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'I ffiffl" fffle In c ff"Rw.-] Italy December 1973 NATIONAL INTH. SECRET NO FOREIGN DISSEM APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDP01-00707R000200080002-5 i I i NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY PUBLICATIONS The basic unit of the NIS is the General Survey, which is now published in a bound -by- chapter format so that topics of greater per- ishability can be updated on an individual basis. These chapters� Country Profile, The Society, Government and Politics, The Economy, Military Geog- raphy, Transportation and Telecommunications, Armed Forces, Science, and Intelligence and Security, provide the primary NIS coverage. Some chapters, particularly Science and Intelligence and Security, that are not pertinent to all countries, are produced selectively. For small countries requiring only minimal NIS treatment, the General Survey coverage may be bound into one volume. Supplementing the General Survey is the NIS Basic Intelligence Fact book, a ready reference publication that semiannually updates key sta- tistical data found in the Survey. An unclassified edition of the factbook omits some details on the economy, the defense forces, and the intelligence and security organizations. Although detailed sections on many topics were part of the NIS Program, production of these sections has been phased out. Those pre- viously produced will continue to be available as long as the major portion of the study is considered valid. A quarterly listing of all active NIS units is published in the Inventory of Available MIS Publications, which is also bound into the concurrent classified Factbook. The Inventory lists all NIS units by area name and number and includes classification and date of issue; it thus facilitates the ordering of NIS units as well as their filing, cataloging, and utilization. Initial dissemination, additional copies of NIS units, or separate chapters of the General Surveys can be obtained directly or through liaison channels from the Central Intelligence Agency. The General Survey is prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency and the Defense Intelligence Agency under the general direction of the NIS Committee. It is coordinated, edited, published, and dissemi- nated by the Central Intelligence Agency. WARNING This document contains information affecting the national defense of the United States, within the meaning of title 18, sections 793 and 794 of the US code, as amended. Its transmission or revelation of its contents to or receipt by an unauthorized person is prohibited by law. CLASSIFIED BY 019611. EXEMPT FROM GENERAL DECLASSIFI- CATION SCHEDULE OF E. O. 11632 EXEMPTION CATEGORIES SB (1), (2), (3). DECLASSIFIED ONLY ON APPROVAL OF THE DIRECTOR OF CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE. r APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080002 -5 4 0 WARNING The NIS is National Intelligence and may not be re- leased or shown to representatives of any foreign govern- ment or international body except by specific authorization of the Director of Central Intelligence in accordance with the provisions of National Security Council Intelligence Di- rective No. 1. For NIS containing unclassified material, however, the portions so marked may be made available for official pur- poses to foreign nationals and nongovernment personnel provided no attribution is made to National Intelligence or the National Intelligence Survey. Subsections and graphics are individually classified accord;ng to content. Classification /crntrol designa- tions are: (U /OU) Unclassified /For Official Use Only (C) Confidential (S) Secret APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080002 -5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080002 -5 J rim \TI ME Mm I -t -J M im Mr .t1 736= ITALY CONTENTS This chapter supersedes the scientific coverage in the General Surveil dated October 1969. A. General 1 B. Organization, planning, and financing of research 3 C. Scientific education, min ever, and facilities 6 D. Major research fields 7 1. Air, ground, and naval weapons 7 2. Biological and chemical warfare 11 3. Nuclear energy 12 4. Electronics 13 5. Medical sciences 14 6. Other sciences 15 a. Chemistry and metallurgy 15 b. Physics and mathematics 17 c. Astrogeophysical sciences 19 Glossary 23 SECRET No FOREIGN DIssEM APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080002 -5 Sri @n t- 110 T NF&Nm re lry B ii FIGURES Page Page IVY Fig. 1 Government organization for science Fig. 4 G.91Y fighter aircraft photo) 8 and technology chart) 3 Fig. 5 G.222 transport photo) 9 Fig. 2 Research expenditures by agency Fig. 6 Amphibious reconnaissance vehicle and sector (table) 5 (photo) 10 Fig. 3 Scientific and technical personnel Fig. 7 Amphibious armored personnel carrier engaged in research activities (table) 7 photo) 10 B ii E VY x Science A. General (S) The birthplace of modern scien e, It rlv has a strong sc�ic�ntific tradition that call be traced Irac�k to the Renaissance. The outstun(li[]g tell ievcn 'ell ts during the l6th through 19th ccnhrries of fanurns nun such as Galile Torricelli, Galvuni, Volta, and Avogadro are a matter of record. And the eit\- states of Rona, Florence. awl Naples became the scats of ac�acicnlies of science more than three centuries ,go. During the 20th c�enturv, there havC been nunu�rous (listi[]guished Italian scientists, including Guglielrno Marconi, it Nobel Prize winner in 1909, who served as the first president of the National Research Council ((:NI;) after it was founded in 1923. Other Nobel winners were F,ric�o I c rmi in 1938 :111(1 Giulio Nalta in 1963. Italians haver Made important contributions in science. inc�ludir ell crnistry, nuclear pb}sics, elvetronies, mud rrredic�ine during the past 50 gars, "out 1tal has not nrzrint:ciccd its much earlier position of leadership in sc�iellev gencrall'. During the lussoIini cra following World War I, scientific aclivity wits diverted toward military applications. This redireclion of activity. emigration of ma[]y gifted yonng scientists, i []clodi []g Fermi, to the United Slates, and World War 11 damage and disruption wiped onl much of the national research and do vclopnrc'rrt capability. The relmilding process has foecn slow, a;r(I today among tlu� Western European c�ou[]tries Italy is outranked in scientific capabilities by the Unite( 1 hingclo n West Germany, France, S"'Pderr, and the Netherlands. It d .As been estimated dial the country is spending Icss 11:111 0.Vr of its gross national product for research and dcvc1op[]u'nt. TIIvre arc several factors contributing to the relativel\� sloe� progress cf science in Italy: The lack of natural resourc�es-- p:,rtic�ularl\ coal, petroleum. and metal ores �has retarded applied research and engineering, the impact of the war� considerable loss of the voungerand strongersc'ienlifie and tec�h[]ic�al personnel and extensive damage to rescareb facilities �still remains, a11(1 although industrial growth has been outstanding during the postwar period and research fording has expanded rapidly, the pace has not been rapid enorrgfr for Italy to catch up with other highly industrialized countries. Moreover, despite its remarkable industrial growth in Ihc� last decade or so, Italy is making a slow transition from scientific discoveries to operational applications. Another restraining factor on scientific� and technological research is the general chronic inslabiIit\ of the Italian political situation, which has led to long ('elms in the passage of appropria! ion hills for scientific activities. Also, none of the major re;orms rec�omnrended by the president of the CNIZ (Professor Alessandro Fac(1o), such us reorganization of various agencies concerned with scicntific research, higher pad for scientific staff, university reform, and strengt1wil- ing of agricultural and indil research, have bccu acted on. Although the sloydocyn of scientific prog -ess h:is been []lost apparent since 1970, a trend toward disruption of research actiyilies within varior:s elements of the university inslilnles and del artments, aulonorncoirs research centers, and those of the government actuMIN- began about 6 years ago. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080002 -5 Political issues have become paramount and groups of dissident research workers have become involved in sitdowns and demonstrations ag ainst the policies on t. science being practiced in all areas. Some of the most competent Italian science directors and project leaders have resigned in disgust and have maintained that it has become impossible to conduct serious research. For example, in late 1969 the Higher Institute of Health in Rome encountered interruptions by dissident workers, and an outstanding number of the institute's physics department resigned. Also, Italy's first progr of Ph.D. -Icvel studies, at the International Institute of Genetics and Biophysics. Naples, was curtailed by the occupation of its building by leftwing researchers and technicians. Efforts to transfer the program to Rome met with political problems, and it has since been shelved and all funds returned to the sponsor, the U.S. National Science Foundation. Successive Italian governments have recognized the importance of research in maintaining Italy's competitive position in world trade and have endeavored to overcome deficiencies in research planning and to correct weaknesses resulting `roil) the lack of cooperation between scientists in government, industry, and education. The stricture of the Italian research establishment is being modernized slowly in response to demands from scientific research workers i and students. The United States is used as an example in reforming scientific research and scientific education. One of the problems facing reformers, however, is that the Italians have a long bistory of independent research and are strongly opposed to anv kind of centralized control over their acti vities, although the need for more cooperation beh\-eern economic and research planners is apparent. Private industry and state -owned industrial complexes conduct considerable research, but the companies are i highly competitive and do not cooperate with each other in research programs. The Italian Government has strongly supported international cooperation in scientific activities. In j 1970, for example, about 1351 of the government's research and development expenditures went to international organizations, especially those with research facilities in Italy. Sorne of the international organizations in which the country has h -en active concern space, missile, nuclear, and electronics research. Thor European Atornic Energy Community (E uratom) j oint Nuclear Research Center at Ispra employs about i persons involved in reactor physics, chemistry, and engineering. Italy is also active in tine International Atomic Energy Agency (IAF.A), the Enropean Space Research Organization (I;S110), 2 the European Launcher Development Organization (ELDO), the European Telecommunications Satellite Conference (LETS), and the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUG(;). "The country is also active in international oceanographic organizations such as the International Association of Phvsical Oceanography, the International Association for the Scientific Exploration of the Mediterranean, and the International 1 Bureau. Italy is the location of the Antisubmarine \Varfare is Center of NATO, La Spezia; the IAEA's International (:enter for Theoretical Physics, 'Trieste; ESRO's European Space Research Institute (ESRIN). near Rome; and the International Computation Center of the United Nations, Rome. Italian scientists are active participants in international scientific meetings and mane such meetings are held in Italy, usnally in Rome Although the Italians welcome possibilities for conducting continued and new activities at international research centers in their country, tile\ have become increasingly disillusioned with Euratom, ELDO, and ESRO because these organizations fail to provide progr ins of greatest interest to theta, such as that on a fast neutron breeder reactor in the Euratom program and that on the experimental microwave satellite in the space program. They have shown little interest and enthusiasm for the organic liquid cooled reactor that became a major activity at the Ispra center. Professor E. Amaldi, one of the strongest champions of the Enropean Nuclear Research Center (CERN), Geneva, has shown his preference for it site near Trieste for the 300 GeV accelerator, the largest on earth, which has been planned for some time by CERN. Italy's leading biologist, Professoi Buzzati- Traverso, has been working for years to have the European ?Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO) located in Italy. It appears that neither situatic will he resolved favrrabl, to the Italians. The cn crises in Italy's European cooperation in the atomic energy field through Euratom and in space through F.1,M) and ESRO appear to have had severe repercussnn;s on Italian science policy. Throngh the CNR, Italy has bilateral agreements in science and technology with the United States, the U.!'.S.R., Bulgaria, France, the Netherlands, Poland. Romania, and Spain. Other bilateral agreements are in effect through the Italian National Committee for Nuclear Energy (CNEN). Italian officials involved in scientific aff airs place great innponlance on scientific and technological cooperation with the United Slates, and Italy and the united Stales have cooperated for mane years in space studies. In addition to the fornnal f j e APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080002 -5 erne Is 110 Tr Q 11 programs of cooperation. there is it continl,t a, contact bON%een U.S. and Italian cientists in the universities and in industry. and there is an extensive student exchange program under various fellowship arrange- ments. It was reported in March 1972 that scientific relations between the Italian C and the U.S.S.R. Ac�adenly of Sciences have deteriorated because Italian scientists were frequently unable to obtain admission to certain scientific institutes to which admission had been previousl\ promised by the Soviets. ConsNitlently, the CNR is not encouraging exchanges of scientific visits unless there is a specific agreement on the itinerary. 'There is no longer an exchange of space scientists between Italy and the U. S. S. R. B. Organization, planning, and financing of research (C) (;overnmcntal organizations are assuming hwi cas- ing importance in the conduct of research and dcyclopnu`nt in Italy. The principal goveniment agencies concerned ccith research are shown in 1 I. The highest authority for oyerseving scientific research and deyelopnu�nt nctivities is till Interininis- terial Committee for :.c�,nunnic Planning Since Febncary 1 96 (:f;'F? \yhich is chaired by the 1'rinu X1inistcr .end composed of most of the important ministers, has been responsible for the control, organization, and planning of scientific research. Each year the president of the CN1l submits to CI 11' a report that is used as it basis fordec�iding on dic research and development budget allocations by the government. Rcfore submission, this study (General Report on the State of Science and Technology) is reviewed by the Minister of Science and "I'cchnology. who then passes his comments to CIPE. In December 1971, CI PE was given rvsponsibility for the overall direction of CNI N's nuclear research activities and for approval of long range plans submitted to it by CNI ?N through the Nlinistry of Industry and Conunercc. I'he \ginistry of Science and Technology, fornud in 1962, has practically no staff and has very limited funds. The minister has had an advisory function only. To date, most of the ministry's activities have consisted of studying wads of enlarging the responsibilities of the minister and in attempting to obtain the necessary powers for the ministry. 'I'll( supporters of the ministry favor it system w1wreby detailed proposals for research programs nmst be APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080002 -5 5 Imerministeriol Committee for Economic Prime Minister Council of Ministers ;t 4 h Planning(CIPE) 7 1 ter Inisterial Ministry of Science Committee for and Technology Space Activities (CIAS) rj Nation" Research Mlnistr of y Ministry of Public Ministry Ministry Ministry Ministry Council Industry and Instruc of of tion of of Other t (CNR) (Mpl) Health Agriculture Communications Defense Ministries 11 Natloncl Commission National Universities Higher Higher Defense Research Advisory for she Study Committee and Institute of 50 Experiment institute' Scientific. laborororls Committees of Space fa Nuclear t Technical Health Stations of Telecom- Technical Energy 1 Universities munlcations Council (CNEN) 50 Research, I I Resea� Od1e1 Tenter for Institutes, 5 Rovearch 1. Laboratories Institutes Military Centers, Centers 1 and Applications for r ono 1 Centers Nuclear Energy Loboratoiles Experimental J Center or y totions 5 1 Aeromedlcal Research f National Other Research Institute 1 Facilities far 11 S Nuclear Physics FlnotKlol Support 4 FIGURE 1. Government organization for science and technology, 1972 (U /OU) si 1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080002 -5 vubmittcd before funds are made available instead of the present system s%bere funds arc grunted to universities and are often used by the universities as general subsidies. However. mans professors in parliament have resisted a')y c�ltulle')ge to their control of research funds. Proposals for increasing the power of this ministry have also met with opposition from the Ministry of Public Instruction and from the CNR. 'Pile president of C:Nil believes that strengthening of the ,\Ministry of Science and 'fechnology aonld plaice it bureaucratic barrier between CNR and CII)E, from wbic�h the CNR obtains support for its program and budget. In September 1971 the Minister of Science and Tec�}tnology became chairman of the Inter ministerial Committee for Space Activities (CIAS). which is to control policy and make major decisions regarding the Italian space program. The National Research Council, which is under the Council of Minislers, has primary responsibility for most types of scientific research, and its president is generally recognized as the spokcs')ur') for the government scientific establishment (i')c�luding the universities) in all fields except nuclear research. The CNR supports its own faucilities, consisting of about 50 institutes, centers, and laboratories, and pro')urtr�s science through grants to groups or center at university research institutes and independent research institutes. The CNR plants and finances major programs, most of them of an interdisciplinary nature. Tliv CNR bus I l national advisory coin nnittces covering various fields of science, engineering, and the social sciences. 'I'll(- (:NR president is go noraIIy chosen frorn among the university professors who constitute the majority of the 1 numbers of the advisory c�o')trnittecs and is appointed by the 1resident of Italy. Although the CNR is responsible for coordinating national science Policy. it has limited powers to implement its decisions. It does not have control over the important ministerial laboratories, the nuclear energy program. or the space program. The CNR Comntittc�c on Space has only advisory functions. The (,Nil is second after the inistry of Public Instruction as it spender of government feeds for research and (Ievelopment, accounting for about 21 'c of the total in 1970, but ')lost of file (:Nil funds are consumed as grans to university rescarc�h so that its own laboratories are short of founds. The CNIi grants research fellowships in Italy or abroad, provides funds for conducting scientific meetings and conferences, and negotiates bilateral science cooperation agreements with other countries. The CNH is attempting to promote closer collaboration in research bclween (I ifferc')t industrial c�o')tpanies through strengthening of its technological research progruns. 'I'll( CNR administers the National Center for Scientific and "Technical Documentation in Ro')a�. Many of the government ministries play important roles in the national research progrun by administer- ing or supporting scientific rescarc�h in facilities that are directly_ or indirectly under their control. Although the universities enjoy considerable autonomy, the '.Ministry of Public Instruction, which is the leading spender of gover n ent funds for research and development (32i of the total in 1970), exercises a considerable influence. "file ministry provides fends for the construction of new laboratory facilities at the universities and for the purchase of apparatus and equipment for research. It also provides funds for the maintenance of research facilities at the approxi- matel\ 2,100 research institutes. centers, and laboratories conne,ted with the universities. More resea is itudertaken in the universities than elsewhere since the scientific institutes attached to them form the ba,;c'4rastruc�ture of public research in ltuiy. The statutes and rules governing universities and university institutes are based on the premise that research is a c�ontPlcnlent to teaching. The present statutes determine the number of faculties and set the basic disciplines and the rules. Each institute is directed by the holder of it chair who deals with the administration and supervises the scientific work, but the institutes have no financial autonomy. 'Thus, the director of an institute has no au.' rity to develop his research eviller. Geuer.�tlb lie ha r few research workers o') his staff and ever iewel clinicians and junior staff. of the total nu ,leer of inst. ales. 575 are dependent on 93 scientific and technical faculties. 610 on 23 faculties of medici;ie and surgery, and 615 are render the 100 faculties of veononlics and human sciences. Several opinions have been expressed that the number of institutes is excessive and has resulted in duplication of effort. Sometimes there are more institutes than professors. Substantial research programs are conducted by specific ministries. The Ministry of llealth operates the IIigher Institute of Ilealth in Ro')u, which employs it staff of about 800 research personnel conducting research in biosciences as well as air and water pollution. The Ministry of Agriculture and Forests has increased its budget during recent gars in order to modernize and expand its approximately 50 experiment stations. The Ministry of Defense has several laboratories sotbordinate to it, including the Center for Military Applications for Nuclear Energy, th;, Center for Acronledical Research of the Air Force in Rome, as well as other research facilities. The APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080002 -5 E Defense Scientific VvI III icaI Council coordinates research of interest to national defense. l he CNEN operates under the Ministr\ of Industry and Commerce but is largel\ autonomous. 'I'lIe CNEN. according to directives issued bN CIPE, is specifically charged with promoting and c�onductimg research on the Peacef(tl applications of nuclear energy and is responsible for coordination of basic and applied nuclear an(1 some nonnuclear research. prospecting for uranium, treatment of racy materials. the production of special and radioactive materials. and c�oordinution of research in Physics. chemistry, mathematics, biology, medicine, and engineering as they relate to nuclear energy. The C:NP,N is required to provide scientific and iechmic�al supervision of all projects c�onc�enied with production of nuclear raw muntcrials and with production of nuclear energy. Iloweyer. the nuclear power reactor program� which is of great importance to Italy because of the lack of coal and petroleum, was transferred in 1964 to the ne\\ly formed National t ?Icc�tric Power Agency (ENI:IJ. A::a result of this (�hangs�. the CNEN. %vhich prior to 1962 held first place in the amoli nt of research and (lcyelopmu�mt fonds assigned to government agencies. has dropped to third place. During 1970, CNEN accounted for 16� of the government research and developnu�mt fnlnds. Most of the CNEN budget is used for support of' five larger centers of its own. Ill a(l(litioll to the Trisaia Center, other centers are at Casaccia, Frascati, Bologna, and Saluggia. CNEN also had been the Principal supporter of the National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INPN) in Romle, but this institute is mow conlPlctely independent and its appropriations are approved directly by CIPE. The CNI':N employs a staff of more than 3,300, about 708' of whom arc graduates of higher institutions, research workers, and technical experts. The CNEN maintains technical an(I scientific relations with international and foreign organizations involved in nuclear research. Space research until 1972 was under the control of the Space Research Institute. This was replaced b\ two mew coordinating commissions: the C[AS, which is concerned with policy matte and the Commission for the Study of Space Questions, whic�11 is under tit(- (:NR. Italian aerospace research and development effort are managed and controlled by the ;Advisory Center for Studies and Research, which is directly under the Italian Air Staff. IralY has many academies and professional societies which function as cullnrnl associations concerned wilt the :ulyancer left l of scientific research. Examples include the National Association of Science, the Italian Institute for Space Research, the Italian Physics Soc�ieh, the National Association of Nuclear I.nginccring, aid the Italian forum for Nuclear Fiv -r};y. Man of the societies make contributions by awarding financial grants for specific projects and by providing documentation services. They publish original paper. of Italian scientists and provide translations of foreign scientific papers. Italian industry occupies an important position in the twerall picture, accounting for nearly one -half of the researc�li and (1- elopment activities. Research by private industry tends to be concentrated in a fe\y large companies. The Italian autunultiyc, chemical. electrical. pharnia(vtitic�al. textile, and tire industries have had strong research and development programs for mane years. The smaller companies restrict their research to those activities which lead to immediate commercial results. The state -owned industrial firms account forabout 20'8 of the industrial output and are among the leadrrs in industrial research. Italian expenditures for research uncl deyclopnu nl are increasing but are still inadelluatc w1jen compared with other industrialized countries. the expenditures are low espec�iall\ when compared with the amount expended by other highly developed countries of R'estem Europe. The total research expenditure for Italy, both public and prie.ate, for 1970 was estimated al about 0.8�(' of gross national product a,s against 0.71 in 1966. A committee appointed b the Minister of Science and Technology to advise on research and FIGURE 2. Breakdown of Research Expenditures by Agency and Sector, 1970 (U/OU) 5 �aR.xsn b ;r, x z s d! oh3?�a S J,,,;,,,:- K 7s APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080002 -5 MILLIONS U.S. v OF LIRE. DOLLARS* Public Sector: r Ministry of Public Instruction.... 79,332 118,(131,20(1 National Research Council....... 50,000 8(),00(),()()(1 National Committee for Nuclear Energy 37,024 59,238,400 Ministry of Health 4,417 7,067,200 Ministry of Defense 11,409 18,254,900 ?,Ministry of Agriculture........., 13,026 1,641,600 Other Ministries 19,916 31,865, (;00 Contributions to international agencies 9911 47,4193,11(1(1 Total public sector............ 233,120 372,992,000 Industry sector: State sub ;.i(hzed industry (18,1:33 1 Oil, 020,806 Private industry 185,21'3 2913,390,800 Total industry sector.......... 253,3,;1 405,3(31,(3(1(1 Total public and industry sectors.. -IS6,471 778,�353,;3(10 fi *Converted at. the rote of 1 million lye l!SRl t (1(1(1 5 �aR.xsn b ;r, x z s d! oh3?�a S J,,,;,,,:- K 7s APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080002 -5 development planning has recommended an increase in research and development funding I)N a factor of -I by 1980. Figure 2 gives a breakdo%%n of research expenditures by agencies and categories in 1970. The government supplied a8 "I" of the fonds, state subsidized industry WC, and private industry 38'(. Government support of research varies xvidel from one discipline to another. About 93o7i of the $40 million spent on physics n�search during 1968 c�anre front the government and only 7