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H- Philippines December 1973 NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY 0. CONFIDENTIAL APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDP01-00707R000200090004-2 merle is l-ele 141L ff'.0 NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY PUBLICATIONS The basic unit of the NIS is the General Survey, which is now published in a bound -by- chapter format so that topics of greater per- ishability can be updated on an individual basis. These chapters� Country Profile, The Society, Government and Politics, The Economy, Military Geog- raphy, Transportation and Telecommunicai;ons, Arined Forces, Science, anu Intelligence and Security, provide the primary NIS coverage. Some chapters, particularly Science and Intelligence and Security, that are not pertinent to all countries, are produced selectively. For small countries requiring only minimal NIS treatment, the General Survey coverage may be bound into one volume. Supplementing the General Survey is the NIS Basic Intelligence Fact book, a ready reference publication that semiannually updates key sta- tistical data found in the Survey. An unclassified edition of the factbook omits some details on the economy, the defense forces, and the intelligence and security organizations. Although detailed sections on many topics were part of the 1415 Program, production of these sections has been phased out. Those pre- viously produced will continue to be available as '_;no as the major portion of the study is considered valid. A quarterly listing of all active NIS units is published in the Inventory of Available NIS Publications, which is also bound into the concurrent classified Factbook. The Inventory lists all NIS units by area name and number and iccludes classification and date of issue; it thus faci",tates the ordering of NIS units as well as their filing, cataloging, and utilization. Initial dissemination, additional copies of NIS units, or separate chapters of the General Surveys can be obtained directly or through liaisor: channels rrom the Central Intelligence Agency. The General Survey is prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency and the Defense Intelligence Agency under the general direction of the NIS Committee. It is coordinated, edited, published, and dissemi- noted by the Central Intelligence Agency. WARNING This document contains information affecting the national defense of the United States, within the meaning of title 18, sections 793 and 794 of the US code, as amended. Its transmission or revelation of its contents to or receipt by an unauthorized person is prohibited by low. CLASSIFIED BY 01964,. EXEMPT FROM GENERAL VECLASSIFI. I CATION SCHEDULE OF E. O. 11652 EXEMPTION CATEGORIES 5B (1), (2), (3). DECLASSIFIED ONLY ON APPROVAL OF THE DIRECTOR OF CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090004 -2 I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090004 -2 InnorncInc WARNING The NIS is National Intelligence and may not be re- leased or shown to representatives of any foreign govern- ment or international body except by specific authorization of the Director of Central Intelligence in accordance with the provisions of National Security Council Intelligence Di- rective No. 1. For NIS containing unclassified material, however, the portions so marked may be made available for official pur- poses to foreign nationals and nongovernment personnel provided no attribution is made to National Intelligence or the National Intelligence Survey. Subsections and graphics are individually classified according to content. Classification /control designa- tions are: (U /OU) Unclassified/ For Official Use On;y (C) Confideriial (S) Secret s J' APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090004 -2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090004 -2 ado t CONTENTS This chapter supersedes the geographic cover- age in the General Survey dated October 1968. A. Location and description I 1. Topography 1 k 4 ado t CONTENTS This chapter supersedes the geographic cover- age in the General Survey dated October 1968. A. Location and description I 1. Topography 1 2. Climate 4 B. Military geogrrphic regions 6 1. Central Luzon Plain 6 2. Rugged Islands Complex 7 C. Strategic area 8 D. Internal routes 9 E. Approaches 1() 1. Sea 10 2 Air 1] CoNwmr,N17AT. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDP01-00707R000200090004-2 am In�rn TQran FIGURES s e APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090004 -2 Page Page Fig. 1 Hills and mountains in northern 7 ig. 8 Village but photo) 4 Luzon photo) 2 Fig. 9 Climatic factors chart) 5 Fig. 2 The Mayon Volcano in south- Fig. 10 Natural mve photo) 8 eastern Luzon (photo) 2 Fig. 3 Picturesque terraced ricefields (photo) 3 F 1g. 11 Leyte coastal plain photo) 8 Fig. 4 Flat, cultivated plain near Fig. 12 Manila Bay Strategic Area (map) 9 Nasugbu, Luzon (photo) 3 Fig. 13 Manila modern area as viewed Fig. 5 Wetland rice on Leyte photo) 3 from Hilton Hotel (p Fig. 6 Aerial view of coconut groves (photo) 3 Fig. 14 Manila, slum housing (photo) 9 Fig. 7 Typical Philippine rural village Fig. 15 Military geographic factors (photo) 4 (map) follows 12 s e APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090004 -2 ,s n' g Military Geography A. Location and description (U /OU) The Philippines, an archipelago of approximately 7,100 islands, is located in the western Pacific near important maritime routes in the South China Sea. From Manila, the distance is about 600 nautical miles to the mainland of the Peoples Republic of China, 1,300 nautical miles to Singapore, and less than 2,000 nautical miles to all other capitals of Southeast Asia. The islands have a total land area of about 116,000 square miles, and extend generally north -south fer approximately 1,000 miles.' The main island belt is generally less than 250 miles wide. Luzon and Mindanao, the two largest islands, total nearly 75% of the land area; Palawan, Mindoro, and the largest islands in the Visayan Islands group (Masbate, Samar, Leyte, Bohol, Cebu, Negros, and Panay) comprise nearly all of the remainder. The estimated population was about 40.2 million in July 1973. I. Topography The country, besides being fragmented into numerous islands, is a complex of mountains, hills, and plains (see the Military Geographic Factors map, Figure 15, at the end of the chapter). For the most part, the larger islands are comprised of rugged, sparsely- inhabited mountains and hills, flat to rolling, and densely populated plains. The mountains and hills �the dominant landforms �are oriented gener- ally north -south (Figure 1); they consist of ridges and spurs that divide the islands into isolated sections and of volcanoes (Figure 2) that are also isolated clusters. 'Distances are in statute mile, unless nautical miles are specifically stated. Sharp crests or peaks and steep, moderately to severely dissected slopes are common. Differences in elevation between crests and adjacent valley bottoms range from 500 feet in hills to more than 3,000 feet in mountains. Mountain summits are from 2,000 to more than 9,600 feet above sea level, and hilltops generally range from 600 to 2,000 feet in elevation. Vegetation in the highlands consists chiefly of dense broadleaf evergreen forest and brush, grasses, and open stands of pines. Small cultivated fields, mostly rice, corn, and sugarcane, dot scattered valley and hill slopes, many of which are terraced and irrigated (Figure 3). Most of the streams are shallow and swift in the hills and mountains. These streams flow in narrow gorges and V- shaped valleys for much of their length before emptying into the sea, and most are less than 50 feet w*de and under 3.5 feet deep. Stream behavior is en;itic; flash floods of short duration ma, occur after heavy rains in any month. Most of the rugged hill and mountain areas are sparsely settled. Villages are widely spaced and connected mainly by trails. The few roads are poorly maintained, and most have many sharp curves, steep grades, low- capacity wooden bridges, fords, and ferries. The flat to rolling plains r;!! in size from small, intermontane, valley floors and coastal flat- to extensive, I:irgely uninterrupted areas, such as that in central Luzon (Figure 4) and on Mindanao. On the flat plains, interstrearn sectors are less than 100 feet above adjacent stream bottoms; these are the prime agricultural areas of the Philippines. Interfluves on the rolling plains generally are between 100 and 500 feet above the streams. Cultivated vegetation, mainly wetland rice, and scattered gra.;sy areas, interspersed with small areas of dense bamboo and bananas, are 1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090004 -2 the predominant vegetation t on the plains (Figure 5). Most streams are bordered hx narrow hands of dense forest. Oil the larger islands. especially [.uzon and Wndan,o, there are also large plantations ohugarcane. tobacco, coconuts (Figure 6). abaca, maguey, and pineapples. Although marshlands comprise only a small part of the plains, there are relatively large wet areas, especially on Mindanao, and along a few of the larger rivers. Narrow bands of mangrove fringe many of the coasts. Streams on the plains are numerous. 'I'hcy generally are 250 to 500 feet wide, more than 3.5 feet deep, and meander between low hanks or natural levees of sand or silt: bottoms are chiefly sand and gravel. At times extensive areas along the larger rivers are flooded to depths of several feet. Although high- and loss -eater levels are irregular, most streams have their maximum flow between earl May and late October. In most of the plains, the ground, mainly lateritic clay, is frequently miry from early May through November. During the remainder of the year it is predominantly firm. The ground is soft in marshy areas and for much of the time in rice paddies. The ricefields are inundated for 3 to 5 months of the year, I- hvicen mid -May and mid December. I'he rural areas contain numerous closely spaced villages (Figure 7) and towns, particularly along the coasts and in the interior river valleys. The settlements, consisting chiefly of clusters of thatch roofed wood ar bamboo huts (Figure 8), are mostly fringed by ricefields containing; numerous loss dikes, levees, drainage ditches, and vanals. 'I'I:c larger urban centers, located along the coa. ,s, are characterized by modern sections which have broa.l, paved streets and multistory inasonry buildings. 'They are corninonly surround. cl by densely populated areas of closely spaced bamboo huts and wood and scrap- inetal shacks. Streets in the slum areas are generally narrow, winding, and unpaved. A sparse network of narrow gravel, crushed- stone, and earth roads, mostly in poor condition, connects most of the set.!.::., nts. In general, only on the relatively broad plain of central Luzon are the settlements ;inked by a dense network of roads, some of which have Concrete, bituminous, or bituminous treate surfaces. In places, the pavements are potholed and broken. The roads generally have slight grades and gentle curves and numerous low- capacity bridges (mostly wooden), fords, and ferries. The fey railroads are 3'6" gage and in poor condition; except for an 8.5 -mile double -track sector at Maeda, they are single trac All -ire located on Luzon except for a line connecting Iloilo and Roxas, on Panay. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090004 -2 FIGURE 1. Hills and mountains in northern Luzon. These heavily forested highlands are thinly populated, but the lower hill slopes and valley floors are intensively cultivated. (U /OU) FIGURE 2. The Mayon Volcano in southeastern Luzon. This nearly perfect cone rises 8,000 feet above sea level. (U /OU) r i FIGURE 5. Wetland ricefields on Leyte (U /OU) FIGURE 6. Aerial view of coconut groves in Cotabato Valley, Mindanao (U /OU) FIGURE 4. Flat, cultivated plain near Nasugbu, Luzon (U /OU) t OKI l i i- FIGURE 3. Picturesque !erraced ricefields in northern Luzon highlands (UiOU) APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090004 -2 k. 4 2. Climate 1'hc cone ar} tut. a tropical Inaritirne climate, Characterized by distinct wet anti dry srasuns at ntost places� bill also b% remarkable� aniforruit% in other aspects (f ignrc 91. The seasonal chartcler of Ibc caclher. as shown by the rainfall distribution, is largely determined by the degree of exposure it) persistegt airstreams whirl ill, adu the conatn al different tiole�s of (lie year. The northeast monsuun ;Ind (lie northeast trrdr aincls together dominate the c�ircul�: Lion in beccniber through April, whereas the suutbucst lrwusoa)" dumivatcs in JuIN Through Scptc tuber. As a resell, the eastern Philippines receive their maximum rainfall sllortl., before and during the seasons of northeast fhl", but the western Philippines 1MVe their maximum rainfall tluring div south"est monsoon. Highest mean nluntlik alnounts daring these rltlty seasons are geucrulk between 10 and 30 inches. ExeM.' m the east. mininium runfall It most pluccs occurs during Fcbrttan Ihroagb April, when uuantbl% amounts are grneralk Icss than A inches. Arai n l rainfall is abundant vverywhem. averaging mainly belwvvri 60 ant] 120 inches. ,iitholivil In.111) exposed sec�tious :escrlge over 160 inches. The rainfall is normally ill the forn of showers and the heaviest shocsers arc usuall% nssocialcd with thunderstorms, which reach their pruk of Activity 5 to 1.3 days per month during May through Octubcr. Occasional torrential rains ire caused by llte tropieal cyclones that frequent tliese isi;irxls. mainly ill July through Dece�rnber; destructive floods often follow. The location of the Philippines in tropical latitudes and the surrounding warm tievailic watch produce ralbrr consListerlt clinaalic� cieoeeot.. \icon daily maxinrtlrn icitiperatares are generally bet-wren 6:3 and 7.5 throughout the year. Temperatures are snmewhut lower in tin� Inonettaills. similarly, relative liutnidity ranges (non 8.5% to !)5,r' ill tits morning to about OK to 505 in the afternoon during ail nluittbt. The combiriatrou of high temperatures and high bmnidity is enervating, especially to those unaceos- lonaed to such conditions. i:loudiness is fairly extensive in all 11ronths. lavcr.3011" mostly between $0% and 90%. and c�uitlolos clouds are the most abullc] ilit tyie. \larch Ibrongh \lay is usually the least cloudy Period. especially ist ar the west coast of Loran. Visibilities are generaally adeetlrlte for must activities; the greatest restrictions occarciuring periods FIGURE S. Village but constructed with wood and nipo palm thatch IU /OU1 1:' s ;r. i 01 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090004 -2 FIGURE 9. Temperature, humidity, precipitation, tkurderstorms, and cloudiness (U /OU) BASCO MANILA 30 30 25 25 I 20 I 20 15 IS 10 10 5 5 0 1FMAMJIASOND 0 IFMAMIIA SON. 1 SURIGAO 17LO 30 30 25 2 I 20 20 15 15 10 10 5 5 0 1FMAMI JASOND 0 1FMAM1 lASOND BASCO MANILA SURIGAO 120 12n II I iII 120 100 100 I BO Bp i w 60 60 ��������I��� t0 ����v,�� i I AO 40 I 40 I III 20 20 20 ol11I I oIII 1 FMAM1 IASUV --J II F MA MJJ JASON 0 J FMAM I ELEV. 36 FT. ELEV. 49 FT. FLEV. 72 FT. MALAYSALh: JOLO 120 120 II I l I 100 80 gp ABSOLUTE 60 60 ��e������� MFAN 11AILV M.C)(IM UM I I MEAN UAIL'/ MIN Ih!UM AO I A9SOLUTE MINIMUh1 20 20 0 011- I 1FMAMJJASON 1FMAMJIASON FLEV. 2106 FT. ELEV. 43 FT. TEMPERATURES �F) MANILA SURIGAO 1 10L0 100 -T T -.0 lOp J 9 app I III a21 110 P J BO I60 60 14D0 i t 40 I I I AO l I I I I I 401 i I I I II 20I I 20 1FMAM1 IASONDI MAMI IASONDJ 1FMA:AJ JASONDI L__ MEAN RELATIVE HUMIDITY AT SPECIFIED HOURS MST) M EAN MONTHLY PRECIPITATION (INCHES) rvUMbtK OF DAYS WITH THUNDERSTORMS CIARK AB MANILA CEBU 30 SURIGAO 30 1100 BA 20 r) I. I4 e Y 20 10 14 I I'I I;I 10 0]!FMAMJJASON 0 1FMAMJJASON I II I SURIGAO I JOLO 30 40 20 20 10 20 I LJFMAM 0 JFMAMI JASON I IIASON M EAN MONTHLY PRECIPITATION (INCHES) rvUMbtK OF DAYS WITH THUNDERSTORMS mc." ILUUUINt55 AT S JECIFIED HOURS (LST) 5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090004 -2 MEAN ANNUAL PRECIPITATION (INCHES; MANILA SURIGAO 1100 BA i I I r) I. I4 e Y 100 80 rT 14 I I'I I;I 60 ao I II I 40 I 40 IIII 20 20 I I I I 0 11J I D,_.1 1FMAMIJASONDI .,._)_l I JFMAMJJASONDI loo MALAYBALAV 100 7-1- JOLO Bo 80 60 so R F MAS O NDJ 60 40 20 20 1FMAMJ IA SOHDJ mc." ILUUUINt55 AT S JECIFIED HOURS (LST) 5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090004 -2 MEAN ANNUAL PRECIPITATION (INCHES; l 1111.w1l1&ff. of heavy rainshowers and when clouds enshroud the higher mountains. Surface winds are usually light except during thunderstorms or tropical cyclones. Sonic typhoon winds have buffeted the islands with speeds in excess of 100 knots. B. Military geographic regions (C) The Philippines is divided into two military geographic regions �the Central Luzon Plain and the Rugged Islands Complex (Figure 15). The combina- tion of environmental conditions within each region would have a relatively uniform effect on military operations, but there would be marked differences between regions. 1. Central Luzon Plain The region is generall- well suited for ground operations except for it period of 3 to 5 months between mid -May and mid December when ricefields are flooded and streams are highest. Movement would be fairly easy on the main roads, but sustained heavv traffic would cause rapid deterioration. During and after rains, movement would be slowed in places by miry and slippery surfaces, washouts, and flooding. In addition, the many narrow wooden bridges, ferries, and fords are rotential bottlenecks. Conditions for offroad dispersal re generally good only in the areas where roads art riot bordered by wetland ricefields. During dry periods cross country movement would be fairly easy in most of the region. 'Throughout the region during the southwest monsoon and in areas exposed to the northeast monsoon, movement would be severely slowed or precluded by boggy ground and, at times, by extensive flooding. Obstacles to movement in local areas are steep -sided ravines, deep, soft bottomed streams, permanently soft ground, dikes, irrigation canals, and drainage ditches. Construction of new roads would be moderately easy in most places when the ground is dry. Roads could be built with long tangents and gentle curves, and only light grading and clearing would be required; however, numerous culverts and bridges (runny with raised approaches) would have to be constructed. At times, construction would be severely hindered or even halted f or short periods by soft ground and flooding. Concealment front air and ground observation would b;� limited mainly to urban areas, patches of mangrove, clumps of bamboo, at narrow hands of dense forest along streams. 'Tho grassy areas and sugarcane fields afford good concealment from ground observation seasonally. (:over front flat trajectory fire would be afforded in many places by dikes and banks of drainage ditches and canals in ricefields, streambanks, and some road and railroad embank- ments; masonry structures in the larger cities provide the best available cover. There are extensive potential billeting and storage facilities in the larger towns and cities. In most places, there are many sites suitable for the construction of bunkers; in the flat low -lying areas, construction would be hindered by a high water table, and sealing would be required to prevent seepage. There are few sites suited for tunnel -type installations because of inadequate relief. Conditions are favorable for airborne and airmobile operations throughout most of the region and there are numerous potential airdrop zones and sites for helicopter landings. The ricefields are poorly suited between mid -May and mid December, but during the remainder of the year they are excellent sites. Approaches to many sites would he partly restricted by nearby mountains and hills. There are four large and at least five smaller airfields that could be used for the landing of assault -type aircraft. Although new airfields could be constructed on the rolling plains with only minor amounts of earth moving and clearing, the orientation of runways would be restricted in places by streams and the air approaches would be restricted by nearby mountains and hills. Many sites with unrestricted approaches are available on the flat plains, but foundations are poor and subgrades would have to be raised to i,rotect against flooding. The region is favorable for amphibious operations. The long curving shores are predominantly sand, except along the northern part of Manila Bay where the shore is muddy and overgrown with mangrove. (lose behind the sandy shores, or for short distances inland, meandering rivers and streams, lagoons, marshes arid swamps obstruct movement in many places. Approaches are restricted to Lingaven Gulf or Manila Bay and are lightly obstructed by scattered dangers, mainly shoals and wrecks. High surf on the south shore of Lingaven Gulf is most prevalent, about 20% of the time, during the northeast monsoon. In Manila Bay, high surf is most prevalent-about 10% of the time- during the southwest monsoon. Outside the gulf and the bay, heavy sea and swell occur most often during the northeast monsoon. Tides are mixed; the diurnal range ;s 2.5 feet in Lingayen Gulf and 3 to 3.5 feet in Manila Bay. Exits from the beaches are predominantly cross country or by tracks to all weather roads several hundred yards to several miles inland. Conditions for irregular force operations range from unsuited to fair throughout the Central Luzon Plain. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090004 -2 Concealment generally is poor from both air and ground observation on this intensively cultivated flatland; however, some limited possibilities exist year round in small forests and built -up areas and seasonally in tall grasses and sugarcane fields. Small 3 groups could move cross country throughout the year, but they would be slowed frequently by miry ground, deep streams, and widespread flooding. Water, which is generally biologically contaminated, and food are available to irregular forces. "tropical and other diseases, water buffalo, crocodiles, snakes, rodents, mosquitoes, flies, lice, fleas, ticks, centipedes, ants, scorpions, and spiders are hazards to operations. 2. Rugged Islands Complex This region, which includes the remainder of Luzon and all of the other islands in the archipelago, is predominantly poorly suited for conventional ground operations. Onroad movement would be confined to Nvidely spaced roads on the larger islands; in many places, movement would he slowed by sharp curves, steep grades, narrow wooden bridge:, and, during or after rains, by miry and slippery surfaces, washouts, and landslides. In addition, the roads would require extensive maintenance to sustain heavy traffic. Offroad dispersal would be very difficult or even precluded on steep and precipitous slopes in most places. The construction of new roads would require much cut, fill, and blasting, as well as numerous short tangents, sharp curves, and steep grades in the hills and mountains. Frequent periods of soft ground after heavy rains could severely hinder or halt construction throughout the region. Only the better drained parts of the :oastal and interior plains are suited for road construction. Cross- country movement generally would he slow and arduous, and would be possible only by foot troops in most of the region. Only in i widely scattered areas of drycrop enitivati,n, grasslands, plantations, and, during the dry season, in ricepaddies, are conditions fair for cross country I vehicular movement. Fair to excellent concealment a front air in(] ground observation would be afforded by r dense forests in nlan} places. Concealment opportunities are very limited however, in prime forests at high elevations, in recently culover areas, and on many of the cultivated plains. Most grassy areas and plantations afford good concealment from ground observation, but the blades of the grass generally are tough and sharp. Good cover front flat- I trajectory fire would he afforded by surface irregularities (Figure. 4) mainlv in the ulottntains and t hills. In general, there is it lack of suitable billeting and storage facilities. There are many suitable sites for tunnel -type installations in the hills and mountains (Figure. 10) and some sites for hunkers on the well drained parts of the plains. The region is poorly suited for airborne and an-mobile operations. Sites suitable for airdrops or helicopter landings are limited mostly to cultivated or grassy clearings and some beaches. 'There are only three large airfields in the region, but many of the islands contain at least one airfield that can accommodate assault -type aircraft. Because of the predominance of dense vegetation, surface ir- regularities, and wet ground, potentially suitable: sites for airfield construction are limited to the better drained parts of the plains. Conditions are generally unfavorabI. for amphibi- ous operations. Large -scale amphibious operations would be precluded along hilly and mountainous coasts by steep terrait; that generally rises abruptly froth the sea. Along the coast ;ll plains, long irregular shores front on narrow flatlands bordered by nearby rugged terrain (Figure 1 1). These flat coastal areas are compartmentalized by steep hills and mountains rising from the shoreline, and conllnotll% contain bands of mangrove and numerous river mouths. Approaches to the numerous short beaches of sand or of sand mixed with gravel, cobble, and coral are commonly obstructed by islets, shoals, and coral reefs. High surf occurs on many of the coasts, especially where the shores are exposed to the northeast monsoon. At times, the seas are rough and the swell is moderate to heavy. Maximum tides are diurnal and range froth about 2 to 6.5 feet. Along sonic of the Visayan Islands, rough seas combined with strong crosscurrents and riptides make landings extremely dangerous. In many places, flat nearshore bottoms consisting of coral rock and mud would hamper landings. Exits are generally cross country to roads paralleling (c�onitnonly less than it mile inland) tl,e coasts. Movement would be hindered in many places by ricefields, streams, ravines, and marshy areas. Conditions for irregular force operations range from good to unsuited. Areas of dense forests and rugged terrain inhibit large conventional force operations but provide good opportunities for the cover and concealment of small groups on most of the islands. Movement generally would he slowed by steep slopes or dense forests in the hills and mountains and by sharpbladed grasses, deep streams, flooding, large marshes, and swamps along the coasts and large streams. Water and fond can he obtained in most areas, but the water commonly is hiologic:dly contaminated near populated places. The fund sonrces include mainly crops in or near scattered H y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090004 -2 -Irmo me In c. machinery, automobile parts, textiles, telecom- munications equipment, small arms lilt! structural and sheet metal products. The major shipyard in the country, at Mariveles, has drydocking facilities, considerable covered storage, and petroleum storage for 270,000 barrels. A naval shipyard with facilities for drydocking and small boat construction is at Cavite; neurbv, is a former U.S. naval air station that is used jointly by the Philippine military commands. The large U.S., naval base on the shore of Subic Bay maintains drydocking facilities, seaplane and naval air stations, an underground ordnance and ammunition depot, and extensive covered and petroleum storage facilities. FIGURE 11. Leyte coastal plain backed by mountains (U/OU) settlements and fish in local streams or coastal waters. The high incidence of disease and presence of inset`. vectors and dangerous animals, including reptiles, are co0inuons hazards to operations. C. Strategic area (C) The Manila Bay Strategic Area (sec thn map at the end of the chapter ind I igure 12), located on the broad central Luzon plain, has a total population of about S million and includes Manila (population 1,475,000) (Figures 13 and 14) and Quezon (population 837,000). Metrolerlitan Manila, is the hub of the country's government, commerce, industry, and telecommunications. The In,: government agencies are in Manila; onl the subordinate ones are in Quezon, the capitol. Manila International airfield and the port at Manila are the primary points of entry for the country. The� country's four petroleum refineries, with a combined daily throughput capacity of 272,000 barrels, and over half of the country's other industries are in the strategic area. The important items produced within the area include agricultural Rural areas within the strategic area contain the most extensive ricefields in the country, a dense transportation net, two large military airfields �Clark and Basa Air Bases, U.S. and Philippine respectively, and most of the am installations. In addition to the M anila Bay Strategic Area, there are four other important areas: N AME AND POPULA- TION 1973) SICNIFICA SCE Davao, 435,000 Important port interisland, inter- national), major industrial and supply city for southern Mindanao. POL storage capacity 295,000 barrels. Cebu, 384,600 Important port for the Visayan Is- lands. Ship repair and dry docking facilities. Petroleum storage capac- ity 989,000 barrels. Large air base on nearby Mactan Island. Iligan, 115,800 Second largest industrial center; in- cludes a steel mill and fertilizer, cement, and chemical plants. Iloilo, 232,500 Important port. Main distribution center for nearby islands. Ship repair facilities. Petrol storage capacity, 203,000 barrels. I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090004 -2 FIGURE 10. Natural caves like this one in eastern Mindanao are common in the Philippine highlands DPW APO, ISLAND p Santa Cruz i Nasugbu San o Pablo Taal o' Lipa o uC u n Batangas 120'30' 121'30' Road NM::3 Landing beach larlac b- x6o L CZabanatur- Railroad L y cSS Airfield Clark y L 0Gapan W Seaplane base Air Swamp Base Crrlpn Rice B o' G Base Qr rldo L 0 10 20 Statute miles ir IIANH:1 anila �Q EZON M ATAAN P N`NSUWA imay /agora Marivele o eq t' Cavite r rt CORRe"GID01 FIGURE 12. Manila Bay Strategic Area (C) V. Internal routes (C) The internal routes provide the easiest avenues of movement between the areas hest suited for amphibious landings and Manila (Figure la). The internal route from the landing area on Lingayen Gulf FIGURE 13. Manila, modern area as viewed from the to Manila traverses flat to rolling plains, w}lieli Hilton Hotel (C) contain numerous closely spaced villages, ricefields, and streams. This route contains a two- to three -lane road, which is mostly bituminous- treated, but has concrete and gravel sections; it is in generally fair condition. A single -track T6" -gage railroad in poor condition generally parallels the road. Although conditions for movement on the road are mostly fair, traffic W0111d be slolved ill places by rough, broken r surfaces and large potholes. In addition, narrow wooden bridges at several stream crossings are r Potential hottienecks. Offroad o'speral of vehicles w0111d he easy it, nlost place, from about mid- December to early Mav; locally, high crnhankntents and dense vegetation preclude dispersal. During the remainder of the year, extensive inuudatioll of ricefields and fretluent periods f soft ground wollld FIGURE 14. Manila, slum housing (C) seriously hamper dispersal. Cross country movement in most places would he hampered by watercourses, losv (likes, drainage ditches, and canals, and would be precluded when the ricefields are inundated and extremely difficult where the ground is soft. The rou.'o from the l:,nding area northwest of Subic Bay extends to San Fernando, where it connects to the route from the Lingayen Gulf. This internal route crosses rolling plains covered by gr ^ss and brush in the western part and flat plains containing numerous ricefields in the eastern part; near the center, the route traverses small areas of densely forested hills. The route contains a one- to two -lane bituminous- treated or gravel road %yhich has short concrete sections, and a short section of single track 3'6" -gage railroad in poor condition. The road is generally in fair condition, but sections of the surface are broken and cracked. In addition, there are many sharp cures in the areas of Y y .w 9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090004 -2 rolling plains and hills, and, in places, the road could he easily controlled by forces occupying the adjacent ridges. Potential bottlenecks exist at sevetel stream crossings, where there are low- capacity wooden bridges. In most places, conditions are fairly favorable for offroad dispersal and cross country movement, but during the southwest monsoon, vehicles would he frequently hampered by miry ground and flooding, particularly near San Fernando. Steep slopes severely, restrict offroad dispersal and cross country movement in the hills; on the plains, ricefields, with numerous (likes, drainage ditches, and canals, are obstacles. 'rhe internal route leading from the landing area on Balayan Bay to Manila traverses mostly rolling, cultivated plains. The route contains it one- to three lane bituminous- treated road which has a few concrete and gravel sections and is in fair to good condition; between L,ipa and Manila there is a single track 3'6" -gage railroad in poor condition. Numerous narrow wooden bridges are potential bottlenecks. Nest of Batangas, on -road movement would be slowed by numerous ravines, streams, some areas of steep slopes, coconut plantations. .-aid ricefields. E. Approaches The unfortified coasts of the Philippine islands have an overall length of about 14,000 miles. The highly irregular coastline is inaccessible in many places because of shoals, fringing reefs, rocky headlands, and islets. The Philippines claims as national internal caters without regard to specific distances from any coast, all areas enclosed within baselines joining outermost islands and as territorial waters those areas between these baselines and the 1898, 1900, and 1930 treaty limits. The United Stales recognizes only 3 nautical miles from the shore as the Philippine territorial limits. (U /OU) 1. Sea (C) Offshore approaches are generally clear to Luzon and Mindanao; ;+vwherc, they ar r restricted by islets, reefs, and rocks to narrow channels between numerous small islands. Nearshore approaches are obstructed by islets, shoals, fringim, reefs, and, in places, shipwrecks and fishtraps. In addition, there arc strong crosseurrents, riptides, and eddies in places. Nearshore bottom materials consist of sand, anal, and coral, and slopes are predorninaudy gentle to mild. On coasts fully exposed to the northeast monsoon, surf 4 feet or higher occurs about 709 of the lime in December, Januarv, and Febntarv; on coasts exposed to the southwest monsoons, surf 4 feet or higher occurs about I 10 i J 30% of the time in June, July, and August and 10 1 1i of the time in December, January, and February. Tides are diurnal and range from about 2 to 6.5 feet; the highest are along the Visayan Islands and the lowest along western Luzon. Calm to slight seas and predominantly low swell occur in most places during the southwest monsoon. During the northeast monsoon, however, seas of 5 feet or more are relatively common, reaching it flequency of 28� i. of the time in February off eastern and northern Luzon; moderate swell (6 to 12 feet) occurs as much as 11 of the time in many places. In addition, infrequent periods (less than 4% of the time) of heavy swell (over 12 feet) also occur during the northeast monsoon. At times weather conditions are hazardous. Heavy rains and typhoons, most common during the southwu.t monsoon, would seriously hinder or preclude amphibious operations. Gales are relatively common during the northeast monsoon, particularly off eastern Luzon. Along the coasts are hundreds of beaches. Most of these are separated from each other by rocky headlands, peninsalas, and high cliffs. Mary of the beaches are further fragmented by river mouths, sandpits, lagoons, mangrove swamps, and piers. The beaches, consisting chiefly of sand, or sand mixed wit� gravel, cobble, and coral, are generally steep in the high -water zone and flat in the low -water zone. They are firm when wet and soft when drv. Exits to nearby roads paralleling the coasts are mainly across narrow coastal plains, which in many places contain ricefields, streams, ravines, and marshy areas. In most places, cross country movement into the interior would he severely restricted short distances inland by rugged hills and mountains. The areas best suited for amphibious landings are on the coasts of Lingayen Gulf, northwest of Subic Bay, and Balayan Bay. The landing area oil the coast of Lingayen Gulf (s.c the Military Geographic Factors map at the end of the chapter) contains four beaches. Approaches are generally clear except off the southern part, where there is it broad shoal offshore and boulders nearshore. Nearshore bottom slopes are generally too flat for dry- ramp landings of IST's. Bottom materials are chiefly mud. The tidal range, diurnal, is 2.5 feet. Surf 4 feet or higher occurs most often of the time) on the 3 northern beaches in June, July, and August and most often (201/ of the thoe) on the southern beach in October and November. The beaches, ranging from 3 to about 11 miles in length, are from 5 to 60 yards wide at high water and 15 to 100 yards at low water. The beaches are sandy, firm in wetted areas, and soft where (Irv; gradients are geiVie to steep. Terrain behind the beaches consists of a narrow, flat plain 0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090004 -2 C I 'rr ti k crossed by many small streams; interstream areas contain numerous ricefields. Exits are predominantly cross country to a bituminous- treated and gravel road and a railroad paralleling the coast, generally less than a mile inland. Cross country movement would be restricted in places by streams too deep to ford, ricefields, fishpands, saltpans, mangrove swamps, and marshy areas. The landing area northwest of Subic Bay contains three beaches (see the map at the end of the chapter). Off -shore approaches are clear except for a shoal off the northern part and a small island off the southern part. Nearshore approaches are clear except for some sandbars off the southern part of the landing area and a few shoals. Nearshore bottom materials consist primarily of swirl and mud and in most places bottom slopes are steep ei .ough to permit dryramp LST landings. The tidal range diurnal, is 3 feet. Surf 4 feet or higher can be expected 'to occur 31% of the time during jute through August. The beaches, ranging from about 1 to 16 miles in length, are 5 to 130 vards wide at high water and 20 to 160 yards at low water. All arc composed of sand, which is firm when wet and soft when dry. Gradients are moderate to steep. Terrain behind the beaches consists of a flat plain (1 to 8 miles wide) containing numerous ricefields. Exits are chiefly cross country to a nearby bituminous- treated road 50 yards to 2 miles inland. Cross country movement would be restricted by ricefields, stream channels, and narrow lagoons. The Balayan Bay landing area contains three beaches (see the map at the end of the chapter and Figure 9). Offshore and nearshore approaches are generally clear; however, shoals, submerged rocks, and fringing reefs flank the extremities. In places, nearshore bottom slopes permit dry -ramp LST landings; bottom materials are mud or sand and coral. The tidal range diurnal is 3,7 feet. Surf 4 feet or higher occurs 10% to 15% of the time during the southwest monsoon and infrequently during the remainder of the year. The beaches, about 1, 2, and 9 miles long respectively are broken in places by stream mouths. Beach widths range from 15 to 30 vards at high water to 30 to 75 yards at low water. These sandv beaches are firm when wet and soft when (Irv. Foreshore gradients arc mostly steep, making movement of vehicles from the beaches difficult. A flat plain, about a mile wide and traversed by small strearns, is immediately behind the beaches; interstream areas contain numerous ricefields, sugarcane fields, and vegetable plots. Exits are by tracks or cross country to a bituminous treated road that is generally less than 2 miles inland. Cross country movement would be hindered by ricefields and stream channels, and, during the southwest monsoon, by miry ground and flooding. 2. Air (U /OU) Air approach es to the Philippine Islands are predominantly over the waters of the surrounding Philippine, South China, Sulu and Celebes Seas, although approaches from the north include southern Taiwan and those from the southwest include northeastern Borneo. In both places rugged terrain with scattered peaks of more than 8,000 feet above sea level are common. The highest elevation on Taiwan and approximately 200 nautical miles north of tine northernmost island 1 the Philippines is about 12,000 feet. On Borneo, the highest elevation, about 13,450 feet, is approximately 110 nau,* ;cal miles from Balabac Island in the Philippines. In general, weather conditions in all approaches are poorest in May through October, when the intern opical convergence zone and southwest monsoon affect the approach zones. Thunderstorms are the most frequent hazard at this time, occurring on 10 to 20 days per month in Borneo an,-! mostly 5 to 15 days monthly elsewhere in the approaches. Ti-,y are often accompanied by severe turbulence, and icing may be encountered above about 16,000 feet, the average height of the freezing level. Turbulence and icing hazards may also be present in convective cloudiness, which is most common during this period. Some convective clouds may extend vertically to 50,000 feet or more. Mean cloudiness generally ranges from 50% to 85 with the greatest amounts over the land areas. Weather conditions are somewhat improved in November through March or April in all approaches, primarily because of reduced thunderstorm activity. The thunderstorms normally number from less than 3 days monthiv in the north to 5 to 10 days per month in Borneo. Mean cloudiness continues the same pattern in amount and distribution daring this period but vertical development is quite often limited. The, freezing level remains near 16,000 feet in the south, but lowers to 11,000 or 12,000 feet in the northern approaches. The single, most dangerous hazard to flight operations is the migration of tropical cyclones through the approaches mainly north of 11 �N. r l'he discussion zone for air approaches extends approximately 2W nautical miles beyond the coasts of the outermost islands. 17 ME =1 111I-a-JJ III J/.{_ q gun Ieu II:Trff.MMMMr.w_JMI JIY WIII II I WA f4 III I IVJI III I C III I I I IA 4 CONFIDENTIAL i i I I Although these storms may occur in almost any Upper winds are light to moderate all vear in the rlmrith, they are most frequent in July through southern approaches and during June through I December and are generally accompanied by strong November in the northern approaches. In December winds, extensive multilayered cloudiness, severe through May in the north, strong westerlies prevail turbulence, the threat of severe icing, heavy rainfall, between 30,000 and 65,000 feet, with mean speeds and extremely poor visibility conditions. They should greater than 50 knots. Strongest mean speeds, 75 to 85 be avoided in all cases, especia'l'ly those-of typhoon knots, are present over and near Taiwan at about intensity (winds about 66 knots). 40,000 feet in December through February. 0 12 -Irmo me In c. Places and features referred to or, !alas General Survey (u /ou) COORDINATES APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090004 -2 e 'N 'E. Agno slrni 16 02 120 08 Agus (strm) 8 Il 124 12 Agusan strm) 9 00 125 31 Agusan del Sur (prov) 8 30 125 50 Albay Gulf (gulf) 13 10 124 00 Ampayon (popl) 8 58 125 36 Angat stun 14 53 120 46 Angeles (poet) 15 09 120 35 Antipolo (popl) 14 35 121 10 Antique (prov) 11 10 122 05 Arayat, Mount (mtn) 15 12 120 45 Bacolod (popl) 10 40 122 57 I3agacay (popl) 11 49 125 14 Baguio popl) 16 25 120 36 Balabac Island isl 7 57 117 01 Balayan Bay (b y) 13 53 120 17 Baler popl 15 �16 121 34 Baler Bay (bay) 15 50 121 35 Baliwasan (pop!) (i 55 122 03 Basilan popl) 6 42 121 58 Basilan Island (ivl) (i :m 122 03 Basilan Strait (str) 6 49 122 05 Bataan (prop) I... 14 40 120 25 Batangas (popt) 13 �iL 121 03 Batangas Bay (bay)..................... 13 43 121 00 Bauan (popi) 13 48 121 01 Bauang (popl) 10 :31 120 20 Benguet (prov)............. 16 30 120 40 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090004 -2 'N. 'E. Luzon isl 16 00 121 00 Maets.n Island (isl) 10 18 123 58 Makati popl) 14 34 121 02 Malolos (popl) 14 51 120 49 Mandaluyong (popl) 14 38 121 03 Manila popl) 14 35 121 00 Manila Bay ((�alt) 14 30 120 45 Marawi (popl) 8 01 124 18 Maria Cristina Fails (falls) 8 11 124 12 Mariveles (popl) 1426 120 29 Masbate (isl) 12 15 123 30 Mayon Volcano (nit) 13 15 123 41 Mindanao (siren) 7 07 124 24 Mindanao U81) 8 00 125 00 Mindoro (isl) 12 50 121 05 Mindoro Occidental(prov) 13 00 120 55 Mountain (prop) 17 05 121 10 Muntinglupa (popl) 14 23 121 03 Naga popl 1:3 37 12:3 11 Nasugbu (popl) 1.1 05 120 38 Nnvotas (port) 14 39 120 57 Negros isl 10 00 123 00 Negros Occidental (prov) 10 25 123 00 Nueva Feija (prop) 15 :35 121 CO Olongapo (popl) 14 50 120 16 Paete pop l) 14 23 121 29 Pakiputan Strait. (str) 7 07 125 40 Palawan (isl) 5' 30 118 30 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090004 -2 E APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090004 -2 120 BA TAN Basco j-, ISLANDS 's Luzon Strait i s BABUYAN l ISLANDS 1 MeyrairaPOint., Claria Chann Escarpada Point ,APafll l? c�I ued r r Vigan Z J Narvacan 'E. C h n a ,3 t7 c3 Cape Calavite ty soac 7, Ir Bondoc n i j Pomt San Fernando r. t rTVn �.,mM.t,,z.w+.mmyaW,ms7:vs IN Bolina Cape BDIlnaO T r ,y3 Cape t San flderonso CENTRAL Baler LUZON PLAIN a (ALL OTHER AREAS ARE r E RALQ Ca ny,4n RUGGED ISLANDS COMPLEXI Iba %'C ON 1 A EY)Q) a r c Luzon J1t. ra t t I p f3 @;vP14inAndo` 66 r 'J JJJ a3,"1 POLILLO alolOe "'t'u GLANDS Olon g a 1131 `th t t:_ Jomalig g Manile f ^^^444 Island Mariveles J Santo C06% o ante t 5 a ',H." Dael OT 7 7 1 Nasugbu 03 blo t Calai,a Lmoen N c an LUBANG a ngas ISLANDS" alSa so r Marinduy Cape Calavite r y. 4 Calapen g t soac 7, Ir Bondoc nmburao' i j Pomt ...m,.n..�.,..+...nv......e.. r. t rTVn �.,mM.t,,z.w+.mmyaW,ms7:vs IN wimmm ry APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090004 -2 Confidential 12 PLAINS Difference in elevation between tops and bottoms of adjacent topographic features. generally less than 500 feet. Slopes are from less than 2% to 10 HILLS i BA TAN o Difference in elevation between tops and bottoms of adjacent topographic Basc�+ ISLANDS j features. generally between 500 feet and 2,000 feet. Most slopes are between 10% and 30 G. MOUNTAINS Luzon t f 8 I t Difference in elevation between tops and bottoms of adjacent topographic r features. generally more than 2,000 feet. Most slopes are more than 30 J scrr Military Geographic Region boundary Strategic area A BABUYAN ISLANDS ti Internal route raire Point... Claveria uyn Channe a Amphibious landing area fv Oscar ada Point .Aparri P 7_;;A Approach Major stream (More than 500 feet wide and 3.5 feet deep year round) r a T Evergreen broadleaf forest ued Mangrove or marsh a Spot heights,in feet 1 a La gi w a \Y;f i dglanan 0 5 100 150 a Statuto n41os r h 0 50 100 150 t. "Q r y f 'F t iorneters t San lidelonso Baler ON1F' Ca na An p h i p p n e m) n Luzon ep11n Q P,OLILLO r 0LANDS S p I!) 11 /Omalig 1.18n11e Y Island C n f J t h ti r ant y 1 i rron J rU71 -9 }j Jbu 70 a s iJ Dael L S b10 Cafuoa n Y'1 I Pandan Lucartit tir ef>;ngas Xatanduanes l30 r` d. F i .enjfeo' Itge Island Marinduque Celapan Boac` 3 C:u17 vsac j Bondoc Point Lept t r�r ;;.r.! Ei """"".�'�.+.s..,':.,..x./r, smaaxvw:1 1i' 3A' tKO (ACS;>ppts .1�' 1 'dV'r' >a`+cca^n+ Mme^. a�:v rmrrmuesvcwsuczrxxrsrq;cn45W kh j APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090004 -2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090004 -2 J2 Confid6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090004 -2 I' T a ,3a$T J n 1 .et..wr'R Bohol 0 I,U 124 10 Pampnnga (xirm)............. I4 47 120 39 Hontoc pop$).......................... 17 05 120 58 PamPangn (Prop)....................... 15 04 120 40 Runyan (popf) 6 07 125 19 Pandacan (part of Manila) I4 36 121 00 Buk!dnbn (prop) 8 00 125 t)0 Panay isA 11 15 122 30 Bulacan (prnr) 15 410 321 05 Paaay (popl) 14 33 121 00 BnWnn popf).... 8 5.1 12.5 35 Pas.'ry (Riaal) (popl)... 14 33 121 00 Cahanr..rnn (pops 15 29 120 58 Pang (sirm)............... 14 36 120 58 j Cadix 1H1ara 10 57 133 18 Pero Point (Ft)....................... 11 58 124 20 Cagayan tgirnr) 19 22 121 37 Poro Island fief)... 16 06 120 06 Cagayan de Oro (popl) 8 'J9 124 39 Port San Virenle (paps................. 18 30 122 09 Cagayan Valley (rat) 17 30 J21 45 Pulupandan (popl) 10 31 122 48 Calamba (popt) 1.1 13 121 to Quexon (paps..,...,.,................. 14 38 121 00 Caloocan (popl) 1.1 38 121 03 Itisal prop 14 35 121 10 Cnmalig (papa 13 11 123 39 Rixal 1scr, Posay).. 14 33 121 00 Carrtarinea Norte (prop) 14 10 122 45 ltosarin (papa......................... 14 25 120 51 Cnnlubnng (pnpJ) 1.1 15 131 OS Itoxas Paps........................... It 35 122 �15 Capix (prop) 11 24 122 34 Samar Us[) 12 (10 125 00 Carmen (papt) IS 01 120 32 San Carlos (pops 10 30 123 25 CaslBuran (pop[)........ 16 17 122 07 San Fernando (popt) 15 01 120 41 Catubig (sirm) 12 34 125 01 San Fernando (pops).................... 16 37 120 19 Cavite popt) 14 29 120 55 San Fernando Point (pt)................ 16 38 12n 17 Cavite prop) 14 15 120 50 Sangley Point (pi) 1.1 30 120 55 Cavite Peninsula (pen) 14 26 J20 53 San 3one (papa......................... 15 �18 I21 00 Cebu popl 10 13 123 5. San Juan (popl) 1.1 35 121 0 7 Cehu fed 10 20 1 23 13 San Junnico Strait (sir)................ 11 20 124 5S Central Luxon Valley (pin). 15 30 120 40 San Pablo (popl)... 14 04 121 19 Cotregidur Inland (isi) 14 23 120 35 San Pedro Bay (lxrlf).................... 11 it 125 05 Cotabato (pop[) 7 13 124 IS Santo Domingo (popf) 14 14 121 0:3 Cotabato (prop) 7 00 121 40 Sipalay popl) 0 45 122 24 Cuartrro (pnpl) I1 21 122 40 Sorsogon (papl) 12 58 124 00 Cubi Point (pt) 14 U 1 t6 Spratly l`land (ixa..................... 8 39 ill 35 Dagupan (poet)........................ 16 03 120 20 Subic Bay (hay)........................ 14 4 5 120 13 Danno (popl) 10 32 124 02 Sulu (prop). 5 30 120 30 Dad Pop I1 24 122 41 Sulu Archipeingo (iels) 6 00 121 00 1)3inga inopl) 13 01) 127 4J Summit (pops......................... 11 06 122 38 Davao (pops... 7 IS 125 25 Surigao poet) 9 45 125 30 L Davao del ?Torte (prop) 7 30 120 (10 Surigno del Norte (prop) 9 40 125 3S Davao Gulf (gutn 0 40 125 55 Tabangaa (poPl)....... 13 42 121 05 6 45 125 M Taal Yakr)........... i3 53 121 M Damagoetti ..1.� 9 1S 123 1S Taal, Slount ("rin) 1-1 00 121 00 Dumarao (pop[) It 16 123 41 Tacloban (popt) 11 15 125 00 Florld (pops) 14 59 120 31 Torinc (pops)....... 15 29 120 35 Gapan pop[) 15 19 12(I 57 Tarlac prnr 15 30 120 :10 General'Sontos (Rajah Ruapan).......... 0 07 125 1! Cnwltawi Island (idt) 5 10 ;2 QO Gnimaran Island (W) 10 35 132 37 Toledo popl) 10 23 123 38 Guimaras Strait (sir) 10 30 122 44 'Condo (part of 3fanifa)........... 14 .17 120 a'8 Iligan (pnpl) 8 14 124 14 Tugucgnrno (popl) 17 37 121 44 Iligan Bay (bay) 8 25 124 05 Valenxucla (popt). I 14 42 F 58 [locos .forte (prop) 18 10 120 45 ViKaynn Islands (ixf.a)................... It 00 133 30 Ilocos Sur (prop) 17 20 120 35 7,,nntbales (prnr).................. 15 2 121) 70 Iloilo (PnPI)........... 10 �12 122 34 7smbonnga (paps?............ ti 5 -i 1 2 12. 0.1 Iloilo strm 10 42 122 35 7atnbonnitu del Sur (prnr.)......... 7 30 122 25 I1000 $trait (sir) t0 43 122 36 xalihn pops) 11 43 122 22 Selected Wrfields Widga- Apayao (prop) 17 15 121 15 Laguna (prop).......... 14 11) !21 20 Bacolod i0 39 12 2 58 I:anuo del Norte (prnr) 8 to 12 55 Baguio, 13 23 120 37 j7- ,7 lAnao del Sur (prnr) 7 S5 124 20 Hasa A13... J4 59 120 29 ]A Pax (tarp!) 10 43 122 34 Cagayan de Oro... 8 2 124 37 Larne Peninsula (pen) 14 18 122 39 Clark Ali. 15 11 120 33 IA 'Trinidad (popl) 10 28 120 :35 Cubi Point N.M la 48 120 16 Lebak popt 0 32 1 2.1 03 f) 7. Bomnatdrx._. 11 14 mi 02 IeKasPI (paps) 13 08 123 44 Davao... 08 125 39 I.epatrtp (pops) it; S2 IJ 46 Fernando AB... 13 57 121 07 Leyte is 10 50 124 50 Iloilo...... 10 43 12 33 I (paps 13 14 123 32 g...... Lacer 18 11 120 32 Litany (pops) 1.1 34 120 36 \1aet: n International.. 10 t9 123 59 I.ingayen Guir (pain 10 I.5 12 (I I 1 \lanils Inieraatioual.......... I4 31 121 01 Lisa: fporl) !3 57 121 10 Sungley' Point NH... 1.1 3(1 120 S+ Lubang Island (ice[)..... 13 46 120 it 7amhoanga..... 6 35 12 3 (I -I J2 Confid6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090004 -2 j 0 1 @1- WE@ 1 e 5 Mindoeo S i b u v 9 1, Burias Island ada -Romblon Island 0 kRcmblon Mansalay j 11juyan Busuanga Island I sland Alcantara Mand CALAMIAN I Tablas a.n Island GROUP P 4 x.1 Balud j, Culion SEMIRARA Ma, Island 4 .ufion, Reservation ISLANDS Linapacan Libro Island o X u Point Z_ CLlasii D o' stancia cuart a Panay 3 L a ISLANDS sum P ot n a cu yo i" San Jose a de Buenavista r liollo d !Durnaran Island 'Guimaras Island Panay, C arlo GuIf Ne gros CAGAYAN Sipalay, 1, ISLANDS r I I U Cape Buliluyan v Island Balabac Island Bata S t r a w Cagayan Sulu Ku,dat6 Island 1 Basilan Island PANGUTARAN GROUP \ISLANDS ;e'JOLO GROUP Ranau A LIS K 0 Sandakan 1A1 GROUP Kin ease on) TAPUL M a l a y s i a GROUP ti TA WI TA WI GROUP t\011- C O SIBUTU) GROUP r. L "vau I Indonesia o Tagolo Point C e I e b e s Confidential 71385 No Foreign Dissern APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDP01-00707R000200090004-2 asrlatat,rnr^_�r`9 w_ IaratlavatalawnanLtatanrtRr 611-0 S i h u y a n Burias a Island 4� t t Rnnblon Island 8ulan oRomblon Matnog '`i Tfcaa Ilan Icaniara !C f Mansalay Sibu �an Js!and e Is /and 2 asbate �Catai i Samar .'Tablas Mandao M .26Lj p Island Baludw n ar` albeyog 1 SEMIRARA` Masbate t aft iervation ISLANDS Ibajay rr� Placer j, T= o CI %cl ,.S Calbalogan Kahbo i Visavan Bibran (2oxas Sea Island j `Eorongan Culasi i p fstancia V y AN C rt Panay r a i Daan tayan j C` a D >;1 TatJobeT':_ -I 917 1 u, ra Talisay 3 'C Guivan UYO ISLANDS Sum 5 G.- Bado Orm 1 F rd c Pot x ,C! A C La_yte SungiPoint t Cuyot' San Jose a St JL/Y J Gulf Hompnhon de Ceb u G B CiolAd ._Baba f: nollo Island y Y Leyte Island Camotns gGuimaras. fu n 29 Island y Sea I i ..,Dinagat La Garlo Lapu�Lapu s Panay o. a n Island Gulf Negros Kabankalan (y tfih gan Inabanga Cauayan Taarcen' Siargao ,v Point l lsland I Panaon Island Sipalay,�/ Suriga0 CAGAYAN J a ara ISLANDS. ',8ar y l BOf70I ,7 '8ucesGrandelsiond Bayawan a; J a Dumag uete a Mambajao L i V r 3 }Camiguin f Island 1, Tandag Siquijor Island Tagolo Point iii J t "t 5 %t DapAan Dipolog C' an u18 de r0 Sindaflgan Iligan rJ w4bal u i 2 r a gaga l J `i ,t jJ'J }y p, �f Mindanao J R r 7 r qo alubig y n ambulian f y i s aCaraga t ri `1 Omtenga Point Cotaba o j Island r �y. i I LKdaO p .v.i' t .v,va s0 f{= vrr--' Baltwas O O G j D I 9 gf =tie2 ,rZ .i Q Zamboanga Cl N n "trait r d c.. t 7.3 Digos Davao 1 1 J rw l4 Gulf'jii; J` Basilan Island t ti Wits Cape San t t J' Gneral Agustin ?'JOLO GROUP 1 SAMALES GROUP TAPUL J "GROUP GO PaG`QE C, e l e b e s S a a )SARANGANI ISLANDS Names and boundary representation 174 are not necessarily aufbanre >ve Pulau Miangas (Indonesia) PUl.AU PULAU NANUSA t (Indonesia) ',Pulau Karakelong (Indonesia) No Foreign Dissem Military Geographic Factors Figure 15 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090004 -2