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APPROVED FOR RELEASE; 2009106116; CIA- RDP01- 00707R0002000700314 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R0002001 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070031 -4 NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY PUBLICATIONS The basic unit of the NIS is the General Survey, which is now published in a bound -by- chapter format so that topics of greater per- ishability can be updated on an individual basis. These chapters� Country Profile, The Society, Government and Politics, The Economy, Military Geog- raphy, Transportation and Telecommunications, Armed Forces, Science, and Intelligence and Security, provide the primary NIS coverage. Some chapters, particularly Science and Intelligence and Security, that are not pertinent to all countries, are produced selectively. For small countries requiring only minimal NIS treatment, the General Survey coverage may be bound into one volume. Supplementing the General Survey is the NIS Basic Intelligence Fact book, a ready reference publication that semiannually updates key sta- tistical data found in the Survey. An unclassified edition of the factbook omits some details on the economy, the defense forces, and the intelligence and security organizations. Although detailed sections on many topics were part of the NIS Program, production of these sections has been phased out. Those pre- viously produced will continue to be available as long as the major portion of the study is considered valid. A quarterly listing of all active NIS units is published ir, the Inventory of Available NIS Publications, which is also bound into the concurrent classified Factbook. The Inventory lists all NIS units by area name and number and includes classification and date of issue; it thus facilitates the ordering of NIS units as well as their filing, cataloging, and utilization. Initial dissemination, additional copies of NIS units, or separate chapters of the General Surveys can be obtained directly or through liaison channels from the Central Intelligence Agency. The General Survey is prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency and the Defense Intelligence Agency under the general direction of the NIS Committee. It is coordinated, edited, published, and dissemi- nated by the Central Intelligence Agency. WARNING This document contains information affecting the national defense of the United States, within the meaning of title 18, sections 793 and 794 of the US code, as amended. Its transmission or revelation of its contents to or receipt by an unauthorized person is prohibited by law. CLASSIFIED BY 6:9641. EXEMPT FROM GENERAL DECLASSIFI- CATION SCHEDULE OF E. O. 11652 EXEMPTION CATEGORIES 5B (1), (2), (3). DECLASSIFIED ONLY ON APPROVAL OF THE DIRECTOR OF CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070031 -4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070031 -4 WARNING The NIS is National Intelligence and may not be re- leased or shown to representatives of any foreign govern- ment or international body except by specific authorization of the Director of Central Intelligence in accordance with the provisions of National Security Council Intelligence Di- rective No. 1. For NIS containing unclassified material, however, the portions so marked may be made available for official pur- poses to foreign nationals and nongovernment personnel provided no attribution is made to National Intelligence or the National Intelligence Survey. Subsections and graphics are individually classified according to content. Classification /control designa. tions are: (U /OU) Unclassified /For Official Use Only (C) Confidential (S) Secret APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070031 -4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070031 -4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070031 -4 I_1 �:16IT M ll7f]:a:14 p l_F9 :W41I11:1bIs1li 1.9911 /_a N 11 I11Illily fiy1:1111111pilIiIlfLlIlk1i IS APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070031 -4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070031 -4 Fig. 1 Polish armed forces chart) Fig. 2 Personnel strengths table) Fig. 3 Defense budgets table) Fig. 4 Officers' uniforms and insignia (chart) Fig. 5 Warrant officers' and enlisted men's uniforms and insignia chart) ii FIGURES Page 4 Fig. 6 5 6 Fig. 7 9 Fig. 8 11 Fig. 9 Page Troops in practice assault landing (photo) 13 Polnocny class LSM (photo) 15 Fism3En aircraft photo) 18 SA -2 missile photo) 18 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070031 -4 Page Page C. Ground forces 8 E. Air and air defense forces 17 1. Organisation 8 1. Organization 17 2. Strength, composition, and disposition 8 2� Strength, composition, and disposition 17 3. Training 8 3. Training 19 a. Aviation 19 4. Logistics 13 b. Surface -to -air missile 20 D. Naval forces 14 4. Logistics 20 1. Organization 14 a. Aircraft b. Surface -to -air missiles 20 21 2. Strength, composition, and disposition 15 F. Militarized security forces 21 3. Training 16 1. Internal Defense Forces 21 4. Logistics 16 2. Frontier Guard 21 5. Naval air arm 16 3. Territorial Defense Forces 21 Fig. 1 Polish armed forces chart) Fig. 2 Personnel strengths table) Fig. 3 Defense budgets table) Fig. 4 Officers' uniforms and insignia (chart) Fig. 5 Warrant officers' and enlisted men's uniforms and insignia chart) ii FIGURES Page 4 Fig. 6 5 6 Fig. 7 9 Fig. 8 11 Fig. 9 Page Troops in practice assault landing (photo) 13 Polnocny class LSM (photo) 15 Fism3En aircraft photo) 18 SA -2 missile photo) 18 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070031 -4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070031 -4 Armed Forces A. Defense establishment Largest of the Warsaw Pact forces of Eastern Europe after those of the Soviet Union, the closely integrated armed forces of Poland consist of ground, naval, and air and air defense forces. These forces are subordinate to the Ministry of National Defense, as are the militarized security forces (less the Frontier Guard during peacetime) which operate ender a territorial defense system that assigns them primary responsibility for the internal defense of the country. The strength of the ground, naval, and air forces is 291,000 men. About 210,000 are in the ground forces, 26,000 in the naval forces,` and 55,000 in the air forces. Personnel fot :he Air Defense Command are drawn from the ground and air forces. Much the largest element in terms of personnel, the ground forces also dominate the high command and staff. (S) Major combat elements include 15 ground forces divisions; four destroyer types, four submarines, 101 coastal patrol and 62 river /roadstead. patrol types, 49 minesweepers, 3F amphibious ships and craft, 32 auxiliaries, 114 service craft, 66 naval combat aircraft, and more than 875 air forces aircraft. The Territorial Defense Forces have a strength of 73,500 men 25,000 are in the Internal Defense Forces, 20,000 in the Frontier Guard, and 28,500 in Territorial Defense Forces. (S) The missions of the armed forces include territorial defense against foreign attack by land, sea, and air; internal defense against subversive or guerrilla forces; maintenance of border security and control; protection of Warsaw Pact lines of communication and augmentation of Pact forces in central Europe. (C) Since 1965, Poland's armed forces and Ministry of National Defense have been reorganized, probably on Soviet initiative to facilitate the implementation of an operational and territorial defense force concept. Operational forces, consisting of ground, naval, and air elements, are earmarked to augment Warsaw Pact forces. The Territorial Defense Forces (Obrony 'Includes 2.600 Maritime Frontier Guard personnel Terytorlum Kraju �OT), which are exclusively responsible for the internal defense and security of Poland, consist of interior, frontier, and air defense elements. In the 1965 reorganization, the Frontier Guard (Wojsko Ochrony Pogranicza �WOP) and Internal Defense Forces (Wojsko Obrony Wew- netrzne �WOW) were transferred from the Ministry of Internal Affairs to the Ministry of National Defense, where they were assigned to the Main Inspectorate of the National Territorial Defense Forces. In 1971, however, the Frontier Guard was transferred from the Ministry of National Defense and resubordinated to the Ministry of Internal Affairs. The Frontier Guard would probably revert to Ministry of Defense control in time of war. Airforces consist mr two operational components. One has the primary mission of air defense and is operationally subordinate to the Air Defense Command. The other, consisting of tactical air units, is assigned an offensive role in support of ground troops but augments the air defense component, as required. Naval forces, including a small air component, are mainly a defen:ive force. However, the navy has an increasing amphibious capability and submarines sometimes operate outside the Baltic Sea. (S) The armed forces are trained along Soviet lines and are primarily equipped with weapons of Soviet design or manufacture. They have acquired Soviet tactical nuclear delivery systems, though not nuclear warheads, and have adopted Soviet tactical concepts. The armed forces are capable of conducting both offensive and defensive operations either inde- pendently or as part of a combined force. In the latter role they could assume a major part in operations in the North German plain and Jutland. Large- scale, sustained operations, however., could not be maintained with Polish resources alone but would require Soviet logistical support. (S) Poland is astride the main natural route interconnecting the U.S.S.R. and Western Europe. With respect to the line of contact between forces of the NATO nations and of the Warsaw Pact nations, 1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070031 -4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA -RDP01 -00707 R000200070031 -4 the country is a Soviet communications zone supporting the Groups of Soviet Forces in East Germany (GSFG) and Poland (NGF). (S) The primary strategic military problem of Poland is the defense c1` a national territory that has no significant natural obstacles to impede an attack from the west. Shielded to the west only by the buffer of East Germany, Poland almost surely would seek to defend itself by participating in the combined defense of East Germany, to which it is committed by the Warsaw Pact, or in a combined counteroffensive or preemptive attack to destroy the NATO threat in the west. 1. Military history (C) The emergence of the Polish state in the 10th century introduced an 800 -year succession of wars with its neighbors. This history was interrupted in the 18th century when Poland was partitioned and ceased to exist as a political entity. Polish patriotism persisted through the years of national eclipse, however, and when World War raised the opportunity, a Polish legion was organized under Marshal Pilsudski to fight against the Russians for liberation. In 1918 Poiand regained its national identity and formed a republic from territories red, ,-me l from the Austro- Hungarian Empire, Germany, and Russia. The Treaty of Versailles recognized the independence of the new Polish state. At the outset of World War I1, Poland had an armed force of 300,000 well- trained and well discipiined troops. Despite courageous resistance, the country was quickly overwhelmed by opposing forces. Three Polish destroyers and two submarines escaped from the Baltic Sea to join forces with the British Royal Navy; these ships were supplemented later by other craft provided by the British and manned by Poles. A considerable number of Polish Air Force personnel escaped to the United Kingdom, where they were formed into units in the Royal Air Force. Other Poles who had escaped were organized in France into several Polish infantry divisions and a mountain brigade. After Germany attacked the U.S.S. R. in 1941, a Polish army of 70,000 men was organized in the Soviet Union; it was later moved to the Mediterranean area to serve with the British. In 1943 the U.S.S.R. organized an infantry division of Poles which soon was "The GSFG, totaling 386,000 (360,000 ground, 26,000 air), consists of 10 tank divisions, 10 motorized rifle divisions, and one tactical air army. The NGF, totaling 40,000 (30,000 ground, 10,000 air), consists of two tank divisions and one tactical air army. A Soviet Navy force operates out of Swinoujscie, Poland. 0 exr ii.ded into an army that fought as p art of the Soviet Army through the remainder of the war. With the creation of the Polish Committee of National Liberation under Soviet sponsorship in Lublin in July 1944, the basis for the present armed forces was laid. The First Independent Naval Battalion, which participated in the liberation of the coastal areas, was the forerunner of the postwar Polish naval forces. After the war the Polish air forces were reconstituted by redesignating as Polish some Soviet air units that included Polish personnel. The nucleus of the postwar Polish Army was the Soviet sponsored infantry division that had been formed in 1943. Following the appointment of Marshal of the Soviet Union Konstantin K. Rokossovskiy (a Pole by birth) as Minister of National Defense in late 1949, the armed forces began an intensive program of re- equipping, re- training, and re- organizing, all under Soviet direction. Soviet officers of Polish extraction occupied virtually all key positions, and the armed forces came to be a small -scale copy of the postwar armed forces of the U.S.S.R. However, after Wladyslaw Gomulka came again to political power in Poland (October 1956), the more obvious aspects of direct Soviet influence on the Polish forces were removed. Marshal Rokossovskiy and many other transplanted former Soviet military officers were replaced by Poles. Marian Spychalski, Minister of National Defense until 1968 and a trusted friend of Gomulka, replaced Rokossovskiy. These measures resulted in the removal of many experienced command and staff officers, but that deficiency was overcome by improving qualifications and skills of personnel, improving the military school system, and raising the morale and efficiency of the armed forces. Soviet control still remains but is exercised only indirectly. The armed forces are still dependent for support upon the U.S.S.R. and would be unable independently to pursue a sustained course of action. 2. Command structure (S) Soviet control of the armed forces of Poland is achieved principally through close liaison and cooperation between the Soviet and Polish govern- ments and Communist parties on all matters that affect the military establishment. The unified command established under the Warsaw Pact provides the Soviet' Union with a formal and effective instrument of military direction. The Polish constitution of July 1952 designates the Sejm (parliament) as the ultimate government authority and names the Council of Ministers as the executive arm of the government. The Council APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070031 -4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070031 -4 Chairman (who is the Premier), with the advice and consent of the council members, is charged with "general direction in the sphere of defense capability of the country and organization of the armed forces." The Minister of National Defense is aided by four Vice Ministers (Figure 1), who also serve, respectively, as Chief of the General Staff, Chief of the Main Political Directorate, Main Inspector of Training, and Main Inspector of Polish Territorial Defense. The entire military establishment is centrally controlled and constitutes, in effect, a single, closely integrated military force. Although each service and each ground branch is given appropriate consideration in all matters relating to its particular role, the high command and the staff structure are dominated by ground officers. Fcr purposes of territorial administration, Poland is divided into three military districts �the Warsaw, the Pomeranian, and the Silesian. The area of responsibility of the Warsaw Military District is the eastern half of the country; of the Pomeranian Military District, the northwestern quarter; and of the Silesian Military District, the southwestern quarter. Headquarters of the districts are Warsaw, Bydgoszcz, and Wroclaw (Breslau ),3 respectively, and in their areas they perform administrative and logistic functions including supply, communications, housekeeping, military construction, reserve training, and mobilization. A separate naval headquarters is. located at Gdynia. Contin�ting naval representation at Warsaw is provided chiefly by small naval liaison groups in the General Staff and in those central inspectorates which support and supervise all branches of the armed forces. There is also a naval liaison group attached to the staff of the Pomeranian Military District, the district that embraces the entire coastal area of the country. B. Joint activities 1. Military manpower (S) Poland has an ample pouf of manpower from which to fill its armed forces. Approximately 8,893,000 males are between the ages of 15 and 49, and of these about 7,030,000 (79 are by Polish standards fit for military service. The number of males reaching military age (19) will average 356,000 annually during the 5 -year period 1974 -78. The following tabulation presents the estimated distribution of Polish manpower between 'For diacritics on place names see the list of names at the end of this chapter. the ages of 15 and 49 by 5 -year age groups as of 1 January 1974: TOTAL MAXIMtIM NUMBER NUMBER FIT FOR ACE OF MALES MILITARY SERVICE 15 -19 1,783,000 1,520,000 20 -24 1,674,000 1,390,000 25 -29 1,225,000 1,060,000 30 -34 980,000 810,000 35 -39 1,090,000 845,000 40-44 1,140,000 800,000 45-49 1. 605,000 Total, 15-49 8,893,000 7,030,000 The armed forces are supported by a form of compulsory service generally comparable to that employed in all Warsaw Pact countries. Conscription is accomplished under the provisions of the 30 January 1959 Law on Universal Military Service. All males register for military service in the year of their 18th birthday. A March 1963 amendment to the law lowered the eligible age for induction from the year of the 20th to that of the 19th birthday. Because more men have been available than were needed to maintain the desired troop levels, not all fit young men reaching conscription age each year have been inducted. Compulsory military service is deferred for students studying in higher schools and for workers possessing critical skills. 'those bypassed, however, retain their service obligation until about the age of 50, and most of them receive some form of military training in schools or paramilitary organizations. Approximately 100,000 men are inducted annually. Of "these, about 6 �.000 are taken i:tto the ground forces, and the remainder enter ine naval, air, and militarized security forces. Most of the conscripts are inducted in late October each year. The rest of the conscripts are indicted in April and are primarily those selected to attend service schools anO those selected for the Territorial Defense Forces. The basic term of service is 2 years except for certain specialists in all services and seagoing sailors whose terms are 3 years. In addition, specialized training is given to volunteers; these men are obligated to serve at least 5 years. The navy also has a special 5 -year program for volunteers. Young men conscripted for military service during the past 10 to 15 years have generally been better educated and more technically proficient than their predecessors. The men chosen for the naval and air forces are better educated and of gre"ter dependability than those selected for the ground forces. Recruits are physically sturdy and are able to withstand hardship and privation. 3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070031 -4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDPOI- 00707R000200070031-4 A. ONLY) 1u FIGURE 1. Organization of the Polish Armed Forces (S) APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070031 -4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070031 -4 Since 1956 the political officials of the country have endeavored to improve the loyalty and quality of leadership in the armed forces and have attempted to make service life more attractive. Polish officers were put into all billets formerly held by Soviet officers serving in the Polish forces, educational qualifications for officers and noncommissioned officers were raised, the military school system was improved, uniforms along traditional Polish lines were readopted, and the general welfare of military personnel became a greater concern to the high command. Poland currently has the most progressive military personnel po!icies in the Communist world. Generally, morale within the armed forces is good, though the general populace has, on occasion, viewed the services with apathy. The refusal of the armed forces to take repressive measures during the 1970 -71 workers' riots helped to enhance its image in the eyes of the public. The present leadership cadres are both proficient and loyal, and military organization, discipline, and training are at least equal to those in comparable Soviet forces. It is anticipated that Gierek, Gomulka's successor, will continue the successful policies of his predecessor. None of the reserves of the armed forces are organized into units. In a general mobi!ization, new units would be formed around cadres taken from existing units, and the reserve manpower would fill out both old and new units. Each member of the reserves has a booklet on mobilization that tells him where to report in the event of mobilization. The military administrative organization maintains close contact with the population, and a covert, partial mobilization or an overt. general mobilization could be carried out rapidly. 2. Strength trends (S) In 1946 the total strength of the armed forces st-ood M about 400,000 (Figure 2), but thereafter there was a FIGURE 2. Armed forces and militarized security forces personnel strengths (S) *Includes only the Internal Defenses Forces and the Frontier Guard prior to 1968. Territorial Defense Forces are included in the totals after 1968 **Naval Air Arm '.neluded from 1950 onward. ***Increase owing to Berlin crisis. tNavrl infantry transferred to ground forces in 1964. ttfncludes 2,600 Maritime Frontier Guard personnel. 5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070031 -4 TERRITORIAL YEAR GROUND NAVAL AIR TOTAL DEFENSE* 1946 225,000 1,000 5,000 231,000 169,000 1947 200,000 6,000 7,000 213,OGO 169,000 1948 180,000 8,000. 7,000 195,000 150,000 1949 165,000 8,000 7,000 180,000 150,000 1950 165,000 *7,000 7,000 179,000 75,000 1951 300,000 8,000 10,000 318,000 75,000 1952 350,0011 8,000 8,000 366,000 65,000 1953 260,000 9,000 10,000 279,000 65,000 1954 250.000 9,000 20,000 279,000 65,000 1955 250,000 9,000 24,000 283,000 65,000 1956 250,000 11,000 32,000 293,000 65,000 1957 250,000 12,00:) 36,000 298,000 65,000 I958 250,000 14,000 38,000 302,000 45,000 1959 200,OG 15,000 42,000 257,000 45,000 1960 200,000 17,000 44,000 261,000 45,000 1961 200,000 18,000 46,000 264,000 45,000 1962 20,000 20,000 47,000 317,000 45,000 1963 2_1',000 20,000 47,000 292,000 45,000 1964 225,000 118,000 48,000 291,000 45,00G 1965 225,000 18,000 48,000 291,000 45,000 1966 225,000 18,000 49,000 292,000 45,000 1967 225,000 19,000 50,000 294,000 45,000 1968 200,000 20,000 51,000 271,000 73,000 1969 200,000 22,000 51,000 273,000 74,000 1970 200,000 22,000 52,000 274,000 74,500 1971 200,000 23,000 53,000 276,000 74,500 1972 200,000 tt26,000 54,000 280,000 73,500 1973 210,000 tt26,000 55,00() 291,000 73,500 *Includes only the Internal Defenses Forces and the Frontier Guard prior to 1968. Territorial Defense Forces are included in the totals after 1968 **Naval Air Arm '.neluded from 1950 onward. ***Increase owing to Berlin crisis. tNavrl infantry transferred to ground forces in 1964. ttfncludes 2,600 Maritime Frontier Guard personnel. 5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070031 -4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA -RDP01 -00707 R000200070031 -4 gradual reduction in the size of the ground forces. At the same time, however, large, military-type security forces were maintained for use in eradicating armed underground organizations. By 1949 the underground had been eliminated, and a swift 50% reduction in the strength of the militarized security forces followed; by 1958 their strength had diminished to 45,000, the level that still prevails. In 1950, in reaction to the eruption of hostilities in Korea, the ground forces were expanded again and nearly doubled in that year. They reached the post -World War II peak in the winter of 1951 -52. Restoration of a more normal peacetime strength was effected in 1952. Since 1953, the ground forces strength has stablized at between 200,000 and 250,000; in 1973 it was 210,000. The naval and air forces have been built up since 1946. In 1950 the strengths of these two services were about 7,000 men each. The naval forces have increased to about 26,000 since then. The air force strength is now about 55,000. 3. Training (S) Training in the armed forces is rigorous, effective, and realistic, and is modeled after that of the Soviet forces. The Main Inspector of Training is refponsil-le for the development of tactics, provides a program of training for all units down to regimental level, conducts maneuvers and field tests, and inspects the combat and specialized training in the ground, naval, and air forces. In addition, this inspectorate maintains liaison with the Warsaw Pact combined command, through which it also receives general policies pertaining to troop training and exercises. The combat training program is implemented by the three military districts and the naval and air forces. The program includes large -scale exercises in the autumn season involving ground, naval, and air forces. Branch schools for officers, officer candidates, and specialists are established and supervised by the services and arms under the director of the Main Inspector of Training. The major Ministry of National Defense schools are the General Staff Academy (at Rembertow, near Warsaw) and the Military Technical FIGURE 3. Annual defense budgets (C) (Millions of zlotys) Academy (at Warsaw), both under the supervision of the Chief of General Staff, and the Military Political Academy (a i Warsaw), under the supervision of the Main Political Directorate. Selected Polish officers and enlisted men are sent to technical and higher.military schools in the Soviet Unio.,. For training, the Poles have also used Soviet missile and aircraft ranges. 4. Military budget (C) The military budget is prepared 1 the Ministry of National Defense in conformity with expenditure guidelines provided by the State Planning Commis- sion. A draft is submitted to the Ministry of Finance for analysis and inclusion in the state budget. The state budget is then presented to the Council of Ministers and Sejm (parliament) for approval. The announced defense budget, which relects the general level of defense spending, is probably not all inclusive because some military related expenditures are likely to be listed under other categories of the national budget. Military outlays increased at an average rate of about 7% between 1968 and 1972, but planned expenditures declined in 1973 (Figure 3). As a share of GNP, defense spending increased from about 3.9% to about 4.3% between 1968 and 1972. The increased expenditures are probably a reflection of the costs incurred by replacing outmoded equipment and by introducing new and more sophisticated weapons systems. Another factor contributory to the increase is that domestically manufactured materiel is now priced at levels which more closely correspond to the actual costs of production. 5. Logistics (S) Poland has the industrial capability to provide substantial support for its armed forces. Producing a relatively large quantity and wide range of products, the industrial sector has expanded considerably in recent years. Industry, however, is dependent upon imports for many strategic raw materials. Facilities for producing military equipment are modern and well equipped, but current output is substantially below peak levels because Poland has found it more practical and econ)mical to acquire materiel from the U.S.S.R. 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 Defense budget 30,332 33,519 35,724 37,684 39,490 39,206 Defense as percent of national budget...... 9.3 9.5 9.4 9.6 9.1 8.4 Defense as percent of GNP 3.? 4.1 4.2 4.2 4.3 na na Data not available. 6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070031 -4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070031 -4 Poland relies primarily on the Soviet Union for military equipment not domestically manufactured or not produced in quantities sufficient to meet its military requirements. Since 1955 the U.S.S.R. has supplied equipment valued at US$2.2 billion, including a wide variety of aircraft, light and heavy tanks, armored personnel carriers, artillery, electronic equipment, missiles, and combat ships. Transport vehicles and armored personnel carriers have also been purchased from Czechoslovakia and Hungary. Although Polish shipyards are capable of producing major combatants, naval production has been limited to small subs: arine chasers, motor torpedo boats, minesweepers, medium landing ships, auxiliaries, and service craft. The country has relied on the Soviet Union for large combatants and missile attack boats Ship repair facilities are adequate for the overhvul and repair of all ships in the fleet. Poland's aircraft industry is capable of designing and producing a variety of light aircraft, but there is little capability to develop and produce heavier aircraft. Current production consists of COLT (An -2) small transports, HOPLITE (Mi -2) turboshaft helicopter- TS -11 Iskra (SPARK) jet trainers, and PZL- 101 light communications/ utility aircraft. Soviet designed jet fighters and native- designed jet trainers have also been produced. Engines have been domestically produced for many of these aircraft. Poland, like other Communist Bloc countries, relies mainly on the Soviet Union for the develpment and supply of missiles. On their own, the Poles are producing the Soviet designed AA -2 (ATOLL) air -to -air missile and the AT -3 (SACCE11) antitank missile. 6. Uniforms and insignia (U /OU) a. Uniforms Uniforms made principally of cotton and synthetic fibers have replaced the heavy woolen fabrics previously used. Materials, styling, and components have been standardized. Uniforms of the ground forces are divided into four basic categories: dress, service (Figures 4 and 5), field, and special purpose. The dress and service uniforms are brownish olive -drab in color, and the field uniforms are light green patterned with dark brown vertical lines. Airborne personnel wear a distinctive red beret. Summer and winter uniforms are of the same color, but differ in the type of material used. Uniforms of the naval forces include the categories of full dress, semidress, service, and special purpose. Navy blue is the standard color for winter uniforms. White or mixed (navy blue and white) uniforms are worn during the summer season. Air force personnel wear uniforms which, except for the color (steel blue), are similar in style aad materials as those of the ground forces. Summer uniforms are worn from 1 May to 30 September; winter uniforms from 1 October to 30 April. b. Insignia Insignia of rank (Figures 4 and 5) for officers, warrant officers, and enlisted personnel of the ground and air forces are displayed on the shoulder loops of the uniform and on headgear. Ranks are indicated by various silver colored stars, bars, and chevrons which are attached or sewn directly on the shoulder loops and headgear without special backgrounds. General officers have a scrolled- silver hatband on the service cap, and scrolled- silver piping on shoulder loops and on the lower part of the coat sleeves. Service cap visor ornamentation includes two silver -braid stripes for generals and senior officers, and one silver -braid stripe for junior officers. The ranks of naval officers and warrant officers are indicated by gold stripes, of varying width and number, displayed on shoulder boards or on the lower part of the coat sleeves, and by gold stars affixed to the chin strap of the service cap. Flag officers display scrolled gold ornamentation on the visor of the service cap, on shoulder boards, and on the lower part of the coat sleeves, depending upon the type of uniform worn. The ranks of enlisted personnel in the lower grades are indicated by gold diagonal stripes or chevrons worn on the upper left sleeve of the uniform. Branches of service in the ground forces are indicated by silver colored metallic'devices worn on the collars of the coat and overcoat. Distinctive colors are displayed on the cap bands of personnel in the following. organizations: Ist Mechanized Division (Warsaw)� yellow; Military Police (WSW)� white; Frontier 01ard (WOP)� green; Internal Defense Forces (WOW) -blue. Marshals display silver eagle devices with crossed batons on coat and overcoat collars; generals, the silver eagle devices without batons. Airborne and assault landing (amphibious) troops wear shoulder patches on the upper left sleeve of the uniform. Naval officer corps and specialty markings are indicated by various color inserts between the sleeve rank stripes. Specialty markings for enlisted personnel consist of cloth emblems sewn on the upper left sleeve of the jumper or coat, above the insignia of rank. Air Force personnel display silver- colored winged propeller devices on the collars of the coat and overcoat. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070031 -4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070031 -4 The national emblem (silver eagle and shield) is incorporated in all cap insignia and in,^ :Rated on the uniform buttons. C. Ground forces (S) The ground forces are the second largest in the Warsaw Pact exceeded only by those c: the U.S.S.R. They are as well organized as the Czechoslovak and East German ground forces and virtually as well trained and equipped. They constitute the basic and by far the largest component of the armed forces. A ground forces reorganization and modernization program has been underway since 1957. Organiza- tional changes in the line divisions and other tactical units, based on new Soviet concepts, have substantially improved combat effectiveness. Concurrently, new equipment including tactical nuclear delivery systems have been placed in the hands of the troops, and advances have been made in training procedures and tactical doctrine. These improvements have resulted in a better balanced, more flexible mobile force with greatly increased firepower. As a result, the ground forces are a significant asset of the Warsaw Pact. I. Organization The ground forces are controlled directly by the Ministry of National Defense through the Chief of the General Staff. Under the Chief of the General Staff are the commanders of the three military districts (Warsaw, Pomeranian, and Silesian). In addition to their administrative and logistical functions, these three commanders are also responsible for the combat readiness of the tactical units within their areas and supervise their training programs to assure readiness. Military district headquarters, at Warsaw, Bydgoszcz, and Wroclaw, are not currently set up as headquarters for operational field armies, but in the event of war would probably form army headquarters within a Polish front. About two thirds of the ground combat strength, including all armored divisions, is disposed in the western half of Poland. Polish tactical unit organization is patterned after that of the Soviet Ground Forces. The organization of the two basic types of line divisions, armored and mechanized, is generally similar to that of Soviet tank and motorized rifle divisions. Variations from the Soviet tables of organization and equipment are chiefly found in the organization of tank regiments and in the use of small caliber weapons and older models of weapons and armor. It is estimated that the 0 actual personnel strength of the units ranges from about 50% to 90% of full wartime authorized strength. 2. Strength, composition, and disposition The personnel strength of the ground forces is about 210,000 men. The regular cadre of officers and noncommissioned officers is about 70,000. Two conscript classes, numbering about 62,000 each, make up the largest part of the force. Specialists, serving a 3- year service obligation, complete the force. In addition to the active force, there are about 1.8 million trained reservists who have served a full tour of duty since about 1951 and have since had refresher training. The ground forces cons