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Prazil September 1973 NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVE) N SECRET NO FOREIGN DISSEM APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080015 -1 I NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY PUBLICATIONS The basic unit of the NIS is the General Survey, which is now published in a bound -by- chapter formal so that topics of greater per- ishability can be updated on an individuo! basis. These chapters� Country Profile, The Society, Government and Politics, The Economy, Military Geog- raphy, Transportation and Telecommunications, Armed Forces, Science, and Intelligence and Security, provide the primary NIS coverage. Some chapters, particularly Science and Intelligence and Security, that are not pertinent to all countries, are produced s.lectively. For small countries requiring only minimal NIS treatment, the General Survey coverage may be bound into one volume. Supplementing the General Survey is the NIS Basic Intelligence Fact book, a ready reference publication that semiannually updates key sta- tistical data found in the Sury 3y. An unclassified edition of the factbook omits some details on the economy, the defense forces, and the intelligence and security organizations. Although detailed sections on many topics were part of the NIS Program, production of these sections has been phased out. Those pre- viously produced will continue to be available as long as the major portion of the study is considered valid. A quarterly listing of all active NIS units is published in the Inventory of Available NIS Publ;- ations, which is also bound into the concurrent classified Factbook. The Inventory lists all NIS units by area name and number and includes classification and date of issue; it thus facilitates the ordering of NIS units as well as their filing, cataloging, and utilization. Initial dissemination, additional copies of NIS units, or separate chapters of the General Surveys can be obtained directly or through liaison channels from the Central Intelligence Agency. The General Survey is prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency and the Defense Intelligence Agency under the general direction of the NIS Committee. It is coordinated, edited, published, and dissemi- nated by the Central Intelligence Agency. WARNING This documet t contains information affecting the national defense of the United States, within the meaning of title 18, sections 797 and 794 of the US code, as amended. Its transmission or revelation of its contents to or receipt by an unauthorized person is prohibited by law. CLASSIFIED BY 019641. EXEMPT FROM GENERAL DECLASSIFI- CATION SCHEDULE OF E. O. 11652 EXEMPTION CATEGORIES 5B (1), (2), (3). DECLASSIFIED OKI ON APPROVAL OF THE DIRECTOR OF CENTRAL INTELLIGENc. I f 1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080015 -1 1 01 @1�110 T&ffm WARNING 14 a3 1 The NIS is National Intelligence and may not be re- leased or shown to representatives of any foreign govern- mentor international body except by specific authorization of the Director of Central Intelligence in accordance with the provisions of National Security Council Intelligence Di- rective No. 1. For NIS containing unclassified material, however, the portions so marked may be made available for official pur- poses to foreign nationals and nongovernment personnel provided no attribution is made to National Intelligence or the National Intelligence Survey. Subsections and graphics are individually classified according to content. Classification /control designa- tions are: (U /OU) Unclassified /For Official Use Only (C) Confidential (S) Secret 19 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080015 -1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080015 -1 BRAZIL CONTENTS Th.': chapter ,supersedes the scientific cover- ap:-in the General Survey dated January 1970. A. Ge -neral 1. 1 B. O t ,m;- .stion, planning and financing of rese,wch 2 C. Scientific education, manpower, and faciliSts F D. Major research fields 8 1. Air, r-;aund, and naval weapons 8 2. Moluc;ical and chemical warfare 10 3. Atomic energy 10 4. E.ectronics 10 SECRET No FOREIGN DISSEM APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080015 -1 -Irmo me In FIGUP&S Page Fig. 1 Federal government organization for scientific and technical activities (chart) 3 Fig. 2 Sites of scientific activity map) 16 ii t 4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080015 -1 N Page Page 5. Medical sciences 11 (2) Ceodesy 15 6. Other sciences 12 (3) Geology and terrestrial a. Chemistry and metallurgy 12 geophysics 15 b. Physics and mathematics 13 4 Hydrology, h y draulics, and c. Astrogeophysical sciences 14 coastal research 15 (1) Astronomy, meteorology, and (5) Oceanography 15 upper atmosphere 14 Glossary 17 FIGUP&S Page Fig. 1 Federal government organization for scientific and technical activities (chart) 3 Fig. 2 Sites of scientific activity map) 16 ii t 4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080015 -1 N 0 Science A. General (S) The Brazilian capabilit for scientific research and deyeloptnc�n n t. although oil(- of the foremost in Latin America. is limited. Despite serious difficulties over the past several years, often related to political problems, science in Brazil is improving and the goverimient is increasing substantially its support of research and development. Ilowever. many Brazilian Mid visiting scientists and engineers believe that the rate of development in science and tecl,nolog, is insufficient to meet the needs of the country if it is to escape underdeycloped status within the next 25 years. Mild of the scientific effort is concerned with trying to keep abreast of worldwide scientific developments. Biornedic�inc. c�hemislry. and physics are reasonably well developed, but the research ac�complishcd is not significant. Resa�arch in tropical medicine. antitoxins, and snakt vc�rtoms has received some international mcognition in the past. Generally, scientific projcets of significanct have been almost entirely dependent on participation by foreigners. Since the early 1950's, Brazil has made rapid progress industrially, bnt the development of science and technology has not kept pace with this industrial growth, vyhic�h is based to a considerable extent on the investment of foreign capital. Most of the required technology has been imported from abroad, resulting in little growth of ",tree -icntific capabilities. 'There is practically no communication between practicing engineers and scientiAs in the academic sector. The Brazilian Government is aware of the impact of science and technology on economic and social progress and encourages scivntific� activities. bnl there are many hindrances to scientific progress. One of the most serious is the inferior system of primary and secondary education which limits the number of secondary school graduates who arc satisfactorily prepared for mdversih work. The increased amounts of government funds available for msearc�h are still inaule quale, and the increases have been partly neutralized by the continuing rapid inflation of the currency. The overall scientific capability is lintitc�d by the shortage of trained manpower, and scientific� education is hampered by an insufficient supply of qualified tea. hers, facilities, and funds. I'll( military governments under the late President Costa c Silva and the current administration of President Medici have shovyn a continued interest in science and tec�hnologv. but nsuiy actions of the government have had an inhibiting effect on scientific and technologi- cal progress. The rerm tl of prominent scientists from their positions in uniyersitie: and research institutes for political reasons ha, nc;ycrsely affected morale. Foreign exchange controls hays� interfered with the APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP0l- 00707R000200080015 -1 V importation of scientific e(laipment and journals. There have been difficulties in securing government approval for foreign travel by Brazilian scientists and engineers and in obtaining permission for sdentific expeditions to Brazil by foreigners. In general. burea:wtatic controls and delays have had a stifling effect on Brazilian science and on the inflow of technology from abroad. Brazil has cooperative agreements in scientific affairs and in atomic energy matters with mane countries. In December 1971 it 5 -year agreement aimed at intensifying cooperation between U.S. and Brazilian scientists was signed. In recent years, technical and scientific cooperation agreements have heen sinned with Israel, West Germany, Czechoslo- vakia, the United Kingdom, France, Japan, several Latin American countries, as well as several other countries. Similar agreements are in effect with the United Nations. which is currently financing about USS5.6 million worth of scientific and technical cooperation projects in Brazil, and -with the Organization of American States (OAS). During the last 10 fiscal years an average of about $15 million per vear has keen allocated to joint technical --ooperation programs in lira zil by the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID). In FY72 the allocation through AID had dec, to about $8.9 r:iillion. Increasingly, the United States is supporting scientific development in Brazil through such organwations as the U.N. Educational, Scientific and Cuitural Organization (UNESCO), th^ OAS, and other internati mal agencies. Order it basic technical cooperation agreement signed in September 1970. the Japanese Government avyards fellowships to Brazilians for technical training in Japan and supplies equipment, machinery, and material, as well as technical support in various ways. A bilateral agreement for scienviic cooperation between Argentina and Brazil, wi-Ach was signed in 1966, provides for the exchange of information and personnel, conununication of research progress, and planning of long -range research for mutual benefit. This agreement was an important step in promoting closer cooperation hetwcen the hnr major scientific communities in Latin America. Prance and Brazil have rather broad agreements on utilization of atomic energy for peaceful purposes, including provisions for exploration of various regions within Brazil for umniurn and thorium. A broad agreement signed by Broil and West Germany in 1969 gives special emphasis to cooperation in such subjects as nuclear energy, space and aeronautics, oceanography, and data processing. The Brazilian Government has 17 usually pursued a course of foreign police has ^d on cooperation with the west. and Brazilian scientists generally are Western oriented. Although Brazil maintains diplomatic relations \with the U.S.S.R. and other Communist countries. it is believed to have no scientific agreements with these countries. Brazil is a member of such international scientific organizations as the World Meteorological Organiza- tioji \VMO). the International Oceanographic Commission (lO('), the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG`. the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). B. Organization, planning, and financing of research (C) Research and development activities are not highly organized, and until the early 1950's such activities were left almost entirely to the universities, some of which are federally supported, some under the control of the states, an -1 some privately operated. Most of the r- search underway is supported by the federal or state governments, or by foreign countries -rnd org "niza- tions. Industrial research is weak, and very little financial support for research is provided by industry. Technology is readily available from foreign countries whose industrial organizations participate in Brazilian industry and supply the know -how. The government control., scientific activities through various ministries and through three major government organizations: the National Research Council (CNP(j), its subordinate Institute of Space Research (INPE), and the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNGN). The Ministry of Planning and General Coordination has become increasingly involved in science and technology and is a major factor in developing science policy and in the funding of scientific research and technological dcvelopnu�nt projects. The federal government organization for scientific and technical activities is shown in Figure 1. The CNPy, established in 1931, continues to he the single most important government agency responsible for the coordination and stimulation of scientific activities. It provides grants for research, recommends approval of scientific expeditions, provides scholar- ships for scientific study, and administers bilateral agreements -with other countries. The CNPy is comprised of 27 members and includes representatives of all the federal universities, the Acadeny of Sciences, the armed forces, and the Ministries of Foreign Affairs, Agriculture, Education, and Industry and Commerce. For many wears the CNPy was active only in Rio de APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080015 -1 ernn 1- 110 TQ5 f u National Nuclear Energy CNEN Institute of Nuclear Engineering The Brazilian Company for I Nuclear Technology Institute of Radiation Res arch i LE Research Headquarters and Laboratory Institutes at Sao Jose dos Campos and Centers Brazilian Rocket Range National Security Council National I Institute Brazilian Commission for Research Council of Space Space Activities (COBAE) Research (CR ?q) (INPE) Research Headquarters and Laboratory Institutes at Sao Jose dos Campos and Centers Brazilian Rocket Range Ministry of Planning and General Minis(" of Agriculture Ministry g Ministry of Aeronautics Coordination Meteorological Service I I National Fund for Scientific Division of Air Force and Technological Development Geology and Minerals Research Institutes Technical r I and Stations Ministry of Education Aeronautical Institute of Technology (ITA) Coordinating Office Ministry of Health Ministry of Army Institute for Research and for the Development of Development (IPD) University Trained Personnel Research Institutes I Federal Universities Army Research Institutes and Observatories Ministry of Navy Geographic Service Ministry of Mines and Energy Navy National Department of Naval Research institute Sui ordinotion Mineral Production Consultation and Coordination FIGURE 1. Federal government organization for scientific and technical activities, 1972 (U /OU) Janeiro, but since 1963 its influence has grown because it has been able to provide increasing funds for research projects. The CNP(I has the power to establish new research institutes and centers, to maintain direct contact with scientific attaches of foreign conntries, all(] to deal directly with all federal, state, municipal, and private agencies. It also has the authority to create committees and corninissions without requiring submission of its recommendations to the President of Brazil. The CNP(I plans and oversees the execution of :.hart -term and long -term scientific programs, ensuring that they are constantly revised and kept np date. Another of its functions is to effect liaison between ministries, government agencies and dep:utments, policy planning bodies, and research bodies in order that facilities and resources are effectively utilized. It maintains an objective of stimnlaCrig research to secure the hest possible use of the natural resources of the country to improve its economy and make contributions to the health and welfare of the population. Since 1962 the CNPq has operated under 5 -vear plans, which have reaffirmed the importune(" of science and technology and set forth priorities for research and development. 'The CNP(I receives its funds chiefly from the federal budget; to (lute these funds have been insufficient t:) permit the council to achieve the objectives of its plans. Approxinialely 504 of its budget is allocated for the support of fundamental sciences, 15% to technological sciences, 25% to medical sciences, and 10% to agricultural sciences. It also has received special grants from the lord Foundation and sane assistance from West Germany and France. In addition to supporting th(" INPE� the CNP(I provides direct financial assistance to the Inslihte of Pure and Applied Mathematics in Rio 3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080015 -1 de Janeiro, the National Institute for Research in the Amazon at Manans. the Institute of Bibliography and Documentation in Rio de Jane the Institute for Highway Research in Rio de Janeiro, and the Emilio Goeldi Mnseem in Belem. The CNEN, established in 19.36, directs the Brazilian nuclear energy progr Affiliated with t'c Ministry of Mines and Energy and the National Department of Mineral Prodnc�tion, the CNEN supervises three facilities �the Institute of Nuclear Engineering in Rio de Janeiro, the Institute of Radiation Research in Belo Horizonte, and the ne%v facility, the Brazilian Company for Nuclear Technology (CBTN). Brasilia. Research and training are carried out in the two institutes, which are associated with the federal universities in the cities in which they are located. The CBTN, formed in Dccernher 1971, now operates the nuclear research institutes in Rio de Janeiro and Belo Horizonte. The Institute for Atomic Energy (IEA) in Sao Paulo' is a separate state facility and is the largest nuclear research institute in Brazil. The CNEN is concerned with tFc national unclear policy. It supervises safet regulations and training of nuclear science specialists and reviews propos for the construction of nuclear energy generating stations. CNEN's scientific and technological research departments provide assistance as well as radioactive isotopes and saf-ty advice to research institutions. The CNEN does not arrange regular s:tcnlific meetings but does encourage participation by Brazilian specialists in conferences, colloquia, and symposia. CNEN is financed directly through the government, and some revenue is obtained from its industrial work. During 1971 the CNEN underwent a restructuring; in regard to its hoard of directors. At the present time CNEN is governed by a deliberative commission and by technical and administrative organs deemed necessary to accomplish its objectives. Brazil is continuing its interest in space activities and in January 1971 the government established it Brazilian Commission for Space Activities (COBAE) under the National Security Council. Headed by the chief of the general staff of the artned forces, the COBAF, is concerned mainly with assisting the President in the formtlation of a national policy on space research, including the allocation of resources, coordination of civilian and military space programs, and initiation of cooperative programs with other countries. The National Commission for Space 'For diacritics on place names see the list of names A the end of the chapter. Activities (CNAE), organized under the CNPy in 1961 to coordinate, stimulate, and carry out studies related to space activities, was abolished in April 1971 and replaced by the Institute of Space Research (INPE). The INPE abso:oed the functions of the CNAE. In addition, it has the authority to fornnlate plans and programs for space research, as Nvell as negotiate contracts with foreign or international agencies. The head of the CNPy acts as chief of the INPE directo� ate council, which includes a representative of the general staff of the armed forces. The iNPE is the country's representative to COSPAR and participate; in international conferences arrange by that organiza- tion, 'lie International Council of Scientific Unions, and the Latin American Center for Space Physics. The headynarters and main laboratories of the INPE are located near the Technical Center for Aeronautics (CTA) at Sao Jose dos Campos in Sao Paulo State. A significant trend is appearing in state government encouragement of research applied to solving problems common to particular areas. Proliferation of official state organizations active in science and technology has resulted from pressures exerts d by sc�icntists and technologists who felt that their skills would be better used in an area where they are needed. There are it few private research organizations, such as societies and associations, that have special interests in various sciences and technologies. Typical are the Association of Research Vlorkers of Rio Grande do Sul and the Brazilian Society for the Progress of Science. Both are concerned with science but do not have laboratories, nor do they employ workers engaged directly in research. The Brazilian Society for Metals. which has been functioning for the last three decades, generally provides it fortin for metallurgists, and as such it stimulates research and metallurgical studies of general interest. The Brazilian Petroleum Institute is a private institution but receives support from the state petroleum organization PETROBRAS and all firms connected with the petroleum industry in Brazil. It studies technical problems that are hest solved by cooperative work in industry and acts as it consultative forum. The governmental ministries are concerned with research in various ways. The Ministry of Education is responsible for research in the federal universities; however, neither basic nor applied research is conducted on it broad side in the universities, and there are few departments or laboratories where resea is done systematically or according to normal international standards. Studies generally are done oil regional problems, especially in basic medical or C APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080015 -1 a w geological subjects. The Ministry of Health has many research institutes subordinate to it; among the most notable are the Osvaldo Cruz. Institute in Rio de Janeiro and the Evandro Chagas Institute i.. Belem. The Ministry of Agriculture has regional laboratories and research stations in several places, usually associated with a nearby university. It directs the Meieorological Service and the Division of Geology and Minerals. The Ministry of Mines and Energy operates the National Department of Mineral Production. The ministry is concerned with mining uranium and thorium and with the generation of hydroelectric power; the CNEN coordinates the rninistrv's involvement in any aspect of nuclear power generation, as well as in the processing of uranium ores. The CNEN does nct exercise any special control over geological exploration for basic nuclear ores. The Ministry of Aeronautics, through the air force. directs research at the CTA. The CTA has two subordinate organizations, the Aeronautical Institute of Technology (ITA) and the Institute for Research and Development (IPD), both at Sao Jose dos Campos. The Ministry of Army is responsible for the activities of the Geographic Service of the Army, while the Ministry of Navy directs the Nav�d Research nstitute on Ilha do Governador. The Ministry of Industry and Commerce administers the Fund for Support of Technology which provides funds for the establishment of new technologically advanced industries. The Ministry of Planning and General Coordination provides financial support for research and development through its National Fund for Scientific and Technological Development, which was created in 1969 by presidential decree. The Brazilian Academy of Sciences in Rio de Janeiro, established in 1916, functions informally. It holds symposia, publishes scientific literature, provides for the exchange of scientists, and tries to interest students in scientific careers. It is composed of a group of scientists who meet periodically to discuss and study various aspects of accomplishments in scientific fields. It has been assured of government financial support only since 1966. The funds provided, however, are not sufficient to support a scientific research program and are mainly used to cover the cost of the academy's publications. Although financial support of research and development is extremely inadequate, amouunting to only about 0.2 1, o-0.3 1 /n of the gross national product, the government recognizes the importance of research and the need for increased funding. Financ�iai support has increased substantially since 1964, but rapid inflations has offset some of the gains. A complete breakdown of funds appropriated or expended for research and development in Brazil is not ayadable. For the second 5 -year plan (1968 -72) of the CNPq, the Ministry of Planning and General Coordination allocated about $8.8 million for research activities. Of this amount $1.1 million was to he used for 405 postgraduate and doctoral scholarships abroad: $I.-; for CNAE activities; $1.8 for research equipment; 52.2 for research in priority projects; and $2.25 for contract research. The following tabulation shows a partial breakdown of 1970 research funds (in new crnxeiros: exchange rate of 6.1 =$1) by various government agencies: CNPq 68,366,1 10 Ministry of Planning and General Coordination 59,000,. 00 Brazilian Academy of Sciences 950,000 CNEN 54,000.000 Natiesial Bank of Economic De- velopment 91,000.000 National Institutes of Weights and Measures 4,300,000 277,6 7'),110 The planning ministry's National Fund for Scientific and Technological Development had a budget of $10 million in 1970 and about $25 million in 1971; R provides funds either directly to major research organizations, such as the CNEN or the CNPq, cr as a result of requests by individuals for specific research projects. The National Bank for Economic Development, Rio de Janeiro, has two subordinate bodies specifically designed to aid science and technology in Brazil: the 'Technology Fund and the Productivity Fund. In 1970 the former hoc' 75 million cruzeiros available for fellowships and support of graduate courses and for support of theoretical and applied research without immediate� commercial value. The latter fund is designed to stimulate industrial research. Although fina:nc�ial support for research and development by industry has been very meager, some industrial support has been provided for engineering schools and for scholarships. Substantial support for sc�ienc�e and technology is provided by sources rnutsidc of Brazil, including foreign governments, international organizations, and private f 'These funds 19 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080015 -1 were distributed over a wide range of disciplines, and a substantial portion was allocated for improving scientific educational programs and libraries. Significant grants have been made to provide equipment for both teaching and research. The state governments expend far less for research and development than the federal goveni___--tit. hilt their systems for selecting, organizing, and executing research are highly efficient and their researchers work j with greater enthusiasm and freedom from political influences. The states have established state funds for the support of research. The Research Support Fund in the Sao Paulo State is the oldest and largest of the funds. Its scientific director is c'onsidere'd the second tnost powerful figure in Brazilian sc'ienc'e after the president of the CNNI. In recent %cars this fund has directed a majority of its grants to development- oriented research rather than pure research. The main :.ouree of revenue is the state government, which under the constitution of the slate is required to allocate annually to the Sao Paulo Mate Fund t1.Yi of the state's income from taxes. Tie 1969 budget was 14.5 million cruzeirus and the 1970 budget was about 20 million cruzeiros The State of Rio Grande do Sul has established a similar organization and the State of Guanabara Us set up if Support Foundation for Science and 'Technology financed by if percentage of state revenue. C. Scientific education, manpower, and facilities (C) Modern techniques in education are being introduced slowly in Brazilian schools in both higher and secondary Icvels. Much of the scientific community locg has recognized that slow progress in re search and development results from the poor organization of school curriculums and teaching me thods. The government is attempting to upgrade education at all levels, and in 1970 the Minister (if Pl anning and General Coordination announced plans to allot 24 billion crutzeiros to education during the following d years. Some of the improvements in education can be attributed to if long -range program for science education in Latin America undertaken by the U.S. National Science Foundation through the auspices of the AID. Scientific education in Brazil, although improving as more qualifies; teachers, more funds, and better facilities arc provided, is still handicapped by it general shortage of these essentials. A The number of students enrolled its undergraduates in higher educational institutions in 1972 totaled 530,(x)0. This was slightl% less thin twice the number enrolled in 1968 but still represented onl% about 2.5e( of the population between the ages of 19 ;urd 24. In 1966 the number of students enrolled in engineering courses was 37.5(N); in medicine, 25?00: and in science. pliilosophy, and letters, 6,800. Engineering enrollments are increasing at a rate far greater than the growth of the population of the c�ountr% The total en roll nlent of students in sc�ien e and engineering courses, however, i small for a c�ountr% wit near) I(x) million people. Edncationa! reforms have been in progress curing recent %ears. Under former President Costa e Sil% ;i, and to a lesser extent under President Medici. drastic changes oc'c'urred in the higher educational s%stent which hu%e had an ad%erse effec! on the morale of scientists and teachers. In April 1969 approxiniatel 70 profe ssors were retire from the Stat^ Uni%ersil%of Sao Pardo and the Federal I'ni%ersit% of Rio de Janeiro b\ presidential order, and life tenure for college professors was abolished. "these changes dealt a blow to the government program to slow the exodus of professional people from Brazil and ha%e hindered programs for encouraging the return of scientists \.ho have I;�fl Brazil. The present government has had some success, however. in encouraging the return of important scientists. Sonic of the most renowned sc�ientiAs who left Brazil and others who were purged have returned and found working conditions suitable in some of the larger states: for example. man\ are staffing the State Universitx of Campinas ill the State of Sao Paulo. Scientific education is strongest at the Universities of Sao Paulo, Bahia in Sul\ ,idor. ltio Grande do Sul in Porto Alegre, and the Federal Un :versit% of Rio de Janeiro. Engineering education is available at most of the larger public uni%ersities, at the ITA, at ti?ac�kenzie Universit. in Sao Paulo, and at the Catholic Uni%ersih in Rio de Janeiro. The qualit. of ,location in the School of Engineering of the Universih of Bahia is reportedlN good, especially in the Department of :heroical I ?ngineering, although the staff is small. The ITA is it modern facilit% rind offers some of the best technical training in Brazil, but its enrollment is otik :about 0. The course is of 5 ..u duration, and the 150 nn�ntbers chosen for each class are selected In competitive examination front ove ;,INlll applicants. E mphasis has shifted gradual) i APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080015 -1 at they instihrto fron aeronautical engineering to vIvctric�al and mechanical engineering. electronics, mathcmaties, and ph%sic�s. A (ou� in nuclear engineering %%as inlrncluc�ed in 1967 is part of the effort to promote nuclear energy research. Unforra- nately, ri A's graduates are not prepared to assume the .Inlinistr itiyc- technical jobs in Brazilian industm where supervisory ahilih is more important than research and (leve l rne,, t capability. Sc�ielltifie education at the University of Brasilia is of poor quulih. and valuable egiipme�nt is either in storage or only partially utilized. Very little formal graduate sti(!v is offered in engineering or in the sciences. A masters degree cyan he obtained in engineering, but students seeking a doctors degree in engineering must study abroad. With U.S, assistallev, the Instihte of :henistry of the Federal University of Bio do Janeiro started postgraduate courses in chemical engineering, with the objective of granting the masters degree and Ultimately the doctor's degree in this field. A program leading to higher degrees in physics has h i ell established at the State University of Sao Paulo, ar,d in chemistry at both the University of Sao Paulo and at the� Federal University of Bio de Janeiro in a program coordinated by the U.S. National Ac�adcny of Sciences. Financial support of graduate programs has increased substantial) in recent years; in X967 about $760,000 of governricnl funds was spent for such programs. The All) provided about $180,0110 for the support of graduate work during the same year. Several other foreign countries, including France, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands, have also contributed support. Brazilian universities have male attenpts to improve the status of researchers and professors. A professional post of researcher, which allows the incunhent to pursue mse�arc�h on a full -time hasis, has liven created at the universit love. heretofore, the research worker was required to be it professor, and because (4 the hear; ,eac�hing load. he frequently had to neglect either �aching or research. Salaries for professors are gradually being increased hot are still ill- KINIuale. The State University of Sao Paulo, which raised the� salaries of professors to $4(1(1 per month in 1967, bus set the salary levels foli by the academic collanullit\. Governnu�nt:al and private rvsvarc (tncalifield reselarch personnel ause of low salarie's. The CNPq has provided saapplemenlary salary support for it limited number of qualified persons who have it potential for it research career. In 1968, 200 persons receiv: d such assistance. As if supplement to the inadequate training of scientific and technical personnel, many Brazilians have been sent for special training to the United Stales under scholarship programs or by icdustrial companies with subsidiaries in Brazil. One procedure is for th( companies to begin operation with it staff of American engineers and technicians and to replace them gradualk, with Brazilians who have heell sent to the United States for training. Except for graduates of the School of Engineering at the State University of Sao Paulo and those educated abroad. Brazilian engineers gencralh� do not meet U.S. professional standards. The second 3 -year plan of the CNPq (INS -72) has made provision for the educ�atioll abroad of students seeking higher degrees in scientific subjects. The CNPq Planned to grant all estimated 12.000 fellowships during the 1970 -7.1 period. Brazil has a serious shortage of engineers, technic�ious, and scientists in most fields except physics, where the supply has exceeded the demand. In late 1967 it was estimated that Brazil had only I person engaged in basic or applied research for every 33,000 inhabitants; in 1972 this figure rose irnpressivc!y to I in 18,000, L�e;t it still falls short of the needs. In 1967 there were 3,700 engineering school graduates. compared with 2,000 in 1962. In 1968 the leaching of Physics al the graduate and postgr:admite level was carried oil( by about 300 physicists. 1'11e second 3 -year plan of the CNPq stressed the importance of ph and enc�onraged the updating of ecluipnu'nt alld the modernization of facilities. Brazilian geologists appear to he reasollahly well trained; they receive training ii three or four schools whose geology departments rank with some of the hest in the world. Although scientists and engineers are highly regarded by the population in Brazil, most Brazilians :appear to have little knowledge of the contributions that call he made by scientifically trained people. As in other Latin American countries, scieatists are miderpaid and nan4' of the younger men soon abandon their scientific or :.academic careers to enter more lucrative fields. I'he logy salaries paid to scientists are un obstac',v to the return of Brazilian scientists who work abroad and to the hiring of well -known foreign specialists. In order to reduce the loss of scientific and technical manpower to more developed countries, N APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080015 -1 Brazil needs to provide scientists with better working conditions. adequate equipment, and higher salaries. Facilities and lahoratory equipment at the various research centers vary from inadequate to good quality depending on the field of activit;-. There is a general shortage of modern equipment needed to fulfill objectives of most projects. In some of the university research laboratories and science faculties the solid state physics equipment has been rated as only equivalent to that of advanced secondary schools in North America. In a few cases the universities have an abundance of new laboratory equipment, but some of it is deteriorating from disuse. Some of the best facilities and equipment in Brazil, obtained primarily from U.S. Army surpluses, are related to astrophysics research. Brazils first Triga Mark I reactor is located at the Institute of Radiation Research near the University of Minas Gerais in Belo Horizonte and the equipment used to study crystal defects and isotopes is considered to he of high quality. The University of Santa Catarina's optical physics iaboratory is purported to have received sonic of the best scientific equipment related to the optical industry from the East German company of "Zeiss through a coffee exchange agreement. In general, the physics research facilities of the various research centers arc judged by Western European and North American standards as poor. To obtain good laboratory equipment, sonic of the leading physicists find it necessary to smuggle it into the country by using false radiation labels to circumvent the bureaucratic problems. In nuclearand solid state physics laboratories there are small research reactors and accelerators which cannot provide the energy levels achieved in modern research laborator- ies. D. Major research fields I. Air, ground, and naval weapons (C) Research and development on air, ground, and naval weapons is very limited because of an insufficient economic and industrial base needed to support such activity. Still, Brazil's industrial output is the largest of the I,alin American countrie-, and it has the greatest potential among those countries for achieving a viable weapons e'.evelonrnent and production capability. Progress towards establishing an indigenous research ,unrl development capability is the most evident in tl, aircraft field. The Brazilian Government is continuing to invest heavily in the development of its aeronautical industry. Factors motivating such action include those of national security which specify the establishment of the largest and most modern air force in South America, the importance of the national airlines to the countrv's economic well- being, and to the high dependence placed upon air transportation as a whole in the development of the nation's interior. Supervision over all aeronautical research and development is provided by the Ministry of Aeronautics, and virtually all aeronautical associated facilities are located in Sao Jose dos Campos, in Sao Paulo State. The most important organization for aircraft design and development is the CTA and its subordinate IPD. Aircraft production is the responsibility of Empresa Brasilerira de Aeronautics S.A. (EMBRAER), the Sociedad Construtora Aeronautica A'eiva, Ltda., and the Sociedad Aerotec Ltda. (Aerotee). Over the years aviation related activity appeared to center at CTA and IPD. More recently, however, emphasis has been shifting to an expansion of the nations aircraft production centers; the largest and most important of which is EMBRAER. Aircraft in production at EMBRAER include a Brazilian version of the Italian Aermacchi MB -326 jet trainer and light attack aircraft; the indigenously developed EMB -110 Bandeirante, twin- turboprop, 12- passenger utility transport; and the EMB- 200 1panema crop duster. All three aircraft are expected to he in full series production for the next several vears. An ambitious development program, identified as the EMB -500 Amazona, has been ;underway to provide a replacement for the U.S. DC- 3/C -47 aircraft in service with the Brazilian Air Force. This aircraft was designed as a 40 passenger, short -take- off and landing (STOI.) utility transport with alternate roles as un assault troop carrier, and naval patrol aircraft. I ix program schedule of EMBRAER specified a prototype F:MB 500 to be test flown in 1974, and series production to be initiated by the mid 1970'x. The EMB -500 program apparently has been terminated, however, and discussions are being held to develop and produce a similar type aircraft under it joint program with Argentin'u. Should it viable program solve from the discussions, it would constitute the first major cooperative aircraft development/ prod uc- tion effort ever to he undertaken by the South American countries. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080015 -1 R The Brazilian Government is continuing to invest heavily in the development of its aeronautical industry. Factors motivating such action include those of national security which specify the establishment of the largest and most modern air force in South America, the importance of the national airlines to the countrv's economic well- being, and to the high dependence placed upon air transportation as a whole in the development of the nation's interior. Supervision over all aeronautical research and development is provided by the Ministry of Aeronautics, and virtually all aeronautical associated facilities are located in Sao Jose dos Campos, in Sao Paulo State. The most important organization for aircraft design and development is the CTA and its subordinate IPD. Aircraft production is the responsibility of Empresa Brasilerira de Aeronautics S.A. (EMBRAER), the Sociedad Construtora Aeronautica A'eiva, Ltda., and the Sociedad Aerotec Ltda. (Aerotee). Over the years aviation related activity appeared to center at CTA and IPD. More recently, however, emphasis has been shifting to an expansion of the nations aircraft production centers; the largest and most important of which is EMBRAER. Aircraft in production at EMBRAER include a Brazilian version of the Italian Aermacchi MB -326 jet trainer and light attack aircraft; the indigenously developed EMB -110 Bandeirante, twin- turboprop, 12- passenger utility transport; and the EMB- 200 1panema crop duster. All three aircraft are expected to he in full series production for the next several vears. An ambitious development program, identified as the EMB -500 Amazona, has been ;underway to provide a replacement for the U.S. DC- 3/C -47 aircraft in service with the Brazilian Air Force. This aircraft was designed as a 40 passenger, short -take- off and landing (STOI.) utility transport with alternate roles as un assault troop carrier, and naval patrol aircraft. I ix program schedule of EMBRAER specified a prototype F:MB 500 to be test flown in 1974, and series production to be initiated by the mid 1970'x. The EMB -500 program apparently has been terminated, however, and discussions are being held to develop and produce a similar type aircraft under it joint program with Argentin'u. Should it viable program solve from the discussions, it would constitute the first major cooperative aircraft development/ prod uc- tion effort ever to he undertaken by the South American countries. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080015 -1 M Work in process at ;Veica includes the manufacture of light, utility aircraft (similar to the U.S. Cessna 150), an IPD- designed, low -wing basic trainer designated the 6201 Universal, and the development of it hvin- engine version of the Universal. The latter aircraft could enter series production by the mid 1970's. Aerotec is completing its production run on the Uirapuru primary trainer for the Brazilian Air Force. Most of Aerotec's facilities are engaged in subcontract production for EMBRAER. In addition to the limited aeronautical research being conducted by the CI'A and IPD, these organizations are responsible for the certification of new aircraft and the training of aeronautical engineers. The IPD has research departments for electronics, materials, armaments, propulsion, and airframes. Brazil is still dependent on the import of foreign engines for all its current and proposed aircraft. The country also is benefiting from the foreign technical assistance received from the French, West Germans, and Americans. Brazil has a very limited capability for rocket research and development, and an insignificant capability to design and develop guided missiles. Over the years most of the research in the rocket propulsion field has been directed toward meeting the requirements of the country's sounding rocket program. Nevertheless, short range, unguided rockets have been produced for military applications. These solid- propellant rockets are the single -stage R -108 and 11 -115, and it more elaborate, hvo -stage 114 -mm rocket. The R -108 and 114 -mm rockets were designed primarily for army use, and the R -115 for the navy. Both rockets were developed by the Department of Studies and Technological Research and the Companhia de Explosioo.s Valparaibo, Sao Paulo. Apparently, Brazil is not making a strong effort to become self- sufficient in the field of guided missiles. Instead, it is continuing to purchase needed guided missiles from abroad. Brazil has an active research program for studying the upper atmosphere, including the ionosphere. The Institute for Space Research at Sao Jose dos Campus is installing an ERTS readout station at Ciuiaba, Mato Grosso State, and digital processing equiF,ment to obtain the imagery at Sao Jose dos Campos. 'I'll(- Institute of Space Research has a Bandeirante aircraft equipped for remote sensing at altitudes up to about 200)0 feet. During the past several years it number of research rockets have been locally developed and produced under air force direction. The rockets have ranged from single- to three -stage units, and from pencil size up to 5 inches in diameter. Present development emphasis appears to he on the Sonda series. There have been 11 known launchings of the Sonda -1, five of the Sonda -11, and a Sonda -111 reportedly is nearly read% for its initial test launch. Sonda -I is basically a copy of the U.S. Areas rocket; it was designed by the Directorate of Materials of the Ministry of Aeronautics; development and production were accomplished by the private firm of Sociedad Aribras Limilada of Sao Jose dos Campos. Sonda -lb is capable of lifting an 11 -I1) payload to an altitude of 43 nautical miles (NM). Sonda -11 and Sonda -Ill are larger rockets and they are capable of lifting 55 11) to 60 NM and 110 11) to 270 NM, respectively Sonda -11 was designed and (level, -led by the Special Products Department of the ITA. Another rocket, the Son.)fa -1, also is under development and exhibited in Brazil during 'Air Force Week 1970 at the Galcaol Santos Dun)ont airport complex in Rio de Janeiro. Characteristics ano purpose of this rocket are unknown. The primary rocket test range in Brazil is the. Bardera do Inferno facility located near Natal. In operation since 1965, the site is equipped for launching sounding rockets, and it can accommodate rockets of the U.S. Nike Cajun /Nike Apache size. Although much U.S. equipment is in evidence, the test center is staff(-(] and operated by Brazilian technicians. Brazil and France concluded a 6 -year agreement in June 1968 which provides for the establishment of a space tracking station at Fertaleza on the northeastern coast of Brazil. Since March 1970 this facility has operated as it telemetry receiving station for satellites launched from the French National Center for Space Studies, Kourou, French Guiana. Brazil's first satellite communications ground station, inaugurated in February 1969, its built by llughes Aircraft Co. under contract with the Brazilian T(-ICCOImnmllCa- tions Company (EMBRATFL), Rio de Janeiro. This station has been integrated into the multination communications satellite system, Intelsat. Brazil conducts no significant research and development on ground weapons and support equipment, and research capabilities in engineering, transportation, and (tuarterrnaster equipment are limited. For several years Brazil has been conducting some research on armored vehicles. A light tank and half -truck vehicle, both apparently of indigenous origin, are in advanced design stages. Also under development are an armored reconnaissance vehicle (EF.-) Cascavel) and ::n amphibious armored 6x61 vehicle (EE-I I Uruta). Brazil would like to produce at least four variants of lightly arn)ored vehicles: troop carrier, reconnaissance, cornunand, and anbulanc(-. 9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080015 -1 There is no active program underyay to develop naval combatants or support vessels. Further, there is no discernible research being accomplished in ship propulsion, hull design, or other associated research fields. However, Brazilian shipyards have accom- plished the licensed production of foreign vessels up to destroyer size, and they are capable of repairing and overhauling all types of naval vessels. Plans call for Brazil to start production of the British :dark -10 frigate in 1973. i I t 2. Biological and chemical warfare (C) Brazil is not known to have it BW or MV reseal, h and development program. Several institutes however, have sufficient scientific personnel and equipment to conduct limited BW investigations if Brazil should decide to etnhark on a program. The well- egnipped and competently staffed Butantan Institute in Sao Paulo is engaged in fundamental research that has a limited CW potential. One exa mple of this research is the extensive work done on snake antivenoms. Research on other natural poisons includes %vork on spicier venom, scorpion venom, and plant poisons. 3. Atomic energy (S) The nuclear energy program is small and confined prirnarily to basic research in the universities. Some expansion is taking place, however, and in Dec�entber 19 it combined government- private organization, the Brazilian Company for Nuclear "Technology, Brasilia, was formed under the CNEN. The CB'TN is mainly responsible for certain practical and commercial aspects of nuclear energy, including propecting for and raining of nuclear associated minerals, fabrication and reprocessing of reactor fuel elements, studies of ur anium enrichment, and the contracting for and construction of nuclear facilities. The nuclear energy program i! under the general direction of the CNEN, headed by Herasio de Carvalho. A shortage of research personnel in the nuclear energy field has cased somewhat with the return of personnel trained abroad. 'Three research reactors are in operation. A 5- megawatt thermal (MWU s%vitnrning pool reactor at the Institute of Atonic Energy of the Siate University of Sao Paulo went critical in September 1957. 'This reac�tuu has been uupgraded to 10 M Wt. The Institute of Radiation Research at the Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, has a Triga Mark I reactor which went into operation in 1960. It normally operated at .30 kilowatts thermal (kW't) but has been upgra led to In 230 MT A third reactor, a 10 kW't, Argonaut type located at the Institute of Nuclear Energy at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, went critical in February 1965. All three of these reactors use U.S. provided, enriched uranium fuel. Brazils basic nuclear program also will benefit from use of a 20 -MeV Pelletronic accelerator in operatics at the Institute of Atomic Energy of the State University of Sao Paulo. The accelerator, the only one of its kind in the world. \will permit more intense, precise, and wider range neutron cross- section studies. Another cyclotron facility is under construction in the Jacarepagua lowlands and is expected to he operationol in early 1973: it will be used in isotope production and utilization studies. There are some small deposits of uranium reserves in Brazil. The main known deposit is located in the Poc�as de Caldas area with a reserve of from 1,200 to 2,000 tons of uranium, and a uranium mill may he constructed at that site. Since only little exploration for uranium has been done in tl,. country, the true extent of reserves is as yet unknown. Although facilities for processing natural uranium to fabricate fuel elements have been established, Brazil %as no facilities for producing enriched uranium and is dependent upon imported fuels. A project utilizing ultracentrifuges purchased from Nest wrmany in 1958 apparently was unsuccessful. Brazil has expressed a desire to participate in a multinational gaseons diffusion enricl rent plant. Brazil considers itself as it potential site since ample low cost power is available for such it plant. Brazilian authorities have stated the countr's intention to build nuclear powerplants, and a 626 megawatt electrical (net) pressnrized water reactor is being bnilt at Ae:gra. dos Reis, Rio do Janeiro State. The contract for this reactor was signed 7 April 1972, \yith completion projected for I.,te 1976. 4. Electronics (C) Brazil has little capability for electronics research and development, although the government has allotted special funds to the CNPq and its institutes since 1959 to further electronics research and training of university professors in this field. Soma� electronics research is conducted by the School of Engineering at the Slate University of Sao Paulo, ITA, and IPD. Limited research is underway on semiconductors, electron tubes, radio propagation, sonar equipment, and magnetic and gravity measurements. The largest elcc�tronic research facilities are those of industry, where the emphasis is on product development. The Brazilian Electronics Industry, Inc. (INBEILSA), APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080015 -1 0 0 located at Gnarulhos, is an affiliate of Philips of the Netherlands. It has one of the most modern and comPlctely equipped research laboratories in the country and has clone research on microwave and multiplexing equipment. tropospheric scatter techniques, electron microscopes, and solid -state circuits. In addition. some efforts have been made to aPPI}' automation techniques to the electronics industry. Although Brazil does not engage in any extensive research on electronic computers, it is concerned with tl!e use and aPPlications of computers in electronic data processing. The government established the Brazilian Association of Electronic Computers in 1961 to promote computer symposiums, lectures, and training courses. The number of computers in Brazil increased from 100 in 1967 to 300 in early 1969 and to W) in early 1973, almost all of %yhich were acquired from the United States. An IBM study predicts an expansion to as many as 4,000 hv' 1980. Brazil was Planning in 1971 to undertake construction of the first South American computer. 5. Medical sciences (S) Biomedical research is not it priority area. Nlost o the support of the Ministry of llcalth is directed toward preventive medicine and basic sanitation measures. Of the research undertaken, only it small arnouut has been of good quality. A critical shortage of competent medical personnel exists, and finds for research are limited. Most of the basic medical research is conducted on an individual basis in universities, while applied aspects are pursued by several institutes under the Ministry of Ilealth. f he federal government has supported �!niversity research programs by establishing centers for research on schistosonaiasis. Chagas' disease, and endemic tropical diseases. The Pan American Ilealth Organization (PAl1O) has acted as an adviser to the Ministry of Health in stndics on naatrition, sanitation, and disease control. A regional medical library in Sao Paulo is supporled h, the PAllO. The IIINiitnte of Micro biology of the Federal University of Rio do Janeiro is supported by 11 1 %110 as :a center for training of personnel in prtblic health, education, and research in Latin American countries. Microbiological research is concentrated on the control of such major infections diseases as schistosotniasis. Chagas' disease, and Plagne. Sore success has peen achieved in the intensive research devoted to schistosoniasis. Cooperative research on the elimination of the vector of Chagas' disease is being undertaken by the Natnral Products Research Center of the Federal l`niversity of Rio de Janeiro, the National Institutes of Endemic Diseases in Rio do Janeiro and Belo Horizonte, and the Institute of Microbiology of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. Extensive trials, kith Czechoslovak support, have been conducted on the chemotherapeutic effect of nitrofurane compounds on the vector. The Plagne Research Center at Exit in the State of Pernambuco is the center for research on this disease. It has shown that wild rodents are the real reservoirs of plague and that the disease is maintained in isolated island -like foci in the country. Smallpox has been successfully eradicated. Son,- progress also has been made in the fight to eradicate the Aedes aegy'Wi mosquit c and, with the collaboration of PAHO, national laboratories are preparing vaccine for prevention of jungle y ellow fever. Aftosa (foot- and -mouth disease) Virus has been grown experimentally for vaccine production at the Pan American Foot- and -Month Disease Center in Rio de J:cneiro :cna it pilot plant for vaccine production put into operation at the end of 1972. The center is important in promoting control of the highly contagions disease. The Belem Virus Laboratory of the Evandro Chagas' Institute has clone considerable research on arboviruses. The laboratory is adequately supported and has the potential to develop into one of the worlds most important viral research facilities. Its tissue culture laboratory compares favorably with the hest anywhere in the world. The Bntcuitan Institute in Sao Paulo. of the Ministry of llcalth, is internationally recognized for its research on snake venoms for the production of vaccines. It maintains it large snake farm and produces antivenoms for snake bites. It also ctnde rtakes rabies research. Biochemists employ familiar techniques in the study of cell components and enzvmes. Some routine work is underway on the study of the effects of psychotropic drags on behavior, the hiochetraistry of disease agents, and protein electrophoresis variations among different racial groups in Brazil. Riochernists are also contributing to the development of chemotherapentic agents in the control of malaria and schistosonaiasis. Nutritional research is practical. Surveys have been conducted on the prevalence of protein- calorie malnntrition. 11W lnstitnte of Nutrition in Recife is developing low cost, high protein foods, and is carrying out a')i()ehemical evaluation of the recovery of malnourished children. The CNPq supports research on the effect of pollution on shell fish and other marine ortlainsms, APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080015 -1 Research in genetics has concerned the control of rihonucleic acid (RNA) synthesis in giant chromo- somes, gene dynamics in indigenous and mixed human populations, and population genetics. The Brazilians have conducted productive research in selected areas of physiology, pharmacology, and endocrinology. They have done basic studies on the Physiology of the reproductive tract in women, the utilization of heart valves and pacemakers, cardiovascular diseases, and the association of endocrine function and metabolism. The Institute of Biophysics of the Federal University in Rio de Janeiro has studied the c..�togenetic effects of exposure to ionizing radiation and is also studying signal processing in the visual cortex of monkeys and marsupials. A survey has been made of the effects of exposure of man to high background radiation doses in certain parts of the country. 6. Other sciences (S) a. Chemistry and metallurgy Although chemical research is a field of moderate activity in Brazil, it is extremely weak when compared with that of the United States or most other Western countries outside of Latin America. Brazil has a large and rapidly growing chemical industry and numerous allied industries which produce petroleum products, pharmaceuticals, paper, and textiles, but only it negligible amount of applied chemical research is conducted. The research, many of the chemists, and the chemical technology equired to support the industry are mainly supplied by foreign investors. The State University of Sao Paulo has the strongest and broadest chemical rasec!rch program in the country. The major areas of clemistry are researched but not in depth. There are tluce important centers for chemical research: the Institute of Chemistry of the State University of Sao Paulo, the Institute of Chemistry of the Federai University of Rio de Janeiro, and the Department of Chemistry of the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro. Inorganic chemical research has been restricted largely to fields of interest to the country's atornic energy program. Several chemists have been interested in thorium and rare earth phosphates because of the country's position cis it major supplier of monazite sand, the principal source of thorium and rare earths. The Institute of Atomic Energy of the State University of Sao Paulo does research on purification of uranium, analytical problems associated with the nuclear energy program, processing of nuclear materials, and W fabrication of fuel elements for nuclear reactors. Other inorganic chemical research is underway in soil chemists. Brazil is weak in important areas of chemical research such as organic chemical synthesis, physical organic chemistry, and physical chemistry. A modest effort is underway in the chemistry of natural products, particularly those derived from Brazilian plants and trees, under Professor Otto Richard Gottlieb at the Federal University of Minas Gerais. Very little research is done on organic polymers, synthetic fibers, pharmaceuticals, or other aspects of the synthetic organi^ chemical industry. Brazilian research in analytical chemists� has diminished with the retirement of Dr. Fritz Feigl, an internationally recognized authority on spot -test analysis. A little biochemical research is underway at the State University of Sao Paulo and the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro but the work is not significant. Only it minimal amount of metallurgical research is undertaken, practically all of it directed toward solving production problems. Essentially no basic metallurgical research is conducted. The universities and the Institute for Technological Research, Sao Paulo, do some .work on the refining of nonferrous ores. Perhaps the largest effort is devoted to process extractive ferrous metallurgy. The steelworks of tite National Steel Company at Volta Redonda engages in studies directed toward product inwrovemernt and toward solving production problems. Some of the research has concerned blast furnace practice, the production of medium alloy steels in the oxygen converter, fabrication techniques, and the causes of defects in forgings, plate, bar, and rod. A few ferrous metallurgical and basic engineering studies are undertaken by the steel mills. The CNEN's Institute of Atomic Energy has it number of research programs on the extractive metallurgy of uranium and thorium, fuel ele rent cladding, struclur :d ;materials for nuclear reactors, and the in0allography of uranium and other nuclear metals. The Institute for Technological Research is the most significant facifity for metallurgical research. It is well staffed and equipped and has conducted extensive failure analyses as well as research on extractive metallurgy, foundry technology, the me :,tl!urgy of (�upper and its alloys, corrosion, and stress- corrosion cracking. Although the institute is supported partially by state funds and grants from the CNPq, most of its support comes front industry on it contract basis. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080015 -1 n M h� Physics and rnathenratics Although Brazil lacks the necessary modern research equipment and adequately trained manpower and suffers from shortages of research funds, it has the hest potential in South America for conducting advanced physics research in sonic of the more important sUbfields. At present, Brazilian physics research is fragmented and Shows signs of disoriera,irurrr regard to the national goals of exploiting research results to extend the ;ountr%. s technological base. Bveause the govt, iment generously provides encouragement, sup':ort. and a high degree of investment in nuclear power development, it has enhanced the potential for good nuclear physics research. Improy 'VnerrtS in research in nuclear physics and solid -state physics are evident, particularly at university laboratories and attached institutes. Other areas in which a modest amount of research is underway 'ne'e'd(. atomic and ,nol(,cular ph quantum electronics, optics of spectroscopy, and gravitation and relativity. Brazilians are especially prond of their achieve- ments in the field of plh }sic�s. and those involved in its scientific activities receive considerable respect. high- energy nuclear ph al the University of Sao Paulo and its affiliated Institute of Theoretical Physics probably condnct most of the Brazilian studies related to elementary particles and their interactions. The nature of the high- energy nuclear research involves highly theoretical studies of hadron, proton- proton, pion -kaon, and pion -pion scattering relations. These studies primarily represent work done in leading c�onntries as far back as 10 years ago; however, some of the research involving investigations of the saturation properties in till Fermi quark model and features of the baryon spectrum is fairly modern. 'Theories concerning the kaon decay parameters are also being investigated. Low- energy nuclear physics research is being pursued at the University of Sao Paulo's Institute for Atomic Energy, which enjoys an international reputation. '1'hc research is applied in nature and deals %with thermoluminescent responses of fluorites to ganuna- ray emission when exposed to a cesium isotope. ",'his work is being done to determine the po(ential of the fluorites for use in radiation dosimvtr At the Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, the }ground state of cesinrn isotopes is heing studied for information concl,rninn, the unified model. Brazilians are very active in research in solid -state physics and the physics of materials, but much of the work lags he�hind Most advanced nuntries by as much as 10 to 15 years. A large portion of solid -state )h%:sik.s research occurs al tile sCienec faculties or institutes of such universities as the College of Lngineering at the Federal University of Sao Carlos. Sao Paulo: the the Brazilian Physics Research Center. Rio de Janeiro: the State Uniyersit of Campinas: the nkersity of Sao Paulo: and till Federal University of \liras Gerais. Some of the most impressive activities are conc�erried with studies of sl properties of naphthalene thermoclectret. crystals in connection with evidence of Schottky harrier formations. Various techniques of radiation damage approaches are being used to inyestigatc the production of photochromic� centers in cesium -doped calciurrr fluoride. Energy level relations are being studied to gain information on the gamma- points of various polytypes of z sulphidv. Theories eone�erning the geometry of solids with lattice defects are being studied. \Nave functions aSSOCiated with dilute allovs of the non noble -metal base class are being yi(,w(,cl in regard to their core states. Atomic and molecular physics research is pursued along modest lines at th(, Brazilian Physics Research Center and the Institute of Theoretical 1'11\:sies al Sao Paulo. Projects involve both experimental and theoretical evaluations of ionic electronic absorption spectra and the application of till, Ra pl thcor pertinent to the hydrogen atom. Experimental research in atom a ic nd molecular physics involves studies of width and shift of spectral ifiles of gasCs in the microwave and infrared regions through use of models for elasti and inelastic collisions. Laser research or quantum electronics is done on a limited Scale and by a few select Specialists at the Slate University of Campinas. Their work is concerned with the measurements of carrier lifetimes of stimulated semiconductor lasers. Some phases of spectroscopic optics are being probed at the University of Sao I'aUlo and the Federal Universit of Rio Grande do Sul. The research deals with th(, pressure broadening and shift of lines in the microwave and far infrared regi,nus \with till, use of the impact theor and the effects OI finite tint( resolutions on the tiro^ spectra. The purpose of these sludivs appears to inyoly(, an attempt to gain knuwlc�dge on nuclear relaxations. Brazilian scientists have long keen known for their extensive theoretica! investigations into gr and relativity. The major portion of such theoretical inyl,shgations is concentrated at th(, Brazilian Physics Research Center. The efforts are concerned primarily with the genera theor of relativity and its involv(,nr(,nt with gravitational and electromagneti fields. Theories are being aclanc(,d on the covariant concepts of gravitation. 13 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080015 -1 Research in mathematics is almost nonexistent, and the little that is accomplished is of poor quality. An Institute of Pure and Applied Mathematics. Rio de Janeiro, was established in 1956 under the CNPq to support and stimulate interest in pure and applied mathematics. Its primary mission has been to provide postgraduate training. All of the universities have faculties of mathematics, and the little research undertaken is in the broad areas of mathematical foundations, algebra, analysis, and geometry. Specific suhjects of research have included logic, group theory, ordinary and partial differential equations, functional analysis, topology, and differential geometry. There is no effort in applied mathematics, statistics operations research. however, the Catholic Universitv in Rio de Janeiro gives it Master of S.lencc in computer science and has a research program. The Federal University of Rio de Ja neiro and the State University of Sao Paulo are installing computer science programs along with Catholic University in a program coordinated by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. c. AstrogeophyQical sciences (1 Astronomy, meteorology, and upper at- mosphere� Astronomical research is very limited bat is increasing. The chief center of astronomical activity. the National Observatory in Rio de Janeiro, is equipped with four medium -size telescopes and makes observations mostly of planets and double stars. The Morro do Volongo Observatory of the Federal University of Rio do Janeiro has made observations of stellar occultations and comets as well as double stars. Tiu observatory of the Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics of the State University of Sao Paulo specializes in positional astronomy and celestial mechanics. The Center of Radio Astronomy and Astrophysics of the Mackenzie University in Sao Paulo operates the itapetinga Radio Observatory, about 96 miles north of Sao Paulo; the astronomical work has been confined to the study of solar radio emissions. A 13.7 -meter radiotelescope is under construction at the observatory. in 1969 an optical astronomic d observatory was w ,der construction in the Santana Hills near Porto Alegre, :,i)parently for the Institute of Astronomy of the Federai University of Iiio Grande do Sul. The Federal University of Minas Gerais is establishing a new observatory at Serra de Picdade; a 60 centimeter telescope has been purchased from Fast Germany for installation at the observatory. Meteorological research is meage:, consisting of routine local weather or climatological studies carried out mainly by the Mete orological Service of the Ministry of Agriculture. n modern surf ace and upper air network has been established by the Seperin- tendency for Development in the Northeast, under the Ministry of Interior, with the assistance of the World Meteorological Organization and the U.S. Agency for International Development. Tropical meteorological research, including studies of easterly waves, is being carried out by the iPD. Balloon launches for Project TWERLE from Natal are being planned. The Space Research institute is concerned wish satellite meteorological research and the development of automatic picture transmission (APT) readout station equipment for receiving meteorological satellite transmissions. A weather satellite APT readout station, under the direction of the ITA, is located at Sao Jose dos Campos. Brazil also has cooperated with NASA and Argentina in the inter- American Experimental Meteorological Rocket Network (EXAMETNET). This network aims at integrating, with the participation of other countries, a meridian network to cover both hemispheres; all meteorological data are made available to all members. Launching activities began with firings from Wallops island in the United States and the Barreira do Inferno range near Natal in Brazil in January 1966, and from the Cha ::ical ran near Cordoba in Argentina in April 1966. Brazilian participation included assembling and launching it series of meteorological sounding rockets which were provided by the United States. NASA trained Brazilian personnel and lent ground support. In June 1968 it Brazilian developed and fabricated meteoro- logical rocket, the DN -6503, was launched for the first time, reaching a height of about 80 miles. in a Brazil U.S.- German .xpvrir urnt in February 1973, four Black Browdt rockets were launched in connection with the AEROS satellite program. The Brazilian upper atmosphere rescorch effort is centered at the Barreira do Inferno rocket range, which is equipped to launch short medium-, and long -range rockets for meteorological and ionospheric experiments. The first test launching of it Brazilian two -stage rocket, presumably having no payload, was made from the range in April 1965. duce that time, NASA has supplied U.S. rockets, including Areas and Nike -Cajun rockets, for experiments to study high altitule temperature, densities, and winds. Other agreements with NASA have concerned studies; of cosmic ray effects on the lower D region of the ionosphere, and during 1968 several Nike Iroquois rockets were launched to measure dw influx of meteors between 96 and 256 miles over the equator. Brazil has engaged in ground -based study of radio propagation and ionospheric electron density by APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080015 -1 n 0 means of reception of satellite signals. The research was begun in 1963 ar d has been carried out at the Brazilian naval base at Natal and the laboratory of the former CNAE at Sao Jose dos Campos. The naval base at Natal has done point -to -point radio propagation research. The CNAE (absorbed by the INPE in 1971 has had a riometer site operating at Natal with equipment provided by the U.S. Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory to measure ionospheric absorption of radio waves. (2) Geodesy �III 1952 Brazil and the United States concluded a mapping agreement called MAPPLAN through which the United States has provided assistance to and equipment for the Brazilian mapping program. Under this agreement, the military and civilian mapping organizations, including the National Geographic Conncil and the state rnar_ping agencios, are engaged in mi energetic pr gram of geodetic snrveving and mapping. In addition, the development of a horizontal datum reference for South America is underway. (3) Geology and terrestrial geoph, /sic.s �Bee use of extensive domestic mineral resources, geological work has received considerable emphasis. Much of the work has consisted of preparing geological maps of Brazil and South America. and since 1950 Brazil has collaborated with the U.S. Geological Surv!�y (USGS) in preparing maps of Brazilian iron and manganese deposits. USGS personnel have led variwis mineral survey teams in Brazil during which 'Brazilian geologists have been trained in field operations for future work in other areas. Geologists of other countries also have mapped portion~ A Brazil. French geologists have participated in efforts to loe,itc waninrn reserves that can be used economically. Th, National Department of Mineral Prodnctiou has embarked on a 10 -year mineral exploration program and is making all extensive study of Brazilian geology for long -range planning purposes. In 1968, Brazil and the United States entered into an agreement to cooperate in an earth resources rernote sensing program, c!ilizing artificial earth satellites. Brazil is adopting U.S. gamma ray spectrometric air survcving tec�hnignes. A quasi- governmental Mineral Resources Research Comp :uly. Rio de Janeiro has been established, and US$6 million was to be expended in 1971 and $7 million in 1972 in exploring for uranium. Brazil has a low level of technical competence for research in terrestrial g,ophysics. 'I'll( National Observatory, although an astronomical facility, is concerned with both georagnetic and seismic activity; roost of the effort in these fields has heel, nnderlaken s, ith U.S. support. Brazil has permanent geomagnetic stations at Vassonras and near Belem and seismic stations at Rio de Janeiro, Natal. and Brasilia. The station at Brasilia, staf;ed by Brazilians and equipped by the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, is engaged in a project to observe deep seismic phenomena at a "stable station" for comparison with those at an "unstable station" at the Geophysical Institute at Lima, Peru. (4) Hydrology, hydraulics, and coastal research Brazilian capabilities in hydrologic and hydraulic research are considerably adyanc�ed over those of other South American countries because of the scope of research and the availability of a few well- equipped laboratories. Research is mainir of an applied Mature and is directed toxyard increasing hydroelectric output, improving and extending navigabilit of inland waterways. and improving flood protection. A project along these lines in cooperation with the USGS has been underway for several gars in the month and upper reaches of the Amazon. 13ydrologic research is concentrated on studies of sedimentation, runoff, and variation of annual discharge. In hydraulic research the use of extensive model testing has resulted in successful investigations in changes in river channels caused by variation of flow velocity, in tit, reduction of silting, and in the prevention of scour around dams. Considerable emphasis is given to the design of intake structures to pr,vc tit vortexes and of chute and energy dissipators to prevent sedimentation and erosion in tailraces. In general the quantity and qualit of coastal enl:incering research snrpass those of other Latin American countries. '1'h, Ministry of Navy controls and performs most of tit, work on physical oceanography and coastal hydrography. Coastal engineering research is also conducted several universities, the most iripe ;rtant being the Institute of Hydraulic Research of the University of Rio Grande do Sul it Porto Alegre. Most co�rstal research deals with problems of littoral drift and sedimentation. (5) Occanography� Although Brazil has i t lo%% capability for occanographlc research. the col,l,try*s interest in oceanography has increased suirstantialiv, a result of tit( need for improved defense of its long shoreline and a growing awareness of the importance of oceanography. Brazil has emphasized biological oceanography for the cleyelopntent of its marine fisheries but also conducts special projects in marine geology and radiobiology at the Naval Ilvs,arch Institute. The Institute of Oceanography of the Slat, University of Sao Paulo conducts most of the oceanographic research, although the Directorate of Ilydrography and Navigation of the Ministry of Navy has done considerable work in biological, physical, and chemical oceanography. The directorate has al, cecanographic and geophYsic�al station at Trinidad and operates the 3OO -fool, 2,300 -ton converted sailing 1.5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080015 -1 DiN646 E� El II 4�'a&ff� ship AIndrante Saldanha as it deep se:: oceanographic and hydrogrlphic� research yesel. Some research also is done by the Institute of Marine Biology and Oceunograph% of the L niversih of Recife and the Institute of Marine Biology of the Federal University of Ceara at Fortaleza. A National Commission for Oceanography was es'.ahlished in 1963 to coordinate national programs and represent Brazilian oceanography intern ationally. "The commission also acts as an adviser to the CNP(I on oceanographic matters. The president of the commission is Prof. Manoel da Frota Moreira, xvho is ako head of ;he technical scientific department of the ('NP(I. Brazil participates actively in international oceanographic affairs and was host to the first International Symposium on the Oceanography of the Western South Atlantic in September 1964 and to the first Inter American Naval Conference on Hydrog- raphy and Oceanography in September 1965. Both conferences were held in Rio de Janeiro. Norwegian and Brazilian oceanographers conducted a joint oceanographic survey during the latter half of 1967 that extended as far as 300 miles from the Brazilian coast. This investigation was the inaugural cruise of the new 162 -foot, 7(H) -ton oceanographic research ship, Professor W. Seward, of the Oceanographic Institute of the State university of Sao Paulo. 7 C o I olm b Ir Ecuador II =,.1 :l T BO IIVI3 �o Titicaca 6111z Pacific Oct qn Chile ttUti ti_ :AIPOaQU�h f 44 501551 7.73 CIA F Cayenne 4a BOUNDARY REPRESENTATION IS 36 NOT NECESSARILY AUTHORITATIVE 3 anelAn i i ruguay M Wdeo 0 Atlantic Ocean 2 0 0 8 0 K,brlMerE CONFIDENTIAL 36 FIGURE 2. Selected sites of scientific activity (C) 16 t_ I 1, 1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080015 -1 Glossary (u/ou) SECIIET ABBREVIATION FOREIGN ENGLISH CFTN Companhia Brasitura de Technologia Brazilian Company for Nuclear Tech- Nuclear nology CNAE Commissao Nacional de Actividades National Commission for Space Activi- 44 IS Espaciais ties CNEN Commissao Nacional de Energia Nu- National Nuclear Energy Commission 43 56 clear 15 47 CN'Pq Conselho Nacional de Pesquizas. National Research Council COBAE Commissao Brasileira de Actividades Brazilian Commission for Space. Activi- 56 05 Espaciai8 tie's CTA Centro Tecnico de Aeronautica Technical Center for Aeronautics TEA.......... Instituto de Atomica Institute for Atomic Energy INE Instituto de Engenharia Institute of Nuclear Engineering INPE Instituto de Joesquisas Espaciais Institute of Space Research IPD Instituto de Pesquisa8 e Desenvolvi- Institute for Research and Development 43 21 mento 3 OS ITA Instituto Tccnologico Aeronautica Aeronautical Institute of Technology Places and features referred to in this chapter (ulou) COORDINATES D Is Angra dos Reis 23 00 44 IS Belim 1 27 48 29 Belo Horizonte 19 55 43 56 Brasilia 15 47 47 55 Campinas .............................22 54 47 05 Uiabfi 15 35 56 05 Exu 7 31 39 43 Fortaleza 3 43 38 30 Guarulhos 23 28 46 32 Ilha do Govvrnador (island) 22 48 43 12 Itapetinga 15 15 40 15 JaearepRgUA 22 55 43 21 Manaus 3 OS 60 01 Natal 5 17 35 13 Piedade, Scrra da (ridge) 7 21 37 20 P6;os de Callas 21 48 46 34 Pi)rto Alegre 30 04 51 11 Recife 8 03 34 54 Rio de Janeiro 22 54 43 14 Santana, Coxilha (if 31 15 55 15 Sho Jos6 dos Campos 23 11 45 53 ShO Paulo 23 32 4 0 .57 VRS90uras 22 25 43 40 Volta Redo ndr.. 22 32 44 07 NO FOREIGN DISSEM m APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDP01-00707R000200080015-1