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0 Brazil September 1973 L NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE 9 SECRET I1O FOREIGN DISSEM APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080020 -5 NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY PUBLICATIONS The basic unit of the NIS is the General Survey, which is now published in a bound -by- chapter format so that topics of greater per- ishability can be updated on an individual basis. These chapters� Country Profile, The Society, Government and Politics, The Economy, Military Geog- raphy, Transportation and Telecommunication3, Armed Forces, Science, and Intelligence and Security, provide the primary NIS coverage. Some chapters, particularly Science and Intelligence and Security, that are not pertinent to all countries, are produced selectively. For small countries requiring only minimal NIS treatment, the General Survey coverage may be bound into one volume. Supplementing the General Survey is the NIS Basic Intelligence Fact book, a ready reference publication that semiannually updates key sta- tistical data found in the Survey. An unclassified edition of the factbook omits some details on the economy, the defense forces, and the intelligence and security organizations. Although de4ailed sections on many topics were part of the NIS Program, production of these sections has been phased out. Those pre- viously produced will continue to be available as long as the major portion of the study is conside ed valid. A quarterly listing o: all active NIS units is published in the Inventory of Available NIS Publications, which is also bound into the concurrent classified Factbook. The Inventory lists all NIS units by area name and number and includes classification and date of issue; it thus facilitates the ordering of NIS units as well as their filing, cataloging, and utilization. Initial dissemination, additional copies of NIS units, or separate chapters of the General Surveys can be obtained directly or through liaison channels from the Central Intelligence Agency. The General Survey is prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency and the Defense Intelligence Agency under the general direction of the NIS Committee. It is coordinated, edited, published, and dissemi- nated by the Central Intelligence Agency. WARNING This document contains information affecting the national defense of the United States, within the meanir of title 1B, sections 793 and 794 of the US code, as amended. Its transmission or revelation of its contents to or receipt by on unauthorised person is prohibited by low. t 1 CLASSIFIED BY 019611. EXEMPT FROM GENERAL DECLASSIFI- rATION SCHEDULE OF E. O. 11652 EXEMPTION CATEGORIES I 1), (2), (3). DECLASSIFIED ONLY ON APPROVAL OF THE DIRECTOR OF CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE. t 1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080020 -5 0 WARNING The NIS is National Intelligence and may not be re- leased or shown to representatives of any foreign govern- ment or international body except by specific authorization of the Director of Central Intelligence in accordance with the provisions of National Security Council Intelligence Di- rective No. 1. For NIS containing unclassified material, however, the portions so marked may be made available for official pur- poses to foreign nationals and nongovernment personnel provided no attribution is maoje to National Intelligence or the National Intelligence Surrey. Subsections and graphics are individually classified according to content. Classification /control designa- tions are: (U /OU) Unclassified /For Official Use Only (C) Confidential (S) Secret INC APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080020 -5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080020 -5 BRAZIL CONTENTS This chapter supersedes the armed forces cover- age in the General Survey dated January 1970. A. Defense establishment 1 1. Military history 1 2. Command structure 3 B. Joint activities 5 1. Military manpower 5 2. Strength trends 5 3. Training 6 4. Military budget 6 5. Economic support and logistics 7 C. Army 8 1. Organization s 2. Strength, composition, and disposition 11 3. Training 12 4. Logistics 13 r r 1 f BRAZIL CONTENTS This chapter supersedes the armed forces cover- age in the General Survey dated January 1970. A. Defense establishment 1 1. Military history 1 2. Command structure 3 B. Joint activities 5 1. Military manpower 5 2. Strength trends 5 3. Training 6 4. Military budget 6 5. Economic support and logistics 7 C. Army 8 1. Organization 9 2. Strength, composition, and disposition 11 3. Training 12 4. Logistics 13 Y,,(,' ry L rtA ij. 'r a tn ti'`."..Ti,F, i {.jc 4..,, yw:h SECRET NO FOREIGN DIS$EAf awAa.* fsyse .o�,....wnr :..ur,.- APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080020 -5 FIGURES Page Page Page D. Navy I. Organization 14 E. Air Force 9 I 14 1. Organization 20 2. Strength, composition, and disposition 16 2. Strength, composition, and disposition 20 3. Training 16 3. Training 22 4. Logistics 17 4. Logistics 23 5. Marine corps 18 Brazilian submarine Rio Grande do 6. Naval air arm 18 F. Paramilitary 24 FIGURES M I Page Page Fig. 1 Civic action team photo) 3 Fig. 11 Jungle Warfare School photo) 12 Fig. 2 National defense organization chart) 4 Fig. 12 Navy organization chart) 15 Fig. 3 Joint army- marine exercise photo) 7 Fig. 13 Brazilian submarine Rio Grande do Fig. 4 Military budgets table) 7 Sul photo) 15 Fig. 5 Brazilian -built aircraft photos) 8 Fig. 14 Marine Corps units pass in review Fig. 6 U.S. M3 tanks photo) 9 photo) 19 I Fig. 7 Army organization chart) 10 Fig. 15 Mirage III interceptor photo) 19 Fig. 8 M113 armored personnel carrier Fig. 16 Air force organization chart) 21 photo) 11 Fig. 17 Bell UH -113 helicopter photo) 22 1 Fig. 9 Guncrew firing 105 -mm howitzer Fig. 18 T -33 aircraft photo) 23 photo) 11 Fig. 19 Production of Xavantes aircraft Fig. 10 Airborne unit photo) 12 photo) 24 M I 09 Armed Forces A. Defense establishment The Brazilian regular tnilitary establishment i., a conventional force of 245.7(x) nun and is the largest in Latin America. It consists of an army of about 160,(xx) men equipped with light armor and field artillery up to 155 -nun, it navy of 42.5(9) mcn (it 13.0,x) marines and a tins nasal air arm) and 22 major c�onhalant ~hips. and an air force of 39?00 men and nearly Rio aircraft. Thesc three seryic�es are supplemented by stale ;)acunilitary forces called the military i)olice. whose str(�rrgth totals 184,0(X) men. (S) Udder the 1967 Constitution, the mission of the artned forces is "to defend the country and to gnararttee the constilute(I powers and law anti order. The armed forces are capable of maintaining internal scc�urih and defending the country against a ac�k by neighboring countries. but they are not capable of successfully defending against sustained attack by a major military power. They c�otrld conduct effective offensive operations against any neighboring country, except possibl% Argentina, hot .would be serionslh handicapped b% logistic difficulties when operating from other than the southern portion of the country. if outside logistic support were provided, theN could assist nalerially in hemispheric defense and provide it small expeditionar% for( (S) Among the strengths of the anneal forces are it strong esprit de corps, the discipline of the enliste(I nren and their c�apac�ih for operating under conditions of ph }sisal hardships, the generally high educational level among the officers, and the relatively wide experience acquired b some officers in operations during Worl(I Wit II, the 1) )III ill ican Republic� crisis, and [Frc United Nations peace keeping mission in the Gaza Strip. Weaknesses include the depeodcnce upon foreign sotrc�es for major military equipment, particularly for sophisticated aircraft and naval ships; the sc�arvih of specialists, technicians, and highl\ gnalific�(I noncommissioned officers; the frequent turnover of conscripts: and the ituterogeneons nature of the equipment. (S) Brazil is a rnvin1wr of the Organization of American States (OAS) and of the Inter American 1)e4ense Board. an organization that plans for the joint defense of the Western Hemisphere. It is a signatory of the Rio Pact of 1947, an agreement arnong the American states for mutual support against aggression. and is a charter nrrmher of the United Nations. Brazil has, however. steadfastly refused to sign the Nuclear Nonproliferation I reah because it could restrict Brazils future development of nuclear power. (C) Brazil traditionally has considered itself to he it leader of Latin America. Particularly since 1964, Brazilian military men have been concerned over the growing Communist /Socialist influence in South America, and in 1971 -72 they extended covert and overt support to forces fighting those influences in Uruguay and Bolivia. The military establishment. which has consistently sided with the U.S. position on Cuba and Castroist odwersion, opposed the efforts of I'en .(nd Chile in 1971 -72 and the efforts of other Latin American countries in 1973 to have Cuba readmitted to the OAS. The armed forces are ver strongly anti-Com nunist. (S) 1. Military history (C) The armed forces trace their traditions to the colonial period, primarily to the sear against the Dutch, who captured Recife in 1624 and controlled the entire northern coast until 1651. Brazilians credit local Brazilian forces with expelling the Dutch and c�o�tsider this struggle to he the earliest source of the national pride that still dominates military thought and ideals. The army was formed in May 1821 the nave in July 1822. as the vmmn prince (later Emperor Pedro 1) developed his power base in preparation for national independence from Portugal on September 1822. The navy, however, has precedence among the military forces, inherited from the I'ortuguvse Navy as it reward for protecting the previous Emperor Joao VI in his flight to Brazil in 1807 -08 to escape Napolcon's invasion of Portugal. Service academics were originaliv establishe(I in Rio de Janeiro for the Portuguese forces �the Naval Academy on :30 January 1808 and the Military Academy in 1810. The first military air unit �one aviation company was organized within the army in February 1915. Both APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080020 -5 the arrin and navy had their o%% if air units during the 1920"s and 1930's. Dune No. 3.730 of l5 October 1941 established the air force as it separate ministn. United States Brazilian militan relations have been cxc�eptionally close, particularly since World W..r II. A U.S. militar\ attache seas first assigned to Brazil in 1898. and the U.S. Navy has had a mission at Rio de Janeiro since 1922, except for if brief period in 1931 32. The first U.S. Army mission arrived ill early 1939. replacing if French militan mission which had been there since 1920. :1n Army Air Corps mission arrived in 19-11. In May 1912, to facilitate mililan cooperation, the t\o countries established the Joint Brazil United States Defense Commission (JBUSDC) in 'Washington and the Joint Brazil United Slates `lilitan Commission (JBUSNIC) in Brazil each beaded by the head of the delegation of tic� c�ountn \here� it is located. The commission in Brazil became the ageuc�y for in- counts training and planning assistance for the preparation of the Brazilian F \peditionan Force. l'nder the terms of it 1952 Mutual Assistance Agreement. the Brazilian Armed Forces receive grant Ira"ning all(] credit assistance for the purchase of materiel and services. "I'hc� head of the Rio -based JBUS%1C is a Brazilian four -star general or flag officer. "I'll(- Brazilians adopted U.S. training and teac�bing methods during W%V 11 and in 1918 asked the United Stales to help establish the Superior War School. which has been ven infl;wntial in developing Brazilian militan thought. Although present U.S. Bra�riliar military ties show signs of \car partly because of U.S. refusal to sell sophisticated military %%vi,pou.- -there is no other country that rivals the United States in influence in Bra-1. During the 19th century Brazil fought three wars. In 1825 -28, it fought Argentina in .nn unstwevssfirl effort to retain Unngita% as part of Brazil. In 1851-52 Brazil supported a revolutionan movement to overthrow the Argentine government of J ran Manuel Rosas and end his claim to Urtrgua%. In 186 -1, Mien alleged ill treatment of Brazilians led to Brazilian invasion of Urtigi ny and if retaliatory Paragua\an invasion of Br�(zil. Brazil found itself again at syarand, in alliance wittn Argentina and a ne%% Unngu.c\an government, defeated ParagimN in the bloody War of the "Triple Alliance of I8(i1 -70. Since that time, Brazil has prided itself on peaceful relations \ith all neighbors, resolving all its boundary dispules \ilhout armed conflict, although al\ays more o. less in its own favor. Brazil has bad much more experience in modern warfare than ally other Latin American counts. It was the only area coumtry to tare an active part in World War I. Following German sinking of Brazilian 2 ships. war yeas declared t0ctober 1917). it conscription act mas passed, physicians and a fesy militan obseners were scat to Europe. and the nay\ provided mines\%eeping and c�onyoy protection off the coasts of Brazil .u((I Africa. During World War 11, Brazil supplied the army's 250(N) -man Ist Expeditionan Division and the air one's 1st Fighter Group (25 aircraft), "bich fought \%ith distinction in 1944-45 in Italy. The nave engagi�d in combined operations with the U.S N.ayx and provided patrol and cunyory protection in the South Atlantic. From 1957 to 1967. Brazil maintained an arm, battalion in tic U.N. F.,.iergvnc�v Force in the Gaza Strip bet\een Egg pt and Israel, and from 1964 through 1967 if Brazilian was in cotnmand of all U.N. troops in the area. An air force contingent, including transport and helicopter pilots, wood wi!h the U.N. Command in the Congo in 1960 -61 and also carried out regularl% scheduled operations in support of the Brazilian Forces in the Gaza Strip. In 1965 -66, Brazil provided the commanding officer and a contingent of over 1,000 nien for the Inter American Peace Force in the Donnimican Republic. Brazil also has participated in the U.N. peace mission on C\pr(ts. During the constitutional monarchy (1822 -89) the militan did not assume a political role. the first militan intenemtiom into political affairs occurred in 1889, Mien the armed forces, with extensive c�iyiliam support, overthrew the m narc�h\ and substituted it nytiblican form of government. Pressures for social and political changes in the system that evolved over the next 30 sears culminated to the revolt of disgruntled �young turks" kno\yn as tenentes (lieu(enants) in 1922, 1921� and 1927, and in 19:30 they c�olltbioed %yith civilian elements to force the resignation of the President and the selection of Getulio Vargas as his successor. Since 1930 the armed forces have intervened in government three times �in 1945 to oust the Vargas dictatorship, in 19:51 to prevent the government leadership frarn suhver!ing the electoral process� and in 196-1 r preclude the Goulart government from becoming if leftist dictatorship. The militan �s concept of its role in the political proces��.� guardian of the Constitution and defender of the� nation �has been recognized by successive constitutions and has received public acceptance Whenever the armed forces consider the Constitution or the fundamental institution, of the nation are threatened, this role takes precedence over 'orally to the administration in office. Reluctance of the armed forces to set up if tnilitan government is :widenc�(ld by lbe initnediate return of the gover nm en! to civilian rule in 19.15 and 19.51 and APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080020 -5 P LE the strong legalistic� sell tinn�nt in the� �erns' that frustrated abortive )tips b' snrtll ntilitan elenu�nts against the inauguration of Jus�(-lino fubits�hek in 1955 and Joao Got [it rt in 1961. 'I'll( armed forces w(-re '(-n slow to stove against Coulart and did not acct until the leftists in his government had aroused widespread alarm in the c�iwilian population and were Ill er'iog op(-nly ter des Iro% the discipline and effec�tivrness of the armed forces themselves. The deeply entrenched pov:er of ultraleftist and corrupt political elements finally conyilwed militan rnen that the' should adhere to the vvi(lespre.ed civilian consensus for reform of the political swstem to present� the c�ountrv's traditional Values and to save it from bankntptc�w and c�iyil war. *I'h(- awned forces have .�ontril)i i f subslar:tiull' to the countn's tvchnologic�al development. Traditional I', rn:ur' engineers and technic inns have rcceivc(I their training in armed forces schools. which include the hest t(-c�hnic�al school in 'he country. Active and former militan officers hold ke' positions in nt-.ut' fields in both I) ri.ate and state -run bm.;;;c�s,es, inc�lucling the state oil c�ontpany, PI ?TROBBAS. The military forces have been dee;rl' inyolwe