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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080023 -2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080023 -2 NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY PUBLICATIONS The basic unit of the NIS is the General Survey, which is now published in a bound -by- chapter format so that topics of greater per- ishability can be updated on an individual basis. These chapters� Country Profile, The Society, Government and Politics, The Economy, Military Geog- raphy, Tron4portation and Telecommunications, Armed Forces, Science, and Intelligence and Security, provide the primary NIS coverage. Some chapters, particularly Science and Intelligence and Security, that are not pertinent to all countries, are produced selectively. For small countries requiring only minimal NIS treatment, the General Survey coverage may be bound into one volume. Supplementing the General Survey is the NIS Basic Intelligence Fa(-!- book, a ready reference publication that semiannually updates key sta- tistical data found in the Survey. An unclassified edition of the factbook omits some details on the economy, the defense forces, and the intelligence and security organizations. Although detailed sections on many topics were part of the NIS Program, production of these sections has been phased out. Tho.e pre- viously produced will continue to be available as long as the ma;or portion of the study is considered valid. A qua -terly listing of all active NIS units is published in the Inventory of Available NIS Publications, which is also bound into the concurrent classified Factbook. The Inventory lists all NIS units by area name and number and includes classification and date of issue; it thus facilitates the ordering of NIS units as well as thy it filing, ccitaloging, and utilization. Initial dissemination, additional copies of NIS units, or separate chapters of the General Surveys can be obtained directly or through liaison channels .rom the Central Intelligence Agency. The General Survey is prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency and the Defense Intelligence Agency under the general direction of the NIS Committee. It is coordinated, edited, published, and dissemi- nated by the Central Intelligence Agency. WARNING This document contains information affecting the natioral defense of the United States, within the meaning its con o ftitle 18 receipt by unauthorized sections 793794 of the U S prohibited code, as amended. law its transmission or revelation CLASSIFIEC Y 019611. EXEMPT FROM GENERAL DECLASSIFI- CATION SCHEDULE O'� E. O. 11632 EXEMPTION CATEGORIES 50 (1), (2), (3). DECLASSIFIED ONLY ON APPROVAL OF THE DIRECTOR OF CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE. Al i APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080023 -2 n is i. u.Iw&111.c WARNING The NIS is National Intelligence and may not be re- leased or shown to representatives of any foreign govern- ment or international body except by specific authorization of the Director of Central Intelligence in accordance with the provisions of National Security Council Intelligence Di- rective No. 1. 0 For NIS containing unclassified material, however, the portions so marked may be made available for official pur- poses to foreign nationals and nongovernment personnel provided no attribution is made to National Intelligence or the National Intelligence Survey. Subsections and graphics are individually classified according to content. Classification /control designa- tions are: (U /OU) Unclassified /For Official Use On!y (C) Confid.mtial (S) Secret i J WARNING The NIS is National Intelligence and may not be re- leased or shown to representatives of any foreign govern- ment or international body except by specific authorization of the Director of Central Intelligence in accordance with the provisions of National Security Council Intelligence Di- rective No. 1. 0 For NIS containing unclassified material, however, the portions so marked may be made available for official pur- poses to foreign nationals and nongovernment personnel provided no attribution is made to National Intelligence or the National Intelligence Survey. Subsections and graphics are individually classified according to content. Classification /control designa- tions are: (U /OU) Unclassified /For Official Use On!y (C) Confid.mtial (S) Secret i APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080023 -2 f APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080023 -2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080023 -2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080023 -2 yn is I- I. &ff "I r. Page Page D. Major research fields 6 5. Medical sciences 8 1. Air, ground, and naval weapons 6 6. Other sciences 9 2. Biological and chemical warfare 6 a. Chemistry and metallurgy 9 3. Nuclear energy 7 b. Physics and mathematics 9 4. Electronics 8 c. Astrogeophysical sciences 9 i Ficvx>+; Page Fig. 1 Organization of scientific and technical activities (chart) 3 X 0 Science A. General (C) Although the Republic of China (ROC) is trying to increase its competence in science and technology, its research and development capability is small. The country does not have a scientific tradition, and only during the last 20 years have significant efforts been made toward attai. iing, a scientific research capability. In 1949 when the government moved from the mainland to Taiwan, the Nationalists were able to salvage only a limited nu; nber of scientific instruments and reference works, and ducational institutions and research institutes on tit island, formerly under Japanese control, were reiatively few. With foreign assistance, mainly from the United States, the Republic of China has made good progress in promoting scientific education and in es :,dolishing research institutes and scientific societies. There are now a number of well- es!ablished universities and colleges, research institutes, and learned societies in Titiwan. The government launched a long-range program for research and ;level �rment more ti a decade: ago in an effort to raise level of scientific research and to popularize scievec and technology among the people. Most of the emphasis was on the construction and repair of research facilities, the purchase of new equipment, and the training of research personnel. Only limited funds were made available for acquiring and maintaining the staff needed to carry out effective research. Since 1967 President Chiang Kai -shek has undertaken a major drive for modernization in Taiwan and has focused on the upgrading of science and technology essential to continued rapid economic development. Among; his objectives are the coordination of science efforts with the needs of industry and agriculture, an increase in the allocation of resources for research, and the improvement of science eduction. Although the universities and colleges have been graduating sufficient scientists and engineers Im Cie limited needs of governmental and other research facilities, these graduates have had little trainEig in research, and a shortage of competent research scientists exists. Nevertheless, the countr possesses sufficient native talent to produce significant results during the 1970's if reasonable financial support is furnished. A small group of highly capable senior scientists, trained in Western Europe and in the United States, provides a nucleus upon which a research program eventually can he based. If appropriate research facilities are established and if the economic status of the scientists can be raised from its very low level, other Western trained Chinese scientists living and working abroad may be induced to return to l aiwan. With foreign assistance, the central government plans to establish more research institutes and to encourage industries to construct �und operate research facilities, thus providing attractive employment opportunities for scientific and technic d graduates. For many years the Government of the Republic of China has maintained strong scientific relations wit[, the United States. Since 1964 a committee ponsored by the U.S. Nation'd Academy of Sciences .Ind the Academia Sinica has devoted attention to science policy planning, advanced scientific !Ind technical education and research, and other problems related to the strengthening of science and technology in Taiwan. The committee meets at intervals under the auspices of the Sino- American Science Cooperation Program. In September 1967 the Science Adviser to the President of the United States led a mission to "Taiwan to survey its scientific and technical assets and requirements. Rased on recommendations of the mission, the science budget was increased to US$30 million a year, and the U.S. Government appointed a special assistant to the U.S. Ambassador to find and implement ways of increasing the flow of science and technology from the United States to the Pepublic of ',hina. In January 1969 an agreement on cooperation in the fields of science, technology, and social sciences was signed by the United States and the Republic of China, thus formalizing a condition that had existed for several sears. The purpose of the agreement is to facilitate the exchange of information, ideas, arid techniques through contacts between scientists Ind research institutes of the two countries, to utilize E r APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080023 -2 special facilities available in both countries. and to examine problems of common interest. In 1971, after President Nixon's Science Advisers visit to Taiwan, he reported that the terms of the agrr-ement were being met, but recommended that Taiwan step -up its application of recent techological advances in oceanography, computer science, and aerial photogrammetry. B. Organization, planning and financing of research (S) With the increased emphasis by the government on science and technology, some significant steps have been taken in the organization of science on a national scale (Figure 1). In March 1967 the government I established the National Security Council and within it the Science Development Ccmmittee (SDC). The chairman of the SDC is the top science adviser to the I President. The SDC is concerned with the overall policies for science education, research in universities and institutes, and the interrelationship between science and technology and industrial development. Five months after its formation, it effected the reorganization of the National Council on Science Development, which had been founded in 1959 as a joint undertaking of the Academia Sinica and the Ministry of Education. It was formed into the j National Science Council (NSC), under the jurisdiction of the Executive Yuan but subject to the guidance of the National Security CuuL ^il's Science Development Committee in policy matters and in the distribution of funds. The chairman and vice chairman cif the NSC are appointed by the Executive Yuan or the recommendations of the SDC. The 33 members of the NSC are alse apponted by the Executive Yuan joint recommendations of NSC's chairman and vice chairman, the Academia Sinica, Ministry of Education, Ministry of National Defense, Ministry of Economic Affairs, Ministry of Communi- cations, Council for International Economic Cooper- ation and Development, and the joint Commission on Rural Reconstruction. In addition to assuming all the responsibilities and functions of its predecessor, the NSC added new ones and expanded the old ones. Tlius the NSC has a stronger hand than the National Council on Science Development in the task of advancing overall science education. The principal objectives of the NSC are to assist and support scientific and technical research and to promote the development of scientific education. 'f he NSC has become responsible for strengthening research facilities at various public research institutes, universities, colleges, and high schools. It also supports rearch through grants, establishes national research professorships and sponsors national visiting professorships, plans and implements the procurement of scientific instruments, plans revisions of curriculums and teaching material for basic sciences at various educational levels, and collects and disseminates scientific data. The Academia Sinica, originally founded on the mainland in 1928, was reestablished at Taipei, Taiwan, in 1949. It is composed of 10 research institutes� mathematics, physics, chemistry, botan zoology, modern history, ethnology, economics, classical history, and philology. Although a government institution financed by the central government, Academia Sinica is virtually autono- mous, and each member institute has been free to plan its own program. It is charged with conducting resea ch in its own institutes and with aiding and coordinating the efforts of other research institutes and th^ universities in their scientific activities. The Academia Sinica conducts basic research a-id has been attempting to expand its applied research effort. The total impact of its irterna! research program is limited because the entire research staff of its 10 institutes numbers only a little over 200 personnel. The Atomic F nervy Council (AEC) .was established in 1955 to plan and execute a program for the peaceful application of :vclear energy. It plans and promotes research and development in the field of nuclear science and technology and is concerned chiefly with wiclear education and nuclear power generation. It advises the government on nuclearenergy matters and is directly responsible to the Premier. Its membership includes representation from the Ministry of Education, Ministry of National Defense, Ministry of Economic Affairs, and several universities. A major and the best equipped facility for nuclear research is the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER), formerly a part of the Chung -span Institute of Science and Technology �CIST (al ;o known as the Chung -shan Science Institute. Although the INER is now reported to be formally separated from the CIST, there are indications that both simply comprise separate divisions of a joint complex. Tire physical separation between the two is a fence, both organizations occupy the same "campus' located at Lung -tan about 30 miles southwest of Taipei. On official government organization charts, CIST reports to the Ministry of National Defense, and INER reports to the Atomic Energy Council, which in turn reports to the Executive Yuan (Premier). There are strong indications, however, that the INER is also under APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080023 -2 -rrino me rn c. 'r control of the military. It is provided amply with funds. Several of its nuclear engineers, most of whom were trained in the United States, serve or, committees of the AEC. however, the CIST is organized along military lines, with most divisions headed by military personnel. The tight security surrounding CIST indicates that important military research projects are probably in progress, possibly concerned with unclear weapons. Located close to CIST is the Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, which is operated by the Ministry of National Defense and has schools of mechanical, civil, aeron iutical, and naval engineering. The institute has an enrollment of 2,000 students, all selected by the Minister of National Defense. The Ministry of National Defense is responsible for several other facilities. The National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, which is concerned with education and research an medicine, pharmacy, and hasic sciences, had a staff of 700 in 1966 and a budget of about US$420,000. The Artily Institute of Technol- ogy, Taipei, trains junior technical and engineering officers and (foes research and development work on military problems. The Naval Institute of Tech ,ology, Tso -ying, is concerned with research and development in naval architecture, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, and naval ordnance. Other organizations in Taiwan conducting research principally applied, include the Ordnance Research Institute of the Ministry of National Defense, the 3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080023 -2 FIGURE 1. Organization of scientific and technological activities, 1973 (C) Radio Wave Research Laborato of the National Taiwan University, the Ministry of Communications, the Geological Survey of Taiwan, the National Defense Medical Center, the Taiwan Weather Bureau (all in Taipei), the Taiwan provincial Veterinary Serum Institute (T'ung- bsiao), and the Telecom- munications Research Center of the Ministry of Communications and Chinese Institute of Neurology (both in Chung -li). Although some iodustrics have small, codependent research facilities, the major research for :netustry is government sponsored. Since 1953 the Union Industrial Research Institute (UIRI), is under the Ministry of Economic Affairs and has provided general service to industry. In July 1973, the UIRI's name was changed and two new components, the Mctal Industry Research Institute, Kao- hsiung, and the Mining Research Service Organization, were added. Collectively, they arc called the Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI). The institute conducts research for number of industries. Most of the research is concerned with the development of domestic natural resources and the adaptation of scientific research results to the needs of the country. The research is mainly applied and of a good quality. The expenditures of ITRI are home jointly by public enterprises, under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Economic Affairs, which include t!.e Chia ^se Petroleum Corp., Taiwan Sugar Corp., Taiwan Power Co... Taiwan Aluminum Corp., Taiwan Aikali Co., Taiwan Fert;lizer Co., and the Taiwan Glass Research Institute. The Industrial Research Council of the Ministry of Economic Affeirs is a policy- framing advisory council. IRC coordinates applied research of government organizations in general and the research work of the government enterprises under the jurisdiction of MOEA in particular. Under its industrial research policy, the government lays emphasis on the promotion of industrial research capabilities and their application to attain general economic development objectives. Industrial research is thus directed toward the transfer of existing technology and the application of results of research to industries with the aim of increasing productivity, reducing cost of production, and improving the quality of products. However, the coordination of industrial research has it long way to go before it will support ctfectively an expanding industrial base. Many professional scientific associations have been founded or reestablished in Taiwan since 1953. They not only act as forums fer their own members but also serve as media for arousing popular interest in science. The Chinese Institute of Engineers, with about 13,000 members, has chapters in Tai- Chung, Kao hsiung, Hua -lien, and in some foreign counties seeks to promote the professional status of engineers and improve technological knowledge and standarOs in Taiwan. Other groups active in promoting sciences are the Chinese Chemical Society (4,500 members), the Chinese Association for the Advancement of Science, and the Chinese Association for the Advancement of Natural Science. These organizations also sponsor public lectures and provide scholarships at universities and colleges. Funds for scientific research are limited but are increasing. They are derived from a variety of sources including the central government; foreign aid, principally iron. the United States; and from foreign religious and philanthropic foundations. Taiwan's current budgetary allocations were established in a 12- year s ience development plan initiated in January 1969. The plan stipulated that for each of the 12 years the National Science Council is to receive US$30 million for distribution to the various .scientific institutes. The council also receives additional sums from other government sources to conduct research and development veld to buy equipment Except for the small budge*L of the government -sponsored Industrial Technology Research Institute, private industry provides very little funds to the national research and development effort. Through a bilateral agreement with the United States, the U.S. National Science Foundation is helping to finance a program to encourage Chinese American professors to return to Taiwan under an exchange program to teach and conduct research at seven Taiwan research centers. Taiwan's National Science Council allocated US$250,000 to finance cooperative projects, with much of the money being designated for this exchange program. The U.S. National Science Foundation is contributing US$1,300,000 to this effort. Taiwan has other exchange programs with South Korea, South Vietnam, uud Thailand. C. Scientific education, manpower, and facilities (U /OU) The advancement of science has become a principal objective of education in Taiwan, and efforts have been made to increase the level of science education and to popularize science among the people. All higher educational institutions are under the supervision of the Ministry of Education with the, exception of the military institutes, which are tinder the jurisdiction of the Ministry of National Defense. t APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080023 -2 In school year 1971 /72 Taiwan had a total of 96 higher educational institutions with an enrollment of 222,505, and increase of 19,0:32 students over the previous school year. Of the higher educational institutions, 10 are national, 18 provincial, and 68 private schools. Only a few of the national and provincial universities and several specialized institutions are important in the teaching of rcience and technology. The universities offering the strongest science education are the National Taiwan University, "Taipei, and the National Tsing Hoa University, Hsin- chu. Both of these universities have Institutes of Nuclear Science and are important in training nuclear physicists. 'rite National 'T'aiwan Univers;ty has it College of Engineering as well as Research Institutes of Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics, Geology, and Geophysics. Colleges of science and c ngineering are maintained also at the Taiwan Prov; "vial Cheng Kung University, T'ai -nan; the Taiwan Provincial Chung losing Universiiy, T'ai- Chung; the Tunghai (Christian) Universitv, T'ai- Chung, which includes a chemical engineering curriculum; and the 'Taiwan Normal University. Taipei. The Taipei Institute of Technology offers a 5 -year course in chemical engineering. Graduate education is limit-d. 7'he establishment of additional graduate research facilities at the 'Taipei Institute of Tcchnol(.gy has provided it start toward an adequate scientific research and educational program tut the graduate level. The National Taiwan University has established institutes for graduate study in bacteriology and mechanical engineering. The Institute of Nuclear Sciences at the National Tsing Ilua University offers a 2 -year course leading to it masters degree in nuclear science; the Institute of Physics at the university has a doctoral program. The Institute of Electronics, llsin -chu, was established in 1958 as it graduate school (.f the former National Chiao -t'ung University in Shangha,. The institute has it 2 -,year program leading to masters and doctoral degrees and short -term training courses in telecom- munication microwave electronics and electronic computers. The institute awarded the first doctorate in science to be granted in 'Taiwan. Additional training is available to students arid graduates at annual Summer Science Serninars held under the sponsorship of the Academics Sinica, the National Taiwan Universitv, and the National Tsing Ilua University and funded by t he National Science :ouncil. Visiting foreign scientists act as professors during 8 weeks of lectures. Most of the graduates who pursue higher degrees study abroad, particularly in the United States, Western Europe, :uul Japan. Unfortunately, the percentage of the total number studying abroad who return to Taiwan is ver small. The students are deterred from returning to their homeland by inadequate salary levels in Taiwan and the belief that th- environment does riot provide suitable oppor- tunities for them to progress in their careers. The government is actively seeking ways of encouraging the return of students sent abroad for highereducation and has established a professorial exchange program with the United States. 'Through this program, the government hopes to persuade Chinese- American professors to return to Taiwan for periods cf 6 months to a year to teach and carry out research in seven research centers. "These ::enters �for chemistry, physic,, mathematics, hioiogy, engineering, oceanog- raphy, and economics �were established to further research and to promote education at the graduate level. They apparently were created in fulfillment a directive of it 4 -ye�r plan drawn up by the National Couarcil on Science Development arid the Ministry of Education which called for the creation of graduate science centers offering both master, and doctoral degrees. The objectives of the plan were to reduce the loss of scientists to other countries by providing graduate sta(dy programs comparable to those in foreign universities; to train professors for the universities because the faculties are aging and the quality of instruction is deteriorating; and to provide the research and educational facilities required to sustain industrial arid economic development. The problem of staffing the educational institutions and research installations with qualified scientists is a serious one. Wages are low considering the educational level of scientists. To increase their income, many teachers take concurrent jobs at several scl ols with the resuiting loss of concentration on any one course. A further problem is the seniority systen within the ROC's educational system which makes advancement for younger men exceedingly slow. 'Thus it graduate with i t doctorate who returns to Taiwan from abroad would have to wait many years before receiving either it salary or adminirFrative and teaching responsibility commensurate with his skill. Additionally, governmental research facilities have been losing trained personnel to industry, which in turn has been losing its technicians to foreign firms in Taiwan. Critical shortages of engineers exist in such fi,�ids as nuclear power, the petrochemical industry, and geological surveys. Although it sufficient number of scientists and engineers are heing graduated from the ROC's higher educational institutions to fill most of the country's reeds, there is still it shortage of competent research 5 t APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080023 -2 scientists and engineers, because many of the graduates have had little experience and training in conducting research. It is estimated that approxi- mately 4,500 individuals are employed in govemrnental and industrial and resear ^h and tecL,wlogical laboratories; about 1,600 are professionals and 2,9(x) are either technicians, laboratory assistants, or administrative and sell -ice staff personnel memhc -rs. An unknown number of professionals are employed on a part -time basis. The number of researchers employed in foreign -owned industries is unknown. Taiwan's does not have any outstanding re:,, -arch facilities but is making significant efforts to expand and improve facilities. As in most developing c.mntries, the most impressive research facilities are those concerned with the nuclear science. Taiwan has adequate reactors, cyclotrons, accelerators, and eolalt -60 sources at the national universit institutes for its nuclear energy program. The best equipped and r,nost adequately financed research facility on the island is the joint complex comprising the Chung -shan Institute of Sciences and Techolugy and the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research. This complex conducts basic and applied research for the military and for the AEC. It is a large facility with between 20 and ;30 new buildings and a total staff of about 1,900. The staff includes .50 persons with Ph.D. degrees mostly trained in the United States �and an additional 268 with MS and BS degrees obtained in Taiwan. Good quality laboratory equipment of U.S. and Japanese manufacture is available. The complex has a Control Data Corporation 3300 computer. Its research sections include rocketry, electronics, chemical, and nuclear. It is believed that a major long -range objective of the work conducted at the complex is to develop guided missiles with nuclear warheads. The Institute of Electronics at the National ::hiao- t ung University continues to expand its laboratory facilities and is equipped with a computer, lasers, and television, and communications and automation cquiprnent. Some of the expensive, modern equipment at other institutes is not utilized adequately because of a shortage of well- trained personnel. D. Major research fields 1. Air, ground, and naval weapons (S) The Republic of ;hill,, has an extremely limited Military research and development c ;!pability. The country has neither the technological capability nor the industrial capability to cle-clop or produce modern combat weapons. Some military research is accomplished at the Military 'Technical Research Institute of the Com`.rined Servic Force in Taipei. under the Ministry of Defense. The institute perform> research for tine three military services but is not capable, either technically or financially. of pursuing any large -scale research and development pnrgranns. The current cffnrt appears to ccnte': on explosives and propellants. The ioint LIST /1NER complex, although primarilv important for its nuclear research role, is also a research facility for its armed forces. It is suspected that its long -range objective is the development of nuclear warhead guided missiles, possibly of the 12- inch diameter. 20 kiiorrne:cr range. The National Tsing Ilua University is believed to be developing the inertial guidance compoiicnts and equipment for the missiles. For the past 3 years it has horn involved i the operation and testing of rocket propulsion systcrns. These test firings have used four- to six -inch diameter models with loadings of double -base and composite propellants of U.S. formulations. The ROC is trot engaged in research and development of am air %%V--polls nor is there any activity in the space field. Aeronautical efforts have been in the development of a turboprop, 2 -1)lace tandem trainer aircraft that is designated the .CT- CIl -IA. Design was initiated in 1970, construction was started in January 1972, and the plane was scheduled for testing in late 1973. The Chinese gained considerable technical knowledge and experience for this effort from the assembling of a U.S. modified trainer aircraft and U.S. Bell Co. helicopters. The Aero Industry Development Center is licensed to produce both of these aircraft. Spacv- related activity only involves making ground based measurements of atmospheric properties and conducting balloon- carried experiments. The capabil- :ty to design and develop ground weapons is limited, and efforts are mainly devoted to the development of ammunition. Some research has been conducted on clothing and individual field equipment to improve manufacturing techniques and equipment design. No major research and development projects are underway on bridging or stream- crossing equipment. The only significant items developed thus for are a 15- th 20 -1-rnn pneumatic assault boat arid a short -gap, assault bridge, to be launched from all I.Tv (lan(ling vehicle, tracked). A small research program is underway oil auionl,tive parts. The ROC has no known significant research and developnneut program in the naval weapons field. 2. Biological and chemical warfare (C) Taiwan does not have a biological :crfare (Bw) research and development progrann, although some of the biomedical and clinical research facilities give it a APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080023 -2 X limited capability to perform BW- related research. Basic biological research conducted at the Central Research Laboratory of the National Taiwan University, the Kohlberg Medical Research Labora- tory, and the Taiwan Provincial Institute of Animal Health, all in Taipei, could have BW application, but presently these efforts are directed toward teaching and improving the nation's health standards. A minor chaemical warfare (CW) research and development program is concerned with the development of locally produced CW defensive materiel. Facilities suitable for research on toxic chemical agents, munition, and detection devices are limited, but the CIST /INER complex has done some work in these areas. The National Taiwan University, Taipei, has accomplished some research on the toxic components of snake venoms and various native poisonous plants. This work appears medically oriented, but could be used in a CW program. 3. Nuclear energy (S) The Republic of China has established a small nuclear energy program devoted to basic research and the eventual development of nuclear power generation. Progress has been achieved with the support of U.S. aid furnished under the terms of a 1955 bilateral agreement for cooperation in the peaceful use of atomic energy. Taiwan's capability in the nuclear field may, in time, enable it to develop nuclear weapons, but the country currently lacks some prerequisites in both facilities and raw materials for the development of a nuclear weapons program. In 1955, the Atomic Energy Commission �later called the Atomic Energy Council �was established to advise the government and to plan a nuclear energy program. The. Institute of Nuclear Science at the National Tsing Hua University was established in 1956 to carry out the Pic The institute has the dual function of serving both as an academic training and research institution and as a national lahoratorv. In addition to teaching, the facility members carry out research with assistance from the United States under a "sister laboratory" arrangement with Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois. In its function as a national laboratory, the institute provides services which include radiation monitoring and safety, instrument maintenance and calibration, supply and application of radioisotopes, and reactor irradiation of agricultural and industrial samples. To carry out its duties, the institute has a 3- megaelectronvolt (Me`!) Van de Graaff accelerator and THOR (Tsing Hua Open -Pool Reactor), a pool-type research reactor acquired from the United States. THOR has been in operation since 1961 with a po�.yer level of 3 megawatts (MW). Taiwan has plans for the eventual use of nuclear energy for the production of electric power. The program calls for the coustruction of eight nuclear power reactors. The government requested the use of heavy water moderated power reactors, but the Taiwan Power Co. successfully overrode the request and boiling water reactors are to be used. Construction or planning has been started for six reactors totaling 3,072 megawatts electric (M We); two 636 -M We reactors are scheduled for opera ion in 1915 and 1976 and two 900 -M We reactors are scheduled for operation in 1978 and 1979. All six reactors will be located on the northern coast of Taiwan. After the the People's Republic of China conducted its first nuclear test in October 1964, President Chiang Kai -shek reportedly ordered the establishment of a nuclear weapons research institute. The institute, originally called the Shih -.nen Institute of Science, was organized in April 1965 with temporary quarters in Taipei. It has since been reorganized and has become the CIST /INER complex. The nuclear portion of the complex operates a 40-MW thermal heavy water moderated, natural uranium fueled multipurpose reactor that was purchased from Canada and transported to Taiwan under International Atomic Energy Agency safeguard controls. Preliminary arrangements were made in 1971 to also purchase from Canada a CDC Cyber 70 computer system with 65 K memory and 125 K extended core storage to handle the HAMMER nuclear computer code for simulated nuclear reactor operations. Taiwan, however, still does not have all the facilities and materials necessary for a complete nuclear weapons program. The institute has a zero power material test reactor, a low -level solid and liquid radioactive waste disposal facility, and a fuel reprocessing plant that is only a laboratory -scale model with a yearly yield of 300 grams of plutoni-im. The country has no known deposits of uranium; it purchased 12 tons of natural uranium metal from South Africa to operate the third core of the research reactor. Problems have also been encountered in the acquisition of facilities. An attempt was made to purchase a West German fuel reprocessing plant, but U.S. pressure prevented the acquisition because of the military implications. The Probable military intent in Taiwan's efforts are indicated, but its development is uncertain in light of the foreign awareness of these efforts. d r r APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080023 -2 1 4. Electronics (C) i Electronics research and development activity is steadily improving both in the quality and quantity of the work undertaken. The rnnst important electronics research organization is the institute of Electronics of the National Chiao -t'ung University. it has facilities for performing research and development on electronic circuits, microwave techni -.ties, transistors. computers, television, electro!, vacuum tubes, radio propagation, solid -state circuits, and lasers. The Ordnance Research institute, Taipei, operating under the Ministry of National Defense maintains a radio division which conducts research on infrared techniques and devices. For military reasons, the Ministry of National Defense has shown increasing interest in improving the knowledge about and the use of offensive countermeasure equipment and techni- ques. "Taiwan has made some accomplishments in support of the military in the development of a circuit plan for field deployed computers, radar software for the guidance and control of aircraft and missiles, and rudimentary Quantum electronics. The CIST /INER complex has a CDC 3(XX) computer, which is used mainly for data processing for the armed forces. Some computer time is devoted to computations in the fields of mechanical, nuclear, and electronic engineering. Chinese Air Force officer, trained in the United States, operate the computer. Taiwan has continued to upgrade and expand its domestic and international communications facilities. A major 1800 channel microwave radio relay link was recently constructe along the western periphery of the island, linking Taipei in the north with Kao- hsinung in the south. Plans also are underway to establish a number of shorthaul microwave radio -relay links on heavily trafficked routes. Telephone switching equipment is being updated, and it is expected that subscriber toll dialing will be extended to the entire island by the end of 1976. Two tropospheric scatter links are to be constructed between Taiwan and the offshore islands of Quemoy and Matsu. 'Tropospheric watter links for international telecommunications were constructed 1) Taiwan and Hong Fong in 1967 and the Philippines in 1969. Satellite communications were initiated in December 1969 using the Intelsat Pacific Ocean satellite. A second satellite ground station to be used with the Indian Ocean satellite was expected to be operational by late 1973. i 8 5. Medical sciences (S) Biomedical research is limited and remains on a relatively low level. The progress which has been achieved is the result primarily of increased financial support for medical research by the U.S. Agency for international Development (AID) and by several U.S. and Taiwanese nongovernmental groups. The GRC provides sonic support. Most of the hest work is accomplished by individual scientists. Some laboratories have good research facilities. The principal medical research organizations include the College of Medicine of the National Taiwan University, the National Defense Medical Center, the Kao- hsiung Medical College, the Taipei Medical College, and the Academia Sinica. With the increased availability of funds, the quality of medical education is improving at these facilities. Almost all the leading medical scientists in Taiwan have been trained in the United States. Many of the most recent plans for medical research projects are keyed to the country's Ten Year Health Plan for 1966 -75. One goal of the plan is to strengthen basic scientific studies and epidemiological investiga- tions on various communicaU diseases, including disease vectors. Virological an i vacteriological studies conducted at the National Taiwan University include research on parasitic diseases endemic to T aiwan inc luding leptospirosis and filariasis: study of viral produced tumors in tissue culture: investigation of the pathophysiology of cholera: and study of immune mechanisms in leprosy. Other biomedical research is underway on the pharmacology and physiology of the nervous system, toxic metaboli ties, cancer, and hypoxia after major open heart surgery. ROC scientists are working on the pharmacology of various snake venoms and the medicinal and chemical properties of Chinese drug plants. They are doing experimental research with labeled proteins and also are studying amino acid requirements and biosynthesis of cell -w dl polysac- charides. Taiwan scientists participate in the research efforts of U.S. personnel at the U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit (NAMRU) and have co- authored some of NAMRU's excellent health studies, some of which have concerned epidemiolo and parasitological diseases and maternal and infant nutrition. Armed forces rnedic,al research is of minor significance and is limited to sonic applied research in the National Defense Medical Center. Principal fields V y I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080023 -2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080023 -2 km of research are nutrition, preventive medicine concerning adenovirus diseases, trachoma, hlariasis. schistosomiasis, and epidemiology. Rewarch is not organised in a form program and oftep reflects only tine desire of an individual to do such .work in addition to his regular duties at the center. 6. Other sciences (S) a. Cheinisfri; and metallurgy Although most of the universities and colleges in Taiwan have departments of chemistry, very little chemical research is carried on. The staffs concentrate on teaching and have little time for research. There is little or no coordination of the minor amount of research underway. Some research is being clone in the chemistry of soils and fertilizers by various agriculIuril research institutes and by the National Taiwan University. Studies are concerned with tine uptake of fertilizer constituents and trace elements by rice, sugar, and tea, and with the effects of agricultural chemicals, such as herbicides, on plant Nutrition. The universities and medical colleges do a little research in analytical chemistry and pharmaceutical analysis. The Taiwan Provincial Cheng Kung University has done sonic work on the polarography of uranyl complexes. A small effort is underway in biochemistry and organic chemistry, including a few studies oat natural products, but synthetic organic research is very weak. l xcept for a little work ill the kinetics of organic reactions, physical chemical research is almost noncxtslent. Some studies in inorganic chemistry involving radioisotope� are Jmie by the National Taiwan University Gil coui .ation witil Academia Shifea. Although tlia" prodlluiiwl of chemicals and related products haS Winwn rapidly, industrial chemical research remains insignificant. Most of the technology is imported. The Industrial Technology Research Institute (frill) is attempting to do sonic research oil the utilizalion of domestic natural resources and on process development for native industries and has the best facilities for applied chemical research; however, the effort is limited. The itOC has little melallurgical industry and essentially [to capability in metalhirgical research, development, or technology. Most of the raw materials must be imported to support the very small] steel anti aluminum industries. The little metallurgical research evident has concerned the study of intermetallic compounds having potential use as semiconductors. This type of research usually is associated with unti'versity thesis requirements. Neither basic nor applied ferrous metallurgical or metalwork ing research has' been conducted. b. Physi an inatheinafics On]% lintiled research capabilities exist in nuclear, plasma, anti solid -state physics. Some improvement has occurred since 1965, however, as a result of increased governmental support, improved training of personnel, and expanded research facilities. Tit, little research underway is carried out in the Institute of Physics, Taipei, of the Academia Sinica, (lie Institutes Of Nuclear Sciences at the National TaiwaN Universit� and the National Tsing hlua University. and the CIS'T /INE11 complex. Most of the emphasis is in nuclear physics and concerns reactor physics with a small but significant effort in high- energy physics. Some research is done on the reaction of light nuclei and on elastic scattering by proton and deuteron beams. Researchersat the institutof NuclearSciences have been experimenting with charged particle induced reactions. They also have done some work on gamma ray spectrum analysis, heat transfer analysis, reactor noise, and thermal stress. Sonic limited work is underway in low temperature, solid -slate physics, anti cryst allography. The Institute of Physics of the Academia is engaged in solid -state studies, which include research on determining magnetic material properties, such as diamagnetism, paramagnetism, and ferrotuagnelism. The institute is doing some low- tennpemture physics research and is being equiplied with ervogenic equipment and it liquid helium and air liquefier plant. Theoretical physics research concerns particle physics. A very minor amount of mathematical research is underway in the classical field of analysis, especially function th and series. Must of it representssimplc extensions of known theory. Ali Institute of Mathematics was established in 1963 at the National Tsing Ikia University to encourage mathematical research and to train teachers, but has achieved little. Tile best graduate students go abroad for their advanced training, and most of them do not return. c. Aslrogeophysical sciences The Republic of China has a very minor capability for research in astrogcoph }sisal science.. Astronomical activity is limited principally to the observation of sunspots and other solar phcuoiraena by a small observatory of the 'Taiwan Weather Bureau. 'The bureau operates a first class operational weather system, which includes two weather radar installations (at Iloa -lien and Rao- lisiung) strict a rain gauge netyvork, primarily for typhoon anal flood'forcc;asting purposes. Sa academic meteorological research is acrtmapli "shed at the Department of Geography and Meteorology, National Taiwan University, and Ilia APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080023 -2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080023 -2 RK: lnstitutc of Geophysics of the National Central Univers Although sonic research is being conducted in agrometcorolog%. most meteurolugical resep is devoted mainly to rainfall studies for hy,rological purposes. Taiwan is active in hydrologic anti hydraulic research. Most of the studies are limited to applied research and involve problems related to irrigation, flood control, soil erosion, sedimentation, and industrial and domestic water supply. Hydraulic models and field tests are used extensively in the study of sedimentation and erosion phen omcna, the design of high clams and spillways, and gauging instrumenta- tion. Although stream gauging has been in effect in Taiwan since the 1590's, much remains to be done to increase the number of rainfall, stream, flood, silt, and evaporation gauging stations. The scarcity of flood discharge records is a major deficiency affecting various model testings and the planning of complex hydraulic projects. The country has a force of engineer with a high degree of technical training. Some lack experience. however, in the practical execution of projects of tilt magnitude and complexity now under consideration. The hydrologists and hydraulic engineers are active in various international scientific meetings but maize only limited contributions. Coastal engineering research has improved and appears co be increasing, especially as it pertains to harbor modernization and to the solution of silting problems. Tile Water Resources Planning Commission has been responsible for hydraulic and coastal engineering research since 1959. '['his commission operates two laboratories: The Taipei flydrattlic Laboratory at National Taiwan University and the Taiwan Hydraulic laboratory at Taiwan Provincial Cheng Kung University. These laboratories are equipped with model test basins; wave, current, and tide simulators; and ade(lnate data collection and treasuring instruments. Research inebides studies of littoral drift, wave effects on beaches, �ind structures, harbor improvement, sedimentation, and reclamation of Ir7d by means of dredging. Much of the research has been direetetd toward the improvement of the harbors of Chi -lung, liva- lien, Kati- iasiung, and the planning of a new port for T'ai- Chung. Basic theoretical and applied geodetic rescarch on Taiwan is limited. The area of Loncentration is on training in starvey tMini(lucs and improvement in neap production. Tile Mapping and Geodesy Department of the Ching Chung iytstitole of Teelmologhy is the only institute that provides training in geodesy. 'Fite primary geodetic service 10 .Genes it the Topographic Services; its headquarters a;e in Taipei and its facilities are located in T"ai- chung The agcnc� has a program under%%aN to re.ise 01V existing geodetic triangulation, precise leveling, and gravity networks in Taiwan. it has cooperated minatinns, and assisted in the computation and adiaastn.rut of the geodetic control network on mainland China. I'he Taissan Pro.;aci,;I Weather Boreau o1wraws a n0work of 16 WiSmllgraphti, t)ati ilt)etxx9tie rCSCarCIl in geolog} and terrestrial geophysics is dirCCtcd ma tnsvard the location of petroleum and mineral resources. Routine drilling and seismic. geological. graviluc(rc, and gCtltnaglictic sttry(`ys are Conn.lCt by the government -owned Chinew Petroleum C;o, ^p supported by a partnership with U.S. Qdf Oil Co The surveys have been conducted inn Taixvan, neighboring offsltorc areas, all(] the Pescadores islands. 'Tile oceanographic capabilit% in Taiwan is Iost but is gradually increasing. The ctrtmtrv's oceanographic activity has consisted primarily of rlearshore surveys for the development of marine fisheries. lllxvcver. oceanographic� interest has increased as it result of participation in the International Kurshio (Japan Currentl Stud% during 1965-66 this satrvcy was conducted under tine auspices of talc lntergovemrnen- ud oceanographic Commission of the United N;ltioix f..tiocational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), -with guidance from the UNESCO Science Cooperation Office for Southern Asia. '1'Itc survey ship Yang Ming (originally the U.S. minesweeper U.S.S. Lurid,, operated by Taiwait's Hydrogr Office, participated in this inves- tigation, A ncsv ship for coastal rescarch n:as ae(lu.aircd in l r72 and cruises have been made to seaters off Borneo. the Philippines, and mainland China. Taiwan has also shown increased interest in offshore mineral exploration, specifically in the exploration for oil. Foreign ships are hired to conduct these surveys, but as the country lecome; more involved in oceanographic activity- (here is a possihility more ships will he ptirchased. The llydrographic Office produces oceanographic charts for tlsc in conducting these surveys :nod unlisubmarilie warfare, and is doing considerable work in marine geology, particularly halhymetry. A few oceanographers arc being trained in the United States. Most 4 the oceanographic rescarch is conducted at file r ranographic Research Center of National Taiwan University Taipei, the Chinese National APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080023 -2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080023 -2 r kti� eh: u..