average for roost of Cciitml America. The population has mainl;tined a Liirly even distribution bet\%ven the sues: in 15150 for instance, there \%ere 100.5 males per 100 letnales, and in 1961 there m-re 911.:5 stales per 100 lvmJcs. The estiretated distribution in 1970 ryas 11111 males per 11111 fena!es. londimis has an overall average clensit\ of romjd\ 15:5.9 persons per mpmre mile. slightly higher than the I "thee States, flnl AWIlt half that of Ghiltentala and one secnth that of 1�:I Sakmlor I`igure :3). More than (illti of ;he land area. bo\%eycr, is ill( mll tai Ill Ills. wdtwing the polential to support additional popmlalion. f igure 1 shet%%s the density per,ctrl ;are stile by department acc-ording to the 1961 census. The most densely populated departments are I. :ortes ()it the north coast and Valle in the south. The most sparsel\ populated department is (:racial ;t Dios in the eastern part of the country. The Government of Ilondunts defines an urlmn area as one haying a popttlalion of 1.000 or more persons and the following servic-es: 1 a complete 5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070018 -9 POPULATION (in millions) 8 Cuba .8 (1.6) Guatemala 5,6 (2.8) 3 El Salvador (3.4) 2.8 HONDURAS (3.4) 2.0 Nicaragua (2.8) 1 8 Costa Rica (2.8) 1.5 Panama (3.1) Annual Growth Rate M POPULATION DENSITY (per square mile) 198 133 443 64 35 93 52 FIGURE 3. Population data, selected countries, 1972 (U /OU) primary school of six grades. 2) postal, telephone, or telegraph service, i) r(,gular bus, railroad, airline, or maaritinu� transportation service, -1) public %%ater supply. and 5) electric power. Oil this basis the 19(il census listed 3.2Si of the population as (trb:un and T6.So7 as rural. The I%% major urlwn areas, Tegucigalpa (tile capital and its envir(nas. with 256,000 inhabitants), 111(1 San Pedro Sala (%%-ith 0 501785 573 0 FIGURE 4. Population and administrative divisions (U /OU) 6 1 16,000), are growing at over the mitioual rate, indicating rural to urban migration its well as nulw�nient front smaller towns to the t%%-o major cities. ;chervil the kvo census years of 1950 and 1961 the total population i ic�reased by :37.6 1. During those same years the population oI 'I'egwigalpa increased by 55.2'i and that of San Pedro Sala iltcreased b% I1 Between 1961 111(1 1971. they increased bV 86.5'i and 0 wspvc(ively. The urban population is expec led to reach 13. 1 i by 1955. 3. Population policy With support (ruin the U.S. AgVIIL-V fur Interna- tional I)eelupnunt (AID), the Honduran Govcrn- tnent has supported a fatnil planning program since November 1965. At that lithe, fatni1v planning services \vere inaugurated in the maternal and child care program operated by the Ministry of Public Health and Social Assistance. Support for family planning activities has also conic frtnn a private, local entity �the IIondit r it :Association of I antilN Planning� Which is ;affiliated ith the International Planned I'arrnthoud Fvdvration. Other assistance has been provided b% the Population (:ouicil. the Pathfinder I`and, and CAM. Ina reorganization of the Ministry of Public I Health and Social Assistance in 1969, a special section Naas created to protrote fatnik- planning ntzaternal and child health. and nutrition. In 19i2. some 6 family planning clinics \vere in operation, throughout the APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070018 -9 1 country, staffed with trained physicians, nurses, social workers. health educators, and paramedical personnel. Despite an extensive campaign of indoctrination involving talks before civic groups, professional associations, and labor unions, and lectures to mothers in m aternity clinics, the family planning program has been hampered in its operations by a general lack of popular enthusi_rstn for or understanding of its Objectives. `loreover. the Roman Catholic Church in llonduras is categorically opposed to the program. Until such time as the government is willing or able to generate more popular interest and support for it, the program seems destined to be of only marginal value in curbing population growth. D. The role of labor 1. Employment opportunities and main occupa- tions (U /OU) job opportunities for the Honduran worker �as well as his chances for advancement �are restricted by the small dimensions of the national ec()nom.y and by limited opp ortunities for acquiring skills. The labor force is heavily engaged in agriculture, predominantly male, relatively young, largely unskilled, barely literate it at all, an(1 subject t() a high degree ()f unernpl()yme', t and underemployment. The rural, agricultural nature of the society is reflected ill the work force, about two thirds of yhich is engaged in agriculture. While this may represent it few percentage points less dependence on ;agriculture than reflected in the 1961 census, the proportion of Honduran workers employed in agriculture is still larger than that of any other coutry in Latin America other thv;n Haiti. A majority of these workers are subsistence farmers who cultivate small parcels of land which they either rent or occupy illegally. The soil is generally poor front overuse and lack ()f fertilization, and the methods of cultivation are primitive. The yield is, therefore, hardly enough in either quantity or quality to sustain, the family. Many other rural laborers are migrant workers. Excep; for the planting and harvesting seasons, large numbers from both groups are idle and ,,i v-ate to urban areas, swelling the ranks of the :urban unemployed. Some stay ill the towns and cities hoping for it better opportunity, but being barely literate, if at all, their chances arc very limited. The small inclustrial base is inadequate to absorb and train large numbers of unskilled; there is, however, a shortage of skilled workers, and almost anyone who knows it trade can find employment. Vocational training ill Ilonduras is of recent origin 0nd is largely confined to the secondary sch()ol level. Tlwv arc a few small apprenticeship programs being run uy the Ministry of Labor and Social Security. but they can accommodate only about 1,000 trainees. The best that many of the unskilled can expect is it hand to -mouth existence in it service job. Women i general have� less education than men; according to the 1961 census over half of the females in the labor force were employed in service jobs, generally as domestic servants. Of the approximately 90(1,000 Ilondurans in the labor market, some Hsi of them are unable to find work. While statistics on underemplovinent are ina(lequ.rte, it is cstinated that 2Wi to 50(/'(' (if the workers are either not working up to capacity or are seasonally unemployed. The young age ()f the Honduran labor force is striking; in 1961, the census reported that 5 of the ec()n ()nically active were belim the age of 30, and i 3rc were below 10. Purthernr(re. one -fifth of the p()pulati ()t in the 10 -1.1 age group were econornically active, illustrating not the limited opportunities for schooling but the general poverty of the country. Youngsters in many families, especially in rural areas. are forced to work because ()f economic necessity. daily persons past the age of 65 are compeNcd to continue wy )rking for the same reason. The labor f orce like the population as a is predominantly mestizo. Although the few small minority groups are not confirre(I to it certain range of econ()nric activity, some occupations do prec:ominate. For instance, Indian communities are engaged primarily in agriculture. Many Negroes are domestic servants or plantation workers. Persons of purely European descent are usually employed in a management capacity in mining or plantation oper;:,mis. L('yatltine' and Chinese ninorities are usually found in conunerce and are often prominent in the business community. 2. Labor and management organizations (C) Although only i rC t() W0 ()f the approximately 900.000 -roan labor force is organised. the unions have done more for the Flondurn worker than all other forces government, svrnpathetic political parties, or the church combined. The Honduran labor movement is. recognized throughout the hemisphere for its strength, independence, cohesiveness, till(] community leadership. Practically nonexistent prior to 1954. the labor rrt()venumt grew out of it prolonged strike by uruorganized workers against the U.S. ()sync(] IN APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070018 -9 banana conpanies. Banana workers are still the backbone of the Ilonduran movement, accounting for about one third of the regular union membersbip (i.e.. excluding teacher and cavipesino associations). There are approximately 80 unions affiliated %\ith ciller the one large confederation, the Confederation of Ilondurim Workers (CTIH, or the ver' small Social Christian General Workers' Central (CGT), plus a handful of independent unions. In addition, some X0,000 small farmers belong to the. National Association of Iloncluran Campesinos (ANACII). an affiliate of the CTII, and approximately 1 -1,000 teachers belong to one of four associations called cole/;ios. The CTII is composed of twit federations with it combined membership of abort '36.000 and the X0,000 -nu mhcr rN ;x(:11. "The larger of the federations is the National Workers 'trade Union Federation of Ilonduras (FESITIlANII) with about 2 ,000 numbers in its 3. affiliated unions. FESITRAN 11. based in San Pedro Sula, includes the two large banana c�ompan\ unions, the 10,000- nuuber Tela fiailroael Company Workers Union (SITHATEIICO), which is the United Fruit Company union, and the �1,500 number United Union of Standard Fruit Company Workers (SU'I'11AWC.0). Led by the call and sagacious Oscar Gale, SITUTATERCO pioneered in bettering the lives of its numbers and improving the surrounding Conmnity by concentnting more on fringe benefits than on w.gcs and by moving into Such activities its Savings and Ioau associations, constmer cooperatives, nutrition, and family planning. SUT11ASFCO was formed in the early 1960's by uniting three separate unions after it stormy histon of factional and company -union strife, including periods of Com- munist control. Other strong Fh: THAN 1 I unions are the El Mochiho" Mine Workers' Union (SOEIM) with over 1,000 wetnhers and the National Railroad Workers' Union (SITI3AFENAI.I with about -100 members. FESITRANII*s former president is Ilonduras' other truly outstanding labor leader, the eloquent, mercurial, and painstakingly hottest Celco Gonzalez, who preceded Oscar Gale as president of SITRATERCO. Gonzalez is now one of the Liberal Party deputies to the National Congress. The smaller (:'I'll federation is the Tegucigalpa- based Central Federation of Unions of I rte Workers of Ilonduras (FECESITHII), whose i4 unions total about 9,000 members. Formed in the late 1950's, FECL'SITLII I was Communist -led until 1965 when it changed leadership and joined FESITIlANII in forming the CTII. FECUNT1,111's three strongest unions have no more tha 500 to 800 numbers each: S one of these unions, the Beverage Industry Workers, is still Communist -led its are it fey of the snulle�r unions. Tlw Social Christian, CL.-k'I'- affiliated CGT is composed of the Authentic "Trade Union Feden:tion of Ilondura:, (FASII), the Southent Trade Union Federation (FF.SISUII� formerly part of FAS11), and the National Campesino Union (UN(:). The CGT has about I I or 12 unions with somewhat less than 2.000 members and about 5,000 ncnbers in the UNC. Independent unions account for about 1.600 members, the largest of which is the 500 ntember ::cntral Bank Workers' Union. 'I'eac�hers are required by lim to belong to at Icast one of the four coh�ios, the larg(st of which is the Ilonduran Professional :lissoc�iat;on for 'Teaching 1�:xccllence (COI.PROSUMAII) with about 0.(10(1 members. The predominant influences within COLNIOSI'NIMI are Social Christian. Conununit, and Liberal Party. Its rival organization, the first Honduran Professional Teachers* Association (PRICPI1M..X) with perhaps 1,000 members is largely dominated by the National Party and is fregnentk accused of being goyerunent donincted or ey(�r setbsidizcd. Third in size is the Ilonduran Professional Association of Secondary Education (COI)EM11): an organization for licensed secondary teachers only, it has it limited and select potential mcnbership. currently totaling about 2,000. The smallest group is the Teachers Union with 500 members. Its numbers. however. tend to he older and more (list inguished and include a large proportion of school directors. In addition to the coh-ios. the I londnran :lssoc�iatiou of Workers in Secondary F.dttcation :111 TEN I is available to secondary school teachers who do not have degrees in education but may have degrees in other subjects. All of the coh-ios give lip service to unifying the diverse groups, it popular idea with most leachers since it would increase their bargaining power with the goyenument, but rivalries are fierce. especially between the two largest organizations. Many Ica(lers believe the goyenument is using the **div idC and conquer" technique. With it fe\y strikes and many threats of strikes the coh-ios have. nevertheless, obtained salary increases and it partial pension plan. 'the labor moyenu�nt, espec�iall\ that portion affili with the (:'1'11, is one of the most promising forces ill the country. In a decade it has gained maturity as well as political muscle. and its leadership probable includes some of the most honest. conscientious then in Ilonduras. The C'Hl affiliates. \yhich have received c�orsidertl)IC aSSislanc�e and training from the :knu�rican Institute� of Free Labor I)evelopment (;V FI.I)), an ;1F1. CIO subsidiary. have APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070018 -9 r shown skill and responsibility in their collective bargaining. Thc�n� are over 511 collcctiye bat ;gaining contracts in effect c�ovcring some -12,500 workers. Most of these were negotiated by C "I'll organizations. In 19i I the C TI I joined businessmen in (-osl)onsoring the "natiotal unih past coalition explained if] more detail tinder Government and Politics in cut effort to preserve it constihttional fora of government. Nlan11gcnu�nt associations are not nunu�rous, but have consider,(bfc weight. T[Iv most important cmplo%vr and business organizations are the IIonduran Council of Private Enterprise (C011EI'). the Chambers of Commerce, the National ;\Ss()l:atioll of Industrialists (,M)H, and the National Federation of Farnu�rs and Calticmmn of Ionduras I I. Both CMII'T and ANDI represent more enlighten nu�nt in auuutg`:: �t attenpts to deal with labor. 'O l 1 E1) has been especially active in initiating meetings with labor and government and in responding to initiatives of the other two. These nu�etings have helped tnctintain it generally cordial relationship bctwee n labor and nanagenent. :3. Labor legislation (L1 /OLJ) For all practical purposes. modern labor legislation began daring the Juan'Ntarnuel Galyez adntinistr.ttinn 19- 19 -5 -1). 'The laws were updated an(I augnente(I in 19.39 and consolidated into the present lai)or code, 'I'be code specifics an 8 -hour clay (4-1 hours p,�r week). 6 hours for if night shift (3(i floors per week), and hours for it nixed clay and night shift 0 boors per week). E xenptel from tit(' nrnximun hours provision are I workers who bold administrative or nanagetnent positions or positions of trust; 2) domestic servants; :3) workers who perform discon- tinuous or intermittent activities, such as barbet: hotel workers� and private chauffeurs: -1) the sel'- employvd or those in agriculture, and others whose work cannot be limited to if specific workday: and 5) workers paid on a cunurtissiot basis. 'I'hc code specifies differentials to be paid for overtime and for Snn(lay and holiday work, liegular and overtime hours are not to exceed 12 per diiy: overtime. at Icast in industry, is not extensive. I'aid sick leave and vacations, the length of which depends on years of service, as \%(�II as holiday and in tternity leave arc also stipulated. I lc�altb an(I safety regulations provide for medical, hygienic, and sanitary facilities and protection against gases, stooks, and dangerous parts of rnac�hines, but are applicable primarily to workers in large establishncnts. 'I'b(� labor co(Ic also establishes more stringent standards of working conditions for women and minors than apple to adult nudes. On the whole, the Labor Code is not adntiniste�c(1 or enforced effectively. Thc� Ministry of Labor a Social Security lacks bulb Ilse funds and manpower to do an a(b�(luate job. Ful'orc�ernenl is confinal largely to the 'Tegucigalpa and San I'alro Tula areas and even in tbuse areas to larger business establishnu�uls (especially those which are foreign owned) 1111( to cstablisbnents whose employees are organized. Sone provisions of the rude, such as those relating to separation p:ty, are rather strictly enforced, while others, such as those dealing with nininun wages, have not even been inpletnented, although the enabling legislation was passed irn Jctnc 197 1. Penalties fur sou()� kinds of violation are too small to be effcc�tiyc deterrents. The provisions applicable to trade union activities are somewhat restrictive in tltctt the co(le imposes considerable red tape �uul delays to limit the right to strike, outlaws union security clauses, and provides only lirtiled protcc�ti( against reprisals fororgani� activity. Otherwise it sloes per tit it free and independent unionism. E. Living conditions and social problems I. Material welfare (U /OU) Ilnndnras is freyuentl\ referral to as the� "pour br() tber' of :(�ntrtl :1nu�rica. TIIv ifmiorit y of Ilondurans live in extreme poycrfy: Li 197 1 the per capita CI)I' was ()illy 8260 �the lowest in Central Anu�rica and far below the Latin American average of 55:30. Most f lon(Iurans are ill fat, ill clad. and ill house(1: cyen worse, Most have little hope of raising their standard of living bccattse they are citIf er illiterate or inadc(luatel educated and because the tindco of lbe country provides little opportunity for economic ady:ac�enu�nt. 'These con(litions are particttl,trly ac�cnle in the rural area. where most people live at little more than it scbsistence level. "There� have been few studies to indicate bow Ilondurans spen their nu�ager incomes. but those that are available show foo(I as the� major item in the budg( t. averaging over 1011 of the fatnil\' inc�one. "Thos(� who have noney to spend on clothing. furniture, appliances, and other durables find these items in lirnitc�d supple in Ilondurts, and the wealthy travel to the United States for shopping. Inflation has not been the� problcn in Honduras as in some other Latin ;Ittncric�an countries: the average annual increase in prices was about ?S(' for the years 1960 (i9. The majority of the p rural poulation is largely outside the 9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070018 -9 i 'rte nt Dwelling built of stone and wood, Tegucigalpa. Windows have shutters rather than glass panes. FIGURE 5. Upper class home, San Pedro Sula (U'OU) FIGURE 6. Middle class dwellings (C) nano y economy, however, and ekes oot an existence on it small plea of land, using primitive methods of cultivation. These families raise only it few items. %%hick provide their with an inadequate. monotonous diet and little, if anything. left over for the coninrercinl market. Oil(- of the nurst acute prohlctns the country faces is o%ercrowded and unsanitary housing. it major cause of poor health. The Ilonduran Government defines as substandard those dwellings that have no piped -in wMer or those that are located more than 00 ureters from a ptiNic water tap; those kith no anitary facilities (ill rural areas some types of latrines are considered acceptable): (kellings of oil% one acorn: dwellings xyith earth floors. or those coustr l.-Wd %%ith scrip materials. On this basis --and including those s%hich %ycre structurally inadequate because of age almo O 100.1100 coyer 60 of the total) housing units \%ere considered substandard in 1970. Further \%ith the population gro\yth outstrippingconstrructiou. it is cstiruated that the housing deficit \\ill rciich -166.000 by 1950. To eliminate this deficit ill 20 wars an aycnige of oyes� 3- 1.000 unite per year \yould have to be constructed, or almost six times the yearly average since 1961. 'There is. therefore. little hope for irn pro yenrent for the nrajorih of inadeq( tit tel\ housed Ioildrurrns. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070018 -9 Dwelling of modern design, Tegucigalpa Ruroi home near the Guatemalan� Honduran borde�. Cane stalks or poles are tied together with rope or awhide to form the walls. Rural residence built of wood, near San Pedro Sula. Sheetmetal roofs predominate in this area of Honduras. FIGURE 7. Substandard housing (C) Urban residents are better housed than the rural population. Most of the relatively luxurious upper class dwellings are in urban areas (Figiire 5). these. however, its well as most reasonably comfortable hilt modest middle class structures (Figure ti). constitute ;I small portion of the housing Itnits. urban dwellings arc essentially shacks made of every available scrap material Figure The\ provide only it rninillmin of shelter and are often built ou 1.111(1 to Which the occupants have only stluatte rights. thus causing legal as well as welfare problems. Certain areas of urban centers have become notorious for their appalling aunt collditiow, and are breeding ,ro(gnds for disease and cringe. Somv of the urban poor have slightly more substantial houses of either \%ood frimw or adobe, 1)11t ghost of thew are substandard be(ause (if' the lack of sanitary facilities and water. "Typical rural houses are made of readily available materials such as corn or cane staiks. mud, and thatch; these houses are generall\ built by the f with the help of relatives and friends. The Willis are frecluenti\ (�anc stalks or poles lashed together with rawhide or rope: floors are of packed earth, and roofs are of thatch. ;mother popular type of wall construction is APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070018 -9 Makeshift slum dwelling, Tegucigalpa Z. Housinrt for banana plantation workers, La Lima, Cortes D_ Shea in front is for laundry and cooking. bahareque, formed by it double row of poles or stalks and plastered with it mixture of nntd and chopped straw (Figury 8). Although less durable than adobe, bahareque does protect fairly well against the elements. Thatch or baki tilt. is used for roofing material. In the north coast area and in the Bay Islands wood -frame structures with metal roofs are seen frequently. 2. Government programs (C) Government action to improve the lot of the� impoverished majority of Ilondurans juts been ntiniural. The general underdcyelopme. of the country places financial li;nitations on wolf, re programm, as do it scarcity of technically trained personnel and the lack of it cadre of career civil servants. Nevertheless, other countries with tht. same handicaps have nnuaged to outperform Honduras. The real clement lacking in Honduras is not knov.- how but the will. Ilondrtran politicians with fcw exceptions look on public office as an opportunity to line their own pockets rather than as one of service to their country and fellow Hondurans. Graft and corruption are so prevalent, and appointment so dependent on whom true knows rather than: training and competence, that sizable portions of tit. funds appropriated for welfare programs find their way into personal bank accotutts or are diluted by inefficiency and incompetence. A limited social security program is administered by the Ilonduran Institute of Social Security (IIiSS) under th( general supervision of the Minister of Labor and Social Security. Except for special pension systems 12 covering communications workers, schoolteachers, :uvl public employees, the social insurance programs are limited to those providing sickness and maternity benefits or work injure compensation. There is no general old ::ge or invalidity program, no imemploy- ment insurance, and no fanily allowance systern. .Moreover, the sickness and nuternity and the work injure programs are restricted in coverage. Both apply only to entployct.s in gcrvernmvnt and to employees of industrial and commercial firsts with five or more workers, and both exclude agricultural, domestic. and temporary workers. Furthermore, early ill 1971 lie programs were in effect only in lie 'Tegucigalpa�Co- nut, area and in San Pedro Sala, although plans called for the gradual extension of the programs to other areas. The number of workers covered by these programs, boweyt.r. has risen from 23.000 in 196:_1 to *38,000 in 1969. Despite this increase, the Innited coverage of the t\yo programs is obvions in that those covered in 1969 represented no more than SSr of the total labor force. In order to improve housing for I �.y income families, :h(- National Ilottsing Institute (IN\') was created in 1957. Because of frequent changes of directors ant! poor administration. its record of accomplishment has been poor. It managed to co�tstnrct an average of about 50 or 60 houses it year during its first 6 years of existence; thc yearly average since 196.3 has hcen about 250 units, even though the National Plan for Economic and Social Development (1965 -69) called for 1,000 or more units per year. The activities of the INA' have been confines( to urban areas, \%ith rural construction, of which there has been very little, largely. left to the National Agrarian Institute (1NA). The INA. created i 1962, is responsible for clearing land, conducting land surveys to establish titles, resettling rural families on land of their own, providing technical assistance to these families. building access roads, and constructing rural houses similar to those built by INV in the urban areas. Like the IN\', it has been hampered by frequent changes in personnel at tht. top level. Its achievements, therefore, have not been outstanding. In 1971, INA resettled 2,500 families on plots of appro\intately 23 acres and to resettle an additional 1,000 in 1972. In addition, two large colonization projects, the Valle del Aguas and \'alle de Lean (the valleys of Rio Aguan and Ilio Lean). are being undertaken. Most of the resettlement program involves parceling out of government land. The accomplishments are )illy at small portion of what needs to be done; in I97 1 there were an estimated 1- 10,700 landless cantpesino families APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070018 -9 FIGURE 8. Bahareque house under construction in a rural area of Copan Department. Walls are filled with mud wattle. Roof material is locally baked tile. (C) and un additional 1:36,800 fannilies trying to scratch out an existence on 5 acres or less. 3. Private action and foreign assistance (U /01U) In the absence of effective government action to i nprove living conditions, espec�iall%' housing, some lower and lower- nniddk: income housing has been constructed by the private sector through AID a Inter- American Development Bunk loans to labor unions on the north coast. SITI1ATh.R(:0, the Unite(I Fruit C:ompally union, completed a 10:3 home project in early 1966 near L.. Linea (Figure 9). It was so successful that FESITiiAN11 inunediately ennbarked one a sintil :r project of 900 to 1.000 honu�s near San Pedro Stela. The type of house built under these programs is concrete construction with three bedrooms, bath, and kitchen; houses have screened windows. electricity. and piped water front the project water system. "these houses can be built for about US52 000. but the purchaser actually pays $30)(), part of which goes into the union fund to start other similar projects. Payments are arr;tngcd so that they do not exceed 255; of the purchaser's monthly salary and so that the house is paid for by the time the husband retires at age 65. I londuras receives c�onsiclerable ssislance front the United States cued international agenc�ics, bolls official and priva in dealing with health and welfare problems. In numbers of personnel involved and anttounts of nnoney expended, the largest source of technical assistance is the U.S. Government. The second largest amount of assistance has cons� Bruin the various U.N. aa,;encivs. Often several agencies and governments work to on a single project. For instance, 1 10 of the water supply systciiis were constructed by the Inter American Cooperative Public FIGURE 9. Workers' housing built by the United Fruit Company labor union, with assistance from the American Institute for Free Labor Development and the Agency for International Development. Houses are purchased at pay- ments not exceeding 25% of the worker's salary. (C) Ilealth Service (SCISI'), until 196.1 a U.S.- assisted division of the Ilouduran Mirtistr% (if' I'ublic Health and Social Assistance. The activities of SCISI' in connection with water supply s\slen,s have nmy been taken over by the National Autonomous Water and Sewerage agency (SANAA), cut agency of the Ilouduran Covernment which U.S. funds helped launch. Before being abs-rbed b the Ministry of PubhC Ilealth and .Social :Assistance, SCISI'developed I82 projects ill Ilondtiras, one of the most important of which is the National Malaria I'.rulic�ation Service. The U.S. and Honduran 0wernrnet,ts are assisted in this effort by the 11'orld Health Organization a:nd the Pan American Ilealth Organization (1':1110). In addition to '.;overnnmenl and in4�rnational agencies \ybich are assisting public health efforts. it nundwr of religious missions provide medical (are. These include the Moravian, F',piscopal. Mennonite, Seventh -clay Adventist. Honan Cal!- ic�. and Lutheran clenonninations. There are also five private Ilonduran philanthropic organizations in the welfare field. 'these are the National (:onnnittee for Social Welfare. which works through several c�otnnnonity centers in helping the poor solve their social. psychological, and ec�000mic� problems: the Children's National Welfare Foundation. which controls the national lottery for the support of charitable projects. nnostly in the field of maternal and child care: the Ilonduran Red '.Toss: the Ilonduran League ;Against Tuberculosis: and the National Organization for the Rehabilitation of Invalids. 4. Social problems (U /OU) The lack of statistics on the nunnber of critics contnnittcd snakes assessment of social tensions difficult. but the crime rate is high, especiall\ for crimes e:f violence. Alnu,st three- fourths of the cases brought to court involve acts of yiolenc�c� against persons or property. Alcoholisnn and gannbling are known to he among the social problcins. and nnany labor unions have undertaken educ�ationaf cannpaigns to reduce the prevalence of these vices. The use of narcotics is not a problenn in Ilonduras. Snall amount, of nn are grown and used by c�annpesinos and a few university students. but none is exported. (lard drugs seldonn enter the county. and none is tnaunufactnnred locally. F. Health (U /OU) Levels of health and sanitation in Honduras are extremely logy, even by Latin Anneric�an standards. Inadeeluate personal and etnyironntcntal sanitation. M APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070018 -9 substandard diets, insufficient potable water, faults waste disposal systems. low levels of education, poverty, inadequate transportation and storage facilities, and the lack of it satisfactory public health program all contribute to it large uumber of deaths from preventable diseases. As it result, the average Honduran has it life expectancy at birth lower than that in tuts other country of Latin America except Haiti and Bolivia. Although poor health and sanitation problems exist throughout the country, they are more severe in rural areas. Some progress toward improvement of the general health level was made during the presidency of the late Dr. Ramon Filled: Morales (1957 -6.3), it physician who +gas much interested in public health work. Since the coup of i October 196.3, however, the general lack of accomplishment of the Oswaldo Lopez regime (1963 -7 1) and the chaos under f' resident Ramon Ernesto Cruz (197 1 -7?) have been reflected in the lack of Progress in public health as well. During the past decade less than Yt of the national budget has been alloted to the Ministry of Public I lealth and So-eiul Assistance. 1. Environmental factors affecting health Unhealthful living conditions ac�couut for nmc�h of the disease rate, and in 1970 over 60c1 of the population was housed in unsanitary, substandard structures. Furthermore, there is it national average of more than five persons per dwelling, inany of which have only one roorn, it proximity that favors the spread of Conlin till ic�able diseases. In urban areas many of the substandard houses are multifamily tenements or mere shelters built of sc� materials. By 1970. 61.5 of the urban houses nct the requirement of either having piped -in +water or being within 200 Winters of it public waiter tap. Most urban families, however, were still dependent upon shared toilet facilities. half of the urban dwellings were not served by, or connected to sewerage systems. No cornmunih' bits it wholly safe and adequate water s!tpply. and none of the public water systems is properly chlorinated. The most prevalent astr housing is the orle room but with rnud -on- lattice or adobe walls, earth floor� and thatched roof, which frequently harbors insects and snakes. Piped water is available to less than 71 of the rural population. Few rural houses have sewerage facilities, although some have acceptable latrines. For the most part, it single source of water is used for drinking, bathing, laundering, and waste disposal. Diet varies according to region and family income. In general, however, it is poorly balanced, consisting mostly of starch, and is deficient in proteins. vot. fish, cheese, milk, and eggs account fur only about fiS(' of the calories c�onstimed. +ghilc� grains, especially c�om, supple about two- third:; of the calories. Corn, rice, red kidney beans, and sugarcane are staple foods. Alt{x, ugh I fondurans generally eat more green vegetables than other Ccutr.I Americans do and prefer panda (brown sugar) to the less nutritious refined sugar, gitanin deficiencies are nationwide, especially vitamin A. The high prevalence of endemic goiter and dental caries indicates widespread deficiencies in incline and calcium. also. In some areas diet is also low in iron. The average daily caloric intake, I,850 in 1969. is lower than any other :ventral American cnrrnlry except E S alvador. Rural residents generally consunu Ic :tst 300 calories more a day than urban residents, but the more prosperous urban residents consume more +wheat, rice, vegetable oils, and animal protein than the poor in either area. The level of nutrition is especially low in the densely populated highlands along the Salvadoran and Guatemalan borders, and among children in most regions. T Ic+w animal protein content of most diets is due, at least in part, to it lack of transportation and refrigeration fae�ililies. 'I'Iis pfo{hably accounts for the lo+g nutritional level among children, since milk is not available to most children on a regular basis. Despite numerous regulations &-signed to cover the handling, processing, and inspection of foodstuffs, food sanitation and storage are inadequate. No effective control exists because inspectors� often politically appointed, are limited in number and training. Few food stores or butcher shops have modern equipment or refrigeration. Most foodstuffs are sold in open -air markets, exposed to dust� insects� and handling by customers. As a result, fresh fruits and yegeht les need to be washed thorcntghly in treated water and either peeled or cooked. Meat, other than that for export to the United States, is not inspected regularly: it should be cooked thoroughly and c�onsunted on the day of purchase. Pasteurization of milk a cheese is not always reliable, although the Sala Dairy in San Pedro Sula. which supplies about one -third of the cnentry's dairy products. is very clean and modern. Bestattratits are not adequately inspected, and most are unsanitary. As it result of these conditions most of the population suffers from it high incidence of infectious and parasitic. diseases. Respiratory (tuberculosis, influeuzat, pneumonia� and colds) and diarrheal illnesses are endemic. Other prevalent diseases are dietary deficiency diseases (goiter and anemias), diseases of early infancy, venereal diseases, measles. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070018 -9 and whooping cough. The most frequent causes of death in 1970 were gastroenteritis and uysentery, vascular and cardiac lesions, pneumonia and bronchial pneumonia, and infectious and parasitic diseases. Immunization programs have drastically reduced the incidence of such diseases as poliomyelitis, tetanus, smallpox, and diphtheria. and the government has initiated it program for vaccination against measle!:. Compulsory immunization against typhoid fever, whooping cough, and diphtheria arc required for all children. ;Malaria, once it serious problem on the north coast, has been brought partially under control. A number of traditional practices not only hinder the proper diagnosis and treatment of diseases but often adversely affect the patient's recovery. A large portion of the population rarely consults it plysician except as it last resort after traditional folk remedies have failed. There is it common belief that periodic use of laxatives is necessary to good health and particularly beneficial in the treatment of diarrhea. This treatment, combined with the prevalent use of it liquid diet for the ill, may weaken an already malnourished patient. Liquid diets art- frequently used in the convalescence from childhood diseases, with sc%ere malnutrition its it result. A superstition which sometimes obstructs diagnosis of venereal disease is the belief that the extraction of blood for tests weakens the patient. The most important diseases to which foreigners may be exposed are hchninthic and parasitic diseases; acute enteric infections, such as amebic and bacillary dysenteries, salmonellosis, and nonspecified diarrheas: malaria, which is prevalent in the coastal areas. respiratory tuberculosis and other acute respiratory diseases; and venereal diseases. In addition, poliomyelitis is potentially dangerous should control measures be neglected. Livestock health is poor. Regular veterinary supervision is given only to a few purebred herds, and control measures for most diseases arc generally lacking. "There were only 15 veterinarians in I londuras in 1967. Animal diseases transmittable to man arc mainly rabies, anthrax, brucellosis, and hydatidosis. Of these, rabies is the most serious threat. 2. Medical care For administrative purposes the Ministry of Public Health and Social Assistance divides the country into seven health districts. The quantity and duality of health services are unequally distributed throughout the country. The public health program is handicapped by inadequacy of facilities and equipment, by it lack of administrative and technical personnel, and by political influence in the appointment of personnel. Thu Ministry is financially and technically unable to provide countrywide services either in curative or preventive medicine. In 1969 there m-re only i9 hospitals (i2 general, three maternity, one� mental institution, one tuberculosis sanitarium, and two others of undeter- mined type) and approximately LT beds per 1,000 population. Only Haiti has it lower hospital bed to population ratio in Laalin America. Most hospitals are small �less than 50 beds capacity. Only 10 have more than 100 beds, the largest being the 999 -bed hospital General y ;kilo do Inaalidos in 'Tegucigalpa. The government operates I I other hospitals including most of the remaining larger ones. Hospitals in Honduras are unevenly distributed throughout the counts: approximately half of all facilities are located in the three areas of Tegucigalpa� Conayagucla, San Pedro Sala. and La Ceiba. 'There are no hospitals in Intibuca. Islas de la Bahia. La Paz, Lempira. Ocotepeque, and Valle Departments, and the single facilities in EA Partiso, Gracias it Dios, and Toro Departments have 15. six. and 2.1 beds, respectively. Almost all hospitals are overcrowded, sparsely equipped, and understaffed, especially in nursing personnel. For example. the National Neurupsychiatric Hospital. opened in 1960 in Tegucigalpa as the country's only mental institution, designed for 22 -1 patients but was accommodating 31 -1 in 1966. In order to reach the smaller towns and rural areas With medical care, the government has established about 129 clinics devoted mostly to outpatient treatment, although a few have one tr two beds for temporary emergency care. "These clinics are of three types: health centers (of which there are eight or 10), health subcenlers (about 70), and health posts (about 50). A health center normally is staffed by two or more full -time physicians, plus part -time specialists, it graduate nurse, and several nurses aides. It usually is supplied with equipment for clinics. wards, and laboratories. including instruments for diagnosis and treatment, X -ray ealuipment, and special drugs. A subcenler, commonly administered by a graduate nurse or an intern, is equipped with supplies similar to those of the health center, except for X -ray machinery. Most often found in villages, the health post, little more ,han it first -aid station, is in the charge of it trained nurse or more likely, it nurse's aide. All of the public health clinics offer maternal and child care: in 1968, approximately 2 -1 also provided dental care, and two had special facilities for dealing with problems of mental health. 15 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070018 -9 In addition to the n-gular public health centers, the \linistry of Publi liealtlt au(1 Social Assistance operates 10 mobile units which provide health s(,ryices in rur areas. The mobile hcalti; unit program was begun with assistance from AID in i962. For persons in remote areas, the armed forces under it civic action program have sometimes helped b airlifting medical supplies and personnel. This airlift procedure and the mobile units could be used for disaster relief in cast� of emergency. In 1969 Honduras had 611 doctors, roughly per 10.000 inhabitants, at per capita figure lower tba n auy other Latin American country except Guatemala and Haiti. %ledic�al training is giy (,n by the Faculty of Xledicime and Surg(,ry at the National University. granting the degree of Doctor of X�ledicine and Surgery. A cari "lidate for this degree must attend classes for i years. after which he must serve as a medical officer in rural areas for 6 months. He rr list then pass written, oral. practical, and clinical examinations and present it thesis to the Board of Examiners dealing with some problem he studied while serving as it medical officer. Despite these re(luirements. ri_ %st Honduran physicians are of mediocre conpet(,11ce. Even the more competent. however. are wriously handicapped by overwork, lack of nursing assistance, ;111(1 inacl(,(luac\ of laboratory facilities. Dentists, even more than doctors, are concemtraled ill urban areas, and their numbers are extrenu�ly small. In 1969 there were only I:i8 dentists in the c�ountrv�, and fewer than 50 dental students were enrolled in th(, National University. The degree of Doctor of Dental Surgery is awarded by t1w Faculty of O(lomtcrlogy after 6 years of str(fy. Hie most serious lack of public healll personnel is the shortage of nurses. In 1969 Honduras had 3I8 graduate nurses, or I.? per 10.000 population. A 3 year course ill nursing is offered at the National University. Small numbers of nurses have also been trained in other countries and at the private nursing school in La Ceiba operated by the Standard Fruit Co. hospital. Vicente d'Antoni, and at the I:yangelic;tl Hospital nursing school in Sigualepe(lue. ;auxiliary or practical nurses nundwi cd I, 300, it ratio of 5.0 per 10,000 population. An 15 month training course is offered by the Ministry of Public Health and Social Assistance, and some private hospitals train their o%ym practical nurses. "There is an acute shortage of (lualified tec�hmicians in the fields of health education, laboratory services, sanitary engineering, water management, and veterinary service. v G. Religion Ilondwas is it predominantly :atholic counln.., with perhaps 9 `,'i of the population professicg at least nominal adherence to th(. Catholic faith. Although outward manifestations of the faith abound, it is genertlly agreed that the church has had less influence ill shaping :National life than in most other Latin ;kmerican countries. Moreover, theaveage Ilonduran Catholic is gencrall\ ummar(, of and li."le conc�(,ru�d with the precepts of his church. \\'onNen are g(,n(,r;111y close to tb(, church, but nten, if not openly anticlerical, are at least indifferent to religion and selclon participate. U jOU The present 1965) Constitution guarantees the free exercise of all religions provided they are .not disruptive to public order or harmful to public morals. Clergvmen nay not rum for public office. and their inyolye11u�nt in polities is sonlewh;tt restricted. The only fill,"'Cial assistance given any re ligion b\ the state is it small subsidy to the Catholic Church to help st:pporl its edticalional activities. l' i(W 1 1. Roman Catholic Church (C) Formerly subordinate to the archbishop of (:(atem;elit, IIoneluras ill(. an ecclesiastical province in its cr\n right in 1916. There is one arc�hdioces( "I'(,grcigalpal, tlarve dioceses (Conaya- gua. San I Sula. and Santa Rosa (I(, Copan). and two 1) relatures :holutec�a and Olanc�ho). The rchhishop of '1'eguc�igalp1l is the higb(,st church official in Honduras: he is assisted by au auxilian bishop. 'I'll( other five jurisdictions are headed by bishops. "I'll( country k hirther sn[)eliyided into 109 parishes. Beeimse the church is poor and becamse Hondurans gencrally try to inprove th(,ir(,con(uuic shuttling, most families encourag(, their sons to go into business or it profession amt aCti\VI\ discourage them from nlering the priesthood. For this reason there is it severe shortage of priests ill the country �only 229 for some 2.6 million nominal Catholics, or an average of about 11,518 p(,r priest. This is less than one tenth the ratio in the United States and at least four to five times the number it priest can adeyuatck serve. Furthermore, only (i5 of the priests are dioc�(�sari priests: the other 16 -1 it re nu�mb(,rs of religions orders. but many of then(, are assigned parish responsibiliti(,s. r \round talc capital city the ratio of priests to parishioners is more fa vor able, p erhaps half the average number of parishioners, but in rural ;areas parishes of over 1;;,000 are not uncommon. I lowhiras must. therefore. depend heavily on thv services of foreign clerp. About i5`; of APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070018 -9 the clergy are foreign mostly from Spaiu, the t_'Ilite�d Slates, Gerimmy, and Canada. Only tvvo of the seven prelates (the Archbishop of 'fegueigalpa and the Bishop of Santa Bosa etc Copan) are native I londuruls. Priests of mligiotis orders nut assigned to parish work are engaged in education, soeiitI action, :uul missionary work. In addition, there ;Ire 21 i !,rut hers and 291 Mills. ntu,y of them en,agecl in teaching in the 5.3 schools operated by the Catholic (:hurc�h� enrolling about 6"1 of the nations students. The liondttran church is basically conservative, althomglt not reactionary. Since 1962 it has bet. outspokvnly anti Communist, and demonstrations led by the church were instrumental in causing the government to break relations with the Castro regime in Cuba. During the late 1960 the church began to show increasing concern for social %%vIfan� and it Willingness to listen to liberal trends %%ithin theelerLF In 1969 Archbishop IIector Fitri(IIle Santo�. Ilernandez established a Senate of Priests so that differing (:pinions could he discussed. lit and other members of the hierarchy have encottragi some lay participation in church affairs and have public) endorsed laud reform. One of the host successful social projects has been the radio schools. "These were started by the church and later taken over by a lay grcrnP called Ilonduran Popular Cultural Action (ACI'I I They still receive financial support from the church, and much of the leadership is clerical. Broadcasting through the facilities of Kuclio Catolit�n, the radio schools hart. taught thousands of I londuran campesinus to react and write. instructed them i, the basics of nutrition and hygiene, upgraded agric�nitural practices, and assisted in the formation of orris1 cuopera t i ves. As nuinirmal zci church activities have been it the social h .�Id, the church has found that it must pursue its projects with a degree of c�artticrn in order not to antagonize the government. 'Phis far, no official anger has been directed at the church. brit individual priests. generally foreign born, have been subjveted to harassment if their activities in any wiry smack of political opposition. 2. Protestant denominations (U /OU) Although nearly two dozen Protestant groups are active ill lionduras, the total 1'rote.,tant community is small, accounting for no more than 2.Wi of the popuhatiou. The largest is the Methodist Church with approximately 1.1,000 adherents, located mostly in the Bay Islands and along the north coast. Eleven other denominations have congregations totaling 1,000 or more (Figrtre Ill). Except for the \1et hod ists, who maintain tics with the British Xielhodist Wissicruary Societ�,, Protestant t.ndeavors are at Iciest part Iv supported by the parent church in the Toilet.! State�. Nearly 200 U.S. 1'rolestant missionaries, including 75 ordaincd ministers arc active in Ilonduras. `'lam churches, h(mever, arc training I Iondurans to assume leadership roles in church affairs and are graduallc nursing toward self- supporting ��national� chrtrc�hes under i I'd igenons leadership. Ilondrtraits ,cr\y outnumber foreigners almost four to out. among ordained ministers, but no grump has het relinquished li,unc�ial and staff assistance from abroad. -lust denominations are engaged in some kind of health, educational. or vyt.lfure uc liyity. Notcvyortlty in such endeavors ar+� the Central A n u�rican Mission vvltic�h operates a school, a e�linie�.:uld the Hospital 1:run/rlicu vyhich iuc�ludes rent. of the country's two nursing schools: the Evan4t.lic�al and 13eforrmcd Church which operates two hospitals. three clinics. and fire schools: and the I:yangelical Nic,nouite Church Which operates tvyo Cli,ic�s and a school. Protestant ac�liyity is directed primarily toward grumps outside the dominant mestizo portion of the pupulatiou. such as the Negro communities in the Bias Islands and aloe the north coast and remote Indian corn Ill uniti(.s. :3. Other religions U /OU) Orthodox Christianity is rt.prescnted by the Syrian Orthodox Church. San I't.dro Sula is the seat of lilt. Cfturch's Central American Diocese, vchic�h is setbordinate to the Xletropolit;ut See� of North America headquartered in 'Toledo. Ohio. The 300 or more m em1wrs, ,lost located in San Pedro titrl re dearly all of 1,ebanese extraction. Although there bus het., a sntaC Jewish community in Honduras since the 1920's, most jvws in !hw country arrived shortly after World War II. lit 1969, three fourths of the Jm\ish community. estimated at 150 members, lived ire Tegucigalpa. Informal services art. held periodically in the homes of yariorts individuals. because there is no synagog me or rabbi in the count,. H. Education I. Role of education in society (U /OU) llonduras has one of the (cast effeetiye school systems in Latin America. The ;altitude toward V( ucation has its roots ill a colonial society in which formal education was the exclusive preserve of upper Class males. While the ratio of males to fem in the Ili APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070018 -9 FIGURE 10. Data on Protestant denominations and missions, 1968 (U/ OU) PLACES Y EA It OF C'OMMC- TOTAL A Cr1Y IT nF.c t'Lnu NICANT COMMt- DENOMINATION Olt MISSION BEGUN WORS1111' MEMBERS LAITY COM%I ENT Assemblies of Cod 1940 9.1 1,24:3 1 9:16 Activity centered in the areas of Santa Rosa de Copan and San Marcos de Colon. Operates a Bible school in Santa Rosa do Copan. Baptist Mid-Missions 1955 4 17 126 Works among English speaking persons on the Bay Islands and northern coast. Central American'lission (nondenonti- 1896 76 1,417 4,868 Centered in the western and central high national). land-. Operates I school, a clinic, and the Hospital Erangelrca in Siguatepeque. Church of God (Cleveland, Tenn.)..... tat 48 2,(1:1(1 6,(175 Church of the Un'.ted Brethern in Christ. 1921 1:3 287 4127 Active along the Caribbean coast in the eastern part of Grac�ias a Dios Depart ntent. Conservative Baptist Church.......... 1951 10 161 1,:330 Worksantong English- speaking Negroes in La Ceiba and in the Islas de In Bahia Episcopal Church 1956 7 323 (M) Supported in part by the Protestant Epis- copal Church in the United States. Operates one clinic. Evangelical and Reformed Church...... 1921 26 1,11(1(1 2,000 A national church supported in part b the U.S. United Church of Christ. Centered in San Pedro Sula. Operates two hospi- tals, three clinics, and five schools. Evangelical Lutheran Cht!; h.......... 195-1 1 8S ea Ill Tegucigalpa. Evangelical Mennonite Church......... 1950 23 150 650 Active in Gualaco, Guanaja. La Ceiba. Tegucigalpa, Tocoa, and Trujillo. Op- Prates two clinics and one school. Friends Church 1909 22 1,0(18 3,000 'sponsored by California Pearly Meeting, Friends Church. International Church of the Four- square 19.52 i 310 1,000 Runs a Bible school. Gospel Methodist Church *1883 :35 2,:326 1:3,959 Outgrowth of the British Methodist Mis- sionary Society York. Centered in the Islas de la Bahia and along the northern coast. Moravian Church 1930 25 1,722 2,15:3 Active among the Misquito Indian in Gracias a Dios Department. Seventh -day Adventist Church......... 1918 ^.1 2,471 (1,381 Southern Baptist Convention.......... 19:1.1 :32 :381 1,747 Sponsors a Bible school and one clinic. Wesleyan Methodist 'Mission 1951 fi 105 :300 World Gospel Mission 19.13 55 300 1,000 Centered in Tegucigalpa. Operates two schools. NOTE- -Other religious groups active in Honduras include the Campus Crusade for Christ. Congregational Methodist Church. Missionary Aviation Fellowship, World Baptist Fellowship. and World Wide Missions. na Data not available. *Established in the Islas de lit Bahia in 1859. lower grades is coming into balance and basic education is reaching more people, the system, especially at the upper levels, retains un elitist character. Even at the university level, however, Honduran education has the lowest standards in Central America. Despite in increase since 1970 in the percentage of literates in the population 10 years of age_ and over, Honduras continues to be one of the least literate nations of the hemisphere. Literacy is officially defined in Honduras as the ability of a person to read and write simple sentences in any language. On this basis the estimated rate for Honduras increased from 35.2% in 19:50 to 47.3% in 1961 and to the estimated 57.4% in 1970. In 1970 only Bolivia, Guatemala, and Haiti had lower literacy rates. These rates do not 18 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070018 -9 reflect functional literal.", fre(Itt�utic considered tltt- eyuiraleiit of -1 gars of schoolilg; functional lit('nu�c in 1961 Was about 30`1 ;utd probably had ne,t inc�reasecl beyond 5`1 b% 1970. In general, the areas around the capital city, in the depa.rtnenls along the north coast, and in the Ba% Islands recorded literac% rates higher than the national average. Urban literac�- perecntages c�onsistcntIN 1`1111 about h%ic�e that of rural areas because of the disparity ill educational facilities. Education is free and theoretically c�onpulsory for all persons ages i to 15 inclusive. I'lle educ�atio11al Wst(rm is adpinistered b% the XfinistrN of Public Education, for which purpose the Ministry ec�eiVI�s between 20 "1 and 25ri of the national I>ud9('t. Public schools are under the direct supern ision 0f the ,Ministry; private schools nLst nutintain a specified shn&ird to retain accreditation and are inspected regularly bx ntiuistr\ officials. 'I'll(. acudenic c�trricultuu is eutphusized throngll lh(' S)th grade, grills; tit(' student t11e basic cultural tools \tith chich to Studs a sIwc�ialI\ or undertake a university preparalor\ course diirill9 the remaining 2 ol years of sec�ondarn school. spaaidl is the offici;tl language of instruction throughout the countrn, and. although beh�vii I and 2'; of the pupl,latiotl �1,eaks 1�:11glish as the nalke language. most of" this 9rotup are fluent 11011 9 11 in Spanish b\ the time the�\ reach School age so that language is no great 11;111lic�ap. Educational system (U /OU) 'I school sssten c�ontprises four Ies('Is: pry printarj, primer, see�ondan. and higher (I igun� I I I. 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 is 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Normal Age PREPRIMARY I PRIMARY EDUCATION I SECONDARY EDUCATION i HIGHER EDUCATION Agriculture and Forestry Economic Sciences Arts and Letters General Studies Prc�Pnmary Primary Advanced Academic Secretarial Commercial General Academic Military Normal Art Music Law and Social Sciences Medicine Dentistry Chemistry and Pharmacy Engineering 1 UNIVERSITY Normal Nursing (2 schools) Social Service Agriculture Agriculture Industrial Arts Industrial Arts FIGURE 11. Educational system, 1970 (U /OU) Im APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070018 -9 Extending over a 3 -year period, pre- primary schools aceonII nod ate a limited tit tntberofcIiildren age -1 to 6. These schools are of it nursery or kindvi-garte�n -type, are not compulsory, and in general are confined to the larger urban areas. Primary school spans 6 years and is generally entered at age T. Secondary school. beginning at about age 13, encompasses either 3 or 6 years depending on the ctlrriculuni. Higher education is available at the National University and six other postsecondary institutions. Nine years of free, compulsory schooling primary and S secondary�are theoretically available to all Honduran children. lit practice, few receive even half this number because of incomplete schools, fate entry of many students, and it high dropout rate. Only W of the primary schools offered a full 6 years of instruction in 1963, and two thirds of the schools offered only 3 years or less. Most of these Incomplete schools are in rural areas. Furthermore� nuu,y students do not enter school at age 7, but enroll for the first time at age 10 or over. During the mid- 1960's over half of all pritnary students were 2 or more years older than the normal age for their grade. The dropout rate is extremely high in the first two grades �about Wi. and only about 12S(' ever reach the 6th grade. 1 ?ven though the educational system is inaclecduute to meet the needs of a rapidly growing population, improvement bas been made since 1930 in reaching children of coiiipulsor� school age (7 to 13 years). 'I'll( 1930 census indicated that 39.8 of this age group were enrolled; in 1972 it was estimated that 62.Yi we re enrolled. During the same years the number of pritnary schools has more than doubled, but mach of the improvement is undoubtedly due to the governments efforts to upgrade incomplete schools to a full 6 years. I igure 12 shows the number of students, schools, and teachers at various levels for 1969. FIGURE 12. Number of schools, students, and teachers in 1969 (U /OU) 20 Iloncluran education is atlso deficient in (duality. The object of the primary schools is to teach basic skills of reading, writing, and arithmetic. Nlany students, however, reportedly never leant to react and write, regardless of the length of title they spend in school. The quality of teacher training is partly responsible for this. In 1967, only 6'V of all primary teachers had attended (hut not necessarily completed) normal schools, which are secondar level schools devoted to training primary school teachers; the remaining 37 had no formal career preparation. It: rural primary schools 8Yi were uncertified in 1963. In addition, a high pupil -to- teacher ratio in primary schools in many areas prevents effective iuslrilc�lion. The average in 1969 was .3 petdtils to each teacher. Ironically, since 1930 Honduras has trained more teachers than any other Central :kinvrican c�ountr. but many have left teaching for occ�apations Mlic�h Pay higher salaries or have decided to teach in neighboring countries where salaries are better. Honduras has two training schools for the handicapped: one a fi -year school for the blind and the other a :3 -year school for deaf mutes. The latter also accepts a fey students who are mentally retarded. In addition, there were in 1969 about 97 adult literacy centers teaching over 1 1.000 persons. "These centers were distributed throughout 16 of the IS departments. The arowd forces assist with staffing these centers as part of their civic� action program, as do inanv of the labor anions. Literacy instruction is also broadcasi by radio by both the� Ministry of Public Education and the Catholic Church. Secondary education is divided into two cycles �the conunon e�ye�le of "3 years� which is roughly eels iyalent to junior high school. anel the diversified cycle of either 2 or :3 years, depending upon the c�urriculuni followed. The academic course in the diversified cycle is called "sciences and lettcrs� and encompasses 2 yea of study pre paring the stude for e ntrance into the National University or one of the other five specialized institutions of highereduc�ation. Ileflec�ting the traditional preference for a classical education. about three fourths of all students at this level pursue academic studies. 'There are 3 -year courses for printar school teachers (norm school) and for those going into conunercial studies, and a 2 -year secretarial course. A 3 -year course was begun ill 1966 leading to a hachillerafo (secondary school diploma) of technical or agricultural science for those students who had contple�ted the� common cycle. Nearly all of the� secondary schools offered the contnton cycle c�urric�ulum in 1969; most also offered one or more of the diversified cycle curriculums. Little information is available concerning the quality of secondary APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070018 -9 NUMTj E It OF EN It OIL: FAWCATIONAI. t.t:CF.I. SCIMO1S %I ENT TEA CII EI?S Preprinulr *53 7, 102 Ili? Primary �1, 100 392, 67 10,573 Academic� Sec�ondarc 100 28..52.1 '1'eellnica1:111d Vocational Nee ondar titi ti, 131 2,3.1.1 N ornutl 50 .1, 572 Adult I: ducation............ *97 11,75(1 rnr University I Mt Dtlta nOt .l \�;ul,lhle. *Figure for 1967. *Including literacy venters run by Ministry of Public Health and Social Assistallev. 20 Iloncluran education is atlso deficient in (duality. The object of the primary schools is to teach basic skills of reading, writing, and arithmetic. Nlany students, however, reportedly never leant to react and write, regardless of the length of title they spend in school. The quality of teacher training is partly responsible for this. In 1967, only 6'V of all primary teachers had attended (hut not necessarily completed) normal schools, which are secondar level schools devoted to training primary school teachers; the remaining 37 had no formal career preparation. It: rural primary schools 8Yi were uncertified in 1963. In addition, a high pupil -to- teacher ratio in primary schools in many areas prevents effective iuslrilc�lion. The average in 1969 was .3 petdtils to each teacher. Ironically, since 1930 Honduras has trained more teachers than any other Central :kinvrican c�ountr. but many have left teaching for occ�apations Mlic�h Pay higher salaries or have decided to teach in neighboring countries where salaries are better. Honduras has two training schools for the handicapped: one a fi -year school for the blind and the other a :3 -year school for deaf mutes. The latter also accepts a fey students who are mentally retarded. In addition, there were in 1969 about 97 adult literacy centers teaching over 1 1.000 persons. "These centers were distributed throughout 16 of the IS departments. The arowd forces assist with staffing these centers as part of their civic� action program, as do inanv of the labor anions. Literacy instruction is also broadcasi by radio by both the� Ministry of Public Education and the Catholic Church. Secondary education is divided into two cycles �the conunon e�ye�le of "3 years� which is roughly eels iyalent to junior high school. anel the diversified cycle of either 2 or :3 years, depending upon the c�urriculuni followed. The academic course in the diversified cycle is called "sciences and lettcrs� and encompasses 2 yea of study pre paring the stude for e ntrance into the National University or one of the other five specialized institutions of highereduc�ation. Ileflec�ting the traditional preference for a classical education. about three fourths of all students at this level pursue academic studies. 'There are 3 -year courses for printar school teachers (norm school) and for those going into conunercial studies, and a 2 -year secretarial course. A 3 -year course was begun ill 1966 leading to a hachillerafo (secondary school diploma) of technical or agricultural science for those students who had contple�ted the� common cycle. Nearly all of the� secondary schools offered the contnton cycle c�urric�ulum in 1969; most also offered one or more of the diversified cycle curriculums. Little information is available concerning the quality of secondary APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070018 -9 l+ cducalion in Honduras. It is known that effective instruction is impaired by outdated curriculums and teaching methods and scarcity of supplementary reading materials and teaching aids. However, the equality of instruction, particularly in the private institutions, is regarded as Iwtter than that it, the� primary education, despite the fact that a high proportion of secondary teachers also are uncertified. The quality may drop somewhat in the future, since the primary schools are already graduating more students than can he comfortably accommodated by existing secondary' schools. The pupil -to- teacher ratio had already risen from 8.6 to I in 1963 to 17 to I i n 1969. Beyond the secondary level there are six specialized institutions and one university. The six include a nursing school operated by the Standard Fruit Company s Vicente d'Antoni Hospital in La Ceiba; a nursing school operated by the I "Nallgelical Ilospital at Siguatepeque; the Pao American Agricultural School at El Zamorano a few miles southeast of "Tegucigalpa; the School of Social Services run by the klinistry of Public Health and Social Assistance to train social workers; the Francisco Morazan 'I'(chnical Institute; and the Francisco `-lorazan Superior Teachers' College, which trains secondary school teachers. "These schools have it small enrollment. "Tile oldest of the six, the Pan American Agricultural School, was founded in 194. and subsidized by AID and the United Fruit Company. It normally has all enrollment of about 180 per year from all countries of Latin America, but only 10,6 to 2390 of its enrollment is made up of Hondurans. rte hospitals at La Ceiba and Siguatepeque arc able to train only it small number of nurses. The School of Social Service trains secondary graduates as social workers and community development leaders. The Francisco Moraz;u rechnical Institute offers 2 years of training in a variety of technical fields to a limited number of students. The Francisco Morazan Superior Teachers' College trains secondary school teachers. The graduating class usually numbers 30 to 40. The National Autonomous University of Ifonduras, founded in 1847, is the country's only university and consists of the Center for General Studies and eight facilities: t) Medicine, 2) Dentistry, 3) Chemistry and Pharmacy, 4) Engineering, 5) Law and Social Studies, 6) Economics (Tegucigalpa), 7) Economics (San Pedro Sula), and 8) Agriculture and Forestry (La Ceiba). All freshmen belong to the Center for Genera Studies, Which has divisions in both Tegucigalpa uncl San Pedro Sala. In addition, those who continue in arts and letters curriculums remain in General Studies. The Center for General Studies, therefore, comprises over half of the entire enrollment. Law and Medicine have traditionally been the most popular facullies, but these have dropped to .econ(l and third place to the Faculty of Economic Sciences since the addilirn of the business administration program in the mid 1960'x. As :tit academic institution, the� National University is third rate, (Well by Latin American standards, and "lost students would prefer to study abroad if finances permitted. Contributing to this are shortages of funds and Vol nipnenl and it poorly p. faculty. X members of the faculties as well as students are part tune. Student parity (equal representation for students and teachers in the university administrative bodies) is also responsible for low academic standards; students arc able to block measures to reform the curriculums and raise the achieWCnent level. Cotmpetition \yithin the eight faculties for the student seats oil the Claustro Weno (2:3) and the Cotsejo Universitario (10) is keen and causes nnatty students to be involved constantly in political activity. 3. Noncurricular student activities (S) Latin American students are involved in political activities to a high degree, but hardly any spend less time in serious study than those at the National University of Honduras. Demonstrations and strikes, or the planning of them, seen almost constant and are undertaken for a variety of causes. Some activities are instigated in support of purely university matters, such as cttrricultim reform (or opposition to it), improvement of faculties, or budgetary natters. Others involve the students in national or international politics, usually in the form of demonstrations to make known the position of the students on a wide variety of issues, including support of callpesimo land occupations, solidarity with labor notions, opposition to certain U.S. All) programs, and expression of general anti -U.S. feeling. At times these demonstrations become quite violent, such as the student rampage in early June 1972 when considerable damage was clone to the Bi- National Center, the USIS building, the U.S. Military Croup offices, and the Bank of America building. Most student "parties" are either leftist or willing to cooperate with leftist groups to achieve certain aims; none are above using violent tactics to make their weight felt. I our student organizations annually compete for control of the Federation of Honduran University Students (FEUI1) �the organization to which all university students nominally belong �and for the student seats oll the administrative councils. The United University Democratic Front (FUUM. um 21 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070018 -9 anti Communist group sponsored by the Natrona! Party, controlled the FEUII front about i960 to 1969. Because of ineffective leadership it has been declining in strength since 1962 and has become discredited because it has been subsicaized by the government and used as a means of controlling university politics. In April 1969 it lost the election to the University Reform Front (FRU). FRU has been gaining in strength mostly by default �as the FUUD has declined. While the FRU previously had controlled the FEUII during only one other school year (1958 -59), it had consistently held a sizable portion frequently a majority �of the student seats on the administrative councils. The FRU is a front group of the Communist Party of Honduras /China (PC II /C), but includes some Liberal Party members, as will as anarchist elements. A third group, the Social Christian Student Revolutionary Front (FRESC), was formed in 1964 and has grown somehat during the past several years. It does riot yet, however, have the support of more than about 2W of the students. T he newest group is the Social Student Front (FES), a front group of the Communist Party of I Ionduras /Soviet (PCII /S). In the May 1972 election for rector, the FES, although not as strong as the FRU, managed to have its candidate elected. With the financial hacking of master politician Ricardo Zuniga. who controls the National Party, the FES and the FUUD were able to buy the votes of enough student representatives to reelect Cecilio Zelaya Lozano and defeat the more militant FRU candidate, Jorge Arturo Reina Idiaquez. Reina was also supprlrted by FRESC. While the results of the election 011 not affe the anti American, pro Communist atmosphere at the university, Zelaya may allow somewhat more ideological liberty than Reina would have. The Honduran public has a high tolerance for unrest, including the disruptive tactics of the university students. Furthermore, in a country where: the educational level is low, university students are accorded deference by the largely illiterate public out of propc,rtion to their real merit. Student groups have not, however, become strong enough to influence government policy significantly. Indeed, they frequently find themselves used as pawns by the major parties in the game of national politics. I. Artistic and cultural expression (U /OU) Political instability, economic retardation, a low degree of educational achievement, and a lack of energy resulting from poor health are responsible for the indifferent attitude of most Hondurans toward 4 cultural pursuits. Honduras has produced few writers, painters, scientists, scholars, or performing artists of international stature. I'his situation has in turn caused outsiders to have little cultural interest in Ilonduras and has contributed to the cultural isolation of Ilondurans. In pre Columbian times, the city of Copan in western Honduras was a center of Mayan learning and scientific achievement. Discovered in 1939, Copan covers 12 acres containing temples, pyramids, terraces, and commemorative sculptures, the most famous of which is the hieroglyphic stairway. About 20 feet wide and IM feet high, it is inscribed with approximately 2,5M glyphs, the longest Mayan inscription yet uncovered. Evidence also indicates that tine remarkably accurate Mayan calendar systent was developed in Copan. The cultural achievements of the Mayas, however, have had little effect on their present -day descendents, only it few of whom retain any cultural or linguistic characteristics of their famous ancestors. During the colonial period, the Spaniards did not establish important cultural centers in the territory that became Ilonduras. No major scats of goyeriunen- tal or ecclesiastical authority were located there, and, except for silver mining in the Tegucigalpa area, economic ventures did not attract large numbers of people. Consequently, fey Spanish aristocrats settled in the region, and cultural activities did not develop as fully as in other colonial territories. Political independence from Spain in 1821 was accompanied by an abrupt severance of cultural ties with the Crown and it sharp reduction in the number of art patrons among the aristocracy and the hierarchy of the Roman Catholic Church. Consequently. finding life difficult in 19th century Honduras. most local artists chose to live in the United States or in Europe, and cultural stagnation prevailed in Ilonduras until the first decades of the 20th century. 1. Painting and sculpture Although I londuran artists have employed it variety of themes and styles, the most predominant mode has been realism. During the colonial period, religious subjects held sway. Both painting and sculpture were heavily influenced by Spanish artists, such as Francisco 'Lurburan, the master of religious painting whose influence can he seen in two paintings of Jose Miguel Comez El Nazareno (The Nazarene) and Sari Jose de Calasanz (St. Joseph of Calasanz). Much of the sculpture of that era was undoubtedly of Spanish origin, but several anonymous works such of El Cristo Negro (The Biack Christ) show indigenous influences. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070018 -9 Religious subjects were abandoned) in the late 19th century 'n favor of historical themes, primarily national heroes. Following the Mexican revolution in 1910 and the example set by vlcxican artists such as Diego ilivera and David Siyuieros, Honduran painters developed it degree of independence from European themes and it growing interest in their own environment. One artist, Pablo Zelava Sierra, is particularly outstanding. Although lie lived in Europe during his entire adult life and the hulk of his paintings have Spanish thenes, his greatest achievements include it number of works based on Honduran subjects. The "lost notable of these are La Muchacha del Huacal (Girl on an Orange Crate), Dos Campesinos (Two Campesinos), and Destruction (Destruction), which reflects the political and civil turmoil of Honduras in the early 1930's. During the World War 11 period, two schools of art were established in Honduras: the School of Arts and Crafts, founded in 1935 by the Spanish painter Alfredo Rttis Barrera, and the National School of Finc Arts, organized in 1940 by the Honduran artist Arturo Lopez Rodezno. The latter artist is also credited with encouraging the use of authentic londuran themes based on Mayan and other indigenous cultures. In addition, Rodezno achieved renown for his work in enarnel on copper, and his painting Tropicana, depicting his native village, is the country's first modern mural. Most artists of the present generation began their training at the National School of Pine Arts but completed their study abroad, usually in Italy or France. Best known are i lario Castillo, director of the school, who paints in it contemporary mode, Roberto M. Sanchez, whose works depict Honduran life during the early independence period, and Miguel Angel Ruiz, who uses themes of social protest and the macabre, and particularly favors vivid orange and Wile colors. He is credited with inspiring more young artists than any other painter. Surrealists Ricardo Aguilar and Moises Beccrra are among it small but growing number of artists employing geometric design, striking color, and symbolism. Notable examples of this style are Aguilar's Ritn"o do Color (Rhythm of Color) and Becerra's Las Animas (The Souls). The major primitivist painter is Antonio Velasdluez, an Indian. whose works have been exhibited in several cities in the Urited States, as well as in other countries. Ilis success �,s an artist derives largely from his it hate contact with campesinos, his spontaneity, and his total lack of fOrmal artistic training. Most of his paintings are landscapes or scenes of rural life in highland Honduras. Twentieth century llondttnut sculpture consists largely of monuments depicting civil thertcs. Prominent contemporary sculptors, most of whom studied in londuran art schools and received additional training abroad, include the following: Sanutel Salgado, a specialist in nonutnents, wbo later became director of the National School of Pine Arts in I- l0nd;e1.11;: Mario Zamora, best known for his bronze relief work at the National Autononioms University of Honduras. Roberto M. Sanchez, also it painter and journalist, who specializes i marble busts of public figures; and Salvador Posadas, whose religious images i" wood can be seen ill churches in western I londuras and EI Salvador. 2. Literature According to critics, most Honduran literature is mediocre, especially prose works, and few outstanding literary figures have yet emerged. Because of widespread poverty and illiteracy, there is little market for, or interest in, literary works, and the intellectual preparation of authors and poets is generally weak. In writing of campesino life, moreover, educated Honduran authors often do not have intimate knowledge of their subject natter and must rely on cursory information and (Iistait t observation. Consedt lien tIy, their narratives lack feeling and undlerstandling, and do tot express the true sentiments of the campesino. Perhaps reflecting the mediocrity of most I loncluran literature is the lack of clearly delineated schools of writing. Although romantic and nostalgic strains are common, little of the literature can be categorized. During the colonial period, prose was largely written in the form of adventure stories, usually by descendants of conyuistadlors. lit these talcs. Europeans were heroes and Indians were villains. Among 19th century writers deserving mention are Jose C:ecilio de Fall(-, a major political figure during the struggle for independence and the principal author of the declaration of independence for Central America: Marco Aurelio Soto, President of Ionduras from 1816 to 1883 and author of Cabanistas; Ramon Rosa, Minister of State in the Soto administratio;, who wrote nuncrous political works, as well as La Maestra Escolastica (The Schoolteacher); and Carlos F. Gutierrez author of Angelina. the first Honduran novel, published in 1898. Hondomn prose is largely ;u product of the 200 century. number of liave %%ritten novehand short stories on such topics as conflicts bttween landowner and laborer, struggles between malt and it hostile: nature, revolution and dictatorship_ exploitu- .4 :A APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070018 -9 tion by foreign capitalists, and problems of city life. A common weakness in these works is the� use of objective, as opposed to subjective, developmu�nt, in which circumstances rather than individuals arc� emphasized. Four novelists are recognized as the most outstanding 20th century Honduran authors. Lucila Gamero de Medina is hest known for Blanca 01me(la (White Elm Grove), it story of the conflict between love and convention, :And for Aida. published in 1912. Argentina I)iaz Lozano is highly regarded in Honduras, as well as in other countries, particularly for her autobiographical novel, peregrinaje (Higrim- age), which describes her life as a teacher in a simple, straightforward stele. Her other notable works include Luz ell let Senda (Light on the Path), concerning the historic struggle of Honduran workers, and the short stories Topacios ("Topazes) and Cuentos (Stories). Another novelist whose themes relate to the oppression of workers is the leftist, liarnon Amaya Anador. His hest known work, Prision Verde (Greet) Prison), depicts the abuses suffered by the employees of' the large fruit companies. Arturo Xlejia Nieto is an expatriate author whose novels include El Solteron (The Old Bachelor) and A la Derica (Adrift). Honduran poetry is predominantly romantic. Symbolism is used occasionally, but most verse is written in a straightforward manner and does not stimulate the imagination. Although Honduran poets usually express faith in their country, their poetry is replete with descriptions of violence, suffering, and injustice. The first major Honduran poet was Father Jose "Trinidad Reyes, who in 1845 founded it literary academy which later became the National Autono- mous University of Howhints. Using political and pastoral themes, he emphasized moral issues, such as good against evil, knowledge instead of ignorance, and humility rather than conceit. His poetry includes Cuando (When), a collection of political satires, and Pastorelas (Pastorals), considered his hest work. At the turn of the 19th century, the most notable Honduran poet was Juan Ramon Molina. who cane under the influence of the respected Nicaraguan modernist, Ruben Dario. Molina strove for realism in poetry that was pessimistic to the point of bitterness. Among his works are the lyrical Pesca de Sirenas (Fishing for Mermaids), the eloquent El Aguila (The Eagle), and the anguished IvIadre Meloneolia (.Mother Melancholy). Alfonso Guillen Zelaya, the principal poet of the first half of the 20th century, was a philosophic neotttodemist who incorpouted in his verse the 24 idealism of Reyes and the realism of Molina uy stressing the good and tic� had in both man and datum. Ilis hest known works are La Casita do Pablo (Pablo s little Ilouse), El Ouinto Silenciu (Th(- Fifth Silence), and Echarnea la Senda (Sho%% Me the Way). Other outstanding poets of the ?llth century include Froilau Torc�ios, a realist like Molina. Rafael Ileliodoro Valle, also a noted journalist and bibliophile: Daniel Laine� and Jacopo Carc�anio. writers of humorous satires, and Vicente Aleman. \\hose pen name is Claudio Barrera. it political crusader. Little drana has been written in Honduras. only it few playwrights having emerged in the 0th century. Luis Andres %uniga, also it poet and writer of fables. wrote the first Honduran drama. Ile has beet followed by J. M. "Tobias Rosas. author of Teatro 11ondureno (Honduran Theater): Alonso A. Brito. \yho wrote Im Tristcza de las (:unbres I'hc Sorro\% of the Summits) amcl (;it Caballero de Industria (A Gentleman Of Industry): and, most recently. Victor F. Ardon. whose works inchide a series of Immorous dramatic sketches. I Music and dance Contemporary popular music in I louduras is largely derived from it combination of Spanish. Indian. and Negro elements. According to Honduran musicolo- gists. the Spanish element predominates, while Indian melodies and Negro rhythms contribute enriching variations. Virtually all classical music today reflects a strong Spanish influence. as it has since colonial )totes. In general, it is considered mediocre. Purely Indian music, which still exists only in isolated communities in the Departments of Intibuca and Lempira, retains many characteristics of Mayan and other American Indian musical forms. Melodies tire based on the pentatonic, or �gapped,� scale in which the fourth and seventh intervals of it regular octave are omitted. This scale produces lyrical but somewhat melancholic tones. A number of wind and percussion instruments are used, most often in conjunction with religious rituals and festivals. In the 0th century, Honduran popular music has retained its Spanish emphasis. In recent years, however, to the chagrin of musicologists, regional folk music is becoming less popular than modern "pop mosiv: Tlli development results from the increasing ayatlabilit\ of inexpemsiye transistor radios which bring recorded music from Central Anieric�am countries, Mexico. and the Caribbean area thousmids of urban and rural Hondtirans. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP0l- 00707R000200070018 -9 r C:IL ssical nntsic, largely religients, was first played if] londuras during the colonial period. In 1561, Bishop Jcroninu de Corella introduced the Gregorian chant in the Cathedral of Com ayagua and later installed an organ to accompany til singing of ln�nus. Bishop Antonio de Guadealupe established it choral socieh� in 1738 for the study and performance of liturgical music at tilt. cathedral. All composers of classical londuran music have been of Spanish extraction. During lie 19th century the noted poet. Father Jose "Trinidad Reyes, composed several Masses, including El Trancredo, La Misa Sahatina (The Sabbath Mass), and La Misa de Requiem ('file Requiem %lass). Father Reyes %v Its also an accomplished flutist, a professor of voice and composition, and a choir master. Martial music performed by military bands became the predominant form of musical expression during the 19th century, reflecting the patriotic mood of tilt. early independence period and the turbrtlent political conditions that followed during much of that century. Bands frequently gave concerts in public sctuart.s on important c�iyic� occasions, one of their most popular selections being La Granada, sometimes called tile first national hynnn of Honduras. In 1876. President Soto organized the National Military Band of Ionduras. which directed by two successive German bandmasters, oat. of whom wrote the music to the national anthem. After 1915, the baud %%as directed by Ilonclurans. The most outstanding Honduran nntsician of the 20th century in the field of classical music was Manuel de Adalid y Gamcro, who died in 19-1 A professor of music theon� and cor -.position at the National School of Music in 'Tegucigalpa and It conductor of the National Military Band, Adalid y Gaml-ro %vas also tile first modem composer of classical music in Honduras to use folk melodies in his works. Among his compositions, some of which have been performed elsewbery in Central America and ill the United States, are Suite Tropical ('Tropical Suitt.), a sYmphonic poem; C'rta Noche crr Honduras (A Might in Honduras), an intermezzo, Renternbranzas llondureras (Honduran Remembrances), a work for the piano; and La Novia del Torero (The Bullfighters Girlfriend), a spirted march. Honduras has produced it number of other classical musicians in the 20th century. Ignacio Villanueva GaIvano, who died in 195.1, composed the smphon Las Americas and till- overture La Isla del Tigre (Tigre Island). Anotlier composer, Francisco Diaz wrote Ilimnuro a Morazan (11vinn to Monazan) and Misa en I)o Manor )dass ill D Major); lie also organized the now defunct National Symphon% Orchestra, as WeI! as the 1Vagner Orchestra, and edited the journal 1lusica. Rafael Coello Itanaos founded the Verdi Orchestra and c�onnposed both religious and secular music. lu 1968 the principal tnusk organizations in londuras included it choral enscnible of the National School of Music, the Coro Polifonico de la Escuela Nacional de Musica, and two chamber music groups. C'uarteto de Cuerda .uu! Oryuesta de Camara. In addition to till- National School of 'Music, the Victoriana Lopez School of Music. located in San Pedro Sula, was providing instruction to students. In remote areas some Indian groups have retained their traditional dances, priniarily for ceretnonial purposes during religious rituals. The tonc�ontin, for example, is performed b 40 men in white robes trinuned with feathers and is ac�c�omparied by till- turn. Another Indian dance, called el siyue, is popular throughout present clay Ilondiras and is considered the country's national dance. Although nuulified I some elements of Spanish dance added during the c�olomial period, it still retains its original meter of one strong heat followed by two weak beats and its lively polkalike tempo. Europr:n dance forms. particularly those of Spain. were introduced during the colonial period and the early 19th century. Among the upper class, popular dances were the minuet and till- waltz. In addition to el siyue, the dances of the lower class included polkas, mazurkas, Waltzes. and Spanish tap dances. J. Public information (U /OU) Although Honduras has till- basic elements of i t public information systt.m, the systenn is under developed. Prevailing low levels of income have adversely affected all of the formal media. FurtIwrnnre. topograph\ bas served to limit till- audience capable of receiving television broadcasts. and the lovy rate of literacy has acted its it brake on the development of newspaper, periodical, and hook publishing. Radio is the host fully developed of the existing media, and it is also ti most effective. Newspapers are influential nuaillIv in "Tegucigalpa and San Pedro Sala. The mass media are largely priyalely owned and operated, and governmental interference is not extt.nsiye. As of late 1972, the public infornnatic media were operating With almost complete freedori, within the restrictions imposed In civil lavy in such matters as libel and slander. Even in instances of libel or slander, the author of the offending item is APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070018 -9 considered legally responsible, not the medium through which the item has been disseminated. Article 85 of the Constitution of 1965 guarantees freedom of thought and expression "through any means of dissemination, without previous censorship." At the same time, it restricts "the control of newspapers and of radio or television newscasts, and the intellectual, political, and administrative orientation thereof' to Hondurans and prohibits any of the media from receiving "subsidies from foreign governments or political parties." The Honduran Government, under terms of the Publishing i aw of 1958, did reserve the right to cen ;or material "contrary to national sovereignty, defaming or insulting, designed to fool the public for commercial gain, capriciously directed against business for vengeance, or devoted to blackmail or pornography.' In 1966, the Publishing Law was amended to provide protection to government officials from criticism by the media, to discourage disclosure of confidential information, and to Facilitate the prosecution of journalists and publishers who expressed antigovernment views. Newsmen strongly objected to this amendment. describing it as a gag" law on the media. In part, recognizing the objections to the amendment, the government sponsored its repeal in 1967. The episode had the effect, however, of making newsmen somewhat more circumspect in the opposition to the government. 1. Radio and television Because many Hondurans are illiterate and because of the physical difficulties in circulating newspapers outside of the major population centers, the medium that reaches the most people fastest is radio. The Honduran radio audience has been growing spectacularly during the past decade as the importation of inexpensive transistor sets has enabled an increasing number of persons, even those in areas of the country without electricity, to own radios. There are over :300,000 radio receivers in Honduras, roughly half of which are transistors. In June 1972 there were 102 AM broadcasting stations and 10 FM stations. More than half of the former and all of the latter are located either in Tegucigalpa or San Pedro Sula. Of the AM stations, :30 were in "Tegucigalpa and 25 in San Pedro Sula. Five stations in Tegucigalpa and two in San Pedro Sula have transmitters with a power of 10 Alowatts, but most stations broadcast with from one or less kilowatts, serving a local area primarily. To overcome the geographic harriers of mountainous terrain, abort 26 one -third of all AM stations broadcast on both medium -wave and shortwave frequencies, and three operate regularly on shortwave alone. Although several stations may be owned by the same person or company, networks as known in the United States du not exist. All radio stations in Honduras are licensed by the government, and all are opLrated by private interests, including religious and labor groups. The Honduran Government does not own or operate. any station. Most radio stations, however, carry the government- sponsored La Hora Nadonal, which is broadcast each Sunday to inform the public of government activities, and all are required to relay government programs during times of emergence. The commercial broadcasting stations present programs consisting primarily of popular music, news. commentary, and advertising. News programs of 5 to 30 minutes duration are broadcast several times a day. Although news stnunaries emphasize Im-al and national topics, some stations include items of regional (i.e.. Central American) or international interest that re rece ived from international wire services. Hondurans living near the country's borders ar-- able to pick up broadcasts emanating from stations in neighboring countries. In addition, medium -wave transmissions from Cuba can he received all along the northern coast, and the reception of these broadcasts on shortwave is excellent in most parts of the country. Only the more powerful shortwave sets, however, are able to pick up programs from the British Broadcasting Corporation. Radio Moscow, Radio Peking, or other foreign stations. By contrast, the Voice of America is heard throughout the country, but reception is not always good in some areas. Despite growth since 1959, television in Honduras has not become widely influential in molding public opinion. 'Television reception is limited to areas surrounding Tegucigalpa, San Pedro Sula, and Siguatepeque, and the audience is further restricted by the expense involved in purchasing it television set. Moreover, television in I londuras has served primarily as a medium for entertainment rather than as one for the dissemination of news. Television was introduced in September 1959 when 1IRT(;-TV, channel 5, first went on the air in Tegucigalpa. The station is owned by the ,G"W# )mia Televisora Hondurana S.A., which also own, k,, huns in San Pedro Sulu (1- IRYA channel 13) and Siguatepeque (HRSU -'f\', channel 9) that relay the programs originating in 'Tegucigalpa. Subsequent to 1959, Radio Centro y la Voz de Honduras inaugurated television stations in Tegucigalpa (channel :3) and San APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070018 -9 Pedro Stla (channel 7), and these were followed by it third "Tegucigalpa station known as 1'ele Or L'C (channel 1 1). The two "networks" and the independent station are privately owned and derive their income solely from commercial advertising. Although the cost of it television set remains far beyond the means of the average Honduran, the number of sets in use has grown rapidly. Whereas an estimated 2,000 receivers were in use in 1960, the number had risen to about 35,000 in 1972. Normally about 9 hours of programing are offered daily, usually from 11:00 a.m. until 2:00 p.m. and again from 5 :00 p.m. until 11:00 p.m. Presentations consist principally of situation comedies, soap operas, adventure features, motion pictures, and other fare of an entertainment nature. Most offerings are imported from such countries as Argentina, Mexico, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Television films or video tapes originating in the United Kingdom or t6 United States are customarily provided with Spanish-, language sound tracks in Mexico before being imported into Honduras. Because entertainment programs are emphasized on Honduran television., newscasts have not received a high priority. Newscasts usually are brief (5 minutes or less), are often sketchy, and do not always report the latest news. Sometimes they carry still photos, but they almost never have a film version of the event being covered. Other than newscasts, few programs are transmitted live, although HRTC -TV presents some educational and special interest programs, the latter including religious services and sports events. 2. Newspapers, magazines, books, and films The press, although limited in its circulation, is influential because its audience consists primarily of the articulate members of society� especially the officeholders and professional classes residing in the two major population centers. Although the literacy rate is rising, the small number of newspapers circulated per day is it reflection of the loco educational level. 'There are five major daily newspapers (I-igure 13) and about it dozen weeklies that publish regularly. Circulation of the dailies totals about 115,(x)0 copies, roughly 42 copies per 1,000 population which is one of the lowest ratios in I.alin America. Three of the five leading papers arc published in the capital city and two in the north coast industrial center of San Pedro Sula. Tegucigalpa's El Cronista, founded in 1912, is the country's oldest. Its editorial policy has gone through several changes in order to keep the paper going. In the early 1960's it pursued a pro Castro, anti -U.S. line but altered its stance around 1966 because of financial difficulties resulting from the loss of advertising front businessmen who objected to its views. Today El Cronista occasionally makes favorable comment on U.S. policies. Its principal capital city competitor, El Diu, is conservative, firmly anti Communist, an(] generally favors the National Party. It carries more straight news coverage than any other Ionduran daily. The two newspapers published in San Pedro Sula are La Prensa and El Tiempo, both relatively new. The former was consistently antigovernment in tone until the summer of 1968 when the government, in a rare move, closed it for 2 months. Since La Prensa reopened it is noticeable less antigovernment, giving credibility to rumors of intimidation and payoffs by the powerful National Party boss, Ricardo 7.11111ga. No Honduran newspaper can he rated as '*good." journalistic standards are low, and reporters admit that they often fail to cover assigned stories, relying instead on news handouts from government offices and other sources. In part -the prevailing duality of FIGURE 13. Leading daily newspapers, 1974 (U /OU) COMMENT Senso':onilist, opportunistic, erratic editorial pol- icy; frequently takes National Party line and probably payoffs. Independent newspaper; conservative. Independent- newspaper; slightly conservative; pro -C.S.; favors north coast businessmen: some bias in favor of the Liberal Party. Leftist- oriented: uses lively format, including headlines in color; contains numerous feature stories. 7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070018 -9 ESTIMATED DATE: PLACE OF DAILY CIII- NAME FOUNDED PUBLICATION CULATION EL CIIONISTA (The Chronicler)... 1912 Tegucigalpa 25,000 El. DIA (The Day) 19.18 20,000 LA PItF:NSA (The Press;......... 1964 San Pedro Sula.. 48,000 Eli. 'I wmpo (The Tinted 1970 do 12,000 COMMENT Senso':onilist, opportunistic, erratic editorial pol- icy; frequently takes National Party line and probably payoffs. Independent newspaper; conservative. Independent- newspaper; slightly conservative; pro -C.S.; favors north coast businessmen: some bias in favor of the Liberal Party. Leftist- oriented: uses lively format, including headlines in color; contains numerous feature stories. 7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070018 -9 journalism reflects the low status and low income of newspapermen, mane of whonn are forced to work at additional jobs, which limit the amount of time that they can devote to their newspaper activities. Publishers are faced with high production costs uul it limited reading audience that make it difficult to operate at it profit. As it result, most papers in the country lead a precarious existence. Among the best known periodicals being published in Honduras in 1970 were Honduras Ilustrada (Honduras Illustrated), it literary magazine published since 196; Sucesos (Events), it monthly news- magazine; El Cornercio (Commerce), it weekly devoted to commercial and industrial news; and El Sindicalista (Trade Unionist). a bimonthly devoted to labor news. Except for El Sindicalista, which is published in La lima, all are issued in 'Tegucigalpa. Other periodicals include Honduras Rotaria (Honduras Rotary), Letras Letters), and Ix B-lista del Archivo y Biblioteca Nacionales (Review of the National Archives and Library). Foreign periodicals are not widely available, although they can be purchased in 'Tegucigalpa, San Pedro Sula, and other large urban centers. 'I'hcy include Life en Espanol, Selecciones (Spanish language edition of Readers Mgest Time, and Newsweek from the United States, Bohemia Libre from Venezuela, arid Vision from Mexico. Honduran book publishing is limited by the same difficulties that affect newspaper and magazine enterprises. Low levels of literacy, high production costs, distribution problems, and few interested readers are the reasons why Honduras annually publishes fewer books than most other Latin American countries. Probably about 125 to 135 titles are published annually, about half of which deal with the social sciences and include government publications of various types. Publishing firms are concentrated in the Tegucigalpa� Comayaguelu area, where in 1970 some 10 publishing houses were in operation. These included the publishing arms of the National Library 28 and of the National Autonomous University of Ilonduras. Locally published and imported hooks, as well as other printed material, are sold in bookstores four in 'Tegucigalpa, two in Connayaguela, and one each in San Pedro Sula and La Ceiba. Films are it very popular form of entertainment. Little use has been nade of this nedium for propaganda or educational purposes. In 1969 Honduras had 132 movie houses, most of then equipped for 35 -nun films. K. Selected bibliography (U /OU) Adams, Richard N. Cultural Surveys of Panama, Nicaragua, Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras. Washington, U.C.: Pan American Sanitary Bureau. 1957. An extensive study of Honduran social characteristics. Chamberlain. Robert S. Conquest and Coloniza- tion. New fork: Octagon Books: 1966. A history of the early colonial period, which discusses Indian groups and early population centers. Institruto de Nutricion de Centro America v Panama. Evaluacion Nutricional de la poblacion de Centro Anerica y Panama: Honduras. Guatemala City. 1969. Funded by several U.S. Government agencies, this study provides extensive data