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SECRET F 35/GS /S C'i M India September 1973 NATIONAL INTELLI (D SECRET NO FOREIGN DISSEM APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDP01-00707R000200070034-1 M WARNING The NIS is National Intelligence and may not be re- leased or shown to representatives of any foreign govern- ment or international body except by specific authorization of the Director of Central Intelligence in accordance with the provisions of National Security Council Intelligence Di- rective No. 1. i For NIS containing unclassified material, however, the portions so marked may be made available for official pur- poses to foreign nationals and nongovernment personnel provided no attribution is made to National Intelligence or the National Intelligence Survey. Subsections and graphics are individually classified f according to content. Classification /control desigaa- tions are: (U /OU) Unclassified/ For Official Use Only (C) Confidential (S) Secret t 1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070034 -1 This chapter was prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency. Research was sub- stantially completed by March 1973. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDP01-00707R000200070034-1 Fl. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDP01-00707R000200070034-1 CONTUM TAu rAWer ffvpmwdcj 14c w-~fie eo(v- w In iht Gemtd Siortwir dotrJ Frbr�ry 1070- r- Or"nizadup. plawxlng, alid lkunctnig of rescAid 3 C- Sckrutirjo cdumlim,6 gwopowef, and I'stoftles a 1614* rMuch (ICII& 1. Air. grourkL misd Pavel wrapmu Q. FiCIO&A and chrmiad wiufafc 10 I Atxnlu rnrW 10 Electunics 11 AI C WJJ C al D d Cn M [CWJU&ng %Vt4MJMXry medicine 12 6, Other "Imom 13 A. C%mlsuy and mcwnwgy 13 b, Pbyz:;cs and =thcmmtJC3 is C. AstmpuphyLical scicam ]a Glossary jo APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDP01-00707R000200070034-1 rJffi I ffit- WE STNF& ffro FIGURES Page Page Fig. 1 Governmental organization for scien- Fig. 3 Indigenous aircraft designs (photos-) 9 tific and technical activities (chart) 4 Fig. 4 MiG-21 built from Indian raw ma- Fig. 2 Institute of Technology (photo) 7 terials (photo) 9 1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDP0l-00707R000200070034-1 Science a_ R *ti Eighteenth century open -air observatory, Jaipur (U100 A. General (S) In the years since independence India has developed a substantial and varied scientific research and development establishment. Its present research and development capability is in no way comparable with that oPthe larger developed countries of the West or the Soviet Union, but India has developed what is probably the strongest overall capability among the less developed countries, excluding China. In Asia, its capability is exceeded only by Japan and, in most fields, by China. Over the past few years India has developed a greatly enhanced indigenous military production capability. Development of a scientific establishment, nevertheless, has been uneven and is still grossly inadequate to support India's projected I t' loom low y M� ctF ;;i� ur.1 io -.v. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070034 -1 program of economic and scientific development. The facilities have been built, and effective research is being done in government laboratories in nuclear energy, defense, space, and public health, as well as in the development of industrial processes. Nevertheless, judged against the number of laboratories, the manpower involved, and the research budgets expended, India has not yet realized substantial returns on its scientific investment. Rather, the investment has only laid the groundwork for a capability which, if properly managed, could make India an important scientific and technological power in the future. Indian science has benefited from the strong encouragement given to it by the central government, which adopted an impressive national science policy in 1958, known as the Scientific Policy Resolution. The resolution is aimed at promoting basic and applied research and scientific education. Scientists take an active role in the formation of the government's scientific policy and programs, primarily through the National Committee on Science and Technology (NCST), numerous committees of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), and the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR). k major new policy paper, An Approach to the Science and Technology Plan, was released in January 1973. It is to be refined, made more specific, and embodied in the Fifth Five Year Plan by March 1974. Among the many problems that hinder the national development of science is the absence of an established scientific tradition. Compared with Cie developed countries, India has produced few internationally prominent scientists. Notable is the work in spectroscopy by C. V. Raman before 1930 and the work in statistics by S. N. Bose. A serious and continuing hindrance to scientific growth is the depressed state of the economy. Indian leaders have Leen unable to provide adequate financial support for scientific and technical research. In addition, the government through excessive regulation of private industry has discouraged the development of new products. The administration of research has become enmeshed in politics, and the lack of coordination among various national agencies set up by the government has resulted in the fragmentation and duplication of research activities. Goveinmeutal encouragement of education and science has led to a large increase in the number of colleges and universities, but with a sacrifice in the quality of education generally and of scientific education specifically. Part of the university quality problem has 2 to do with reservation of space for those from the Scheduled Castes and Tribes, perhaps as much as one fourth of the slots at the Indian Institutes of Technology. Efforts have been made to slow down the expansion of facilities so that quality can be improved by establishing special schools, institutes, and centers for advanced studies. Traditionally, Indian scientists have tended to emphasize theoretical rather than applied research. This emphasis has been due in large measure to the limited funds available for undertaking applied research and to a lack of adequate experimental facilities. As a result, the government has found it more economical and more dependable to import foreign technology than to encourage its development in India. Both government and industry have been reluctant to rely on domestic technology and industrial processes developed within the country. In an effort to reverse this trend and to channel research into more applied areas, the government has set up numerous applied research laboratories. Un�ortu- natP:y, in many cases the laboratories have attracted scientists away from the universities and have taken over some of the fundamental research which could have been done more effectively in the universities if they had received adequate financial support. India probably has received a greater amount of assistance from private and public foreign sources for science and education than any other country in the world. It has received teachers, apparatus, and equipment through bilateral agreements with foreign countries ar,d through agreements between Indian universities and foreign universities, as well as from the United Nations specialized agencies, such as the U.N. special Fund, U.N. Expanded Program for Technical Assistance, and U.N. Educational, Scientific, and Cul- tural Organization (UNESCO). Dr. Nag Chaudhuri, scientific adviser to the Minister of Defense,' stated recently that the United States has been the strongest influence in the teaching of science in India, and the United Kingdom is the strongest military influence. India and the U.S.S.R. have cooperative programs for the exchange of information. A series of cultural agreements between the two countries has provided for an exchange of Indian and Soviet scientists. 'For a current listing of key government officials consult Chiefs of State and Cabinet Members of Foreign Governments, published monthly by the Directorate of Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency. N..11 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070034 -1 ti J B. Organization, planning, and financing of research (S) Most of the scientific and technical research conducted in India is under the jurisdiction of the central government, which provides the financing for about 90% of the research done in the countrv. Numerous ministries, research councils, committees, departments, national laboratories, and government sponsored universities are involved (Figure 1). There is virtually no research or development sponsored solely by private organizations with the exception of that carried out by a few independent research institutes which support fundamental research. Industrial research is in the early stages of development, and oniy a few production establishments conduct research in units of their own, although there are several small industrial research associations. Governmental planning and financing of research are carried out through agencies which operate in conjunction with appropriate ministries. The most important are the NCST, the CSIR, the ICMR, the ICAR, the ;defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO), and the University Grants Commission. The NCST was established in November 1971 under the Department of Science and Technology of the then Ministry of Planning, Science, and Technology. Subsequently, NCST was placed under the newer Ministry of Industrial Development. As the government's adviser on scientific matters and on the formulation and implementation of science policy, the NCST works closely with the Planning Commission, which has been placed under the Ministry of Planning. The NCST replaced the Committee on Science and Technology (COST) and absorbed its functions. In addition to its advisory duties, the NCST determines the development and utilization of research resources; allocates funds for research received, from the government and from foreign sources; promotes better cooperation between government and nongovernment scientific and technical institutes and professional societies; and makes recommendations on scientific and technical cooperation with other countries and international organizatir as. The NCST has been charged with setting priorities for future research. Although five full time members were to have been appointed to the NCST, the appointments never occurred. The 10 part time members are under a chairman, C. Sub ramaniam, who now is the Minister of Industrial Development. Governmental planning and financing of research are carried out through agencies and departments which operate in conjunction with appropriate ministries. In addition to the NCST, one of the most important agencies is the CSIR, which is the largest and most influential organization concerned with the direction and financing of scientific research and development. It was constituted originally in 1942 and has been placed under various ministries. It was moved from the Ministry of Education to the Ministry of Planning, Science, and Technology and, most recently, has been placed under the newer Ministry of Industrial Development. The CSIR is a semiauteno- mous body; the Prime Minister serves as its chairman, and the Minister of Planning serves as vice president. The CSIR operates 35 national laboratories, institutes, and museums, and in 1970 employed 16,000 people, including 4,000 scientists, 5,100 technicians, 2,400 administrative personnel, and several thousand supporting personnel. Its research facilities are intended to be concerned mainly with applied research, and much of the effort is defense oriented. Some of the facilities are ill fitted to translate the findings of their research programs into pilot -plant and semicommercial production because they lack qualified staff members with specific industrial experience. Industry tends to favor proven foreign technology and is reluctant to take the risk of going ahead on a commercial basis with the relatively unproven products and processes of the CSIR laboratories and institutes. The CSIR also supports basic research in the universities and independent research institutes, provides research grants and fellowships to research associations, and disseminates scientific knowledge and information. Other functions include maintenance of a National Register of Scientific and Technical Personnel and of documen- tation and information services, and the responsibility for temporary placement of well qualified Indian scientists and technologists returning from abroad. Similar to the CSIR but much more restricted in scope are the ICMR, which has the major responsibility for the promotion and coordination of medical research, and the ICAR, which promotes agricultural research. The ICMR is a private organization financed mostly by the Ministry of Health and Fam,,ly Planning. It maintains research facilities of its own and supports and coordinates medical research in other research institutes, medical colleges, universities, and hospitals. The ICAR, under the Ministry of Agriculture, has no institutes of its own but supports agricultural research projects in the research laboratories of various college: and institutes. 3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070034 -1 t l i' t 1 It maintains a research and reference library and acts as a clearing house of information for research and other agricultural and veterinary matters. Defense research activities are carried out in about 30 research and development establishments functioning under the Defense Research and Development Organization, under the Department of Defense Production of the Ministry of Defense. The DRDO is responsible for coordinating and directing scientific research relating to defense problems. It also controls several research laboratories L nd testing installations, including the Gas Turbine Research Center at Bangalore and the Aeronautical Testing Laboratory at Kanpur.' Recently, Departments of Space and Electronics have been established as well as a Space Commission and an Electronics Commission. The Prime Minister serves as Minister for the Department of Space, and Dr. S. Dhawan is secretary for the Department of Space. The University Grants Commission, a statutory body set up in 1953 and responsible directly to Parliament, supports scientific research and promotes education in the universities. It is an influential organ of the government and has the authority to take the necessary measures to promote and coordinate university education and to determine and maintain standards of teaching, examination, and research. The commission disburses grants to national and state universities for higher education in arts, sciences, and commerce; sets up committees to review teaching and research in various fields; and has set up and financed 20 Centers of Advanced Studies, mostly in science. The Department of Atomic Energy is probably the most effective of the various governmental depart- ments concerned with scientific research. It has better facilities and scientists than the other departments and is in a favorable position because the Prime Minister also serves as the Minister of Atomic Energy (there is no ministry, but rather a Department of Atomic Energy). The Department of Atomic Energy and its subordinate Atomic Energy Commission are headed by Dr. Homi Sethna, who is a secretary of the Government of India. The DRDO and Atonic Energy Commission are responsible for formulating and implementing policies in all matters bearing on nuclear energy research in agriculture, biology, industry, and medicine, and for the development of nuclear power. The department and commission are also responsible for preparing the budget for the program. The Bhabha Atomic Research Center 'For diacritics on place names see the list of names on the apron j of the Summary Map in the Country Profile chapter and the map itself. (BARC), Trombay, about 15 miles from Bombav, and the Atomic Minerals Division (which is subordinate to the Physical Research Laboratory) at New Delhi conduct scientific and technical research for the department. The BARC is the national center for research and development in atomic energy and is the largest single research facility in the countrv. The work of the BARC is done by five groups: Physics Group, Electronics Group, Engineering Group, Metallurgy Group, and Biology Group. The Atomic Mineral's Division is responsible for the survey, development, and acquisition of atomic minerals. Other facilities under the department which are concerned with nuclear research are the Tata Institute of Fun- damental Research in Bombay and the Saba Institute of Nuclear Physics in Calcutta. The Tata institute works also with the Department of Space. Although industrial research is very limited, some industrial organizations have established research associations as the result of encouragement and partial financing extended by the CSIR. The increasing research activities of the associations are due to exemptions offered by the government under the Indian Income Tax Act, which exempts the contributions made by industry to approved research organizations from the computation of their total income. Some of the Indian research establishments were organized originally as private foundations. Most of them are almost wholly supported by governmental grants, although they still have independent boards of directors. Among the most effective of these institutions are the Indian Statistical Institute, Calcutta; the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay; the Raman Research Institute, Bangalore; the Bose Research Institute, Calcutta; the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Calcutta; the Shri Rain Institute for Industrial Research, Delhi; the Birbal Sahani Institute of Paleobotany, Lucknow; and the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. The annual budgets of the Indian space and atomic energy programs have increased rapidly in recent years, but large portions of the budgets have been allocated to capital expenditures for atomic power plants, a reac fuel reprocessing plant, and other items. The operating budget for the BARC scientific departments for FY1971/72 (1 April -31 March) was about US$15.6 million. The operating budget for space projects has been increasing at a much faster rate than the BARC budget and was about $8.6 million in FY1971/72. .g y -T;g 0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070034 -1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070034 -1 0. N lRw.r 4. r... r "M1`... Y"= vrl.T'iM4`7.' ne UnIW Slulrs has supplrnl Ilrlll:t xJth RMIIJ dcrabk nutrilal :,1141 financial awsumtr row 11x� b IWI Amok riwrry pmxra A Molt luseonvuenrd sJxnlfic. lactr ptadkne of rewurdi weld tictrl,gr ,rent fu,As. The Unitml Stutrs knt ilk- Todwe f.4I %CnInlrot USM M111144k W IP141d u nuclear Ir41roic�t %W114111 a nd 2upplkd Ihr (IWI ul u ant iii 915 nk11341rn Hiiancial %%lilawr armaau,IluX III S" nlltthn, N71s recrdsrsl rruFn rite U liltnt Mallon% fur 111- ttiNntttiktlun 4 a I aLureno fur thr use or rldlukW LI^ lr, uRtk-illoorr, The aietwr awl (rchnoluxr pla,Tt futltr an lnlegul jurt ur I ndlu's 5- seat ectmiundr p1anuBgt f)udogt I Iw llrtiexl of the Wilt Piuu k F Y1074rS 1f tl/7D), Ilk- X11rrinlncril intends ter trardrat ,ewwrh and dn,rkt visrnt aellrklirs ind srl new pdierilicl Nslure then UW.3 NWIPh Aill Ire attocatrd In svppon Ilte flan, annparrd us ujtutit SSW mlMan mmler Or- Euulth Mim (FY1116WGIM973 /741). Each p1:in xrnr AN: h; lihadmehuhlrcllsraasareFtXlheuln Xujld t- tlrandlnit ihr riBting rem tOi fucitltlrs an d ere4UtiiiX tw u1in, Irulnlnjt research pr�h.wouk4. and prutidinx rsscamb fr�Ili m7plilln and sdKA vmMps k1nlnrknl iUMIC1 fox mciTr1, arm] Jvirlagmwv is Ilicira-ginK saneewhst IMrlh III Iran* of 141101 esprlKUIIA and thr pr,crnuR- �f 0w pens IwUunsl prndud. KipM�t'idilwn hair risen frown ()S= I11ill llln Ii_ of dw t-Npl iu 1 In adds million 44 Ihr C%P) in 1 11rr unrount csprndttl 111- all sources In EYM9170 3141 in1 lon; col Ihr tidal, the trntlaI pj%rmmirm tg n4dnj $159 mlthurt, the stole pwrmulrnt $11 million. and the ptialo ieetnr $11 m311irg1 Poi air lirdrnlry Spends t+uly Akwrt -0014 (f 10121 sales vin IrW1 11 arnl drveloprnent. TIM MWINAl K,n m�IFICs �;-Id fillkll to FTID40 /i0 nrrr rallin�S Iro.1 w follovti; Mt "Ma W& boparumvi of A1ooslr En"a I KhD eo1Z-) 374 COWC of Saimilhe sad NiJmtrw ae o adh 17.3 tniksn Coaoeil of A.xrlM%Ral fluemeii 221 trnliu1 Cvaard of Medled 11"ft" D,7 Deiosus Aryearch at ])etdeSmeAt CITP14 atkn 901 WWII Ildabtri� {tll! Taw 3X1 4 ndW&I Mivirw% Qtcmdeals. JAWM sad Me"; Tourilm sal CJ+': AylikiO; Eivo�ti0a sad Sixial wcffur lleahi, and E...w"r tK-.rd M arts ot3ra Alxput .alo-tldrd of the CSI It lkuJgct ul' i27.3 mkttl tt7s 111Y1>;n.Ytod fur rapilal oprndflurek TIT! 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The scientific manpower deficiency has been aggravated somewhat because many students, a large number of whom represent the outstanding young scientific talent of the country, have gone to foreign countries for advanced education in engineering and the sciences and have not returned. In 1967 the number of Indian scientists and technologists abroad was about 20,000 to 25,000, half of whom were in the United States. Since job opportunities for scientists and engineers especially have been somewhat restricted, the loss to other countries has not created serious problems except in a few specialized areas. The government is attempting, with some success, to persuade foreign- trained Indian scientists to return to their homeland. The CSIR maintains a pool which has been responsible for the temporary placement of a limited number of well- qualified Indian scientists and technologists returning from abroad. In recent years, the pool has been expanded greatly and has become a sanctuary for unemployed scientists. There is a deep rooted dissatisfaction among scientists, both at home and abroad, about the commitment of India's political, administrative, industrial, and educational leadership to use science purposefully as a means of social transformation or government action. Probably the most dramatic indication of disillusionment is the significant overseas migration of high level professional talent in manv fields. Salary scales of Indian scientists have improved, although they are still low; a new Ph. D., who could be quite good, commands less than $100 a month salary. The social status of scientists is gradually being raised. Many scientists, however, still consider administrative positions in the government to be preferable to scientific positions. Educated Indians are becoming more aware of the role of scientists and technologists in the progress of the country, but most of the population has little understanding of the relationship of science to its welfare. Laboratory facilities for research are generally inadequate, although there are a few well equipped laboratories. Many higher educational institutions and research institutes lack modern scientific equipment. Probably the largest and most important research facility is the BARC. It has well- equipped laboratories for research in physics, chemistry, electronics, metallurgy, and biology; the facilities 0 include three nuclear reactors. The BARC has about 10,000 employees, about 2,000 of whom are scientists and 4,000 of whom are technicians. It has a training school in which more than 150 graduate scientists and engineers receive training for 1 year in various disciplines concerned with nuclear energy. The National Chemical Laboratory at Pune (Poona), under the CSIR, has excellent facilities for research in chemistry and chemical engineering. Many other CSIR laboratories are also equipped for their special types of work. The All -India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, founded in 1956, is housed in extensive, modern facilities. D. Major research fields 1. Air, ground, and naval weapons (S) India's capability to manufacture foreign- designed weapons is advancing at a moderate pace. Although foreign- designed systems are produced, the industrial capacity is insufficient to meet military requirements. Defense research activities are carried out in about 30 research and development establishments functioning under the Defense Research and Development Council (DRDC), which is attached to the Department of Defense Production of the Ministry of Defense. The DRDC is responsible for coordinating and directing scientific research relating to defense problems. It also controls several research laboratories and testing installations, including the Gas Turbine Research Center at Bangalore and the Aeronautical Testing Laboratory at Kanpur. The Defense Research Laboratory (Materials), Kanpur, is devoted to research and development of plastics, polymers, POL, and chemicals. Desert research activities are conducted at the Defense Laboratory, jodhpur, which also field tests equipment under desert operations. India is virtually self- sufficient in the production of small arms and quartermaster equipment and can produce most of the ammunition needed by the army. Considerable effort is being made to stimulate applied research in solid- propelled rocketry, propellants, ammunition, airframes and components, and avionics. Aeronautical research related to the design, construction, and operation of aircraft is conducted by the National Aeronautical Laboratory (NAL) of the CSIR and the Indian Institute of Science, both at Bangalore. Limited basic research is conducted at these organizations and at academic institutions where excellent courses in aeronautical engineering are offered. The only aircraft company in India, Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd. (HAL), is under the i APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070034 -1 W4 t FIGURE 3. Experience with these two indigenous designs should aid future development efforts (S) Department of Defense Production of the Ministry of Defense. HAL is a vast complex with manufacturing facilities for aircraft and helicopters in Bangalore, Kanpur, and Nasik; for aircraft engines in Bangalore and Koraput; and for electronics in Hyderabad. India has developed two aircraft of indigenous design �the HF -24 Marut single -seat, twin -jet fighter and the HJT -16 Mk II Kiran two -seat basic jet trainer (Figure 3). Although both systems have been test flown and are being produced in limited numbers, they have design weaknesses that restrict their performance. Neither system is a state -of- the -art achievement nor competitive with many foreign systems. Nevertheless, the Indians have acquired design and engineering experience from these p-ograms which can be applied to future development efforts. Attempts are underway to acquire similar capabilities in the technologies needed for aircraft engine development and production. The Bangalore Division of HAL is producing engines, based on foreign designs, for the Marut and Kiran, a transport, and the French Alouette III helicopter, being produced in India under license from the French. The HAL is fabricating MiG -21 (FISHBED) fighter airframes and engines from locally produced components, under a license agreement %%ilh the 1,' i.S.6. (Figure 4). HAI, at Bangalore also produces indigenously designed agricultural aircraft, nanied Ilevathi, for crop spraying. This piston pow( red single engine plane is heavier and n(ore expensive than similar Western aircraft. Aerodynamics research is accomplished by the HAL, NAL, and the Indian Institute of Science in wind tunnels capable of continuous testing up to Mach 5.0. The facilities appear adequate to support the needs of the developing aircraft industry. 'I'hc major facilities are located at the NAL's Wind 'funnel Center near Bangalore Airport. Although most of the work underway focuses on solving design related problems, some basic research on boundary laver Ilow is being done. Structures research is good but limited in scope. Both basic and applied structures research is conducted at the Bangalore Division of IIAL, the aircraft structures and materials division of NAL, the Indian Institute of Science, and the Madras Institute of 'Technology. Full -scale aircraft strength and vibration test facilities, as well as smaller equipment for component testing, are available. There is no concrete evidence that the Indians hove it ballistic missile research and development program! underway. India has the industrial capacity and know -how to fabricate surface launched guided missiles and is gradually acquiring the capability to design and develop such weapons. The Indians are assembling the French SS -11 antitank missile from imported components and have concluded an agreement with the French firm, Aerospaliale, for the licensed production of the Itarpon antitank missile and for options on obtaining production licenses for the Hot and Milan antitank weapons. Bocket components and propellants are manufactured at several facilities, the most important of which is the FIGURE 4. First MiG -21 with airframe built entirely from Indian raw materials at HAL's Nasik Division (S) q APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070034 -1 HJT -16 Mk II Kiran W11 factory of Bharat Dynamics, Ltd. in Calcutta. This facility has design and development departments and produces the French antitank missiles. Capabilities in the rocket propulsion field have increased remarkably. The Indians have successfully developed solid propellants for their meteorological rockets and are working on a 1 -meter diameter solid propellant rocket motor for a satellite launch vehicle under develop- ment. India has not demonstrated a capability to develop liquid rocket systein. The Indian research at,d development capabilit} A ground force weapons is limited; most of the efforts are devoted to the adaptation of foreign designs and development for domestic production. The most advanced project of this type is the modification of i t main battle tank initiated in 1964 under an agreement with the British firm, Vickers Armstrong, Ltd. The Indian version is a medium tank, designated Vijayanta, which mounts a t05- millimeter gun as its main armament and which, when fitted with at nylon screen for flotation, has an amphibious capability. The Indians have progressed from assembly of British supplied parts to the manufacture of the main components for the tank at the I leavy Vehicle Factory at Avadi near Madras. The Vijayanta has been used as the basis for other developments, including an armored recovery vehicle and a self propelled 130-rum gun artillery system. India has developed and tested antipersonnel and antitank mines, and a mechanical mine planter of native design has been introduced into the army. Research is continuing on propellants for small arms and artillery, and some work is underway on explosives. Other research projects have included a canister ammunition for 57 -mm and 106 -mm recoilless rifles. The French have provided technical assistance on development of 120 -mm mortar ammunition. An indigenous research effort has been underway on developing a 75-mm pack howitzer with supporting ammunition and a 105 -rum howitzer. Reportedly, the 73 mm pack howitzer is in production. A major effort is being expended in the development of clothing and individual equipment. Military research facilities have performed high- quality research, particularly on textiles. The trend in clothing design and development is characterized by emphasis on the environmental parameters, especially protection from cold- weather conditions. Consider able work also has been done on shelters, fuel, and rations for troops in the Himalayan area. Some work is underway applicable to troops in deserts. Research is continuing on biodeterioration of textiles, cellulosics, 10 rubbers, leathers, polymers, paints, and metals. Much of the researc is done cinder the supervision of the Defense Research Laboratory (Materials), Kanpur. Limited work is being carried out on military transportation, airdrop, bridging, and topographic equipment. The Indian Institute of 'Technology in Ma. !is has a materials conveying and handling laboratory with moduai experiment d and testing equipment. Only limited research and development have bees, perforated on bridging equipment. Little e ffort is devoted to military tnotor- transport equipment. India does not have a naval weapons research and development program, and efforts by the navy to initiate such a program have been unsuccessful. Until expansion of the naval base at Vishakhapatnam is completed in mitt -1974, the only naval yard capable of handling the larger Soviet- supplied ships is the one -it Bombay. Since 1962 the largest dockyard, Mazagaon Docks, Ltd., Bombay, has built British Lt:nxo:ntlass destroyers, while smaller dockyards in Calcutta have constructed smaller naval combatants. 2. Biological and chemical warfare (C) India is not known to have a biological warfare (BW) or chemical warfare (CW) research and development program, and it has signed the Biological Warfare Convention of 1972. The country adheres to the Geneva Protocol of 1920, which pans the offensive use of toxic chemicals or biological weapons. Several institutes engaged in microbiological research aimed at improving health standards of the Indian people could he employed in the support of BW research. Microbiological research is underway on drugs and vaccines to control endemic human and animal diseases, such as cholera, enteric fever, typhoid, foot and -mouth disease, encephalitis, yellow fever, and anthrax. Research on plant diseases is direct( d against rice blast, bacterial blight of rice, wheat rust, and viral diseases of potatoes and sugarcane. 3. Atomic energy (S) India has established it fairly advanced nuclear energy program, under the direction of the Atomic Energy Commission, encompassing basic research, the use of radioisotopes, 'and the development of nuclear power. The overall program is somewhat limited due to a shortage of trained personnel, lack of foreign exchange to purchase needed equipment abroad, and an insufficient industrial base to support a large scale program. Nevertheless, the nuclear program reached a APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070034 -1 stage of development several years ago which would permit India to embark on a small nuclear weapons program if it should decide to do so. The principal efforts of :he Atornic Energy Commission have been the establishment of the Bhabha Atornic Research Center (BARC) and the construction of nuclear power stations. The major research facilities of the BARC are ASPARA, it I- megawatt (MW) swimming pool reactor, which went into operation in 1956; CIRUS, a 40-MW heavy water moderated, natural uranium fueled research reactor, which went critical in 1960; and ZERLINA, it zero energy critical assembly, which went into operation in 1961. The enriched uranium fuel for the ASPARA reactor was supplied by the United Kingdom, but the natural uranium fuel for the CIRUS and ZERLINA reactors- was produced by India except for one -half of the first fuel load of the CIRUS that was supplied by Canada. Ileavy water for the CIRUS and 'ZERLINA was supplied by the United States. A small heavy water production plant at Nangal went into operation in 1962. This plant produces heavy water as a hyprndnc( of a fertilizer plant and has a capacity of 14 tons per year. In addition, a 67.2 -ton heav water plant is under construction at Vadodaraa (formerly Baroda), clue to go into operation in 1973. Three other heavy water plants are also under construction �a lux) -ton plant at Kota, due to go into operation in 1971, a 71.3- ton per year plant at Tuticorin, clue to go operational in 1974-75, and a 62.7 ton plant at Talcher, che to go into production in 1976. India plans to establish, with French assistance, another nuclear research center near Madras at the future nuclear power station of Kalpakkam. The� center is expected to take about 5 years to build and will inc�Inde it 10 -MW test reactor for work on fast reactor technology, which would he aimed at utilizing India's extensive thorium depeasts for producing power. The Indian Covecnment has sated that it does not intend to develop nuclear weapams, but government officials have indicated a:rat development of nuclear explosives fo; peaceful uses i5 weviving serious consideration. Such explosives would have an obvious military potential. India has all the facilities necessary for the production of small amonnts of plutonium for use in mclear explosives. C;ARC; Ixassesscs facilities for uranium metal production, fuel fabrication, irradiated fuel reprocessing, and plutonium metal reduction. India plans to ha -e three nuclear power stations in operation by about 1975. The first nuclear piaster station located at Tarapur, about 60 miles north of Bombay, .vent into full operation in joe.^ 1969 with an installed electric power capacity of 380 megawatts electrical (MWe). '['his station consists of two .S.- supplied Boiling water reactors using slightly e niched uranium provided by the United States. 'The second unclear power station is heing constructed near Rana Pratap Sagar Dun in Rajasthan with Canadian assistance and will have two natural uranium fueled, heavy water moderated reactors, identical to the 200 MWe Canadian CANDU -type reactors. One of the two reactors began operation in August 1972, while the second reactor is expected to go into operation by 1975. 'These reactors are to be under safeguards intended to prevent diversion of plutonium to weapons use. India is constructing it third nuclear power station at Kalpakkam, in 'Tamil Nadu, which is identical to the Rajasthan station; work has started, hot there is no firm project date for the station to go into operation. Uranium and thorium ruining have been underway since 19:1 using monazite deposits of the southwest coast of India. The country possesses one of the wvorld's largest deposits of rnonuzite, the principal source of thorium, and also has large low grade reserves of uranium. Uranium is he�ing mined in the State of Bihar at jaduguda (near jarnshedpur) by the� 0raninrn Corporation of India, Limited. A mill capable of processing 1,0(x1 tons per dry� of low grade ore has been in operation since 1968. Plans arc underway to develop it 2,5(x) tons per clay mill at Narwapahar, near jaduguda. 4. Electronics (S) Electronics research and development continue to grow at ever increasing rates, largely because of tcc�hnic�al assistance from tit(- United States, the Un -ted Kingdom, and the Soviet Union. The research is mostly applied and centers on the improvement of existing systems and component The 'Telec�orn- munic�ations Research Center at New Delhi of the Ministry of Coinmunic�ations has the most active electronics research program in India. The center has designed or improved telo phone exchange, converter, and ringing equipment. Ine!ustrial elcc�tronic�s research is carried out by four rnajur prodneers of electronic equipment� Bharat Ele0ronic�s, Bangalore; the electronics division of the IIAI, in Ifyderathad; the Electronic Corporation :,f India, ltydenabadt and the Indian Telephone Industries. Each of these companies wars established to assemble specific equipment under license and subw(Iiientl} ac�cluired an indigenous c.apahility to develop the equipment. The Indians are APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070034 -1 cluing good quality research in radio propagation, but the work is not extensive. The Indians have made considerable progress in the design of converters for translating teleprinter codes to pulses that operate step -by -step switc... Radio relay equipment operating at 7 gigahertz and providing 300 telephone channels has been developed. The National Physical Laboratory of the CSIR at New Delhi has conducted extensive ionospheric research. Significant electromagnetic research in the field of surface wave phenomena has been carried out by the Indian Institute of Science. Some: work has been clone on the practical application of laser co inmunications. Limited research has been conducted ,n transistorized devices such as telephone repeaters and carrier equipment. 5. Medical sciences, including veterinary medicine (S) India is mak;ng oibstantial progress in its national program to improve the quality of biomedical research but is still far from achieving the research level of advanced countries� especially in fundamental sttudics. Research programs are coordinated by the CSIR and the Ministry of Health and Family Planning, with its associate(I Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR). The council has see ^n permanent research institutes �the National Institute of Nutrition, Ilvderabad; Virus Research Center, Pune (formerly Poona); Cholera Research Center, Calcutta; Tuberculosis Chetnotherapy Center, Madras; Occupational llcalth Research Institute, Ahtnada- badl Institute for Research in Reproduction, Bombay; and the Indian Registry of i'athology, New Delhi. The latter fuc�ility has five peripheral centers. Biomedical establishments of the CSIR include the Indian Institute of Experimental Medicine in Calc�ath. and the Central Drug Research Institute, Central Indian Medicinal Plants Organization. and Industrial Toxicology Research Center, all in Luc�know. Edoc�ation in pion iedicine is of poor quality. The government has embarked ou it program. %%ith U.S. assistance, to improve training in the discipline. The most important medic!-1 school is the All India Institute of Medical Sciences in New Delhi, which n ceivcs support front tit(- United States and the World Ilealth Organization (W110) and through the Colombo Plan. The institute provides a good education in biornedic�in(% its professors are among the world's Ix�%t. Priouty areas of research sopp orted by the 1(:*IR include reproductive hiology. family planning, nutrition. and disease control. Microbiological 12 research is not outstanding. The ICMR has created a division of clinical immunology and epidemiology which supports research to combat infectious diseases such as plague, cholera, and viral diseases, and noninfectious diseases such as cdiubctes, epilepsy, and diseases of the cye. I'lague studies a undertaken by the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, the Ilaffkine Institute in Bombay, and National Institute of Comnnunicable Diseases in Delhi. The Indian Institute of Experimental Medicine is investigating the epidemiology and prophylaxis of cholera and is developing phage- typing techniques for study of classical and El Tor strains of cholera infections and for differentiation of the types of cholcrogenic vibrios. Research at the Central Research Institute at Kasauii is directed to the development of vaccines and scrums, the preparation of national reference standards, and training of personnel. Some impressive physiological research is done on ncurophysiology, cardiovascular function, and sleep. Biochemical studies arc practical and include the isolation of enz involved in microbial rnetabo- lisrn, the biochemistry of pneumoconiasis, the isolation front tissues of tcrnor growth inhibitors, and the biochemical and biophysical organizatio i of intercellular tissues. Lyophilized snake venon, pore fatty acid esters, and papaio have been isolated. Studies are undemay to synthesize Organic chemicals by fermentation. A promising area of research at the Assam Medical College in northeast India is the study of henuglobinopathies and their relation to tribal groups. S. R. Mukheriee of the Department of Experimental Medical Sciences of the Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research in Calcutta has dis- overed an antiepileptic� drug and has contributed to research on the endocrinological. physiological. and pharnac�ologic�al effects of indigenous plant (bugs. Ile also has clone research on c�ardiovasculai honneostasis. I'll(- Central Drug Research Institute of the CSIR is doing routine work on the development of new therapeutic agent%, both synthetic and those derived front plants. Pharmacological screening of the drugs includes tests for li%potensive, aotic�omolsaot. central nervous system stimulant and depressant, spa %cool} tic. analgesic. (Buret c�, antihistaminic. ancd anti inflamnatr\ ac�tilm. Bioc�henti-al and bioph%sic�al studies of drugs are aimed al blocking the metabolic patlma}% of pathogenic organist% and at attacking %ulnerable enzyme %\stems of helmi [it hs and amoebas. Intensive')iologic�al screening of nedic�inal plant% is an integral part of the drug de\elopnit.Li project of the institutes. Medicinal client. r% is given considerable 11 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070034 -1 r attention in the survey and screening of medicinal plants to discover new drugs and alternative sources of drugs in use. The plants are screened for antifilarial, antihelminthic, antiviral, antifungal, antiamocbic, and antitumor acti ity. A national herbarium is maintained in Calce is which supports research on plants of medical and economic importance to India. The Industrial Toxicology Research Center is sta �dying the mode of action of toxic substances encountered in industry, agriculture, and mines and is elucidating the mechanisms of tissue injury in order to suggest therapeutic and preventive measures. Psychopharmacological tests aiso are carried out to detect behavioral changes associated with intoxication by substances which affect the brain. The Central Food Technology Research Institute of the CSIR in Mysore, in collaboration with FAO, is the International Food Technology Training Center for the countries of South and Southeast Asia. The institute is developing improved methods of processing, storing, and preserving food materials and has produced a protein -rich dairy product which includes buffalo milk, peanut meal, and skim milk powder. A feasibility study is underway on a field testing instrument for use in the assay of fortified and high protein staple and processed foods. Irradiation of foodstuffs is being carried out, and tests are underway on preservation, prevention of infestation, and pasteurization. The medical aspects of radiation are being studied in conjunction with the Indian nuclear energy program, and it training course in food irradiation is given at the BARC. In the area of family planning, India is undertaking extensive demographic research and studies in reproductive biology and fertility control. Drug and mechanical contraceptive devices are being developed by the Central Drug Research Institute. Military medical research for the three services is conducted by the Defense Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences at New Delhi, tit Defense Research Laboratory (Materials) at Kanpur, and the Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences at Delhi. The emphasis is on high altitude and mountain warfare operations, especially on i,;:xl and water requirements, pulmonary edema, and injuries sustained under cold weather conditions. The Indian Air Force School of Aviation Medicine at Bangalore conducts research on aviation physiology, including light flash effect, particular,'y on night vision, factors affecting mental and psychomotor functions of aircrews, and the effect of tropucal heat and humidity on personnel during preflighi procedures. Research related to naval physiology concerns close living on submarines and ships, noise on aircraft carriers, arterial Lir embolism during ascent from hallow dives, and speed perception. The Indian veterinary medical research capability is limited. Veterinary research is primarily applied and oriented to the animal diseases of major economic significance. The Indian Veterinary Research Institute, with laboratories at Izatnagar and Mukteswar, both in Uttar Pradesh, has an active program to develop methods for large -scale production of effective vaccines for hemorrhagic septicemia and rinderpcst. Veterinary research also is carried out by the Institute of Veterinary Preventive Medicine at Ranippettai (formerly Ranipet) and the Central Leather Research Institute at Bangalore. In geacral, research emphasizes the development of improved vaccines and biologicals and of methods for quantity production. The animal diseases of major importance are foot and -mouth disease, Nesscastic disease, rinderpcst, tuberculosis, salmonellosis, anaplasmosis, brucellosis, rabies, and glanders. Infectious infertility diseases, especially vibriosis and trichomoniasis, are a major cause of economic loss to the livestock industry. Significant financial support is provided by the U.S. Agency for International Development, the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization, the United Kingdom, and private foundations. 6. Other sciences (S) a. Chemistry and metallurgy A substantial amount of research in chernistry and metallurgy is conducted. Although much of it is routine and lacks originality, the research has been of sufficiently high duality to offer satisfactory solutions to many of the problems associated with materials development. The universities devote a large part of their effort and personnel to basic chemical research. Most of the applied research is done in such facilities as the BARC, the National Chemical Lahoratorv, the Central Elect rocheinicaI Research Institute at Karaikkudi, and various central and regional laboratories set up for specific fields of chemical research. Chemical and metallurgical research by private industry is very weak. India appears strongest in ooganic chernistrv, and some of the be.,, research has been done in this area. Nigh quality hasic research has heen clone on the isolation, characterization, and synthesis of natural products derived from native plants. Probably the best work is done by researchers at the Uni%ersity of Delhi under the direction of T. R. Seshadri on chalcones, 13 a, APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070034 -1 r flavonoid compounds, coumarins, terpenes, plant pigments, and other natural products. The Punjab University has an active research program on terpenoids and on heterocyclic compounds containing both nitrogen and sulfur. The Institute of Science at the University of Bombay stresses research in organic chemistry, particularly the synthesis and reactions of heterocyclic compounds. The National Chemical Laboratory is strong in organic chemical research and is doing research on the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds, such as azulenes, thiophenes and relater] compounds, and epoxides. It recently has become interested in the synthesis and reactions of isocyanates. Considerable work is done on anthraquinone and violanthrone dyes and on the applications of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrome- try to problems concerning dyes. Only a small amount of research is devoted to polymers, synthetic fibers, and synthetic rubber, fields of chemistry that receive extensive study in the more industrially advanced countries. In general there is only limited activity in physical organic chemistry, partly because of a shortage of modern instruments at most laboratories. Research in biochemistry is very weak. Some research is pursued at several facilities, including the biochemistry department of the All -India institute of Medical Sciences in New Delhi. The department has done some research on estrogen binding, brain ribonucleic acid, and polypeptides. A considerable amount of research is underway in inorganic and analytical chemistry. Much of the research in inorgaude chemistry is concerned with the study of ferrocyanogen complexes in general, heavy metal soaps, interaction of metal ions with gelatin, and polarographic and spectrophotometric studies. The BARC has been actively working on neutron activation analysis, spectrographic determination of metals, and spectrophotometric analysis, particularly as related to the field of nuclear energy. Many problems in inorganic chemistry related to the preparation and processing of nuclear fuels arc studied in the BARC laboratories. The Indian Institute of Science, the University of Allahabad, and the University of Delhi have active programs for the development of specialized analytical techniques. The institute has developed an extraction technique which is used in conjunction with neutron- activation analysis. Analytical techniques related to soil and fertilizer chemistry also are being studied by the Fertilizer Corporation of India at Sindi, several universities, and agricultural colleges. Research in physical chemistry is fairly broad and includes studies on chemical kineticw, structural and quantum chemistry, surface phenomena and catalysis, thermodynamics, and electrochemistry. One of the important physical chemists in the country, Ram C. Paul of Punjab University, has worked extensively on Lewis acid complexes and on the properties and uses of polar solvents such as organic acid chlorides, dimethylformamide, nitro compounds, and ethyl acetate. The Central Electrochemical Research Institute is the major Indian facility for research in the theoretical and applied aspects of electrochemistry. It works on electroplating of metals and alloys, electrolytic and electrothermal processes for production of metals and chemicals, electrolytic oxidation and reduction of organic compounds, corrosion, and corrosion inhibition. For an underdeveloped country, India conducts a surprisingly large amount of metallurgical research. Most of it is of a fundamental nature, however, and is of little benefit in improving the very low level of metallurgical technology in the country. The research is not well ce; rdinated. The effort is supported by foreign funds, mainly from the United States, the U.S.S.R., and the United Nations. Most of the research is undertaken at the National Metallurgical Laboratory of the CSIR at Jamshedpur and at the BARC. Some research also is carried out by the Indian Institutes of Technology in Kharagpur, Kanpur, and Bombay; the Indian Institute of Science; the Defense Metallurgical Laboratory in Hyderabad; the National Aeronautical Laboratory in Bangalore; the University of Roorkee; and the Banaras Hindu University in Varanasi. The effort at the institutes of technology is directed primarily to producing engineers. Research at the National Maillurgical Laboratory has concerned a wide variety of subjects including the benefication and reduction of ferrous and nonferrous ores, the physical metallurgy of steel, the development of special steels, oxidation and corrosion studio.;, and the conservation of critical metals. The laboratory operates several pilot plants, a corrosion research station at Dighw; in West Bengal, and a foundry station at Batala. The Defense Research Laboratory, a well- equipped and staffed facility, conducts research on military metallurgical problems. Considerable research has been conducted on corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of military hardware. Studies have been done oil roasting of copper ores, the powder metalbirgy of copper, coatings for refractory metals, expo sive welding, and stress corrosion cracking of low-alloN and stainless steels. The National Aeronautical laboratory has done considerable high quality research on recry�stallization, age hardening in aluminum alloys, 0 N\N\ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070034 -1 t r t2 1 and creep and rupture of heat- resistant alloys. The laboratory excels in crystallography and electron microscopy. The BARC has carried out extensive research on materials for nuclear application. The work has concerned the production of nuclear metals, the fabrication of nuclear grade zirconium alloy mill products, the cladding of fuel elements, corrosion of nuclear metals, and the effects of radiation on the properties of structural materials. Most of the university conducted research is done at the University of Roorkee and the Banaras Hindu University. The main area of research is metal physics, especially the electronic structure of metals and alloys. b. Physics and mathematics Although India possesses the potential for conducting research in a number of subfields of physics, capabilities with few exceptions are low. In general, efforts underway are only attempts to refine research done by other countries 10 to 20 years ago. Almost half of the physics research is devoted to the broad areas of solid -state physics. Research in high and low- energy nuclear physics also is stressed. The remaining subfields of physics receiving a significant amount of attention are optics, gravitation and relativity, atomic and molecular physics, acoustics and ultrasonics, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) of fluids, and quantum electronics. A large -Amount of research is done in theoretical physics because of the lack of equipment needed to conduct experimental research. The best physics research is carried out by the BARC, the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, and the Indian Institutes of Technology at Bombay and Kanpur. Solid -state physics research has concentrated on the study of properties of materials. Research in crystallography is done in the universities and supports the solid -state physics research effort. Physicists are studying crystal structures of many semiconductor elements and compounds. Some research has been done on the preparation, purification, and growth of single crystals of indium antimonide which can be utilized for further developments of photosensitive elements. The Solid -State Physics Laboratory in New Delhi is active and modern. India is doing a limited amount of basic research in nuclear physics, f lost of the universities and technical institutes conduct research in the field, but most of it is of an academic nature related to advanced degrees. High -en rgy nuclear physicists are investigat- ing many aspects associated with nuclear structures and energy levels and are highly competent in their theoretical studies dealing with hadron scattering and interactions. Some work has been done in cosmic ray research with the support of the United States, the United Kingdom, and Japan. Research in low energy nuclear physics is devoted to the study of reactions and decay schemes associated with isotopes. The most impressive work, although conventional by world standards, is being done at the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, where investigators are studying neutron emission from prompt fragments in the fission of excited nuclei. A modest amount of research is being carried out in physical and geometrical optics, with most of the work concentrated at the National Physical Laboratory and the Indian Institutes of Technology in Bombay and Delhi. Physical optical research is closely related to the study of (lark field images u:;fler coherent illumination. A significant portion of optical physics research is related to spectroscopy and dark- ground microscopy. Some geometrical opti research is related to optical components associated with lasers. Among the many applications of lasers being investigated are uses for communications and holography. Most of the laser research occurs at the Institute of Technology in Bombay, where the effort is centered on holography. Research in theoretical physics has stressed the study of gravitational fields and relativity. Most of such studies are underway at the Institute of Theoretical Physics and various larger universities. Some experimental work is underway on a limited scale on the effects of varying axial magnetic fi ^Ids on the stability of gravitating cylinders. Research in atomic and molecular physics is concerned with studies dealing with Raman, infrared, vibrational, and emission spectra of various chemical compounds associated with organic molecules. Ultrasonics and acoustics research is limited to the study of shock waves by researchers at the Defense Science Laboratory. The Indians are showing an increasing interest in MHD. Studies are theoretical and have concerned the general theory of hydromag- netic wave propagation in a magnetoactive plasma. The best research is centered at the Institute of Technology in Bombay where all aspects or M HD and magnetogasdynam cs are being explored. Contributions in mathematics have been insig nificant. The quantity of research has increased since 1966 but is still meager and generally of low quality. The emphasis has been on applied statistics !a.gely because of strong governmental support and encouragement, which is based on the need for accurate and practical statistical methods for 15 LiRiK6:.s7100R1CGii/.G'dLka 1 ..i..oi�K.w34Z APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP0l- 00707R000200070034 -1 4 population surveys and governmental planning operations, The Indian Statistical Institute in Calcutta conducts research in the field and acts as a consumer research organization. The Indians have begun research in analysis, especially in fun. -tion theory and infinite series. Mathematicians at the universities are maintaining some interest in sets, logic:, and number theory, but the research is superficial. There is some interest in differential geometry, but no activity in topology. India has had modest computer research and development projects at the National Computing :enter of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research and at BARC; most of the Indian applications, however, have depended on imported computers. The BARC has developed a small computer, the TDC -12. India also has made some computer ancillary devices under license and has negotiated with the United States and West European countries for licenses to produce electronic components and circuits for both domestic use and export. Several Indian facilities have received technical advice and a few models of computers and related devices from the U.S.S.R. The government has established a National Computer Corporation with headquarters at New Delhi. India is a member of the International Federation of Operations Research Societies but has not made any contribution to this branch of mathematics. e. Astrogeoph; diea! sciences Research in astrr._ :omy is increasing. The most important center of research is the Nizamiah Observatory of Osmania University of Hyderabad. The section of the observatory near Rangapuram, 40 miles southeast of Hyderabad, is equipped with a 48- inch reflector supplied by the United States. The Department of Astronomy at the university, together with the observatory, has been designated a Center of Advanced Study in Astronomy by the University Grants Commission. The observatory has participated in the international preparation of astrographic catalogs and during 1965 cooperated with Mount Wilson Observatory, California, for the measurement of star radials. It also has conducted studies of variable stars and theoretical studies on the dynamics of galaxies and of close binary systems. The observatory is the best equipped in southern Asia and is important to international astronomy because there is no other low latitude observatory of comparable capability between Egypt and Japan. Other optical astronomical research, some of which is solar, is conducted at the Astrophysical Observatory, Kodaikanal, of the Indi- Meteorological Department. Research in astrophysics also is carried out by the Uttar Pradesh State Observatory at Naini Tal and the Department of Physics and Astrophysics of the University of Delhi, designated a Center of Advanced Study in Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics by the University Grants Commission. While a minor amount of research is clone elsewhere, the principal facility for radio astronomical research is the radio telcscop., at Ootacamund, in southern India. It was designed and built under the direction of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research and became operational in 1970. Located near the earths geographical equator, it is unique in that its longitudinal axis is parallel to that of the earth, permitting it to follow radio sources continuously for up to 9 hours 30 minutes. The telescope will be used to study radio emissions from distant galaxies and from pulsars and quarsars. India is active in ionospheric: and radiophysical research, and individual scientists have clone outstanding research in the fields. The Institute of Radio Physics and Electronics of the University of Calcutta has been designated a :enter of Advanced Study for Radio Physics and Electronics. Ionospheric and radio propagation .studies are conducted by a 11111 -bcr of other organizations, notably the Radio Propagation Unit of the National Physical Lal::)ia- tory, New Delhi, and the Physical Research Laboratory of the Ahmadabad Education Society, Ahmadabad. Research has included, in addition to making ionosonde observations, ionospheric absorp- tion and drift studies, Faraday rotation measurements of satellite transmission, and very low frequency propagation investigations. Airglow and cosmic ray studies also are made, the latter mainly by the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research and the Physical Research laboratory. Meteorological research is largely of an applied nature. Emphasis has been placed on data collection and transmission and on designing and producing instruments. India has a well established weather service, the India Meteorological Department; it is headquartered in New Delhi and aas an Institute of Tropical Meteorology in Parr. The dcpartr,rnt and institute have cmpha :zcd research on rainfall in India. Work in weather forecasting is not highly advanced, but gtxod work is clone ill the study of monsoons and the general circulation cf the atmo.phere. A U.S. installed automatic picture transmission (APT) receiver is located at &ombay to receive transmission from U.S. meteorological satellites. Other receivers are located at Calcutta. New Delhi, and Madras. India is establishing a radar F] 16 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070034 -1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070034 -1 A stctrin- w4rrli nit Ihtsswl altnig I's cwsta alwl o ltlnp wvrfli111. and rrw3rc+ cenlcr at %IQjCaL Shave Ihr catty IIX N Indio lwt dre'rkgwd and sulost:eltr i I}' lnalntolurd all ardlse,dlgxt ulnecrliberkt: Irieatth prnKram. T'Iuaslgh its 1ru111dpxtintl III irlle"Wirmul Progrurns Mimi as a it-Mill 11r lic-nerits derisrel f rum flerr�lK IM1111ml a� i sla lcr. Ihr oeuntry 11M3. c npdrrd a cod Im r11lae} calla lsillt y Ill MMK- t{4ty auwimrd wirntts, padlnslatly Ilwsse rllolinR to ctunmunlevtknes Ilk- Irwliatni ltatr evnductrd wilh the Sot'irts n tcIlading rclrket ptlegram for InhietoruleKlral P11rlxncs tnrr Ihr lust hullo& 100, NI-1110 Ifrekrh vV r 1lrlenchr'd. 'I ltr up 1wr al ntmpllrric &matt h prnR ranr rrmirrd u lrlx6l is 19111 -lien Ittdia slxrgnl a ilrnlolrlll uAlertncrll Milh Flatlet 111 Pmdure the Cenfoun'. T1w Rni %Ullch or Able 1nrll2n�asanuiueiutrd Ctslboure eururrrd In Frhneiii 1969, Tlic Irt-hiticul lslow' aolniletr in Iltc prsiloctitat III the CcA lalue bar eltal;Ilyd Indi: to dm-drl}i its am wsurniidK hx:kt^t pmum. Tile lint of Iho rinlrlc .IaRe Qafsl"I U'F'.as wr.1 lest n" iti ,Ncn rml*s 19M, and ihr flrsi of t he 1 eerwAv wdrs, u In's oge sounding nxW. m Ie+l flertl i late I4ifA. 1:1oe1 for Ilww ttut wt 1rls was panchic 'sl in ric;lilk-r at Kloadlci (fumedy Ki ller.) Ialrr gr'nrralk-m nit't;rttoF lw Aolrini and Almelo wait-+ Are w0er drsrlopmenl. Irulia alw 4 de rloping a four- stag,& xdid prupe1111k11 wirtlltt' ixnricb trlIiqr %ilh is liftclff mtIgh of 17 Inetple ton%. Ur. U 11, We of I hr� Indian P ILpi evl [Ir -m orn Iabepwri rrlxwtrd that Pnrtut }pr fltbtirAlirnr of bH11;1*t fiat Wrltltr is ulldrlst:ry The 2-WLg Rahlnl saleililr 1s Whrdldtd lib Ilo launrlled In IU 4 inhig u Smiti C js prw6 laUlw'h vrhide fmrn u 641101 Imd lib the SIIVIN U110311. the sluctrrrfl it ht tufty 4111 III I'M wirrllilic -sprdrncult. int�Illding Illtttnpllrrir MTwI X� r.ty measotrlllctd NIM11A 11imbi of like space pmtttattt appacu to Ise+ divielvi [WIWre11 the Itl,flnn SlsAir S1c1,eYrcic 1Drpni7 ;l6jn (ISRO1 of Ili= IkT anlrot of Attlktile Fixfg}' and Ihr Fkntlun National Ctminiltor fat Spuv Firwanll IIKCOSPAR) under (lit lodiall Nolinllal Srimim Atmdcnly. Aplka"4111y, INAC) Is Iht Pf(IKilUl XDIrrwlncnlal MRrnoy nlana( Ihr nitlrr aI,Islk'd uspmi, nr the muitifys space rrwawh prt%wm. suds w tlknr involved in the ck+iRa. drtrtopnxrd, 211d pmtiur�Ikill of >ltucr hardM'arc: IKOUSPAR Is krrlsslttX Rrraler altmalcm on the thrmxtir study of :Le. itwort a,xxiulyd wtrneet 13CO5PAR alntiollrs la t elt w nt It+lllx At mreurtge. of I Ito Intemaiiotlal C41lnmiltre on Spur lltxare'h fCOWA111, Addillunal WXonlralionr nrrocrin('d stl Ihr slsatr PnIXn1m ate 1110 FlIN nl Itc- w a1c11 {,glluratory at AhmA&hatt, the Matinnat Mgiiml I.Axoralury at Nr-w D rlhl, The Aslnrphyd- -1 O aI K04 1411 `AbItnI, the TMA 1141uit11lr of Felndalult'olvl 1leseylc11, AIRI I %It1ramlFP0C.1 ('&nice al IJnl;alra. I (063 INCCSPAIL with t h e avi,lahit of the United Stales. }ralece. Mn%j Ihr SW lrl U llfall, cslalllI&A u iiwedril wuewbig w4cl liminch faeilil}'. tilt 'I'liurnha FAinaludal PIICL'l 1- 13ritllog Stutinfl il'FI11S lira& Ttit�andrum in c.,ullwoo lildla. Tllllmtm Is tine of 111r Irw 11 IeM lusvlrcl Ile Ihr Rmmignellc rrpeatur alts Iwt bren amrrdrd U.N- ,pmisletshlh m6 on InTrrnullunul Iml-el far.Ra Qknolmriscm of 6w iolptuhlyd al lltux s. 13 FWnr rhr Jn frmo MAtt ralkgr %ith 11WRO 411 "MILM will IMxillr lnlplltlARl infwtnatielrl eon leuny arras 13( "Ce acil%1 IndLedioR huts& ur c inttt ilk lu16 and ulrrwnphplfr ph)sks, The Sp4cr %iroks and TarilnopInK)' ficrttrr is Ilrcaled w.4c the. 71iunilea fano AbIed Ila' 14rilillcs fcsr leuildlrir, truing, and bde%tu IrLwli 1 unc sat 11.15huds. Thr crnler is Icsl}anslblc for Ihr amititrnahlr. 4 ground olssm otlm MWIout. tlu- nlrielwo 41l Rrnuled Isasell IwtresPedrwitlsr a11d Ilk- desrlopmr111 of aver rrlu1c4l srnsun and In,Itillo 111t Atllacclll Ili tMllh t1w erlelrl and 11 lttt11W1 nange is u t,Kkt pinpelloslt Isla nt and drejle't pn,dll iWei Neillty. This fucillty is prenlMagdw (11dlule nsc'kch, for1ewhric tllr Irrrrlrh l Cruraurr mclxt. 11 Las been trlwltltd Thal 2.1w fxvgttr arc woflf11K al Ihl% ecor"FAtst, aI rltich affil we pried ut-flort %THlrr>L A ,mead taunch�trsl nArl &alike bibs leren ol;itpl Ithnl tm Sri i tndklota Island lit tier N of 11erVi Ilrnth ill Ntudfus 1j1N ratLp x'xt lib Iindtrd o1watGnT on of 0dollrt 1971. %lied Mt Irasl three IllrrrMrrd lauac" of a Rohirel &cries rreclR, floc Fill.- .9. ,rw atlismvd. Tilt area moll liprio i iiiAc% the sitr s11ftotdc Few I2u110dng set}- large w1ett. Unwtrtu1141n J1, tippxrrttlly ar:cfeZVO1` 011 a Iau nt.�iI lead fur Ilse shall Ikwli,t ulr�Ill launch erlekilc sc llt41trlyd Ile Itenoku t1wme.laltal lie 1075. An Inlrhal cammutth-aliryl uteltltr Iln0tu11l ttatkKl Las 111x 171111AFMA of Arvi and arw)lhrr ft hei"g cvltwlnuird III N�nlwAr. Irwl has rcmlmltltd h"wir lib lire dmctltPnk io if domts(k netnt11tlnirslllYrlts sal41111M evrnnlrlrtlWWTIs KneUiyj r�1lalp11rnt. Ill sa lelllir 14un{I1 r41111pnleflt tvNble of Abltaini1kc sylk�11n1rwllre. nc1411. iluwrttr, Itwllu 10r6 tilt llklttsftll I saw la suplrntl 16 Pu,AMM Arid mill prohally find 11 w wry to atylulre o guilt deal of furrign rnoleaul and lrt-1 lrw11ng) Its SU14WO11 1 ltt -e Illll 7elmiiinl xnrplt}'Iirul erwhmil is ht-orm%1nx� 'elm CetgrhyArs Rrsralcll PAkA of the {.5I1A rwnllrtalrs the rcw rrh. The Yalilowl Crltl/bs Acal llrsearcit 17 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070034 -1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDP01-00707R000200070034-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDP01-00707R000200070034-1 IllbOluic. 11)lltralkotl, alv1 orwict tile C511K, 11 Ills lifli -AVI rMdC [10F tCjt;$tIfiC 1140fiNOWA In 19C3T. the I UD IIFJlkdpUl et rdl CVnj", It IMb 4 .4djushi"t 24 1% user! as the M% fill' all IndIwn Koorniagnale ulrrFvAtnfy. at %4 us a selinic4cKicul Idangulillim and mapping. Rrwjtrh is 4indrmi)- Pipservatury. wt 110cm6ad and a vicvelectric vwrrntly oil h4ve 111te 4rA4% at Chulupalu. ulxxut 40 tnllrs vm1heaA ul asliumprik�. IWO ii6twallont, 13(ctiw IMA111g. llydrutw& The India Dejupinkew deflection of the vritiral. KFOWIty. sphedod bus four gecMuIrkelk %1910111,; tilt prjj3dp2I 1". tIw cilculullan%, and trrmA cswl mupd6m. I kaz h. udlw Alilmp( Mwitne4k- Olrwn'2lDry, QIMllI 18 FnktM fl1PM In Intrtnativisal grixie'tic' Mirdhih add 6 a Hk'MlWr Of Mullikiky. 11 01W of the worm. onlary 11wpetic the InictrwilikUl Aunciulion of Qv dny JIAC). Its (wrill Litt The ck-wdmrp6l c6c bikeruim a pkel% of pzrrnl body. Ilse Inlernallonal U n6nk of C."ety and MIMIQ Ili Sclurdc bintions; the crniml selbrMOTOXICUI CAMpik)-AC% (11U= A h4l 1110 Inlr. AW411OU41110 olvwwatorf :.I Mang "Mmiliwits vimic d.4114, The Uiklqkpk I I AM Indians an: c4mpkpJ In umkffwpwtIc and xmund� Capablittirs In hydrnliksk and h) if I-AwJ magnetic 2,u"rys and 1wtv unckAukrn k air 'Owy "al. Fir.-tts air MAIlly In Ilie field of of micnlpulwUuns. of The llok dqw appllPd FCW4Mh and Off 411VIC IMAMId the uir shared with thin Scivirts All Inw!6ligullipi of The tknrlopmrnt and kiIIII7.1thm cA mute( lemplim GK wionkidly s4 thin 111mulayan filothilib H uffu6 Inipilon and flow. sitting, wKi x4huring In Other wmrdi Is Wikx dprw to julmomptilm A 3� C40WILr. jWp6%tIfM tkF vrwW Wour clams. -ArjTk tend 5T-.IF jungntut tro &I udy Mornuttinus of I he rAfIfis cTW carial falls, flucalli% Affior, anti sto rmpadt M U III CIrCCI. MV IMLifi M110 Qrl! CAAMPILI In Itapmrnwhi of the nmijcawfily of rivers gmplip4rul orAmlian and In a4lalkwullon Ailh the Mild IWINIPS: and tlW C4fvdi Of Imo, wItNtIrMl 4111311 U.S.S.11, have vslahllOjed a Coebter fin KilkMmIltni Y113rallion w% hydrnulle simcium and cquipa wnI. ccoph)"ics. at 0sriarlick, ullivirrAly. MAc li) a"d h)druulic trwitch It, k:xsrmlwdv%I RaLic k lit gmUly Is cmdonsed In 111w by the Geniul WoW and [Nou Ftr*mK 51 4 lan ne.11' UniVeIS411M 14 Lljdl IWIOJMI 441, $;rdKlbtPljIkIFy. FUlke. r,0rh Of fl 9910CF $rM',4rL+ SWIML U tnFKTrrr-d Keomioffpl ckluXy, 111mr1m) gnoluXy, mineralogy. otth pTt4rcts to the biAtr In %hich 11 b l(culed. julvoilloLpxy, p�imogy. and "rud-utal gkvlogy. 11W lim"ft-b stations a r e w hNjw r ly iuff