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SECRET 17 /GS/TT Ital i December 1973 NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY 13 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080003 -4 ALI NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY PUBLICATIONS The basic unit of the NIS is the General Survey, which is now published in a bound -by- chapter format so that topics of greater per- ishability can be updated on an individual basis. These chapters Country Profile, The Society, Government and Politics, The Economy, Military Geog- raphy, Transportation and Telecommunications, Armed Forces, Science, and Intelligence and Security, provide the primary NIS coverage. Some chapters, particularly Science and Intelligence and Security, that are not pertinent to e all countries, are produced selectively. For small countries requiring only minimal NIS treatment, the General Survey coverage may be bound into one volume. Supplementing the General Survey is the NIS Basic Intelligence Fact book, a ready reference publication that semiannually updates key sta- tistical data found in the Survey. An unclassified edition of the factbook omits some details on the economy, the defense forces, and the intelligence and security organizations. Although detailed sections on many topics were part of the NIS Program, production of these sections has been phased out. Those pre- viously produced will continue to be available as long as the major portion of the study is considered valid.' A quarterly listing of all active NIS units is published in the Inventory of Available NIS Publications, which is also bound into the concurrent classified Factbook. The Inventory lists all NIS units by area name and number and includes classification and date of issue; it thus facilitates the ordering of NIS units as well as thsir filing, cataloging, and utilization. Initial dissemination, additional copies of NIS units, or separate chapters of the General Surveys can be obtained directly or through liaison channels from the Central Intelligence Agency. The General Survey is prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency and the Defense Intelligence Agency under the general direction of the NIS Committee. It is coordinated, edited, published, and dissemi- nated by the Central Intelligence Agency. WARNING This document contains information affecting the national defense of the United States, within the meaning of title 18, sections 793 and 794 of the US code, as amended. Its transmission or revelation of its contents to or receipt by an unauthorized person is prohibited by law. CLASSIFIED BY 019641. EXEMPT FF GENERAL DECLASSIFI- CATION SCHEDULE OF E. O. 11632 EXEMPTION CATEGORIES SB (1), (2), (3). DECLASSIFIED ONLY ON APPROVAL OF THE DIRECTOR OF CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080003 -4 Sri. is t. u.I NF& m J WARNING The NIS is National Intelligence and may not be re- leased or shown to representatives of any foreign govern- ment or international body except by specific authorization of the Director of Central Intelligence in accordance with the provisions of National Security Council Intelligence Di- rective No. 1. For NIS containing unclassified material, however, the portions so marked may be made available for official pur- poses to foreign nationals and nongovernment personnel provided no attribution is made to National Intelligence or the National Intelligence Survey. Subsections and graphics are individually classified according to content. Classification /control designa- tions are: (U /OU) Unclassified /For Official Use Only (C) Confidential (S) Secret yw. vaw+ werwcwwu. v'+ wn. w.+ a.-...+ ar .v...+wrw+'> .+q+wsaf+:wx. M' RVariML K4MS'YVaPPxavl6Mri?+4:n'aFAi.0 N `.9>A'ltttf i m u �C m a a. U �D .N y U q a C C 0. N rC C:. C a U i7 a d �p O a> �i .O a cd .O �a C .E 7 C C O C2 j I p .0 C ci E m al CI Q -o O C 7 O Q C m G a> w� w y C n eq N m .a a y a a CY CA C C E U C C n I U U a a C C U C 00 C .G 7 4 7 'D d a d C N M 00 al w. b0 O C w eo n d U N E O c O x C O J~ o 0 N O a x V U e o C a 00 O O N N N c 0. t7G W C 'c v 'd a o T N d �Y 'fl bc U m 'O O d a Op 01 a C a y U N A 7 O 'v E C Y .O J a U m.oa a. U �D .N y U q a C b N rC C:. C a U i7 a d �p O a> �i .O a cd .O �a C .E 7 C C O C2 j I p .0 C ci E m al CI Q -o O C 7 O Q C m G a> w� w y C n eq N m .a a a can vj w .0 E 7. O N c SC i .0 7 v C v A� g m c c C l z a cu C 0. T C O C L E a 0o0 C .G 7 4 7 'D d a d C N M 00 al w. b0 O C 0. Q z O U N E O C C a o q o 3 e o C a O O r cG G, co d x 7 W C 'c v 'd a N L C CO o a �y Q d d o a 'fl c ='o a�`i 0�l0 m .n .D 'D a' �n oa 5 0 b c m; 0. 3 m 5. 'o o o m W A c d E B W 3 F, mom eo m m v ai G a1 v v0 7 v C A F> OG a W p i M �w 1 X y C c a� oo c d v E o n u a' c v fl v E d c d c cs d E N m o z c> n w E m a d 5_ c d c a m a 3 z N o O O w A i I N O O+ D7 Q Q1 u] 00 .r y O O O a n n O O v: 00 O_ _O 7 oo p y G> d N N N" M N N N O M .yn n r O O M M a N o U T N d N U O d I C W N O h b t :D O @Z 7 0'J M Op mil' b O C2 j I p .0 C of al CI o o d o o o xz w A� g m c c cu 5 F I C C a 0 0 C N a v C .O 00 aw d b o d 4. i C w ce y oca b c7 u 3 .r G a1 w Cq F A F> OG 0. cQ p i e �o I O .0 00 N 0o O O A i I N O O O O O et O Et cat C7 I S V y C. o 'T' N O 00 c0 Im to M N u N M r. M t Qi N n n e- N d C N Y V .r0 O d 01 0 a a C 7 N F V V CD o m c m .3 5 a I 4 i 8 d N U O d I a N '50 N N 0. 00 a O W m a m N a U j I p .0 C of al CI o o d o o o xz w i 8 d m a c E m a m N a U p .0 N G a d E v d m o o o E A� g m c c cu 5 F I C C a 0 0 C N a O C .O 00 aw d b o d 4. i C w ce y oca b c7 bafl 3 .r G a1 w Cq F A F> OG 0. cQ p i APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080003 -4 t o peg/ k 2 /f Q]3� bo ]2 33 %33 ee �2E f s a kk j ou �w ca \)E)O 0 0 33. \k\ I A 2 2 7 a I I is to be spent on double tracking and electrific of lines in southern Italy. A further USS83.2 million is to he used to complete the Rome Chiusi section (99 miles) of the new Rome Florencr iigh speed line. To modernize the motive power an;: rolling stock pool, USS212.8 million is to be spe. a for 130 electric and 100 diesel locomotives, 50 three -car electric trainsets, and 1,100 high capacity freight and container cars. Characteristics of selected FS lines are given in Figure 2. Selected standard gage lines total 4,296 route miles or 43% of the FS network; they handle almost 90% of all rail freight and long distance rail passenger traffic and have an axleload capacity of 22 short tons. With the exception of 440 route miles of single track nonclectrified lines in southern Italy and Sardinia, all lines are double track and electrified, operating on 3.000 -volt direct current with an overhead catenary system. T he selected lines make eight international connections with rail networks of four neighboring countries. Rolling stock meeting UIC international specifications is interchangeable at these connections. D. Highways (C) The pattern and distribution of Italy*s highways have bee greatly influenced by the nnountainous and hilly terrain that char acterizes about four fifths of the country. The Alps in the north and the Apennines th at extend southeast down the peninsula have caused the highways to develope along the coasts and in the river valleys. Rclativel) few good highway, extend cast west across the mountainous spina. Density of the network is greatest in the northern half of the Peninsula. in Sicily the better routes extend along the seacoasts, and in Sardinia the network is concentra in the western part of the. island. The overall network is generally adequate to support the economy, but the rapid growth of the rnotor vehicle inventory is causing increased traffic congestion on routes in and around the larger urban areas. 'There arc good international highway connections with the networks of neighbor- ing France, Italy, Austria, and Yugoslavia. Figure 5 lists characteristics of selected highways. The highway network consists of about 179,000 miles of roads classified as follows: autostra(le, 3,000 miles (Figure i); state highways, 25,750 miles; provincial highways, 57,000 miles; and communal highways, 93,250 miles. Of the total, about 159,000 miles are surfaced with concrete, bitumen, or stonehlock; about 15,500 miles are surfaced with gravel or crushed stone; and the re maining 4,500 miles consist of earth roads. The condition of the network varies; autostrada and state highways are maintained at regular intervals and are in better condition than the other classes. Surface widths range generally from 16 to 45 feet autostrade have divided multilane roadways, each lane being 11.5 or 12.5 feet wide. Shoulders range up to about 10 feet wide but many miles of low -type roads, including sonic in rural areas, have no shoulders. Most bridges built before World War II are of brick or stonemasonry arch construc Ne wly constructed bridges, especially those on autostrade, are of reinforced or prestressed concrete the most common types of concrete structures are beam, a girder, bowstring, and cantilever. Steel bridges are of girder or through truss design, and sonic lift bridges have been built to permit passage of waterway traffic The only timber bridges arc located on rural roads. Vertical clearances on almost all bridges are unlimited; in the few cases w here there is a restriction, the clearance is at least 14 feet, horizontal clearance on all autostrade and on most state highw is equal to the road width. There arc a large number of narrow bridges on less used provincial and communal highways. Most structures have high load capacities; the older brick and stonemasonry bridges and the new concrete and steel bridges have load capacities of from 40 to 100 tons. Timber bridges have limited load capacities, generally from 2 to 7 tons. There are numerous tunnels and galleries on the network. The longest is the. 7.2- mile Mont Blanc Tunnel that affords an internationai connection with France. Seagoing ferries offer rail and motor vehicle service internationally and to offshore islands. I'he two most important routes are the 5 mile crossing between Villa San Giovanni to Messina and the 9.3 -mile crossing from Reggio di Calabria to Messina. Ferries also operate from Genoa to Sardinia and Sicily and from Livorno and Civitavccchia to Sardinia. The National Autonomous Agency for State I lghways (Azienda Nationale Autonoma delle Stra(le Statali �ANAS) is the government agency responsible for the construction and maintenance of state highwa and the autostrade system. 'I'll( Minister of Public Works serves as president of ANAS and presides over an Administrative Council that approves file organizations budget, program, and policies. Below the national level, highway technic offices located in the provinces and communes are concerned with the c onstruction and maintenance of roads. The centr government has assumed greater control over provincial and communal hir because of the shortage of funds at the local level. T he construction j: ;fl; APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080003 -4 25X1 Provincial and communal highway organizations are responsible for their respective road systems; however, the increased inability of the provinces and communes to support highway development projects has resulted in many miles of provincial highways being reclassified as state highways. Similarly, communal highways are being reclassified as Provincial highways. Significant construction and maintenance problems result from adverse terrain and climate. Road construc in the rugged hills and mountains is costly and difficult, requiring extensive excavation and embankment. Numerous high -level structures are required over streams and valleys, and many tunnels must be constructed. Steep slopes necessitate miles of retaining walls and numerous galleries. Drainage in the hills and mountains requires extensive culvert and ditch construction. Landslides, in many cases precipitated by heavy rains, frequently destroy road sections and require extensive reconstruction and maintenance. Heavy snowfall in the north and along the mountainous spine requires snowsheds in some areas; extc, isive inventories of snow removal equipment are available to keep roads open during the winter. Flooding is a recurring problem in low -lying areas, often causing severe damage to roads and bridges. Construction materials, including gravel, sand, and stone, are available in most sections of the country. Cement and reinforcipg and structural steel are produced locally; adequate supplies of bituminous materials are available as a refinery byproduct. Both skilled and unskilled labor is available, and technical personnel, engine. rs, and equipment operators are highly competent. A 10 -year phase of the highway development program ended in 1970 but is being continued as a 5- year plan for the period 1971 -75. Most development effort has been directed to the construction and expansion of the autostrade network, but improve- ment of selected portions of the state highway systems has been accomplished, and additional improvements are underway or planned. The expansion of the autostrade network has been the most significant part of past and present development programs. About 3,000 miles of autostrade have been constructed and are in use. Another 700 miles are under construction, and an additional 650 miles arc in the planning stage. The 4,350 mile basic network is scheduled to be completed by 1975, but some short routes are programed for completion after that data The most important autostrade currentfv tinder construction are as follows: ORIGIN DESTINATION MILES Bari Taranto 54 Voltri Gravellona 130 Caserta Salerno 38 Messina Termine Imerese 140 Palermo Mazara del V610 75 Ancona Pescara 95 Vasto Foggia 70 Autostrade routes on which construction is scheduled to be completed by 1975 are the 200 -mile segment from Livorno to Civitavecchia, the 56 -mile route from Udine to Tarvisio, the 86 -mile route from Taranto to Sibari, and the 125 -mile route from Catania to Gela via Siracusa. In addition to these projects, the capacities of some autostrade are being augmented by construction of one or more new lanes in each direction; most are limited to the vicinity of major urban areas. A number of the newer autostrade have been constructed with thrcc lanes in each direction, and some new segments are planned with four lanes in each direction. Sonic of the autostrade currently being built incorporate additional horizontal clearances on bridges and underpasses to facilitate the construction of extra lanes when traffic growth requires there. About five international tunnels are planned to provide better connections between Italy and France, Switzerland, and Austria. The most important project is the 8 -mile Frejus tunnel west of Torino. Designed to provide a year -round road link with France, construction is scheduled to begin in 1973. Another important project is the planned rail highway crossing from the mainland to Sicily across the strait. About US$2 /pillion has been expended for feasibility studies, and preliminary construction is scheduled to begin in 1974. Movement on the highway system may be restricted by physical bottlenecks (Figure 4) including tunnels, galleries, narrow roadways and streets, sharp turns in towns and villages, underpasses, sharp curves, steep grades, narrow low capacity bridges, and some ferries. Climatic factors impeding movement include he.avv rains which cause flash floods and landslides, in('] snowfalls which block mountain passes. I lighway transport operations are controlled by the Ministry of 'Transport and Civil Aviation through its agency, the inspectorate Gesteral of Motorization. Contra! is exercised through the issuance of licenses authorizing the establishment of a transport line or service. The most common type of license is issued to an individual or firm for truck services and vehicles used exclusively in the conduct of the firm's business Aay LEr APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080003 -4 -Jnno me rn c- u 0 I FIGURE 4. Highway bottlenecks (U /OU) Top. Narrow bituminous surfaced secondary road in a rural area of Sicily Bottom. The hairpin curves on this bituminous surfaced highway are typical of alignments in rugged terrain in Italy 13 operations. "the Second type of license is that issued to Reggio di C;tlahria, Savona, 'I'arutht, Trieste, a company providing transport services for hire. Most and Vc�nic�c. The Irincipal commodities hauled b truck of the i.ocks registered are owned and opera ted by ire agrictiltural products, manufactured goods, rase firms that employ them in carrying out their own materials, and petrolettrn products. operations, Most of the for-hire transport services In January 1972 the 12,651,977 registered motor consist of single vehicle owner operators and firms that less 'There vehicles consisted of 11.6-13,67 passenger cars and own than 25 vehicles. are some large firms 1,008,301 trucks and buses. Ihtly is a significant that operate country wide and internationally. producer of motor vehicles; in 1971 nutnufacturc The [use of containers is increasing both for domestic ;unoututed to 1,817,019 passenger cars. 'There are y and international freight rrtovernenl. Major container ;[bout !0 motor vehicle manufacturers; 1iat, the terminals are in operation at Cenoa, I,a Spezia, principal producer, accounted for over 80% of the s Livorno, and Naples; smaller facilities are at Ancona, total vehicles produced. 'There is an important market 4 Bari, Cagliari, Civit wec�chia. Palermo, Porto 'Torres, for exports, and large numbers of vehicles arc also 13 .ri'y:'�' nom r i 9 a I 1 I x x a x I I a q O .5 e w o G a O I O I O O M a O tl 00 O O tl O M O tl 0 0 0 oD O O 3 I I c e a I I a m L u U !d O a 00 to-o L C C U O V L 61 'n q U 'fl C to M m q v U tD m .n CV Lei of tc G C C O w C d I N N N M N W N .�a N ad x I I a q O .5 e w a O I O I O O M a O tl 00 O O tl O M O tl 0 0 0 oD O O 3 I I c e a m I I O a 00 to-o L C C V L 61 I.n 'fl N o M N N N N N 0 N N N N N tD m .n CV Lei of I a an d m N m o a a a a os w C d I N N N M N W N .�a N ad I 11 G C G C cl C I GO w V G a w> O 'C C "t c O U a O N m m 10 C E d rfi I u. I wF ta a >r�w�rx� G c c v v v L v �n` v v v a a c v v 'n v v �n w I U I r 'o O n M M J0 0 n t0 0 .M. N N O I M OI 00 n C N M c0 N ti M M n 01 c 0 Ir M c0 N N U o I F a q O .5 e O a 00 to-o L C C V L 61 I.n 'fl N o a�. m c H v E- c u ai o oa, m eo 'v o eo c m Lei F Ls. o n y M a< O v) a p a I II s o a a' d q Oa v w O O N O .�a N ad I 11 G C G C cl C I GO w V G a w> O 'C C "t c O U a O N m m 10 C E d rfi I u. I wF ta a >r�w�rx� ai a 0 c a A 4 .'y 1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080003 -4 0 E imported. In 1971 the 680,500 motor vehicles exported consisted r f 640,190 passenger cars, 38,440 trucks, and 1,870 buses; 395,700 passenger cars, 14,508 trucks, and 362 buses were imported. Italy is also an important manufacturer of road construction and maintenance equipment; large quantities are exported, and some special purpose types are imported. E. Inland waterways (C) Inland waterway's play a minimal part in tile. economy, but their importance should increase within the next decade upon completion of an extensive waterwa_: development and improvement program now underway. Waterway traffic amounted to 4,070,000 short tons in 1971. Principal commodities haul ^d were sand and gravel, petroleum products, ore, construction materials, fertilizers, and agricultural products. The waterway network is only marginally adequate for normal requirements. The inland waterway system provides a total of 1,538 miles of navigable routes; 702 miles are rivers, 529 miles are canals, and 307 miles are lake. routes. In terms of navigability based or. the largest barge that the waterways can accommodate, this mileage is classified as foliows: MAXIMUM NAVIGABLE BARGE SIZE MILES short tons 58 275 447 440 392 715 223 1 1 100 I..... 69 11650 407 The waterways are concentrated almost entirely in tile, northeastern section of the country and consist mostly of land -cut canals and improved natural streams. On the Tvrrhenian seacoast, four short canals serve Visa, Livorno and Viareggio. Except for the Viareggio to Vecchiano canal, which carries about 700,000 short tons annually, none are significant. further t�) the south, the Ti her River between Rome and Fiumicino on the coast is classified as a navigable inland waterway, but it carries virtually na commercial traffic. In northern Italy near the base r,(' the Alps, four large I�thes, Maggiore, Como, Iseo, :.nd Garda, supply the remainder of the Italian waterway routes. L,ago Maggiore provides an inter- -ational connection with Switzerland. Of the 1.,5.`38 navigable miles, sonic 935 miles of principal routes are discussed below. 'Their selection has heen hascd on the length of the routes and their navigability, annual tonnages, and overall importance to the national network. The selected routes and their lengths in miles are as follows: WATERWAY LENGTH Po river 384 Ferrara canal system 58 Venice Brondolo -Po waterway 31 Litoranea Veneta 76 'Venice-Padova waterway Milan canal system 77 Lakes: Maggiore 76 Como 68 Iseo............................ 50 Garda............................. 95 The Po and its navigable tributaries form the nucleus of the Italian inland waterway system and provide 384 miles of routes through the rich agricultural and industrial regions of northern Italy. Its tributaries are the Mincio, Oglio, Ticino, and Adda rivers. The system, by direct or indirect connections, enables vessels to operate from Milan, Pavia, Mantova, and Cremona to Ferrara, Venice, and Sdobba near Trieste. The river is navigable for 171 Miles by vessels of 1,485- short -ton capacity fron. one of its several mouths at Pila, on the Adriatic Sea, to Cremona. The 33 -mile segment between Cremona and Piacenza is usable by 660 -ton craft, and the final 56 miles of the Po proper to its upstream limit of navigation at Gerola Nuova are navigable by 330 -ton vessels. The only lack on the Po is about midway I tween Cremona and Piacenza, but some 25 bridges rosy the waterway. These have vertical and horizontal underbridge clearances adequate for vessels now using the waterway. Of the tributaries, the 25 miles of the westernmost 'Ticino river connect the Po with Pavia and with the Milan canal system, but because of inadequate depths and numerous small locks, relatively little tonnage is moved over the route. The Adda river provides about 15 miles of waterway between formigara and the confluence with the Po upstream from Cremona. There are no locks and only two bridges on this segment, which, although shallow, carries it fair amount of traffic. The Oglio river, which joins the Po at mile 11 8, is navigable for 100 -ton craft for 41 miles to Canncto still' Oglio. It has no locks, but there are numerous bridges. The Mincio, which is ttsable for 13 miles from the Po to ,!re important city of Mantova, is the most important of the four Po tributaries and is navigable by 1,485 -ton craft. Its structures consist of two lochs and six bridges. Petroleum products account for about 75% of the cargo handled. 15 Z APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080003 -4 The 58 -mile Ferrara canal system is a group of canals radiating from the agricultural and industrial center of Ferrara and providing an alternate route to the Adriatic generally parallel to but south of the Po. The system consists of the 42 -mile Po di Volano, the 3.5 -mile Canale Boicelli, the 8 -mile Canale Marozzo, and the 4.5 -mile Canale Pollotta. Widened and deepened in recent years, the system has a total of five locks and can accommodate 1,485 -ton barges. The system joins the Po at Pontelagoseuro north of Ferrara. The Ve nice- Brondolo -Po waterway is an important, heavily travelled 31 -mile north -south route between Venice and the Po. It is navigable by 1,485 -ton craft between Venice and Chioggia and by 660 -ton craft between Chioggia and the Po. Stroctures consist of four single- chamber locks, one double- chambered lock, and seven bridges, three of which have movable spans. Chioggia. about midway on the route, is an important waterway port Willi waterway connections leading westward. A northward extension of the Venice Brondolo -Po waterway, the Litoranea Veneta, extends northeast- ward from Venice along the Adriatic coast to Sdobba near Trieste and the Yugoslav border. The 76 -mile waterway permits traffic to move from the Po through Venice to Italy's eastern frontier. The Litoranea Veneta is composed of a number of land -cut canals, natural channels, several lagoons, and short river stretches. Craft of 660 -ton capacity can navigate throughout its length, A total of 197 miles of navigable rivers and canals branch off the Litoranea Veneta to provincial centers to the north and west. The waterway has five locks and eight bridges with movable spans. The 19.5 -mile Venice Padova waterwav is the most important in the Padova canal system, which has a total of 150 miles of mostly low- capacity but essential routes connecting Venice, Padova, Chioggia, and Vic( nza. The Venic Padova waterway, usable by 330 ton craft, is a canalized stream and has five locks and numerous bridges. The Milan canal system has three canals, which are important transport arteries in the Lombardia legion. The canals provide Milan with access to the 'Ticino, Adda, and Po rivers and to the lakes Maggiore and Como. The three canals are the Naviglio Grande, which links Milan with Lagodi Cvmo (Lake Como); the Naviglio delta Martesana, which connects Milan Willi the Adda; and the Naviglio di Pavia between Milan and Pavia on the 'Ticino. Although 77 miles of canals are navigable by vessels of less than 100 -ton capacity, the system carries a heavy volume of traffic. 16 The four most important Italian lakes in de,;cending order of commercial significance are Como, Iseo, Maggiore, and Garda. All four are located near the base of the Alps; all are long, narrow, and deep and are encircled by steep mountains. The northern part of Lago Maggiore lies in Switzerland. Passenger traffic is heavy on the lakes much of the year. The heaviest freight traffic is on 56- square -mile Lago di Como, which transports an annual tonnage ranging bet�,veen 385,000 and 550,000 short tons. Lago di Iseo and Lago Maggiore each move about 110,000 short tons per yea ago di Garda, the largest of the four, carries vir qtly no freight. Natural traffic interruption factors on the waterw consist of seasonal water -level fluctuations, floods, shifting sandbars, fog, and silting. These factors at times limit navigation and may cause vessels to proceed at reduced draft, but they do not usually bring about any serious suspension of traffic on the principal routes. Ice, which is normally a threat to navigation on other European waterways, rarely occurs on Italian canals and rivers. The inland waterway ports, with the exception of Venice, which handles large amounts of both inland waterway and maritime traffic, are largely inade- quate. In general, they are meager and have rudimentary cargo-handling and berthing facilities and poor clearance. Storage facilities are sparse. In terms of short tons handled, the following were the leading waterway ports in 1970: Venice 2,000,000 Mantova 800,000 Ferrara 495,000 Cremona 339,000 Ostiglia 290,000 Milan 193,000 (est) "!'he inland waterway fleet in December 1971 con listed of the following vessels: Almost all units of the fleet are small, low capacity craft; only 31 barges have a capacity greater than 1,000 tons, A more recent fleet census has not been published, but the number of larger vessels, particularly tankers, is increasing. a "C1v.3Y1t5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080003 -4 SHORT -TON- TYPE NUMBER CAPACrr'Y Self propelled barges 378 50,000 Self propelled tankers 42 25,200 Dumb barges 348 50,800 Dumb tankers 34 17,000 Tugs 15 0 Push boats 7 0 Total 824 143,000 Almost all units of the fleet are small, low capacity craft; only 31 barges have a capacity greater than 1,000 tons, A more recent fleet census has not been published, but the number of larger vessels, particularly tankers, is increasing. a "C1v.3Y1t5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080003 -4 f.l.l� ^IG 4 Administration, supervision, and control of the k waterways are divided between two government departments. The administrative control of shipping and the ownership and commissioning of vessels is under the Ministry of Transport and Civil Aviation, and the Ministry of Public Works is responsible for the construction and maintenance of waterways and the publication of waterway statistics. In very recen' -cars some of the inland waterways t have been significantly improved, and further improvement and modernization are both in progress and planned. The Po, formerly usable only by 600 -ton craft, is now navigable throughout much of its length by 1,485 -ton barges as is the Venice- Brondolo -Po Watervay. A new waterway, the Milan- Cremona -Po canal (Figure 6) is tinder construction and, when completed, probably by 1975, will connect Milan with the Po and thus provide direct access from Milan to the Adriatic for 1,485 -ton vessels. The new 46 -mile canal is to have a 126 -foot width and a 12.5 -foot depth. New port fac ilities are tinder construction at both Milan and 0emona. The 17 -mile Venice- Padova canal, also under construction, is scheduled for completion in 1977; it will be navigable by 1,485 -ton barges. Figure. 7 lists characteristics of selected inland 4 r wateryays. F. Pipelines (C; Italy is developing extensive pipeline systems in support of a rapidly growing domestic petroleum trade and for tl.e international movement of crude oil from Mediterranean terminal: to central Europe. More than 1,100 miles of pipelines transport crude oil, 500 miles of commercial lines are used for the distribution of refined products, and nearly 400 miles of military refined products pipelines serve NATO installations in FIGURE 6. Recently completed segment of the Milan- Cremona -Po canal. Looking eastward. (U /OU) Italy. The country's natural gas pipeline network totals more than 6,000 miles and is one of western Europe's largest. Oil and natural gas pipelines are owned and operated by several commercial companies and the National Hydrocarbons Authority (Ente Nationale Idrocarburi�ENT Large diameter crude oil lines connect inland petroleum refineries with modern port facilities; more than 60% of these lines connect with marine petroleum terminals in the Genoa area. Two large international pipeline systems transport crude oil from Italian ports to refineries in Austria, Switzerland, and West Germany. One of these, the 420 -mile, 18- to 32- inch- diameter Central European Pipeline, extends from Genoa to Ingolstadt, West Germany. At Ferrera Erbognonc a branch line extends northwestward to Aigle, Switzerland. The other international system is the 40 -inch Trans Alpine Pipeline, which extends 285 miles from the Trieste tanker ltnloading terminal and extensive crude oil storage facilities through Austria to Ingolstadt, West Germany, refineries. In Austria a branch pipeline serves several petroleum refineries. Refined products pipelines are mainly concentrated in northern Italy. Commercial lines of 4- to 20 -inch diameters connect refineries with distribution facilities and poNverplants. The 94 -mile line from Trecate to Savona is the longest. Small diameter military Pipelines transport fuels from La Spezia to Rivolto, a distance of 267 miles. At Parma, 56 miles northeast of La Spezia, a branch line extends 119 miles across Italy to Ravenna on the Adriatic coast. An extensive natural gas pipeline network is supplied mainly by fields in the Po valley and b- imported liquified natural gas, which is processed and enters the Italian lines it La Spezia. Northern Italy is interlaced with natural gas pipelines, and important trunk lines extend clown both coasts. In Sicily natural gas is piped from Gagliano Castelfcrrato to consumers Cli r APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080003 -4 ;x17ii i II r r I I 1 I i I 5 I C Y 'J. N I n tl tl a tl tl tl oG M tl tl tl tl U 9 I O w I O OO O s Y ti O O a 4. o o A 11 u a a C O c m 7 5 .N. N w 00 a m a I M M 66 N C; M C; O Z O C M M C C q a C 'p Cd M m n z W I O p w 00 X X X Y. Y, Y. v X o _7 U I o co co 0 o co 0 00 C N I a N N N C I ell O v d G C Cl pp N 0 O c p; c c c o oG O .i 0 v d o d c, c �c a v c c c �0 v, d 'vi Cl c a tm 00 w 7 o 0.1 00 U 5 Y. I I pp a a e m �_L) ..C7 a M M M U iC I I C C C tl tl C tl C cl) v tj z n q h cl C C C c h d U !J C U C G h 0 C v C V C GO V c I c U U a 0 y o M a d M a U o m v o s v m m O 0 to a o a e o 0 0 0 0 c c v a O O c Q. R. P Ln w w 7 z M I C Y 'J. N I n tl tl a tl tl tl oG M tl tl tl tl U 9 I O w I O OO O s Y ti O O a 4. o o A 11 u a a C O c m 7 5 .N. N w 00 a m a I M M 66 N C; M C; O Z O C M N I n tl tl a tl tl tl oG M tl tl tl tl U 9 I O w I O T T O 3 t 3 C a v w w ne D 0 LL 5 z z W i z z W a F W z OO O s Y ti O O a 4. o o A 11 u a a C O c m 7 5 .N. N w 00 a m a I M M 66 N C; M C; O Z O C M M M M N a C 'p Cd M m n z W I O p w 00 X X X Y. Y, Y. v X o _7 U I o co co 0 o co 0 00 0 0 I w N N N I O O O w N O Cl pp O C y d m Y N a .r y O aCa O J C Q. a^�� a a d d 0 M N oG c q U a 2 a o d c, c �c a v c c c �0 v, d 'vi Cl c a c w 7 o 0.1 o vS an CC d d d o U 5 Y. I I pp c m a c m �_L) ..C7 a M M M U iC I I C C C tl tl C tl C cl) C tj z ,C C C c I I M T T O 3 t 3 C a v w w ne D 0 LL 5 z z W i z z W a F W z E pm t. Vr i v :n a d o d C q N o A 7-. a c OO O s a 4. o o A 11 u a a C a c C a �D c m d es CL cd a 0 C C C n 00 a v a C 'p Cd c O p w 00 v c�: C d o o m C b a 04 a C cs ctl 'x y d M O C y d m Y N a .r y O aCa O J C Q. a^�� a a d d 0 M N N c q U a 2 a o d c, c �c a v c c c �0 v, d 'vi c a c w 7 o 0.1 o vS an CC d d d o U 5 a� o N i 0 a a= c m a c m �_L) ..C7 a a s q a b z> 3a r- U No r a F U U U a U z 7 z E pm t. Vr i v :n a d o d C q N o A 7-. a c yif ni.m I! "ff n in Gela and Termini Imerese and from Bronte to Catania. No major crude oil or refined products pipelines are planned, but Italy has two important large- diameter international natural gas pipelines tinder construction. A 500 -mile line is being built to bring natural gas to Italy from the Netherlands through West Germany and Switzerland; this line will terminate at Mortara, southwest of Milan. The second international line will allow natural gas from the Soviet Union to be piped across Czechoslovakia and Austria to Tarvisio, Italy. The Italian segment will continue southwestward to its terminal at Seregno, north of Milan. Both lines are scheduled for completion by the end of 1973. In addition, Italy is studying plans to construct a large diameter natural gas pipeline across the Mediter- ranean from Algerian fields. Details of selected pipelines are given in Figure 8. G. Ports C) Oceangoing vessels can berth alongside in the 16 major and 22 significant minor ports, which are located on the mainland and t!;c islands of Sicily and Sardinia. The mountainous nature of Italy, its geographical position at the crossroads of the Mediterranean, and the fact that over 90% of the country is within 75 miles of the coast have made it one of the leading maritime nations. The relative scarcity of large bays and natural harbors has necessitated the construction of extensive artificial protective works as expansion of ports has taken place. harbor space in all but a few ports is at a premium. Mediterranean mooring is widely used to conserve space, cargo being lightered ashore. Most of the major ports are on the mainland and are fairly well distributed along the Adriatic, Ligurian, and Tyrrhenian seacoasts. Catania, Messina, and Palermo are major ports in Sicily; Cagliari is the capital and chief port of Sardinia. Genoa and Savona on the northern part of the west coast and Venice- 4 Marghera at the head of the Adriatic handle the major share of traffic to and from the northern industrial centers. Livorno is an outlet for the north- central cities of Florence, Bologna, and Perugia. Trieste, also at the head of the Adriatic, handles traffic primarily in transit to and from Austria and Czechoslovakia. s' Naples, second only to Genoa in activity, is the j principal focal point for central and southern Italy. Adriatic commerce and trade with the Middle East arc carried on through the smaller Adriatic ports of Bari, Brindisi, and Ancona. Barletta, about 35 miles northwest of Bari, is a fishing port that has limited traffic. Taranto, in southern Italy, and La Spezia are significant as naval bases; the latter is also important commercially. Most Italian ports are under the direct o%vnership and control of the state through the Ministry of Merchant Marine. Two exceptions are Genoa and Trieste, which are governed by autonomous port associations. The major ports are well equipped and efficient and are considered adequate for normal requirements. The principal naval bases, La Spezia, Taranto, and Messina, provide varying degrees of operational and logistical support to fleet units. Various expansion and renovation projects are envisioned for the major ports tinder a 5 -year plan (1971 -75). Some of the projects include construction of container terminals, berthing for supertankers, and a bridge over the Messina strait to connect Sicily with the mainland by 1977. Plans are being drawn up for a new port at Voltri, some 4 miles west of Genoa. The earliest date for completion of this project, which includes three container facilities and it number of roll -on roll -off berths, is 1980. Planned for Naples is it container marshalling, storage, and clearance area some 12 miles from the main port. Funds have already been appropriated to modernize and enlarge existing port facilities. Present general cargo traffic is expected to grow considerably because of new industries settling in the Naples area and in southern Italy. Work is proceeding on a new commercial basin at Marghera, to which the free port will later be transferred. In addition, oil traffic is being rerouted via the MalamoCCO canal to bypass Venice proper to the San Leonardo petroleum docks. This canal is to have depths sufficient for large tankers and is ultimately to extend to Marghera. In Trieste, Pier VII has recently been completed as a facility for co:tainerships, but so far no handling equipment has been provided. Pier VII is a transshipment point for an expected large trade in containerized fruit and vegetables which will move from Greece, Israel, Turkey, and other Middle Fast ports through "Trieste to northern Europe. Details of the major ports are tabulated in Figure 9. H. Merchant marine (C) Despite Italy's heavy reliance on maritime transport, the merchant fleets carrying capacity has not kept pace with tl,, country's annual growth in international seaborne trade; Italy has increasingly depended upon foreign -flag shipping for the carriage of this trade. In 1969 the fleet carried about 2.1% of the total volume of seaborne imports and exports and in 1970 about 211. As a result of more funds paid out 19 r APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080003 -4 t E E bc bc 0 bc r- c ce I bc cl r C; bc z z be bc cs E" ic 0 'w n E C ts C bc 0. o. t C, 4 bc hc tl O C2 i; i T C G 0 0 be U C3 t'L a .0 Ld I bL 0 0 CQ z 0 z a r .O 0 V. rr C) C CD 0 8 :1 CD CD O CD M C O O O oc 1 X I Q iz t- 9: C4 C11 m ac ac C 0 .3 cz to ce b C CL ce bo bo bo uj cc bc D 2 7Q cl 0 w c "W u be 0 13 41 a, bo 20 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA�RDP01-00707R000200080003-4 :.1 bYf v, Y n:. ..5":f.? p.esr rv: ven. s.-,.. ......_....r. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080003 -4 m o' a d" c d c e N, o c E n L r o b c e n L b c o_ o r E o a m d n bC a v `o c_ o"'. G o a y n C� o IQ `c a m c L .n c V g c c m M y o a eon G c r a cs E" c c c N m n o b a o 0C r E r a e o� d a t a: n o c c 8' a L c m a e O z a a a W .a n 'c O y it a o a T u 0o T a p p0 W vi to C be E o W C .O a C L m 'e v v L d L dz E a u o' z C Z O O O O O O O O O O w O as O O G O a n -r N O n O O O w r o 0 0 0 e n o r o c o w n n n o o c oC O o0 O O O O O O C O O N r r r O O r M .ti tC 1 CO N v M 00 N M 1� C 00 d V n O bo 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 'L7 cm cli 00 00 .N. C t0 00 N O 00 to t0 M t0 N N N Cl �L C] tr r� D In N N N C13 tp ID N N N M M to M 00 0 o W n 0 m o to o u c a :.._�a O0 O a s CJ C y tq C G J C OD y R7 o q o F a [L C7 0, L a o i o E e v O m O C C CD bo d v y y _c a O O G O a N 00 a 7 a AWL ry) E E o 0 o m E to A a r. m F U a SUQ Y 21 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080003 -4 I r Y 4! I _I C i Et e u a c I n c o o c e� n 01 C C C C C C C C M C fj C F I a I O o d 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 b b b b b b b b b b b b 'tl b b b b b b b C W I N t0 0 M v rNlp c I p pp q N 10 O I C N C Cl N G C .i M O N N 0 N to a t0 r0 O F n U cu O a v y cu C N ro m E s m 4 o U o% a a m o d s 0.:ixU: aUwcUwUZr 7F ro d v v E U L 7 C w 7 q C a C ro 4 :n G d a c= d c w a w m y of a o C a o U. I v I o7 C d 7 C .0 03 O C O n q e5 c0 a, y 07 C N U U i j 22 i APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080003 -4 4 M 4 Y y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080003 -4 r- Ci. toe .s.. 0 o v u L C v C U q x d C C O w G m 'ca c d 7 O m m W-0 a c r o d m a v N c D c O es q c N o m o d w y y v v E m m o m' c v�- E v m b d 4I> I c c o `a s c o a o m� a c� Y `o s an 7E a c c�cY o C au C 'D m cr N-� 1 r v C L Y 7 C r'.` Cv m E v o o s .a.+ cv r, a� d o o> U E r, d- o p c D m m N I m o c7 x E� C Z C O C C Q 00 d v C �a a sJeD i. C O A I v U C 'O C �fl a c a a Gp N O '+7 c -r m c d v C p �O 5 a �c m H a m C O m U r, C a CO d q 0 a�. s c C I d 'O N U a d a Y C I i` N bid `o a `n I r i a I�E; c= `o L cD I �mz o e d I OO d m a C m 00 d m �o 'O m d c C~ o G 7 E i Y m i Y O m E v L N o o>� "o C 3 0> n t t o o c m O o> m U U v u c c �o 7 G C m aLi C c m a C O v C Y C m N C 'O L O C C V O C d 00 d O C O a _N v C y a d a E r L, a! c L L Q a N w u c E M v c d o r. a v o oo �c c 3 m N a 6 O w y M a A O O N q M L X c E c a 'C 6 0 �o O m m O m c z a O y o s c a� c a o m a 7 o m o m a a n m .p c a" z^ n c v o x o m o I a a m d _a d c bo a O .E a c c c t o a a d c o A d c a x o I Eat d m E "a a 'a =b s- o o E d a o c a�. a G o o p Y N a o a o y a d L d c o a s mid a L c m c a s a o N t ce aci O..c ...0 C �tl api a C t COO w a .0 O a m .c D U O c O .fl m D v d -a o �o y L a ai v .0. ata 'a> a a y m d o a� a d a o. �`ocd M�r a te ca c O d a c c a v L a E a a r v m c d e a m m s. -v o o m o o d s c E d .E o I a c m a a Om a 'ca x a s m m O a a c L t s m c o s a o o v C R C a d a a O y a G y .w d c y a a `O m a E j Z 3 x c q o ci o v go .c m w c> a o 6 m a c c n a a a d d cc L U d E e m 0 a w a s 4 d L E a 0 a e E a o l o a A c w m a w d a E. a 4 o t M a 4 a m E� s u d L C 11 1 'p aci m O= E, d N m N d rn U a I 7 C a a d E d td m I 'p d a s 1 I a N v y N 'j, p I N r m dr m s 'e E a, c c d E I d d C c E d m 7 a a x E s a b urn m W O m cC L E v Ern E fi s� cd E v w b o U a O C. o z �0 o S o c ,o `c ::E o w f U t to t P 41 x S o uj y d I C M O 0 0 G W m m 23 t y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080003 -4 1 i U o IO 00 CL C m Ca o M 00 a 0 'O c as O U .X p 'O W a c a o �m, a m of 7 a a o W a� A a a .a C .ri n N V 24 g Q .>'i m C 'O y a N m m to O C Y A m a Q Y C a a E U m G C 'C v U 'D a L w I U U A L (/1 m E A d .a. O a .a., U .O. d a A v m C C C 'O oo .x 'fl 6 C 7 C s C A E yi a y C C7 7 u 4 G L' g 'O o y O a O c m m E i I z q of a m s C 'a0 Eo a O Y� >a N> a 0 C m .Caa m v a� m N i m M m O w ai O v ai m m8 d o I m a ti v m a o o m d m 03 O d 'O G O 'O 'O a C i m O Oo C d> d c C m S m d I o a po y a c C O y 'O d a a C oS a v N p a O c> U N O O C U> v N O m m C w m a L O o O N G m m^ v G C W C v y C Y m C W a C -M C y C m a N C O C O E C^ a C r.) m O N a Q a a C a vi Q t 6xi a a Iv .fl O C d O w> y N .YOa C 'C A G C Y C a w C_ d y p U d 7 C ro m O O. 'a 'G 7 O be a C' O C m C a O�� O s n� S U C d 9 U M bC 'c O m Is A C. 'fl O lS C :C v 0 �i O w d 'o 'fl :fl U E 3 3 A 'C c m o c d E m 7 C a m c a O e d a~C 4 9 m a A W O w a A U 'O 'i. 7 'fl m 3 O C a -0 I O a U 0. m m ID A a U U^ I Y a J b al C d U O c a a 10 'O v .D C U of a a L C 10 :fl -O o) N I� A �y 00 y M A E y m a a v v Y Ip 7 eM a c y a o a d o c v d o d o y d� o m a c y o w x a a .o a c M I o o d E a E m d a G m a a a y v aY A m Y O t v Y r. d E C fl O A a C A w Y m B ro .vYo, a_ m m w m Y fl m y d Y c W m o E o �w d a, o a 0 d Iu Y 0 3 o d 0. a o o c W a 'c 'e A o c� s a o m e m� m �b� C 0 N o" �a� 't7 a m D o m 7 ti C y C. 'O o,.0 N C. W W IV 'd a a L Y G b m 0 C L. a A E M N t w 7 m 'O ai 'an L C a O C v a U E O m 0 .11 m v s c a a d W C m L y d C �p m iC J G Y C O m v C W v m o a E a a a a p �C .fl .!E C d o a s �G. .v a Y I f 3 a a V a v C w 0 e w Y I C d c E a J a�Ji as y C C y O v; m C W� v 'a c> n c s a E i 'd m d ro a e I E y o.0 o maw 4 bO 4 N U Y a a C a 'B a v v 'O C C Y d m pI. V u m a c m E c r C E U v a d E W a A A� N 8 v. aa. a U r U 1 e W. m E U 7 C .e U CA M o-+ M U o IO 00 CL Yr C m Ca o M 00 a 0 U C7 W U W e 7 O T of 7 a a o W M IL i V 24 y y E a t APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080003 -4 o IO 00 '7$ 7s o C m Ca o M 00 a 0 U C7 y E a t APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080003 -4 :Glr !'E:. ,'y'J3 ...,.*1: ...Y'C4C ..:�i S'v,... ir1C�.S S. K^: KA{ k ..C'."' 4`,: ae7.�O 0 q 0 O O 0 a O a s a C M vj L o M o v a V C� W t C C V Y y Z r o m a o� o. c u N r-6 'v m O V� o, k U V a q >a H e e o� a V L C= B o b a c� e Csj a O B m_ L C e o o C e> a V E o 0 6 .0 �L C V N q N V C V U N V 000 U q C M C V cd 9 cc y 0. d y N a d .0 0 V O a O q� a L q L� N C Z> G O C L T z C q C a C N L 3 a m C N a`> U vi m y 'o L a V V v �q _o 'fl a E 'O q T y M m O 7 0>^ m' m O V p Q m E E go oo C E C N p q `0 n ao a Cfl o C=7 V C� OO N V C C C Lm e v m m 'o s d m a m a t Gi o, C> GO m 6 q O a 4 q u7 C q� 6 O q 'S7 m= y V E a m� V L q C N V a! a m m a m V G .a m V a C V m M V a m 0 a> y I C I n d c I O C I m m I T O _O I d 0 p A m .V., a o e L o a c --o o e V V to n e a L a, q c e C y L N .O C E t d s0 0. C I T O C O .a C C 'y N O V> O O 6 .0 O w C N Q. C 'y! d G. as s v m `0 m a M C ,G m c C 'e p0 O O v m U C 'ir� O o v> e 3 p o 3 e o L o m tq.! L 01 i. w �m N J M a7 C w c 3 o m m fl o c o e�q a a N c o y n a d 'fl M 7 C .c C �p �aL, 'O m bo Q. y m 'C C 0 00 ern c t" 0 3 a m o 4, e m in. c L y e L d 3 0 X 'a d CD y a d a 0 0 0 e v a._ E o d .e d a a V .5 a U C a C V 4 o C a 'e ,n M G .0 C o c v N d s e e d d cd N E C >roo a �a C E S) a c m IoE'o to o p a M N m L iv 3 V aai .D a 0 O. a o o r- m d of L 'o s a e am d c a v d o B m c m a 2 3 O 6 m a N y m 'fl w A .a O 0 .0 r L o N m bo V V m X 8 d G 'n C a�i y ..C 0. v v a y C Y to a a M v LL q 0 v y v 3 0 m a 3 C .0 .o �o w D w Cd ca a o e .c b l m` a m an d o d o 3 1 a w Z7 O. E d C a v bo C '00 C 'O L C O m E. c' C a a u Z a e o A 6 c o e a o of B E F L fi a o �o L r7 1 0� m o L a E m a a G y V to vi L L L d �y m ami 4 a0 u aCi �V� C m C I d v a O y> a G E K= E� w b a .a L m c cd I c 'o c d o o ai v o B m� c �E N 0 c d c� a' c a� m m B 'c B a M 0. ^.0 e t m d E 0 N m z v d m a� E O E m Vl o= m d E o 'O �D a .Oj. O. C G C a: .0 an d 0 C .E V C� W a a C .0 v d co a d o N o. m L w _a c a n _a `o d s L 4 E a e+ N E o C m 'L7 U V C C m� a, L V O L C O C p L a m 0 a V C 0 m c c a 0 m a v U. o t 03 06 w ca rn v i a e N 0. a .4 N Ci 1 C O C; p o o C ae7.�O 0 q 0 O O 0 C W P M C M vj L o M o C M d 0 p 7 25 u V o al C O G o O W U Gd m L N 7 w J V v 4 w y a o y o V M O U V U 26 II I C ji C 7R v G.] U u .a 0 8 �Q.. O C a C t r v OG .fl C a `O O b m M O O G Gi R M U O. m D v r v m C v V C v b 7 O vi C C> X Omi cd C U 7 m yG Q C O= N ED U U o o a L q u o e c o m o m 'c o m> d C G a. W v t 00 v vi c: vi v M v Q, C Y �'O U v, Y C J q OL L Op U v oUi cd ce i II 3 cL o c z ed N C bo C M C G U u M ca d v j m o c O M a d W V m 7 L C v 'p 7 L v ,D V C .fl d C C cd o a y d N 7 a L 4 O L I I G 'D m O O U m U O O O a M a a met m^ m y N 13 .D 3 c .o G 7 l a 3 c= a? n o y rD c m A o W i o Q a N DD m cs C u y m a -2 M= m L L L �C a�S, V^ U C L a O O d y c a m m E s m o m .c L L a c o O. g M v U 7 d O a E J> 7 ai m a :D d L r :D m B c m U m ;C1 p O j W W m d m m m= a LO 'D�'O y m 3 a, a .C �cy m 'm a x r, a 41 ad U O m 'O q m Cs a b a� w s o c n r c a w p a a d� o w= a m es a> of pb M O d d m a w P. a 07 I m Z o m I E bo v u E a m a o. a v E o c 'nn r.' o O W U Gd m L N 7 w :w o o 3 o N o m -r F 4 f I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080003 -4 o z S 11 z w y a o y o V M 26 II I :w o o 3 o N o m -r F 4 f I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080003 -4 C C O O o. a o �r, as m C 0 0 a d d u y I d u C 0 J O O v' v C �m 7 O. I 'O C Y.'7 e d d O 'U w CCi d d G1 J O. a o bc 4, 'fl L C v v V d o d m 11 a cp b x y O y d U d C m V c y a a r d .O O O m V N> G> 5 rpL.. d L C M M a e m a d 0. d a d m a m m a m c o c o E a 0 Is dmas d =dd m M vi C aai .0 O I C7 o W, t Z O 0 0 m y u E D 'o E a` 'm e d C7 3 0 M a p o= t d m U p, U 'U m p C vi a' C m T. U O 'U m y �O 7 m C Y a m r> >a o= v .0 p o> d o d A d e C m� a" E m f m e d O .a C O. v N m r C �vJ C d C L V "7 V N d J A as N d c n t> m y m a d C a o a o a a eo 3 D fl m a L a J 1,1 e v� m o C d d e d cc a�� m "r d C d 0 r o o c= o c a I m t c s c. .0r'E� o c 4v E d o r d O N m e o 9 W n E� rn o o� o L a U L d O y d1 'U 'O ..L.. O O G O. y d 0 O Z 10 o O C M m d O t 'O m C 0 'U m o a s a e m :o fl� c v o on 3�v D u W o d d M d a L c mp ca vi c L E� a dTJ U v U ai ai C v o! 6+ w O U L bID y C> C I d C O. �V d U G t y O c, m c_9�= 0 o. ba C: U 0 r N .v V) m d� C I d p M ;�u o.c to 5 U c W U W M 7 0 0 a 0 pi v F G ,O G. W M C O C E Cn U d 4 L CL O a V 0 O N m L ai L 00 w a Oq o E t a 'os m o 0 o O a: a C O. c aoc a e m m m and d d v C y> o y m U C L 'm E c N W Lz7 m o 0 eo N N N M U n n M a -r a' U a s a cu L d E s Y M c fl g �i 1'. M d a y x d L m c. E d N d m a O w 0 a d 00 G C d 0 0 fl m d 0 V U c d M J �y m n n a o o .n c m U N a.. s d L d o. L mF U C 0 L O y q X w W O O O y w C a C C C d m y as U d 7 ca U d w m N a Y E 0..c d as N m v m L y d a o L 0 d i O .d d 9 a `m d o. d E a a N a O) d .ti F c 0 E m a 27 n APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080003 -4 i g i r t I i j j annually to foreign shipping interests than are earned by the domestic -flag fleet, there are substantial deficits in the balance of payments in seaborne transportation. In 1969, the deficit amounted to US$184 million. In November 1972 the merchant fleet consisted of the following 649 ships of 1,000 gross register tons (g.r.t.) and over: TYPE No. G.R.T D.W.T. Tanker 162 ..,874,270 4,804,226 Bulk cargo 126 1,905,002 3,049,982 Tanker /ore carrier 16 826,003 1,467,579 Dry cargo 203 902,980 1,305,612 Passenger 64 74,300 244,400 Liquefied gas tanker 16 120,394 111,479 Refrigerator 19 88,313 76,059 Passenger /cargo 9 43,393 54,446 Other specialized carrier �34 105,927 142,422 Total 649 7,607,582 11,256,205 *Two asphalt, 2 car, 3 cement, 13 chemical carriers; 2 con- tainer, 12 roll -on roll- off /trailer ships. Additional data on the ships are as follows: Not pertinent. 43 passenger, II roll -on roll- off /trailer, 9 refrigerator, 6 dry cargo, 3 liquefied gas carriers, 2 bulk cargo. 1 pas- senger /cargo, and I container. Italian -flag ships are employed in liner (scheduled) and tramp (unscheduled) service on major trade routes worldwide, carrying the nation's own trade as well as crosstrades ;o� c ietween other countries. Merchai. owned by more than 160 domestic ate-� i beneficial owners (entities which take the W �s from operations). Fourteen beneficial ow- _ontrolling more thin 200,0(X' d.w.t., account ut 60% of the total fleet deadweight tonnage. u, of these owners, Archille i PERCENT NUMBER OF D.W.T. OF SHIPS Size (d.w.t.) Less than 20,000 30 499 20,000 99,000 52 138 100,000 and over' 18 12 Age (years): Under 10 56 192 10 -19 35 273 20 and over 9 184 Speed (knots): 18 and over '76 15-17 276 11 -14 247 Under 11 50 Power: Diesel 516 Oil -fired steam 127 Coal -fired steam 6 Not pertinent. 43 passenger, II roll -on roll- off /trailer, 9 refrigerator, 6 dry cargo, 3 liquefied gas carriers, 2 bulk cargo. 1 pas- senger /cargo, and I container. Italian -flag ships are employed in liner (scheduled) and tramp (unscheduled) service on major trade routes worldwide, carrying the nation's own trade as well as crosstrades ;o� c ietween other countries. Merchai. owned by more than 160 domestic ate-� i beneficial owners (entities which take the W �s from operations). Fourteen beneficial ow- _ontrolling more thin 200,0(X' d.w.t., account ut 60% of the total fleet deadweight tonnage. u, of these owners, Archille i 28 Lauro, controls about 1,254,000 d.w.t., and six others each have more than 400,000 d.w.t. under Italian registry. Finmare (Societa Finanziuria Marittinia), a government -owned holding company, owns majority shares of Societa per Azioni di Navigazione Lloyd Triestino (23 ships, 177,377 d.w.t.), Societa perAzioni di Navigazione Italia (17 ships, 161,176 d.w.t.), and Societa per Azioni di Navigazione Adriatica (14 ships, 34,318 d.w.t.). Foreign beneficial owners are Standard Oil Co. (New Jersey), New York (seven tankers, 419,412 d.w.t.) and Blue Star Lines, Ltd., London (five refrigerator ships, 17,482 d.w.t.). Between 1 January 1969 and November 1972 the fleet increased by about 2.6 million d.w.t. During this period, shipowners concentrated on both a structural and technical modernization of their fleets. Many obsolete and unprofitable ships were scrapped or sold, and a significant number of specialized ships were acquired, specifically roll -on roll off /trailers, liquefied gas tankers, and chemical and tanker /ore carriers. The relatively slow growth of the fleet carrying capacity during the last few years can be attributed primarily to insufficient capital for investment by many private, unsubsidized shipowners in the development of their fleets. Shipowners have been hampered by continually rising costs in several important areas of their shipping operations as well as increasing costs of ship construction. `While other nations have been phasing out or limiting passenger ship service because of strong competition by air travel, Italy has been increasing such operations and acquiring luxury passenger liners. However, the state -owned Finmare shipping group, which provides most of the fleet's passenger service, has sustained heavy losses during the last few years, particularly in transatlantic and transpacific passenger operations. In 1970, Finmare announced proposals for restructuring operations of each of its companies. These proposals concerned primarily the discontinu- ance of unprofitable passenger operations and the sub- stitution of the more profitable cruise and cargo- carry- ing services. Finmare's proposals, which have no had government -wide approval, have been vehemently rejected both by the strong maritime unions, who fear a large displacement of seafaring personnel upon the discontinuance of certain passenger lines, and by private shipowners, who feel :icy would be in direct competition with the government through Finmare for the carriage of certain trade on the same routes. In 1970 the government estimated that the volume of annual Italian seaborne trade would amount to about 500 million metric tons by 1975, and in an effort to increase the fleet's participation in the carriage of l s 4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080003 -4 ''ar Mgr r f this irade, a goal was included within its 5 -year plan (1971 -75) for a merchant fleet totaling 12 million g.r.t. by 1975. By way of encouraging private shipowners to meet the fleet expansion objective, the government no longer prohibits shipowners from placing orders for ship construction in foreign shipyards; thc. may now do so when domestic yards cannot meet domestic fleet requirements. On 31 july 1972, shipowners had placed on order for delivery between 1972 and 1978 a total of 53 merchant ships amounting to about 3.4 million d.w.t.; however, only three dry cargo ships totaling 33,000 d.w.t. and one 138,800 d.w.t. tanker were to be built in !!)reign yards. Ship types reflecting the largest amount of tonnage on order were as follows: TOTAL DELIVERY TYPE NO. D.W.T. SCHEDULE Tanker 20 1,636,000 1972 -76 Ore /oil and ore /bulk /oil carrier 17 1,521,000 1972 -78 Bulk cargo 3 100,800 1972 -73 In addition to ships C 1,000 g. r. t. and over, the fleet includes several hundred smaller merchant ships which are employed in .,alv's coastal trade and trade with countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea. In mid -1971 the fishing fleet had 134 vessels between 100 and 499 g.r.t. and 69 between 500 and 1,999 g.r.t.; the 203 units totaled 85,000 g.r.t. The Ministry of Merchant Marine administers the maritime laws and regulations on both domestic and foreign -ship operations. italy is a mernber of the Inter Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO) and a party to the following IMCO conventions: Safety of Life at Sea, 1948 and 1960; Prevention of Collisions at Sea, 1960; Oil Pollution, 1951 and 1962; and Load Lines, 1966. Despite the government's concern for a fleet that would more adequately satisfy the country's economic needs, it subsidizes only the operations of the Finmare companies and local passenger and mail services of several smaller companies. indirect government subsidization is provided shipowners through loan extensions for the construction, modernization, or repair of merchant ships; through ship depreciation allowances; and through partial financing of new ships purchased as replacements for scrapped tonnage. Shipowners receive tax benefits in the form of tax -free reserves which have accrued from profits of ship sales and are to he spent for ship repl acement purchases. Italy neither prohibits Italian shipowners from registering ships under foreign flag nor foreign shipowners registering ships tinder Italian flag. it has been estimated that between 1.5 million and 2 million g.r.t. of Italian -owned shipping is registered tinder foreign flags, including a considerable amount of tonnage under Liberian and Panamanian flags of convenience. Cargo preference laws provide that, without government authorization, no trade can be carried on ships of foreign countries that have discriminated against Italian- flag ships. in addition, the carriage of Italy's coastal trade is rc:.cricted to domestic- flag ships. Of the estimated 37,000 seafarirg personnel employed on Italian flag merchant ships of 100 g.r.t., and over, more than 35,000 are nationals. in addition, an estimated 15,000 Italian seafaring personnel are employed on ships registered under flags of cenvenience. Because of strong maritime union participation, Italian seafaring personnel are among the worlds highest paid, in both wages and other benefits. The government operates about 25 Nautical "Technical institutes for training deck and engineering officer candidates. They provide 5 -year coltrscs in navi �ation, marine engineering, and snip construc- tion. 'rte government also sponsors about 30 merchant marine schools for training seamen and specialists. I. Civil air (C) (Aitalia -Linee Aeree Raliane (Alitalia), the national airline, is almost entirely government owned. The state holding company, Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale (IRI), has the majority of the stock. Alitalia, which ranks high among the world's international airlines in number of passenger -miles flown, serves 78 foreign cities in 60 countries and 1 I domestic points (not including t:iose cities served by subsidiary companies under contract). Its fleet consists of 18 Aerospatiale Caravelle VI's, 5 Bocing 747'x, 11 Douglas DC 8 -40's, 8 Douglas DC 8 -62's, 2 all -cargo Douglas DC- 8- 62F's, 35 Douglas DC 9 -30's, 2 all cargo Douglas DC 9-301 and 3 Douglas DC 30's. Alitalia has three domestic subsidiary airlines: Aero Transporti Italiani, S.P.A. (ATI), Societa Italiana Esercizio Elicntteri (Elivie), and Societa Aerea Mediterranea, S.P.A. (SAM). ATI and SAM are Wholly owned subsidiaries, and Alitalia owns 90% of F,livicIs stock. ATi, which has headquarters in Naples, serves 24 domestic points, including cities in Si and Sardinia. One of the fastest growing airlines in the world, ATI passengers increased from 632,000 in 1969 to about 1,790,000 in 1971. Elivie, which has been managed by ATI since 1968, operates charter helicopter service to several italian resort towns: it ceased providing regularly scheduled services in 1971. 29 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080003 -4 H SAM, on behalf of Alitalia, operates charter flights from italy to central and northern Europe. Rome -based Aerolinee Itavia, S.P.A., which operates four Handley Page Herald 200'x, three Fokker F' -28's, and three Douglas DC: 9 -10's, is a privately owned airline providing scheduled service to 17 domestic points and to Basle and C;eneva, Switzerland. In addition, Itavia performs domestic and European short -haul charter services. Alisarda, S.P.A. is a privately owned airline based in i Olbia, Sardinia. Formed in 1963 as an air taxi and charter operator, Alisarda now provides regularly scheduled service to five domestic point- and seasonal r service to Ajaccio, Corsica, and Nice, France. 1 Aertirrena, S.P.A., also privately ow. ed, operates air taxi and charter services and provides seasonal scheduled feeder services in northern Italy. In addition to light aircraft, the Aertirrena fleet has three Soviet- h.;4 YAK 40 aircraft. CompaPnia ltalfana Elicotten S.R.L. CIE) operates seasonal helicopter service between Rimini and the principality of San Marino. The following 138 civil aircraft o" at (cast 20,000 pounds gross weight are registered in Italy, including one foreign owned: 20 Aerospatiale Caravelle VI 3 Fokker F -27 -100 1 Boeing 707 -120 6 Fokker F -27 -200 5 Boeing 747 2 Fokker F -27 -400 11 Dassault Falcon 20 2 Fokker F -27 -600 11 Douglas DC 8 -40 3 Fokker F -28 -1000 8 Douglas DC 8 -62 1 Grumman G 159 2 Douglas DC 8 -62F 1 Grumman G 1159 3 Douglas DC 9 -10 4 Handley Page Herald 200 45 Douglas DC 9 -30 1 Hawker Siddeley HS -125 2 Douglas DC 9 -30F 1 M.B.B. HFB 320 3 Douglas DC 10 -30 3 YAK 40 An estimated total of 17,100 persons are engaged in civil aviation activities, including at least 1,200 commercial pilots. Alitalia, Italy's largest airline, has about 14,300 employees, including over 3,500 maintenance personnel and about 1,100 pilots. ATi employs about 750 personnel; Itavia, 400; and Alisarda, 100. Basic flight training is available through some 60 aerocluhs and several flight training schools. The most important flight training school is the Alitalia Training Center at Rome's Fiumicino Airport. Here, Alitalia offers a complete range of training capable of preparing students with no flight experience to become commerical pilots. The center is equipped with flight simulators for most of the aircraft in the Alitalia fleet. According to the terms of the ATLAS agreement, Alitalia will provide DC 10 flight simulator training for members of the consortium (Air France, Lufthansa, Alitalia, Sabena, and Iberian airlines); however, Boeing 747 flight simulator training is pry, ided by Lufthansa at its facility in West Germany. Civil aircraft maintenance is centered primarily at Alitalia's base in Rome. Standards are high, and facilities compare favorably with those of other major international carriers. In addition to its own fleet, Alitalia maintains and overhauls the ATi DC 9 aircraft and the SAM Caravelle and DC 6 aircraft and also performs maintenance for various non- Italian carriers such as 'Zambia Airways and Somalia Airlines. Alitalia handles powerplant support in collaboration with the Alfa Romeo Company, which takes care of major repair and overhaul work. Maintenance on Alitalia's DC 10 and Boeing 747 aircraft is accomplished in accordance with the ATLAS agreement. In the context of this agreement, Alitalia has no major maintenance responsibility for the DC 10 aircraft but does share responsibility with Sabena to perform systems apd electronic overhaul for the consortium's Boeing 747 aircraft. At least 15 -ommercial enterprises, including Alfa Romeo, provide extensive instrument, electrical, and hvdraulic component overhaul. Responsibility fot controlling civil aviation is assigned to the Ministry of Transport and Civil Aviation. However, actual operational responsibility rests with a subordinate agency, the General Directorate of Civil Aviation. The national civil airways system is operated by the Ministry of Defense. The government subsidizes development of civil aviation, including annual payments to Alitalia and its subsidiary companies. Aeroclubs and training schools are also subsidized. Italy is a member of the International Civil Aviation Organization and is a signatory of the principal international civil aviation conventions. in the commercial field, Alitalia belongs to the international Air 'Transport Association and participates in numerous pooling arrangements with foreign airlines. The government has entered into formal or informal civil air agreements with at least 62 countries, including Albania, Bulgaria, Czecho- slovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, the U.S.S.R., and Yugoslavia. Linking. Italy with 114 cities in 75 countries are 62 foreign air carriers, including the national airlines from the ab:>vc- mentioned countries. J. Airfields' (C) Italy has 150 usable airfields, i I seaplane stations, and 761 sites. Of the usable airfields, 54 ire military, 19 are civil, 30 are joint military /civil, and 47 are private. 'For detailed information on individual airfields in Italy, see Volume 13, Airfields and Seaplane Stations of the World, published by the Defense Mapping Agency, Aerospace Center, for the Defense Intelligence Agency. 30 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP0l- 00707R000200080003 -4 1 0 -I Elflll lflV In V p' C 011 iF i FIGURE 10. Selected airfields (C) LARGEST AIRCRAFT NORMALLY ESWL* SUPPORTED Pounds 80,000 C- 141....... 66,000 C- 9A....... 44,000 DC- 9....... 55,000 DC- 9....... 66,000 C- i24....... 77,000 L- 880....... 66,000 A- 727....... 99,000 DC- 8....... Do. 61,600 C- 133....... Joint. Civil /NATO maritime airfield. IAF and USN. Joint headquarters COMAIRSOUTH/ NATO. International airport used by scheduled and private aircraft. 77,000 C- 133....... Joint. IAF, USAF, domestic airlines. Interna- tional airport used by nonscheduled and private aircraft. Maintenance depot for Alitalia aircraft, inel�Iding DC -8. 100,000 DC- 8....... Civil. International airport used by scheduled and private aircraft. Closed to military aircraft. 77,000 B- 707....... Civil. International airport used by scheduled and private aircraft. Fiat aircraft factory on airfield. 44,000 C- 130....... Joint. International airport used by scheduled, nonscheduled, and private aircraft. Home base for fighter squadrons. 99,000 DC Civil. International airport used by scheduled and private aircraft. Aeronavali Co. on field. REMARKS Military. IAF /USAFE. Maintained by USAFE; used by USAFE fighters on TDY status. Joint. IAF squadron. International airport used by scheduled and private aircraft. Civil. International airport used by scheduled and private aircraft. Civil. International airport used by scheduled and private aircraft. Can support C -130 aircraft. Joint. International airport for nonscheduled and private aircraft. Civil. International airport for scheduled and private aircraft. Do. *Equivalent Single -Wheel Loading: Capacity of an airfield to sustain the weight of any multiple -wheel landing -gear aircraft, in terms of the single -wheel equivalent. 31 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080003 -4 LONGEST RUNWAY: SURFACE; DIMENSIONS; ELEVATION ABOVE NAME AND LOCATION SEA LEVEL Feet Aviano Asphalt............. 46 �02'N., 12 �36'E. 8,596 x 148 419 Brindisi /Casale........... Asphalt 40 �39'N., 17 �57'E. 8,662 x 148 48 Cagliari/Elmas........... Asphalt 39 �15'N., 9 �03'E. 7,260 x 148 12 Catania/ Fontanarossa..... Asphalt 37 �28'N., 15 �04'E. 6,6V3 x 197 42 Forli Asphalt............. 44 �12'N., 12 �04 7,218 x 148 98 Cenova /Sestri............ Asphalt 44 �25'N., 8 �50'E. 7,480 x 148 9 Milano /Linate........... Asphalt 45o27 9 8,002 x 197 352 Milano /Malpensa......... Asphalt 45 �38'N., 8 �44'E. 12,844 x 197 767 Napoli /Capodichino....... Asphalt 40 �53'N., 14 �17'E. 7,218 x 197 289 Roma /Ciampino.......... Asphalt 41 �48 12 7,218 x 197 423 Roma /Fiumicino......... Asphalt 41 �48'N., 12 �14 12,795 x 197 7 Torino /Caselle........... Asphalt 45 �12'N., 7 �39'E. 9,843 x 197 986 Treviso /St. Angelo........ Asphalt 45 �39 12 �12 7,940 x 151 59 Venezia reSSera.......... Asphalt 45 �30 12 �21 8,858 x 148 7 LARGEST AIRCRAFT NORMALLY ESWL* SUPPORTED Pounds 80,000 C- 141....... 66,000 C- 9A....... 44,000 DC- 9....... 55,000 DC- 9....... 66,000 C- i24....... 77,000 L- 880....... 66,000 A- 727....... 99,000 DC- 8....... Do. 61,600 C- 133....... Joint. Civil /NATO maritime airfield. IAF and USN. Joint headquarters COMAIRSOUTH/ NATO. International airport used by scheduled and private aircraft. 77,000 C- 133....... Joint. IAF, USAF, domestic airlines. Interna- tional airport used by nonscheduled and private aircraft. Maintenance depot for Alitalia aircraft, inel�Iding DC -8. 100,000 DC- 8....... Civil. International airport used by scheduled and private aircraft. Closed to military aircraft. 77,000 B- 707....... Civil. International airport used by scheduled and private aircraft. Fiat aircraft factory on airfield. 44,000 C- 130....... Joint. International airport used by scheduled, nonscheduled, and private aircraft. Home base for fighter squadrons. 99,000 DC Civil. International airport used by scheduled and private aircraft. Aeronavali Co. on field. REMARKS Military. IAF /USAFE. Maintained by USAFE; used by USAFE fighters on TDY status. Joint. IAF squadron. International airport used by scheduled and private aircraft. Civil. International airport used by scheduled and private aircraft. Civil. International airport used by scheduled and private aircraft. Can support C -130 aircraft. Joint. International airport for nonscheduled and private aircraft. Civil. International airport for scheduled and private aircraft. Do. *Equivalent Single -Wheel Loading: Capacity of an airfield to sustain the weight of any multiple -wheel landing -gear aircraft, in terms of the single -wheel equivalent. 31 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080003 -4 i I Airfield distribution has been influenced by three factors: the country's terrain, its military posture, and its population centers. Most of the airfields on the mainland are located on the northern plains and along the east and west coastal regions, and the highest concentration is in the vicinity of Rome. Because of the mountainous topography of the major islands, the airfields are generally located on the coast. The airfield system adequately meets civil and military requirements. Of the 32 international airfields, 19 serve scheduled traffic. The most important fields on the mainland are Genova /Sestri, Milano /Linate, Milano /Malpensa, Torino /Caselle, Roma /Fiumicino, and Venezia /Tessera. On Sardinia and Sicily the most important fields are Ca- gliari /Elmas and Palermo /Punta Raisi, respectively. Each of these facilities has been developed to meet the specific needs (such as navigational aids, aircraft movement areas, and ground handling) required by short haul and /or long haul operations of airlines using aircraft in at least the C -130 category and some using aircraft in the C -141 category. Roughly 40% of the major military airfields and two major joint airfields serve as home bases for fighter aircraft. Many of the minor military airfields serve the Italian Army, and minor joint military /civil and private airfields serve acrd club activities and domestic tourists. Eighty airfields have hard surfaced runways which are generally in good condition. Most of these fields also have associated aircraft movement areas which are also hard surfaced. Their general weight hearing capacity varies from C -45 to C -141 aircraft. Runways at the remaining airfields h-ve either natural or lernporary surfaces, generally in fair condition. The 11 seaplane stations are available, only in emergencies. I'll(! 79 sites have reverted to a natural state or are under cultivation, and little remains of them except earth scars. Efforts constantly arc made to improve and modernize the airfields according to the dictates of the international Civil Aviation Organization and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Examples of this arc the new aircraft movement areas under construction at Roma /Fiumicino, the planning of a third runway at Milano /Malpensa, and the addition of a second runway at Gioia Del Coll,. The important military airfields also have expansion potential. Figure 10 lists characteristics of selected airfields. K. Telecommunications (C) The telecommunication (tel,con) systems are modern and well developed and provide fast, reliable service that meets the needs of the government, 32 industry, and the public. The density of facilities compares favorably with those in most other European countries, and Italy's telecom systems generally are being expa:u' >d at a faster rate. The number of telephone set:. and the mileage of intercity circuits have been increasing by 10% and 14 respectively, in each of the last 4 years. High capacity cable and radio -relay systems are employed in nearly equal amounts in the national trunk telecom network; major routes run along both flanks of the Appennine mountains and cast in the Po valley. Primary switching centers are in Milan, Rome, and Naples. Although the telephone, telex, and broadcast networks are fully automated throughout Italy, the density of these facilities diminishes south of Rome and in Sardinia and Sicily. Excellent international facilities provide immediate worldwide service, and radio broadcast and TV services are continually being improved for the benefit of the public. The government either owns or maintains controlling interest in most public telecom facilities through the Ministry of Post and Telecommunications (MPT). Facilities that provide interregional telephone, telegraph, and news service and radio and TV broadcast are wholly owned by the government. The government and a concessionaire share ownership of regional telephone facilities; the State Agency for Telephone Services (ASST) is responsible for the operation and maintenance of long distance facilities between 37 urban telephone districts, and the Italian Company for Telephone Service (SiP) is licensed to provide local service within these districts and in the remaining 194 telephone districts. Radio and TV broadcast operations, a government monopoly, are delegated to Radio Television of Italy (RAI). The Cable, Radiotelegraph and Radiocommunication Services, inc. (ITALCABLE) operates all international radiocommunications and some submarine cable facilities. Space Communications, Inc. (TELLS PA7,IO) is responsible for operating communications satellite ground facilities and related circuits. About 150,000 persons are employed in all facets of the post and telecommunications operations. The domestic telecom systems consist of intercon- nected networks of open -wire, coaxial and multicon- ductor cable, and radio -relay links. The primary transmission systems use high- capacity coaxial cable and radio -relay links to provide intercity circuits. Some multiconductor cables and open -wire lines, Which often parallel the coaxial cables, also provide intercity circuits. Submarine cables and radio -relav links are used for scrvicc between the islands of the. Tyrrhenian Sea and the mainland. Primary 2- and 4- 0 s 7 rt r I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080003 -4 ICA IOU tube coaxial cable routes have 960 or 2,700 channels per tube. Minor iinks use small coaxial cables having 300- channel capacities. More recently, sections of the new 60 MHz coaxial cable having 10,400 channels per tube have been installed on some key routes, and the trend is to expand usage of this newest type cable together with duplicate radio -relay systems on all primary routes. Several types of high capacity radio relay equipment are used: one operates in the 4 -GHz band and transmits 4 radio frequencies, each frequency providing 960 telephone channels or 1 TV circuit; another type operates is the 6 -GHz band and provides 2,700 channels per radio frequency. The intercity telephone switching system is divided into 20 regions and 231 districts for operational control. Each region has a main switching center, but the most important centers are at Milan and Rome. Direct -dial service has been in effect throughout all of Italy since October 1970, using electronic exchanges to interconnect all the nearly 10.8 million telephone sets. Telephone density is highest in the northern and central cities, and the largest concentrations are in Rome, Milan, "Torino, and Genoa. Distribution in most cities in the southern part of the country is closer to the national average of 17.5 sets per 100 population. Telegraph facilities are located in about 175 cities; 23 of these also have facsimile service. Automatic telex exchanges in more than 35 cities have a combined capacity of about 9,500 lines. The highly complex and automated network of international services has experienced a 40% to 50I increase in telephone and telex traffic in recent years. The principal control centers for international services are in Rome and Milan. Multiconductor and coaxial cables and radio -relay links carry most of the traffic to European countries. Landlines connect with Austria, France, Switzerland, and Yugoslavia; radio -relay facilities or tropospheric- scatter links provide circuits to Austria, France, Greece, Spain, Tunisia, and West Germany (via Austria). All international 1-11 radiocommunication circuits are operated by I'TAL.CABL.E. Telephone, telegraph, telex, and facsimile circuits to over 40 foreign terminals are manipulated from control centers in Rome and two transmitter and two receiver stations located in the Rome area. Coaxial submarine cables, administered by the MPT, provide telephone and telegraph service to Albania, Crete, Egypt, Greece, Libya, Malta, and Tunisia. iTALCAB1.E shares operation of the 640 channel MAT -I cable system to Estepona, Spain, where connections are made with several transatlantic 1 MIlz� million cycles per second; Gllz� billion cycles per semild. cable systems in which additional circuits are leased. A communications satellite ground station is located at Ccnea del Fucino, about 80 miles cast of Rome. The installation has antennas operating with satellites in both the Atlantic and Indian Oceans; direct circuits are available to 21 countries. The station also serves as a major transit center for international traffic between many African, Asian, and Latin American countries. Special telecom systems are operated by many government agencies and private organizations. Most of these systems lease circuits from the public network, but some large separate systems have been established. A 20- station coastal radiocommunication network is directed from a central station in Rome, and a combined radio -relay and wire network is used by the Autostrade IRI for highway traffic control and maintenance. The National Electric Power Agency has a special independent countrywide telecom system, which uses powerline carrier equipment for remote control of electric power switching and telephone services between power stations. A radio relay system links the 22 provincial headquarters of the Carabinieri with the Rome GHQ, and communication facilities of the signal batallions of the Italian Army are tied into those of the Carabinieri, the Air Force, and the civil telephone system. Broadcast services compare favorably with those available in other European countries. The AM programs originate at 4 primary and 14 regional studios and are transmitted by 86 stations. Four different programs are presented. The National and Second Programs are most widely disseminated, and only a few stations broadcast special cultural or regional language programs on the Third and Regional Programs. Stations at Rome and Caltanis- setta broadcast the foreign service programs on shortwave. Over 1,700 FM transmitters in .apc:ation at some 550 separate stations comprise the most extensive I M network in Europe. Only 35 are primary high power stations; the remainder are repeaters, most less than 100 watts in power output. Each station broadcasts three separate programs. In mid -1972 an estimated 12.6 million broadcast receiver licenses were in force. Nationwide TV coverage is achieved through extensive use of the radio -relay system and the careful placement of sonic 1,150 transmitters in 855 different locations. TV studios in Rome, Milan, Torino, Florence, and Naples provide material for the National Program, which is transmitted on channels of the ViiF hand, and the Second Program, on channels of the VHF band. Some key transmitters have power outputs of 1,000 kw., but the bulk of the stations have 33 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080003 -4 =rnn��c SECRET transmitters of 100 watts or less. Radio relav links are used to exchange programs with other countries in the Eurovision network. In 1972 an estimated 10.8 million TV receivers served some 65 of every 100 families. A large, well- diversified telecom industry provides most types of equipment in quantities adequate for both civilian and military needs. The only significant import is components, which are obtained from abroad in large quantities. Such foreign purchases are primarily a reflection of product specialization within the European community. Moderate quantities of telephone switching and radiocommunication equipment are also imported. Exports include large amounts of components as well as radio relay, multiplexing, and teletype equipment, radio and TV receivers, and military radios. The leading manufac- turers are Telettra, S.P.A., Marelli Lenkurt, S.P.A., Societa Italiana Teleeomuniu.izioni Siemens, S.P.A., Philips Radio, S.P.A., and Selenia, S.P.A. The principal shortcoming of the industry is the lack of a more significant research and development capability. Most production in this field is based, directly or indirectly, on foreign designs. I 34 The telecom industry has had no difficulty in obtaining technicians, engineers, and scientists to fulfill its needs. Educational standards are high, and liberal scholarship programs are sponsored by the government and industry. The School of Telecom- munications of the Armed Forces near Genoa has an attendance of about 2,600 military personnel each year for lengthy courses; it has provided large numbers of telecom and electronic technicians for the civilian industry. The -year plan (1971 -75) that SIP has been implementing calls for over 4 million new telephone sets, raising the per capita ratio to 28 sets per 100 population. Significant projects include a 1,380 channel coaxial submarine cable between Rome and Cagliari, Sardinia, construction of more 60 -MHz cable .systems, and installation of the first computer controlled telephone exchange for the Naples area. The MPT has ordered new transmitters in sufficient numbers to completely overhaul the coastal radiocommunication n ^twork, and a 1,840 channel submarine cable connecting Italy with France and Israel is to be put into operation by 1977. SExitE-r e t i APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP0l- 00707R000200080003 -4 5 k 1 Y r P Places and features referred to in this General Survey (u/ou) COORDINATES COORDINATES COO ROIN %TF.a 'F.. 12 3(11 12 17 12 25 1'2 20 1'2 14 S 24 8 24 14 21) 14 14 15 44 14 07 1 06 It 36 lti 1,5 S :ill 14 44 12 12 Ili 0.5 1.5 39 1) 02 12 :34 8 49 1:3 01 12 40 12 '19 1229 Is 1) 111 12 :17 11 50 13 01 I1 50 14 47 8 DO Ill 16 I1 16 12 45 I1 20 15 44 12 28 8 .54 10 ,59 it 00 9 00 8 :31 9 1111 8 111 8 30 10 51 1:3 :31 9 12 Ili 27 I 15 1.1 00 I 1 20 e 'N. 'E. Abruzzi( admin) 42 15 13 45 Adds strm 45 08 9 53 Agrigento (prop) 37 27 13 30 Aigle, Switzerland 46 19 6 58 Ajaccio, Corsica 41 55 8 44 Alberobello 40 47 17 16 Alessandria 44 54 8 37 Alfonsine 44 30 12 03 Alghero 40 33 8 19 Altamurs 40 49 16 33 Ancona prop 43 33 13 10 Ancona 43 38 13 30 Gorizia 45 57 Aorta (prop) 45 46 7 25 Aorta 45 44 7 20 Apennines (mts) 43 00 13 0(i Aprilia 41 36 12 39 Arcola 44 07 9 54 Arno strm 43 41 10 17 Arcna 45 46 8 34 Arquata Scrivia 44 41 8 53 Ascoli Piceno 42 51 13 34 Asiag o 45 52 11 30 Asti (prop) 44 55 8 10 Asti 44 54 8 12 Augusta 37 13 15 13 Avellino (prop) 40 59 15 09 Avellino 4 54 14 47 Averse 40 58 14 12 Bardonecchi a 45 05 6 42 Bari 41 08 16 51 Barletta 41 19 I6 17 Basilicata (admin)....................... 40 30 16 30 Battipaglia 40 37 14 58 Bellinzona, Switzerland 46 12 9 01 Benevento 41 08 14 45 Bergamo 45 41 9 43 Bergamo (prnr) 45 50 9 48 Bertonico .15 14 9 40 Biccari .11 24 1.5 11 Bivio d'Aurisina (rr sla) 45 45 13 39 Bologna 44 29 11 20 Bologna (pror 44 28 11 26 Bologna Centrale (n sta) 14 30 11 21 Bolzano prop) 46 43 11 30 Balzano 46 31 II 22 Borgo Piave 41 29 12 52 Bracciano 42 06 12 10 Brennero 47 00 11 30 Brenner Pass (pass) 47 00 11 30 Brescia 45 33 10 15 Brindisi 40 38 17 56 Brondole, (rr on) 45 11 12 17 Bronze 37 47 14 50 B mall 44 34 10 27 LuirrF UrflNrre 42 It 13 u0 COORDINATES COO ROIN %TF.a 'F.. 12 3(11 12 17 12 25 1'2 20 1'2 14 S 24 8 24 14 21) 14 14 15 44 14 07 1 06 It 36 lti 1,5 S :ill 14 44 12 12 Ili 0.5 1.5 39 1) 02 12 :34 8 49 1:3 01 12 40 12 '19 1229 Is 1) 111 12 :17 11 50 13 01 I1 50 14 47 8 DO Ill 16 I1 16 12 45 I1 20 15 44 12 28 8 .54 10 ,59 it 00 9 00 8 :31 9 1111 8 111 8 30 10 51 1:3 :31 9 12 Ili 27 I 15 1.1 00 I 1 20 8 14 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080003 -4 o 'N. o 'E Galleria del Appennino (tunnd) 44 03 11 11 Garigliano (strm) 41 13 13 45 Gel 37 04 14 15 Genoa 44 25 8 57 Genova,. Golfo di (gull) 44 10 8 55 Genova pror 44 30 9 04 Genova Brignole (rr sia) 4.1 24 8 57 Genova Piazza Principe (rr go) 44 24 8 54 Gerais Nuova 45 02 8 54 Gioia Tauro 38 25 15 54 Golfo Aranci (raMa) 41 00 9 37 Gorizia (prop) 45 55 13 30 Gorizia 45 57 13 38 Gravellona 45 20 8 46 Grosseto (prop) 42 50 11 15 G uidonia 42 01 12 45 Imperia pror) 43 58 7 47 Imperia 43 53 8 03 Ingolstadt, West Germany 48 46 11 26 Innsbruck, Austria 47 16 11 24 loninn Sea sea 39 00 19 00 Iselle 46 12 8 12 Isernia 41 36 14 14 Isola 46 26 9 19 Ispra 45 49 8 37 Ivrea 45 28 7 52 Klagenfurt, Austria 46 38 14 18 Lacrhiarella 45 19 9 08 Lago di Bracciano (take) 42 07 12 14 Lago di Como (take) 46 00 9 17 Lago di Garda (lake) 45 40 10 41 Lago d'Iseo (lake) .IS 43 10 04 Lago Maggiore Hake) 45 57 8 39 La M addalena 39 09 9 01 Lannach. Austria 46 56 15 19 L'Ayutla 42 22 1:3 '22 L arino 41 48 14 54 I'll Spezia .14 0 9 50 La Spezia (pror) 44 1.5 9 42 Latina (pror) 41 27 13 06 Latina 41 28 12 52 Lazio (admin) 42 00 12 30 Le Caselle 3 43 16 25 Lerce 40 23 IS II Lecce pror 40 13 18 10 Lecro 45 51 9 2:3 Liguria (ndmin) 44 30 17 Litoranen Veneta (rarall 45 44 13 33 Livorno pror) 43 14 10 35 Livorno 43 :13 10 133 Ljubljana, Yugoslavia 46 03 14 31 Loano 44 08 8 15 Locorotondo .10 45 17 20 Lombardia (admin) 45 40 9 30 Lures (prop) 44 02 10 27 M. (prnr) 43 12 13 10 8 14 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080003 -4 o N Pordenone 45 57 Porto Corsini 44 29 Porto di Lido (in1cl) 45 26 Porto di Malamorro (inlrl) 45 20 Porto Garibaldi 44 41 Porto Torres 40 50 Porto V esme 311 12 Positano 40 38 Postojna. Yugoslavia 45 47 Potenza pror) 40 3:5 Pozzuoli 40 49 Prato 43 :53 Predazzo 46 19 Puglia admin 41 15 Rada di Albi."OIR (anrh) 44 19 Ragusa.. 36 :55 Ravenna.. 44 25 Reggio di Calrbria (pror) 38 19 Reggio di Calabria 38 06 Rho.... 45 32 Rimini 44 04 Rivalta Scrivia 44 51 45 57 Roma prnr 41 58 Roma Porta San Paulo (R eta)............ 11 52 Rome... 41 5.3 Roseto Valfortore 41 22 Roveredoin Piano 46 01 Rovigo prnr 45 02 Sabaudia 41 IS Sabbioncello .1 22 Salerno..... 40 -11 Saluggia 15 14 SRlvaterra 44 36 San Bonifacio 4:5 24 San Giacomo 42 47 Ban Giorgio a Crenumo 40 50 San Giovanni Rotondo 41 �12 San Marino, San NIRrino 43 55 Sannnzzaro de* Burgondi 45 1113 Santa Massenza............ 16 01 Sardegna (admin)... 41) 00 Sardinia (ish..... 40 00 Sass art.......... 40 4:3 SRa5A (prnr ........1 40 10 Savona (prnr 44 I8 Savona 44 17 Scarlino 42 5'1 Sdobba. 'IS 44 Scregno 4. Sibari... 39 45 Sicilia (admin i 37 45 Sicily (ral)......... 3 7 30 Sicily, Strait of (alrf) :37 20 Siena 13 19 Simplon Tunnel ter tDnnrl) 16 12 8 14 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080003 -4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080003 -4 14 k ?-Giulia V �r IlLnoj .�:i dine' Rivok Goriz l Palma t 0 A. $Slobba reyiso 06 0 L ri Gulf of Tries r .f t enice 44 i Gull of Venice Aulstria Rijeka fr, 0(oh) 'ut Cres V +�`rJ Italy International boundary Regione boundary +Q National capital Aosta Regione capital (of fully operative regione) Railroad Autostrada Other road t Airfield 1,, Major port Populated Places Rome 2.800.000 1.000,000 to 2.800,000 O 100,000 to 1.000.000 0 20,000 to 100.000 Under 20,000 Spot elevations in feet Scale 1:2,700,000 0 25 50 75 100 Stalute M'Ies 0 25 50 75 100 N domele5 Yugoslav1ia Pesaro San v Fan. I 9 nO ev a Urbmon' Sara marNtimi a SenkWI o J ae cone Cmh dl el p 9 Otok Bra br b o Ma rr a ale tole Hvar erugia t "M r C K.6 I i L ago d Y L� rasimen. U b t /nPA.steoh Otok Kortula e no 1 r 44 Busto Arsizio 45 37 Cagliari (prop) 39 30 Cagliari 39 13 Calabria (admin) 39 00 Caltanimetts 37 29 Camerino........... 43 08 Campania (admin) 41 00 ampobasso 41 34 Campobasso (prop) 41 38 Canale Boicelli (canal)......... 44 53 Canale Marozzo (canal) 44 47 Canale Pallotta (canal) 44 42 Candela 41 08 Canneto sull 'Oglio 45 09 Canosa di Puglia 41 13 Caorso 45 03 Capo delta Franca (pt) 39 46 Capri ixl 40 33 Carlof orte 39 08 Casaccia............................... 42 03 Casale Monferrato 45 08 Casert a 41 04 Castelgandolfo 41 45 Castclnunvo Scrivia 44 59 Catania...... :37 30 Catania tprort 37 23 Catnnzaro...... 38 54 Catanzaro (prov) 38 55 Crechignola 41 49 C'ellino Attanasio 12 36 Cesano 42 05 Chiasso, Switzerland 45 50 C hinvari 44 19 C hieti 42 21 Chieti( prnr 42 07 Chioggia 45 13 Chiomonte 45 07 Chiusi 43 00 Chivaxso 45 11 Ciam pino 41 48 Cisterna .12 55 C ivitavecehia 42 06 Codigoro 44 49 Colleferro 41 44 Comsechin 44 42 Como Prop 45 49 Como... 15 47 Conca del Fucino (basin) 42 01 Cortemaggiore 44 59 Cremona (prop) 4:5 14 Cremona 45 07 Cuneo.. 44 23 Dobbinco 46 44 Domodossola 46 07 Dora Riparia (strm) 45 05 F. boli 10 36 Elba isl) 42 �16 Emilia- Romagna (admin) 44 45 Eatrpona, Spain 36 26 Etna (nit) 37 45 F. trouhlex 45 49 Falconarn Marittima.................... 43 :37 Ferrandina 40 29 Ferrara (Prop) 44 48 Ferrara 4.1 50 F'errera Erbognone 45 07 Firenze Porta al Prato (rr stn) .13 .17 Fiumicino 41 46 Florence 43 16 Foggia 41 27 Foligno 12 57 F'orli( prnr 44 05 Formigarn 45 13 F'ornovo(11 Tare 44 42 Frascati 41 48 Frattamaggiore 10 57 Friuli- Venezia Giulia (admin) 46 00 Frns3none (prop) 41 37 Froxinone 41 38 Fusinn 45 25 Gaeta 41 12 Oagliano Castelferrato :37 43 G8llerla del Frejus (hlnnrl) .1 5 12 8 51 8 45 9 07 16 30 14 04 13 04 14 30 14 39 14 35 11 35 12 07 12 13 15 31 10 25 16 04 9 52 R 27 11 13 8 18 12 17 8 27 14 20 12 39 8 53 14 40 14 40 16 35 Ifi 26 12 29 13 32 1'2 21 9 02 9 19 14 10 14 21 12 17 6 59 11 57 7 .53 1'2 36 12 29 11 48 12 08 12 59 12 11 9 13 9 05 13 31 9 56 9 56 10 02 7 32 12 14 8 17 7 44 15 04 10 17 11 00 5 08 15 00 7 14 1:3 21 1 i 27 11 50 11 35 8 .52 11 14 12 14 Il 15 1.5 34 12 42 12 02 9 46 10 06 12 41 14 Ifi 13 00 13 27 1:3 19 1'2 15 13 35 14 32 el 40 Maddaloni 41 02 1 Malamorco, Canaei di (canal) 45 22 12 20 Maniago 46 10 12 43 tantova 45 09 10 48 M antova (prov) 45 10 10 47 Marche admin) 43 30 13 15 M arghera 45 28 12 14 Martina Franca 40 42 17 20 Massa- Carrara (pror) 44 15 10 03 Maters prop 40 30 16 25 Mazara del Valle 37 39 12 35 Mclegnano 45 21 9 19 Merate 45 42 9 25 Messina 38 11 1.5 34 Mestre 45 29 12 15 Milan 45 28 9 12 Milano prov 45 30 9 30 Milano Centrale (r eta) 45 29 9 12 Milano- Rogoredo (rr sta) 45 26 9 14 Mincio strm 45 04 10 59 Minerbio 44 37 11 29 Modane, France 45 12 6 40 Modena 44 40 10 55 Molise admin 41 40 14 30 Monf alcone 45 49 13 32 tam.% Biane (ml) 15 .50 6 52 Monte Amiala 42 58 11 33 Monte Cavo (nil) 41 45 12 42 Montcl! -o Fiorentino 43 44 11 01 Monte '.'ends (mt) 45 19 11 40 Montichiari 45 25 10 23 M otdano 44 24 II 49 .Mori 45 51 10 59 Mortara 45 15 8 14 Muggia, Baia di (bay) 45 37 13 46 Naples 40 50 14 15 Napoli prop 40 53 14 25 Naviglio dells Martesamt (canon.......... 4:5 35 9 33 Naviglio d3 Pavia (canal) 45 10 9 10 Naviglio Grande (canal) 45 27 9 10 Nice., France 43 42 7 15 N ovarn 45 28 8 38 Novara (prop) 45 58 R 24 Nuoro (Pro") 40 10 9 20 Oglio sb' m) 45 02 10 39 Olbia (rr xla 40 55 9 29 Oristanu 39 54 8 36 Orte 42 27 12 23 Orvieto 42 43 12 07 Ostia Antien 41 45 12 18 O stiglin 4 5 04 Il 08 Otok Vis, YugOxlavin (i.d) 43 02 16 10 Padova prov) 45 25 11 49 Padova �I5 25 II 53 I'alazullo Acreid 37 04 14 54 Palermo 38 07 13 22 Pnlmnnova 15 54 13 19 Punignglia, Seno di (bay) 44 04 9 50 Pantellerin, Isola di (is) :36 47 12 00 Parma 44 48 10 20 Pavia 45 10 9 10 Perugia 43 08 12 22 Perugia prnr) �13 03 12 33 Pesaroo .13 54 12 5.5 Pescarn 12 28 14 13 Pescara (prop) 12 20 13 57 1' icenza .15 01 9 40 Piazza Armerina 37 23 14 22 Piedmont (rrgn) 45 00 8 00 Piemonte (admin) 4:5 00 8 00 Pietrama (rr 4o). 40 49 14 11) f' ila 43 03 12 10 inerolo 44 5:3 7 21 Piom Nino 42 55 10 :32 ix n 43 �13 10 23 Pisa Prop 43 25 10 4:3 Po st rm) 44 57 12 134 Po, Valle del (ralleu)....... 45 00 I0 31) Po di Volano (sirm) 1 4 49 12 15 Poggioreale Compagnn (rr xrn) 42 13 �17 Pontplagnecuro 44 .l. 3 11 36 1' ontremoli 44 22 9 57 Ponzn (ixl)...... 12 r x k r W Sondrio prop :37 04 IS1R Spoleto 46 10 10 03 Stretto di Messina (strt) 42 44 12 44 Sulcis arra 38 15 1.. 35 Taranto prop) 39 04 R 41 Taranto 40 37 40 28 17 15 17 14 Tarvisio 46 30 13 35 Terminilmerese 37 .59 13 42 Terni( prop 42 41 12 19 Terni 42 34 12 37 Teulada 38 58 8 46 Tiber River (xtrm) 41 44 12 14 Ticino s lrm) 45 09 9 14 Timau 46 35 13 00 Tol'yatti, U.S.S.R 53 31 49 26 Torino.. 45 03 7 40 Torino prop 45 08 7 22 Torino Porta Nueva (rr sto) .15 03 7 41 Tornavento 45 35 8 43 Torrente Bisagno (sirm) 44 2.1 8 56 Torrente Poleevent (slrrn) 44 25 8 57 Toscana (admin) 43 25 11 0() Trapani 38 01 12 29 Trecate 45 26 8 44 Trentino -Alto Adige (admin) 46 30 11 20 Trento 46 04 11 08 Trento prop 16 08 11 07 Treviso 45 40 12 15 Trieste 45 40 13 4fi Trieste prop 45 20 13 25 Trino 45 12 8 I8 Trof arello 44 :59 7 44 Turbigo 45 32 8 44 Toscana (admin) 13 25 11 00 Udine 46 03 13 14 Udine prov 46 10 13 00 Umbria admin) 43 00 12 30 Vado Ligure 44 17 8 27 Valle d (admin) 45 45 7 15 Volpiano 45 12 7 46 Varese prop 45 48 8 48 Vista 12 07 14 42 V,ticnn City 11 54 12 27 Vecchiano 43 47 10 23 Veneta, Laguna (lagn) 15 25 12 19 Veneto admin) 45 30 11 �15 Venezia prop) 45 35 12 34 Venezia Meslre (rr xla) 45 29 12 14 Venice .15 27 12 21 Ventimiplia 43 47 7 36 Vercelli (prop) y,. 37 8 10 Vercelli. 45 19 8 25 Verona 45 27 11 00 Verona Porta, Yescovo (rr xla) 45 26 Il 01 Vesuvius (min) 40 49 14 213 Viareggio 43 52 10 14 Vicenza 45 33 11 :313 Vienna, Austria 48 12 113 22 Vigevano 45 19 8 51 Villa San Giovanni 38 13 I5 38 Villnsanta 45 37 9 18 Viterho 12 25 Voghera 12 o('i Voltri 44 59 9 01 .14 26 8 45 Selected airfields Avinno 46 (12 12 36 BrindisiWasale 40 39 17 57 ngliari/ Elmas :39 15 9 03 Pat it n in/ Pon tanarossa 37 28 1:5 04 Forli 44 12 12 01 enova/ Sestri �1,1 25 8 50 Milano /Linnte 15 27 VtilnnojM alpensn 9 17 Napoli/ Capedichino 15 :38 R 1I.1 lOmn /Ciam pino 10 53 14 17 lumalfiumicino 4I 48 12 36 farina/ Casrllr 41 48 12 14 I'reviso /St. Angelo 45 12 15 1 2 7 :39 lr nezin l' I' e 12 12 45 30 12 �n APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080003 -4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080003 -4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080003 -4