Document Type: 
Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
Release Decision: 
Original Classification: 
Document Page Count: 
Document Creation Date: 
October 25, 2016
Sequence Number: 
Case Number: 
Content Type: 
PDF icon CIA-RDP01-00707R000200090007-9.pdf2.39 MB
R APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090007 -9 SECRI rr, 44C /f� R APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090007 -9 If F".1ERSil1�,/.. LL F rYLLl.rllV ly.. CVVaL7vv1 rv..' Vrl'[ rwr v r vvr yr rwvvbvvvdvvvr ^d NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY PUBLICATIONS The basic unit of the NIS is the General Survey, which is now published in a bound -hy- chapter format so that topics of greater per- ishability can be updated on an individual basis. These chapters Country Profile, The Society, Government and Poliiics, The Economy, Military Geog- raphy, Transportation and Telecommunications, Armed Forces, Science, and Intelligence and Security, provide the primary NIS coverage. Some chapters, particularly Science and Intelligence and Security, that are not pertinent to all countries, are producrA selectively. For small countries requiring only minimal NIS treatment, the General Survey coverage ma-,f be bound into one volume. Supplementing the General Survey is the NIS Basic 1-;telligence Fact book, a ready references publication that semiannually updates key sta- tistical data found in the Survey. An unclassified edition of the factbook omits some details on the economy, the defense forces,, and the intelligence and security organizations. Although detailed sections on many topics were part of the NIS Program, producSi6;l of these section: has been phasec: out. Those pre- viously produced wi,'l continue to be available as long as the major portion of the study %'s considered va;id. A quarterly P ting o all active NIS units is published in the Inventory of Available NIS Publications, which is also bound into the concurrent classified Factbeok. The Inventory lasts all NIS units by area name and number and includes classification fit,' date of issue; it thus facilitates the ordering of NIS units as well as their filing, cataloging, and utilization. Initial dissemination, additional copies of NIS units, or separate chapters of the Generai Surveys can be obtained directly or through liaison channels from the Central Intelligence Agency. The General Surrey is prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency and the Defense Intelligence Agency under the general direction of the NIS Committee. It is coordinated, edited, published, and dissemi- nated by the Central Intelligence Agency. WARNING This document contains information affecting the national defense o the United States, within the meaning of title 18, sections 793 and 794 of the US code, as a iendea Its transmission or revelation of its conter%, to or receipt by an unauthorized person is prohibited by law. CLASSIFIED BY 019641. EXEMPT FROM GENERAL DECLASSIFI- CATION SCHEDULE OF E. O. 11652 EXEMPTION CATEGORIES 58 (1), (2), (3). DECLASSIFIED ONLY ON APPROVAL OF THE DIRECTOR OF CEN.:AL INTELLIGENCE. I cs .._.a,r _tw .......w_a H- :.,,.r, .....:4� 4 cx s APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090007 -9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090007 -9 25X1 4 i i personnel to the armed forces and controls the Central Manpower Base. There is no territorial organization. 2. Strength, composition, and disposition (S) The Singapore Armv has an estimated strength of 14,500 men, but this figure will fluctuate as it progresses toward the expected ultiniate goal of 17.500. The regular army is organized into four brigades, two commands, and two separate battalions. The 2d and 3d Singapore Infantry Brigades each control three infantry battalions. Both the -lth Armored Brig2JC and the Artillery Command are also c!owprisecl of three battalions. The Engineer Command consists of two battalions. Independent of these units are two battalions: a signal and a commando battalion. The 1st Singapore Infantry Brigade comprises the active reserve elcnnent (Peoples Defense Force) of the arniv and consists of four infantry battalions (Figure 3). Tactical organization is patterned very closely after the British model. The largest tactical unit is the infantry battalion (authorized strength of about 700 officers and enlisted men). which comprises a battalion headquarters, a headquarters cr,mpany, a support company, and three rifle companies. I 111 overall organization of the army will continue to fluctuate as it expands and develops. The individual weapon is the U.S. AR -15 rifle, of which 23,000 were purchased by a direct sales contract. Modern automatic weapons and 60 -mm, FIGURE 4. 120 -mm mortars and crew pass in review during a Singapore Armed Forces Day Parade (U /OU) 80 �mm, and 120 -nun (Figure 4) mortars have been obtained from British, Israeli, and other sources. A total of' 57 U.S. 106 -nun recoilless rifles ;nd I/1 -ton jeeps 1 their transport have been procured. A contract has been signed for 66 additional jeeps, aucl 394 more may he purchased in the near future. :3. Training (C) Singapore Armv training is strongly British oriented hot has been influenced to a large degree by the Israeli advisers who have been in the country since 1966. The essential objective of the training program conducted by and for the army is two -fold; development of judgment, initiative, and chick reaction on the part of junior officers and enlisted nien, and to prornote a sense of national unity. Individual training at the recruit level is conducted in the basic training course of the Singapore Armed Forces "Draining Institute (SAFTI) located at Pasir L.aba Camp (Figure 5). SAFTI, established in 1966, provides infantry training up to platoon level and advanced training to officers at company level, as well as Specialized training in support weapons and military medicine. Basic military paining is of 7 months duration, and the training day is ('530 -1730, with night training conducted four per week. During the basic phase, physical conditioning, drill, fieldcraft, aitd survival are stressed, and there are practical exercises ii. weaponry and :narksnuuiship With individual wcap011s (Figure 6). g APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090007 -9 SINGA �OP.E ARMED FORCES TRAINING INSTITUTE ADVANCED OFFICER COURSE CADET OFFICER COURSE LEADERSHIP COURSE BASIC TRAINING COURSE SCHOOL OF SIGNALS SCHOOL OF INFAN.Rf SUPPORT_WEAPONS________J SCHOOL OF PHYSICAL TRAINING SCHOOL OF MILITARY INIEIIIGENCE SCHOOL OF MILITARY MEDICINE SUPPORT FUNCTIONS Initial officer lrainiug is at the CadcI Officer Cours(- (a purl of' S; \I -'I'I) for a period of 5 months (Figure i Other training provided b\ SAF "I'I for officers is the Leadership Course awl the Advanced Officer Course. The Singapore Armed Forc�c�s Staff :oflege, established ill 1969, is ivaikt'.` for selected field grade� officers. Little is presently kno it of retention rates at these schools or of their traininti schedule. Selected officers are sent to various c�onrinawl a;Ld staff officer courses \vithio the Comnu,nwealt1l and to the (I.S. Array Command and General Staff College. After about 12 %yceks of' basic military training, the soldiers assigned to the engineer branch attend a 6- Basic Ftiginecr Course. \f1vr this, some arc seal to to the various cor)bat courses: Medical Orcle�rly's Course, Sign aller's Course, heavy I'lant and Field Phut Operators Course, Arnror Lnginccr Coarse, Support Arms, and Section header's Coarse. Upon succe�ssf(rl corrrpletion of' these c�our:ses, the engineer rejoins his Field or I leave 11:1111 Conrpan\. Some nuly COMMANDO BATTALION R S. Singapore Armed Forces Training Institute (C) start air the 9 -week Advanced Fogincer :oursc. 'I'liv c�ncf of this course nurrks the begiit ni11g of operation duties for the coginccr-soI(Iicr. Personnel of 11.. artillery and armor branch roc�c�ive training in their spec�iallies given b\ their respec�tivc brunchcs of the army. 'I training pmgrunrs follow the sanu general sc�hc�rne as that of the cnginvor bronch. Within lhc� 5th Siugi pore Infantry 13cginu�nt, ILingoage classes in English and Mandarin :Lrc held for the pre section leaders (i.c., section Ieadvc in training a11d not vet assigned). who are all regulars. "I'hese classes are held daily and each session lasts for:lbont -1 hours. Ire -MINDER" itself, thrice- weekly classes in Mandarin, of I hoor's duration, are held for senior officers. At lhv urain language center in SAI"I'I. clas for all three groups of pm- section Icacicrs, officer cadets, and officers are held daily for the first two groups and twice s\eckly for the officers. la SAF "I'I, class lessons are s(rpplenu�nlcd with lessons in the language laboratory. 'I�llc dell ::lion of ml I?nglish or APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090007 -9 FIGURE 6. Field exercise during basic training at the Singapore Armed Forces Training Institute (SAFTI) (U /OU) LS1I -1 \vry 1 vv! v1 1 \VLVLLVVJVVVI J Mandarin course varies, depending on the type an frequency of classes. Some courses last a month but tir usual period is 12 %.weeks. The standard of English o Mandarin taught varies from basic and clementar key words to pre- university level. The training facility for army medics is the Schoo of Military Medicine at SAF'l I, which turns out abou 300 combat medical orderlies and 80 noncomba orderlies and army nurses yearly. The duration of th course varies from 4 months of training for a combo medic to 10 weeks for a noncombat medic. Subject include such things as anatomy and physiology, pharmacology, diseases, nursing procedures, bac :eriology, field first aid, preventive medicine, and battalion medical tactics. The medics are given a greet deal of practical instruction, frorn bandagi,.ig techniques to proper injection of medicine. At the end Of the course, qualified medical orderlies are sent to units or bases. The failure rate is about 10% for each Combat Medical Orderly Course. 4. Logistics (C) Logistics for the army is a function of the Logistics Division of the Ministry of Defense, which handles logistical activity for all services. Specific information concerning this division's support of the army alone is lacking. Small arms, including U.S. AR -13 rifles and U.S. 106 -mm recoilless rifles and ammunition apparently are stored at and issued from the Weapons Ammunition and Optical Base and heavy weapoi:- and their ammunition from the magazine at the training institute. D. Navy The missions of the Singapore Maritime Command (SMC) are to defend Singapore's territorial waters, assist in maintaining customs and a maritime laws, in(] provide waterborne support to the army and air defense command. Coastal surveillance radar stations and the. small modern gimboat for;c enable the SMC to effectively patrol Sing. pore's small terrj waters and provide important support to the marine police units in law enforcement. However, pending completion of the new guided missile boats under construction, the SMC could not defend against an attack by either the Malaysian or indonesian navies. much less an attack by a major naval power. With only one amphibious ship and four landing craft, the SMC can provide only small -scale logistic support to its sister services. For all practical purposes its amphibious warfare capability is nonexistent. (C) Salient points of strength -include a compact efficient organization, modern ships and equipment, I the small geographic area which must be defended, a C high caliber pool of 'Avilian persormul from which to i r draw, n excellent maritime industrial base, and the v experience and leadership provided by a Royal New Zealand Navy (RNZN) trai:riiig team. Principal i Nveakne include the very small number of ships and r personnel, a critical lack of underway experience t c (especially among SMC engineering officers), the lack t of an adequate operational base, inadequate naval air defense, and the strategic problem of defending from naval attack a small island surrounded by foreign territorial waters. (C) 1 i. Organization (S) The Maritime Staff, composed of two depart rnents� Persorinel and Logistics �forms a section of the integrated General Staff. Administrative control extends from the Commander, SMC, down through the Deputy (who also functions as Principal Staff Officer) and Department Heads to the Sen'toi Officer Flotilla (for afloat units) and to the individual commanders of SMC shore bases. The Seni'ir Officer Flotilla, in turn, administers the patrol and training squadrons and single shills not assigned to a squ. -dron. A third squadron will probably be formed when the guided missile boats become operational. Tactical control of units within Singapore's territorial waters is exercised directly by the Duty Officer in the Ministry of Defense Operations Room. During the two occasions when SMC ships made show- the -flag cruises (to Brunei and to Pinang, Malaysia) the Commander, SMC, went along and exercised tactical control. No information is available regarding the Ministry of Defense tactical communications systems, although the units of the patrol squadron all have I-IF single side -band transceivers and prob:.ubly UHF line -of- sight equipmenii. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090007 -9 i f FIGURE 7. Newly commissioned officers render honors at a passing out ceremony (U /OU) FIGURE 8. /ndependence, a "Type A" fast patrol boat built by Vosper Thornycroft Ltd. in Ports- mouth, England in 1970, is 110 feet long, and has a 40 -mm gun forward, a 20 -mm gun aft. Two Maybach diesels give this craft a maximum speed of 32 knots. (U /OU) 2. Strength c0lnposition, and disposition I (S) The patrol squadron consists of six 1110dern, Vospet:s 'Fhornycroft I10 -foot motor gunboats (PG \M) Jigiires .i u11(1 9). 0 old P,;\M and one new training /patrol cruFt (YP) comprise thc training sctuuchon. luclivi(luul ships not assigned to a squadron include one tank landing ship (I.S 'I') leased from the U.S. Navy, four Incdilrni landing craft (LC\'I). mid thrcc river- roadstead patrol craft (PS13). Of the six largo guided Missile patrol boats (I' "I'hG) on order, two have been delivered front \Vest Gernuuiy with the first being nsed as a prototype For the remaining four to be locally bclilt. '1 Iey wiII be armed with the Isr;lcli Gabriel surface -to- surface missile ;;nd one 57-nun and oil( -10 111111 glut. "I'hese omits will probable bc given a 11c1v, c�Icass dt�signation, although they are bitsically similar to the Israeli Saar class and \Vest ;ermmn Type 1 15 !`FFG All six units should become operational by the end of 1975. All units are officially buse(I It I'uluu Brant, although mooring facilities arc not vet available I -)r all ships and craft. 'See also the� Witary Intelligence Sutnntary and the :A utomated Vacal Order- of Battle, bulh p by the Delenx Into i}*( Ayell( f2 FIGURE 9. A more advanced fast patrol boat is the Vosper Thorny croft "Type of which class Sovereignty, completed in 1971, was the prototype. Steel- hulled but with an aluminum superstruc- ture, Sovereignty has a 76 -gym Bofors forward, a 20 -mm Oerli- kon aft, and can nr..tntain a continuous sea speed of over 25 knots (3: knots is maximum speed). Her range is over 1,000 n.m. at 15 knots. (U /OU) Personnel strength is estimated A uboui 1,000, although no bmakdown into officers and men is available. "I'liere is, ill additi a 250 -muu Pcople's Defense 1 tree (Sea) reserve, which coilld probabl be fully 11lobilized within 15 days. 'Phis reserve force. however, receives little in the way of training \%meld be of little inlportcuuce i!: all emergency. 'I'liva are four principal YvIC shore bas( "I'he radar detection unit consists of three stations covering the soittliern sea approaches to Singapore. 'I'lle nmriliniv base and the 11lainlcn;anc(' and suppl base both being constructed at Pulan 13rani, a srr1a11 island iiist south of Singapore. V`,'hen completc(I, about 1975, the nwritiniv base will provide operational support ;llld the maintenance curd supple bust logistics support to all units of the S \M(;. lu ;Iddition, the latfer base stay support the floats of the police and Customs fleets. "I'hc fourth base, thc School of \laritimc "I'raining, is located ul Jurong. r\ fifth shore com11rurd, the \laritinic "I'echilical School, is all inlegrc:l part of S1 \I."I1?G11, Selatar, and probably receives little SMC direction or conlrol. :3. Training (S) "I'hc School of \Maritinic'Fraining provides cull basic training of enlisted personnel, while the \Maritime APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090007 -9 j I i i s I i i i i 1. i i Technical School provides advanced technical training. All officer training, except for the informal on- the -job variety, mt �t bP conducted abroad, principally in Commonwealth countries. School training of both officers and enlisted personnel appears to be of high quality. Practical underwav experience is the most significant ;raining shortfall. This is being remedied by the recent activation of the training squadron, the public relations cruises to Brunei and Malaysia, and the arrival of the New Zealand training team. The team itself consists of about 15 seconded officers and men who are entirely integrated into the SMC; the Senior Officer Floiilla, for example, is a seconded RNZN officer. In addition to the training team, a RNZN captain is assigned as naval' idviser to the Minister of Defense. This officer apparently has no direct connec with the training team and probably advises oil long- range, strategic naval planning. Combined Commonwealth naval exec ^ices are routinely held in Mala Singapore waters. So far, SMC participation has been token, but the ;arriv of the guided missile boats in 1973 will allow a greater role for the SMC. 4. Logistics (S) Logistics support is basically a Ministry of Defense function, with the head of the logistics department, Maritime Staff, acting ill a coordinating role. When fully established, the maintenance and supply base will provide all repair and supply requirements for the SMC. The supple function is probably being carried out, but the current repair capabilit is very modest. Major repair and ovarhaul of SMC ships and craft must be contractrd out to commercial shipy Commercial ship repair and construction facilities are some of the finest in Asia. second only to Japan. The principal naval ship constructor has been Vosper Thornycroft Uniteers (VTU), which constructed four of the six new PGM's for the SMC; the other two were constructed in the United Kingdom. A new shipyard has been Pstablished in Jurong with the aid of the West Gerr...a firm of Lurssen and is building four of the SMC's guided- missile boats, the first two having been built in Germany. The former British Royal Navy base at Sembawang has been largely returned to commercial use, with only a small area reserved for AN'LU K Naval Force use. E. Air force The missions of 1 lie Singapore Air Defense Command (SADC) include air -lefense and tactical support of ground and naval forces. The young SADC, it, Being since 1968, is still in the developmental stage and has a very modest combat capability. In name, the SADC is an air defense force. With the purchase in mid -1972 of 48 surplus U.S. Douglas A -413 attack aircraft, however, an important ground supp(art role is being developed that may ultimately become as important as, if not more important than, the so- called air defense role. (S) The SADC. air defense force is limited to one early warning /ground controlled interception (EW /GCI) site and one partially equipped surface -to -air missile (SAM) section. In 19 "1 1 Singapore assumed operation of the British E,W /GCI site at Bukit Gombak (Sembawang airfield). The radar provides cover to Singapore and immediate environs and, together with those in Malaysia, provides contiguous coverage of the Malay Peninsula against high altitudc targets, but coverage against low altitude targets is localized in the Singapore a Pinang, Mala ysia, areas. Earlv in 1972, the SADC received 1.6 refurbished British Bloodhound Mk SAM's and eight launchers for its air defense system; 56 missiles and 28 launchers were ordered. Phis is sufficient to equip gnu section of a proposed three section squadron ,vith eight missiles on launchers and eight reloads. The partially equipped section at Seletar airbase has the eight launchers and 16 missiles emplaced. The other two sections are to be located at Tuas -ind Amoy Quee. The United Kingdom provided missile training assistance, and the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) is to provide a small rumber of personnel oil loan to bring the squadron to operational status. (S) The SADC's Hawker I- tinter day- fighter and Bn,;sh Aircraft Corporation (BAC) Strikermaster attack aircraft can provide only subsonic clear weather interception. Air defense cover for the area is provided by two squadrons of i3AAF' Dass. ,lt Mirage 111 0 all weather jet fighters stationed at Butterworth, Malaysia. A detachment of six to eight of these aircraft deploy to Toligah, Singapore, on a rotational basis, primarily to provide target practice for the Bukit Gombak radar site. These aircraft operate within the framework of the Five Power Defense Arrangement (FPDA). An Integrated Air Defense Command (]ADC) for Malaysia and Singapore, within the context of the FPDA, was formed September 1971. Scant progress has been made in its development, however, and both Malaysia and Singapore are independently pursuing their own air defense buildups. The IADC operates under the direction of a single FPDA commander, who is an Australian, with headquarters at Butterworth airbasc, Malaysia. The two RAAF Mirage squadrons are its only real contribution. (S) 13 a, nrm�. r,...: a7r�' n,-.. s, vwrac., rr. :ra^as- xm..stwarr.;".+.irsK APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090007 -9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090007 -9 25X1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090007 -9 25X1 FIGURE 12. Hawker Hunter day fighter of the Singapore Air Defense Command (U /OU) FIGURE 13. Singapore Air Defense Command Alouette AM++'"'` t rMy e D 1A 8 G' r. ax �;""''y" ,7 {n tv wk, Y''"',a. lil helicopter in air rescue exercise (U /OU) FIGURE 14. New Zealand -manu- factured Airtourer utility aircraft of the Singapore Air Defense Command (U /OU) 16 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090007 -9 cvvvrvvr 1W. may be accepted to age 25. Educational requirements for applicants include completion of high school or equivalent (approximately junior college level), with passing grades in mathematics and physics or chemistry or school e- rtificate, Grades I and II, with credits in the same subjects. Malay candidates are in a minority among applicants for pilot training and are, as a rule, only marginally qualified. The poor vision of applicants is a major rejection factor. Procurement of pilot candidates is further hampered by it lack of large numbers of aspirants, due largely to the absence of military tradition in tle populace. After completing a 4 -month basic military course at the Singapore Armed Forces Training Institute, cadet pilots begin flying training at the Flying Training School ai Changi. The school, under British supervision, conducts a 1.6 -month flying training course, which includes 120 hours of primary flying training in the Siai- Marchetti SF -260 prop utility aircraft and 162 hours of basic flying training in the BAC -167 Strikemaster jet attack aircraft. The latter also includes an 82 -hour weapons course. Although the quality of instruction is excellent, this flying training program has fallen short of desired standards. In December 1970, the first class of 12 pilots completed training in the BAC -167. These represent the total gleaning from 300 applicants and the only graduates of a class of 32. No Malays were included in the class. The remainder of the students were categorized as light aircraft pilots, air traffic controllers, or fighter controllers. Advanc 1 flying training (including ar operational course) is carried out in the United Kingdom in Hawker Hunter jet aircraft. There are plans to form an operational conversion unit at Tengah airbase. A -4B pilots will probably go through conversion training in the United States. Ground technical training is conducted at the Air Technical Training School at Seletar. Initially, instruction at this facility was contracted to some 40 British personnel. This contract has expired, but the school retains about a dozen expatriate Royal Air Force and Royal Navy Flect Air Arm personnel on its staff on an individual contract basis. Ten scrapped British Javelin F -9 all- weather jet fighters are used as training aids, but the school is otherwise severely handicapped by the lack of instructional equipment. Courses include such specialties as aircraft and engine maintenance; instrument, armament and electrical maintenance; and photography. Most advanced technical training is carried out overseas, primarily in the United Kingdom, but the SADC plans to progressively take over all technical instruction as personnel with the necessary skills become available. Air traffic controllers have been trained by the Department of Civil Aviation, and radar operators/ technicians were given on- the -job training at the Bukit Combak radar site. Seven months of basic military training for recruits is given at the Armed Forces Training Institute, In addition to the U.K. contributions, France, New Zealand, Israel, and the United States have also provided training assistance. 4. Logistics (S) Singapore is dependent on outside sources for aviation materiel. Main sources of supply include the United Kingdom, France, New Zealand, and the United States. Major items on order from the United Kirgdom include 27 additional Hawker Hunter aircraft, 6 Short Skyvan light transports, and additional Bloodhound SAM's. Delivery of all items is expected during 1973. The Government of Singapore has also purchased 48 surplus U.S. Douglas A -4B jet subsonic single -seat lightweight attack bombers, with delivery commencing in 1972. This acquisition will probably delay until 1974 -75 the purchase of supersonic jet fighters that has been under consideration. The contract with Hawker de Havilland of Australia for organizational maintenance of SADC aircraft expired in March 1972 and has not been renewed. About 70 of its former employees have been retained, however, on an individual contract basis. Most of the work is performed at Tengah airbase. Depot -level maintenance of aircraft is contracted to U.S. Lockheed Aircraft Corporation, which operates from Seletar airbase with an option to use hangar space at Changi; Lockheed will refurbish the newly purchased A -4B's. Quality of maintenance is excellent, aril aircraft serviceability rates average between 70fc and 80 All equipment acquisition is carried out by the Logistics Division of the Ministry of Defense. The Air Logistics Staff Officer advises the ministry on supply and maintenance matters, reporting directly to the Director of Logistics. The SADC air supply organization, referred to as Air Supply Base, Seletar, is involved in the stocking and distribution of supply items. Scant information is available on supply levels of spare parts and aviation fuel, but there is not believed to be a shortage of either. 17 F. Paramilitary (S) 4 a i i i i i i The 7,400 -man Singapore Police Force, comprising numerous operational area detachments, is organized into eight geographical sections and several special headquarters divisions that include Criminal Investigation, Marine, and Radio Divisions. police are charged with the mission of internal security, suppression and surveillance of dissident elements, and maintenance of law and order. In its task of internal security, the police force is supported by the army. The police force, considered one of the best in Southeast Asia, is directly tinder the Ministry of Home Affairs, is multiracial, and is closely identified with the populace. It is well equipped, well trained, experienced in antidissident operations, and effective in maintaining public order. Equipment consists of AR -15 rifles, revolvers, sawed -off 12 -gauge shotguns, Land Rovers, and sedans, all in excellent condition. As in tie army, the ruling People's Action Party exercises close political control; it has placed personnel in the police force to give political and citizenship instruction and to identify and eli rrinate subversion. Within the police force, the Internal Security Department is charged with the collection and collation of security intelligence. Its personne are of high quality, have high standards of integrity, and are extremely efficient. The Police Marine Division patrols the numerous islands, harbor areas, amd territorial waters cla and night, in conjunction with tile Commonwealth and Malaysian naval forces. It also assists the Singapore Custorns Department in controlling smuggling, piracy, and illegal immigra- tion. The Marine Division is considered to he an effective force, adequatel equipped and trained. The Singapore Government has delegated to the local police strict and effective police powers. Derived primarily from the Preservation of Public Security Ordinance of 1955, power has been given to the police to detain persons for 2 yeairs without trial, air(] such detentions can thereafter he extended in 6 -month increments by approval of the Internal Security Cornrrlittee, replaced in 1970 by the joint Intelligence Committee. This power, along with the authority to restrict residence, immigration, employnlerlt, and activities, has proved extremely effective against gangsters, subversives, and secret society members and has been in Singapore' considerable success in controlling such activities. In addition to the police, Singapore's paramilitary forces also include the People's Defense Force, which is an army reserve organization with it 50 air componclt the University Air Squadron and it 18 250 man naval component, and hvo police reserve organizations, the Special Constabulary and the Vigilante Corps. The People's Defense Force is an estimated 6,000 man volunteer and national service force. One of its functions is the preparation of certain selected units for transfer to the regular arm when they are fully trained and equipped. This reserve organization also has it major role, in the absence of insurrection or external attack, of fostering national consciousness and racial tolerance by forcing together in a training situation the disparate elements of Singapore's multiracial population. The PDF is composed of both volunteers and national servicemen who are dis(lualificd for regular service for various reasons, primarily physical. The PDF has specific targets to which they are assigned in the event of an emergency. "These include reservoirs, power stations, and other key installations on the island. It is not intended that the PDF would ever leave Singapore in the event of all external war. T he training Of about 2,200 new personnel annually is expected to raise the strength of the People's 1)efe use Force to about 30,000 I)v 1979. For the first 6 months of training there are two periods of 3 hours per week, and for the second 6 months, one period of 3 hours per week. After completion of the 1 -year basic training course, recrtits are posted to a People's Defense Force ullit, where they are required to attend it 3 -hour training session weekly and spend I week in camp annually. The military portion of People's Defense Force training includes elementary weaponry, firing and care of the All -15 rifle, map reading, camping, basic logistics, driving, signals, first aid, simple tactics, and marching. The political indoctrination portion, in the long run more important in the gover ;:-tent's view, includes instruction on democratic models, conllnu- nism, Southeast Asian geography and history, curd racial tolerance. Instruction is nitlltilingual, althollgh, as in the army, the overwhelming majority of the force speak English. Better educated citizens called up under the National Service plan are likely to he allocated to the Special Colstabulary, i t 9,100 -main part -tinge police organization which nlav expand to 73,000 by 1980. Although the constabulary is it broadly based reserve organization, it includes it substantial number of volunteers and is in all important respects n Professional police organization, despite its part -time nature. When on (lily, the Special Constabulary performs the same functions as the regular police; its organization also parallels that of the regular police. .G�. cec iii. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090007 -9 i Training in the constabulary is the same as in the regular police, except that it is shorter. Eight training centers, located in the eight geographical police divisions, provide courses in law, we apons, self defense, regulations, patrolling procedures, first aid, and physical fitness. During the first 6 months of training, the inductee attends weekly training periods of 4 hours each. Thereafter, he is assigned to a regular Police division to begin regular police duties on a part time basis. A member is generally expected to work at least one night a week, but the entire constabulary is on call during emergencies. On duty, constabulary members wear regular police uniforms, use regular police equipment, and are empowered to act with the same authority as the regular police. P ay is modest but sufficient to cover personal expenses and provide some incentive. The poorly educated and the illiterate called up under the National Service plan are assigned to the Vigilante Corps. A large mass organization and catchall for school dropouts, those with low intelligence, and the unemployed or unemployable, the Vigilante Corps is the focus of the National Service plan. It is the organization which will have the greatest impact on the citizens and will afford the greatest opportunity to the government to win over, discipline, and make loyal an element of the population w hose support has so far eluded it. Moreover, it is the only organization in the National Service complex that is specifically designed to appeal to the Chinese- educated youth. The Vigilante Corps was established during the Indonesian confrontation directed ag ainst Malaysia to perform the tasks of a citize;i militia patrolling, control of sabotage, arrest of illegal immigrants, and assistance to the police. Membership was composed of neighborhood leaders from every economic level, most of them middle -aged. The Vigilante Corps subse- quently was reorganized as a mass youth corps appealing to the Chinese educated people, wiin rile goal of instilling loyalty, discipline, and sense of responsibility through quasi military training and indoctrination. I Si.ciuir Subordinate to the corps headquarters are eight district headquarters which correspond geographically to the eight police divisions. Each district headquartlen, is in turn subdivided into three training centers, normally located near the police division headquarters. Vigilante Corps emits, each consisting of 170 members under a unit leader and an assistant unit leader, report to the district headquarters as well as to the local community centers. The 170 member units are further subdivided into four groups of about 40 members that are broken down into sections of about 10 members cash. The Vigilante Corps' 12 -month training is given in two weekly 4 -hour periods for the first 6 months, and during the last 6 months, in a single 4 -hour period. The 1.2 -month training period is divided into three major phases. The first includes orientation, citizenship, and civics; the second, physical fitness; and the third, technical instruction. The final phase, conducted by uniformed officers, covers camping, first aid, emergency drill, weapons training, hiking, and marksr� _inship. Although the weapons training course include; the use of rifles, the primary Nveapon for training is the truncheon. After 12 months of training, the member is assigned to a unit and must attend a 3- hour meeting per week at the unit's base. The estimated 1:5,700 corps members are not paid but are provided with free uniforms and reimbursed for transportation and other minor expenses. The uniform is intended to instill pride in corps membership. The corps program insures that a large number of neighborhood youth use and associate with tile. community centers. This not only places the youth leadership in close contact with the community center but also with the government and the ruling party. As -in outgrowth of its inception as a militia, the corps has the function of a neighborhood security element whose functions include patrolling, reporting on suspicious activities in the neighborhood, and controlling crowds during demonstrations or riots. Through its association Nvitli the community centers, the members of the Vigilante Corps craw their families, friends, and relatives into the center's orbit. One of their duties is to recruit actively on behalf of the community centers. NO FOREIGN DISSG119 19 smmnr� wv. crwuua.evm..x^rser..- an..w...av .:.:....J...,,a.:n.. Ha- a.. s .�ammzx>*. >n!gbi..;SCM. �TF5 t if t..., .,,4 i. a. it l.. .t APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090007 -9 r f' :w+r'f ?frr ru:.4.yrrW Y v.Vl_.r vr; vrr rrv vr .vvr- vrrwvvrvvvrvvvr.....v. %r" :,r�: t ,,..5' NO FOREIGN DISSEM ;i r; i i r' ti APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090007 -9