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Singapore May 1973 NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY SECRET avwwwsFgc r aK WyiA`lkN; .A`vTF :c.:.:JVa" SECRET 44C/GS/TT APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090013 -2 NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY PUBLICATIONS The basic unit of the NIS is the General Survey, which is now published in a bound -by- chapter format so that topics of greater per- ishability can be updated on an individual basis, These chapters� Country Profile, The Society, Government and Politics, The Economy, Military Geog- raphy, Transportat'an and Telecommunications, Armed Forces, Science, and Intelligence and Security, provide 'The primary NIS coverage. Some chapters, particularly Science and Intelligence and Security, that are not pertinent to all countries, are produced selectively. For small countries requiring only minimal NIS treatment, the General Survey coverage may be bound into one volume. Supplementing the General Survey is the NIS Basic Intelligence Fact. book, a ready reference publication that semiannually updates key sta- tistical data found in the Survey. An unr_lassified edition of the factbook omits some details on the economy, the defense forces, and the intelllegence and security organizations. Although detailed sections on many topics were part of the NIS Program, production of these sections hes been phased out. Thos,- pre- viously produced will continue to be available as long as the major portion of the study is considered valid. A quarterly listing of all active NIS units is published in the Inventory of Availcble NIS Publications, which is also bound into the Concurrent clas :fled Factbook. The Inventory lists all NIS units by area name and number and includes classification and date of issue; it thus facilitates the ordering of NIS units as well as their filing cataloging, and utilization. Initial dissemination, additional copies of NIS units, or separate chapters of the General Surveys can be obtained directly or through liaison channels from the Central Intelligence Agency. The General Survey is prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency and the Defense Intelligence Agency under the general direction of the NIS Committee. It is coordinated, edited, published, and dissemi- nated by the Central Intelligence Agency. WARNING This document contains information affecting the national defense of the United States, within the meaning of title 18, sections 793 and 794 of the US code, as amended. Its transmission or revelation of its contents to or receipt by an unauthorized person is prohibited by law. CLASSIFIED BY 019641. EXEMPT FROM GENERAL DECLASSIFI- CATION SCHEDULE OF E. O. 11652 EXEMPTION CATEGORIES 5B (1), (2), (3). DECLASSIFIED ONLY ON APPROVAL OF THE DIRECTOR OF CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE. i r i r APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090013 -2 WARNING The NIS is National Intelligence and may not be re- leased or shown to representatives of any foreign govern- ment or international body except by specific authorization of the Director of Csntral Intelligence in accordance with the provisions of National Security Council Intelligence Di- rective No. 1. For NIS containing unclassified material, however, the portions so marked may be made available for official pur- poses to foreign nationals and nongovernment personnel provided no attribution is made to National Intelligence or the National Intelligence Survey. Subsections and graphics are individually classified according to content. Classification /control designa- tions are: (U /OU) Unclassified /For Official Use Only (C) Confidential (S) Secret APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090013 -2 This chapter was preptred for the NIS by the Defense Intelligence Agency. It includes a merchant ntarite contribution from the Department of the Navy and an airfield contribution from Defense Mapping Agency, Acro Space Center (DM AAC). Research was substantially completed by December 1972. J APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDP0l-00707R000200090013-2 t i i i i r. i a i F r k k 3 A Y CONTENTS This General Survey supersedes the one dated July 1968, copies of which should be destroyed. A. Summary 1 t I. Systems 1 Well- developed transportation and telecom- munication systems meet the economic re- quirements; importance of the ports, high- ways, merchant marine, and the ttacommu- nication systems; future plans. 2. Strategic mobility 2 Capability of transportation system to support y military operations; the importance of the Ports, merchant marine, and civil aviation, B. Railroads 2 Mileage figures and characteristics of the railroad t in Singap 1 personnel. SECRET t �art- .? J iUY y+ ":fth.,ti;z,y 1 tt!�_', APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090013 -2 Page C. Highways 3 Mileage figures, characteristics and maintenance of tl:-i excellent system; admin,strat{on; traffic problems; public transport; vehice inventory. D Ports 5 Characteristics of Singapore, largest c, .nmercial port in Southeast Asia and important oil center; ports of Sembawang and )urong. E. Merchant marine 7 Characteristics of the flag of convenience fleet; ownership; companies owned or controlled by China; exports and Imports carried; registration :aw; personnel and training. Page F. Civil air 10 Government -awned Singapore Airlines; expansion program; aircraft inventory; Saber Air and its aircraft inventory; private flying; personnel and training. C. Airfields 11 Characteristics of selected airfields; adequacy of facilities. H. 'Telecommunications 17. Modern system with dependable service; admin- istration; high telephone density; international connections; satellite station; micro -wave radio relay; special- purpose networks; AM, FM, and TV stations; maintenance and future plans; elec- tronics industry; personnel. FIGURES Page Fig. 1 One of the five railroad underpasses on the jurong branch line photo) 3 Fig. 2 Nicoll Highway (photo) 4 Fig. 3 The Paya Lebar Road photo) 4 Fig. 4 The Airport Road photo) 4 Fig. Facilities at the East Wharf photo) 6 ii Page Fig. 6 Port facilities ur. der construction at jurorg in 1969 (photo) 6 Fig. 7 ?Major ports table) 8 Fig. 8 Selected airfields table) 11 Fig. 9 Terrain and transportation map) follows 1.3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090013 -2 Transportation and Telecommunications A. Summary I. Systems (C) Singapore, which more closely resembles a large city complex than an independent state, has dense, wcll- developed transportation (1 9) and tclecom- 111unicatic,n (telecom) systems. The systems are adequate for normal economic requirements. 'rhe port of Singapore is the commercial and transportation center of Sotttlurast Asia. Loc�atecl on the vital shipping lanes between Europe and the Far East, it serves as the collection and distribution ceni for Malaysia and other neighboring countries. Sembawan9 (formerly Her Majesty's Naval $ase. Singapore) is a significant repair facility for both naval and commercial ships, and Jurong is tieing developed as a major hulk -cargo handling facility. The highways, which are used extensive!v throughout Singapore Island, ;ire the most important means of transport on the island. Singapore is the focal point of the system, and all excellent network of paved roads radiates from the c;ty to all parts of the island. The most important means or cross- island transport +onnecting Singapore and Malaysia is provided by a rail line and a branch line, both of which are operated as part of the Malaysian railroad system. Although totaling only 24 route miles, these lines are of niajc,r importance to Singapore s economy; they are the primary means of transporting raw materials from Malaysia to the industrial and shipping centers on Singapore and of moving imports from Singapore to Malaysia. upon completion of the Jurong industrial complex and deepwater facilities, the Jurong branch line is expected to be the busiest of any of the lines operate b" the Malaysian railroads. Singapore has no significant inland waterwa and marine activity is associated ncainlw with the port of Singapore. Although most (If Sion ;n,, ;C international cargo and passenger traffic is handled by foreign vessels and planes, the merchant marine is growing rapidly and is of major importance to the econorv and plays it m ajor role in linking Singapore %%ilh Malaysia and other countries (if the Far Fast. Schedulcd services are provided throughout Aia paid to Africa, Ertrope. lhc' United States, and Australia. Civil aviation has traditionall play a major role in linking Singapore with 1Vest Malaysia and the E:st Malaysian states of Sarawak and Sabah. Ilowever, with the separation of the Malaysia Singapore :irliucs into tyo independent airlines, Singapore Airlines has reduced many of its regional flights to points ill Malaysia and sharply increased its services to foreign cities in both Asia and ,Africa. The telecom s�stent is MW of the best in Asit,; its imhs ;rtance is attributed to the large number of diverse circuits with foreign terminals. 'I "W system consists of nodern Iandliues, suhnarine cables, and radio -relay networks, which are supplernenteo by a satellite ground station and high frequency radt f_!..ilities. A 3,500 -foot .anseway Which carries boll rail and highway traffic across johore Strait to kIalaysia, is Singapore's only international connection. '1'eleconr circuits to Malaysia are eylensivc. International communications, via the WACOM (Sculhwast Asia Communication Systcun) subnntrine c;.nbles and it satellite station, provide communications with Malaysia, (long Kong, Australia, Guam, New Gclinea, Canada, the United Kingdom, India, Indonesia, Japaun. Philippines, and 'Thailand. Major projects underway or planned include constructing additi,mal railroad spurs and sidings to serve the deepwater port and industries of the jnrong industrial complex; improv railroad e(joir)ment and facilities under Malaysia's economic plan; constructing a system of expressways, based on the Pan Island expresswaV (Singapore Sera ngoon) yhich is earing completion; constructing major facilities It Ril+ IAW .19':MM:.,YXC4L""d91Bf.4... Nr.: u ..l .d /.i y,i: drii ''fiTa.:i0.e':SS FV'c:HtdY F'd".1 r APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090013 -2 jurong purl, expanding the nrcrchaw mrarine; increasiis. the capacity of the radio, relay and autcrmu. tic telephorc� exchanges; and installing intertr.tioma! automatic telex exchange aucl a second satellite gromid station antenna. The rail lines in Singapore are owned, for the most Dart, by the Governinvut of Malaysia and operated by its Muluyan Railway Administration. With the separation co' the Malaysia Singapore Airlines into two independent national airlines in 1072. the Singapore Airlines is owned and controlled by the Government of Singapore. The ;highway transport industry is both government and privately owned, and ownership of the merchant ni ariue includes government as syc II us domestic and foreign private companies. The govenunent owns and operates most of the port anrd tciccon facilities, with the exceplion of part of the port of Sennhawarrg an(] naval components, which are still under British adinii: 2. Strategic mobility (S) 'I'hc land transport systems of Singapore and West Malaysia are the hest in Southeast Asia. The railroad in Singapore is an extension of the Malaysian railroad which serves both countries as an integrated systern. flowever, its importance to military operations ill Singapore is restricted by its limited extent 111(1 by the fact that it is controlled by the k':overnment of Malaysia. In the Singapore -West Malaysia region, the main rail line extends front Singapore to Genazs, where it divides into two routes extending through Malaysia to two internal connections with the Thailand network. The excellent n0work of paved roads in Singapore radiates from the city and serves all parts of the island. The network is entirely aclequuty to support the rnovemcnt and supply ()fit military force transiting the island. Ilowever, the only connection hehyeen Singapore and the lnain1a11(1 (W(.st Malaysia) is the c�onnbination railroad and highway Causeway across johore Strait, which makes it the host vulnerable location) for either nnode. Singapore is one of the major shipping centers of the world and ;a leading oil center. Its ports have i t considerable military capacity and are :adaptable for military use; repair facilities are available for both naval and comnierc�ial ships. The cargo -lyl)e ships (95 dry -cargo and one tirnber carrier) have considerable potential for short -haul (tit) to .IBS hours steaming) troop -lift and sustained logistics support in rrearseas operations. These ships have it military lift and suppl transport potential of 511,510 cargo deadweight tons. The self- loading and anloading capability of the dry- cargo r nit% is enhanced by 26 units having he:n�y -lif�t f,00trs (40 terns or none), or large hatches (morc than 50 f-1 in length), or both Ir :vy -lift booms and large hatches. M:ony of the cargo -type ships are either foreign owned or are in worldwide trade and might not he accessible for military support operations carder ennergency conditions. With expMursion of the normal passenger capacity aggregate of 2,31.1, the five Iraweug "r and 19 ccnrbination passetrger� cargo strips have It Considerable potential for longer hair) (more than .18 hours steaming) troop transport. The 12 tankers, with 1n estimated capacity of :pout 8 barrels (U.S.) of petroleum and related products, could provide a moderate fleet -oiler or other iilitary support capability for i short period. 'I he military value of civil aviation ill Singapore� has been enhanced by dividing the Malaysia Singapore Airlines� formerly jointly c�ontrollcd by the govern- ments of Singapore and Malaysia, into two independent national :Jrlinvs. Singapore now has c�omplele control over a fleet of modern transport aircraft, which would be available in the event of military mobilization. Of the five airfields ill Singapore. three are military and two are undvi- civil control. Singapore's comnrunie�aliou links are relatively secure front disruption, assuming tcrmir:al sites remain intact. Also, the high- fre(pienc�y radioc�onniunication facilities located at Jurong (transrnillc�r) and Chu Kant; (receiver) are c�orrnccted to the control in Singapore by underground cable ;ud are available for backup cornrmrmicationrs in the event of disniption of other networks; however, conutunications would be reduced in quantity and c111:11ity. The services of the� special- purpose telecom networks also would be ,eyailable. The arined forces of Singapore operate their own telecom metwork, which consists mainly of radiocom- lrrunic�ation facilities. The SI ?AC'ON1 submarine cable also provides leased circ�nits for inilitarv.use. B. Railroads (C,) The 2.1 rmite miles of single -trwk meter -gage rail lines in Singapore consist of 1 16 -mi1e main line across the island (front the Port of Singapore to the johore Strait into West Mala and an H -me il bn rach line connecting the Jurong industrial complex With the main line near Rukit Timah village. The twin line is owned by the Malaysian Government and is operated by Malaysia's Malavan Railwav Administration. The jltrong branch line, opened it early 1966, was financed by the Singapore Economic APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090013 -2 1)eveloprnc�nt Board and was jointly eonstnrcted by this board and the Malayan Railway Administration, Which operates the line. BVagreetu:lt, the Economic Ueveloprnent Board loan will be "maid b the Malayan Railway Administration over a period of 10 years. An :additional several miles of spurs and sidings serve the port and industrial facilities of Singapore, ;ernhawang, and the Jmmng industrial complex. A new marshalling yard Ira's six tracks and call accommodate 247) freight cars 25 feel long. 'I'll(- rail system is 9vu orally adequate for current econurnic requirements, Rail weights range from 80 to 1O0 prounds per yard on the main line and are probably of ,innilar weight on the Jurong branch line. Rail is flat hcottonted and is spiked directly to c�reosote�ci hardwr.od lies. 'I'ics are spaced 2,290 per mile, and ballast is li.ocsione and sandstone laid 6 inches deep, 'Tics and ballast are ublained donaestic�allY, but rail is imported, principally from the United Kingdom, A Mala railroad -tic treating plant is located It Cc�nnas, Malaysia. Axleioad limits are 17.6 short tons on the "lain line, Ifurnid tropical weather and heavy rains (airing the monsoon season produce some unusual Maintenance problenis. Structures on the main line include 10 bridges tin ;at are 12 feet and over in length and the 3,5(x) -F.,on causeway across the Johore 4 trail. "I'll 10 bridges total The highway cyst: rn of Singapore, oue' of the hest iu 483 feet in length. The Jurong branch line has eight the Far East. compares favorably will that of bridges and five underpasses (Fignre 1). The bridges Malaysia and is the most important rne;ans of land arc from 23 to 3O3 feet long; the underpasses, from I M transport. Singapore' has un excellent network of paved l,0 199 feet. The underpasses, which pass under roads that ra(iate front the cit of Singapore to the highways, are 17 V (nigh and 20'7" wide and have the suburbs, outiving towns, and ail parts of the island. greatest clearances of any structures oil the Malaysiaan The road density is high in the city and towns but is s,vstern, relatively sparse in the rural areas, especiall in the Motive power and roiling stock are generally in central hills and in part� of the western hills. 'I'll good condition :.and arc adequate for present traffic. highway network is adequate for normal economiic requirements. On most of the off -lying islands nnotor blv roads arc practically nonexistent. Singapore's connection with Mal;aysia, across Johore Strait, is its only international connection. The I'aighway network consists of 1,226 miles of roads, of which 773 miles are paved (mostly biturninous surface), 243 "riles are gushed stone, and 210 miles are improved earth. The paved roads are located both in the city and in rural areas; crushed stone and earth roads are located in rural areas and on the off -lying islands. Surface widths of the principal roads within thec�ity of Singapore and those leading to the suburbs and principal towns range from 22 to 88 feet (Figures 2, 3, and 4) oniv tile first milt: of the 15 -mile Coast Road to Bedok is an 8 -lane divided hhrhway that is 88 feet wide. In the rural areas surface widths range front 10 Both steal" and diesel Iocornotives are used con the lines in Singapore. Most "I"ipment is obtained from Japan. 'he water supply is plentiful and o}' good gnalily; no treattnrnt is neev! ;sary f'or locomotive use. Fuel arcl diesel oil requirements are met fry imports of crude oil from the Middle bast and Brunei. Train nuyq�mo�ral is controlled fv the ahsulnle block system. The main line uses the key -token system; the Jurong branch li the train sluff -;end ticket system. ;otn!manications are Fe lelephcnc and telegraph. The rn ;.tit' line is an important part of the Malaysian system, and traffic is largely cross- island mo m veent between the port of Singapore and Malaysia. principal corntnodities h:aded are iron ore, log cetraent, and ruhher. The volume of rail transportation from the Jurong area is estimated to he hetycen 2 and 3 trillion torus a year. There is it shortage of skilled railroad per%onnel. Employees receive on- the -job training, ;nd many receive additional training at the Railway 'Training School at Knala Lurnpm, Malaysia, and in British or Pakistani training centers. C. Highways (C) 3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090013 -2 FIGURE 1. One of the five railroad underpasses on the Jurong branch line (U /OU) i iur+N to 24 feet, but widths of 16 to IS feet predomin.,te. The best roads have a broken -stone base course, 12 to 24 inches thick, topped by 6 inches of gravel or c rushed stone and a bituminous srurf ice .4 to 3 inches thick. 'Throughout Singapore, sleep monsoon drains run along one side and frequently both sides of the roadway. Shoulders are narrow and scmetitnc -s nonexistent. All major roads are v:ell maintained and are generally ill good condition. There are no steep grades or sharp curves. Bridges on the principal roads it re (if steel, masonry, or reinforced- concrete construction, with the latter predominating. Wooden bridges arc generally found in the rural are then are gradually being replaced with reinforced concrete structures. Bridges at principal crossings are usually in good condition. '['It( roads are frilly bridged, neither ferries nor fords being used, but there are several underpasses in the city. Pedestrian overpasses cross nearly every major roadway but are high enough to inovide adequate clear ice for normal loads. FIGURE 3. Paya Lebar Road Is a bituminous surface, 64cme divided highway (U /OU) 4 FIGURE 4. Airport Road is a bituminous surface, 4 -lone divided highway (U /OU) The roads, bridge, and drainage sections of the Ftiblic Works I)epartnia�ut under the Ministry of National I)evelol)ment are responsible for constrict- ing and maintaining roads and bridges. The roads section c�ondu,:cs surveys, prepares specifications, and is responsible for constriction. It also undertakes miscellaneous projects such as road bcautifi .-ation and c�onstructioii of !pus hays, vehicle barks, and roadside guard rails. ince Singapore has un equatorial climate with heavy rainfall, adequate drainage is it problem, Numerous c�oncr, to culverts, 3 to a fe et ire diameter, exist throughout the highway system. However, at times of heavy rains these are inadequate, and the resulting floods can cause road (:image. Construction materials such as crushed stone, gravel, and sand are readily available from local sources. About, 200,0M tons if cement and 40,0(x1 tons of bititmitimis materials are produced atu;ually. Singapore has no produ 've forests, and all timber requirements are imported, principally from Malaysia. Singapore is a major distribution center of the liar East for the worlds leading makes of heavy equipment and parts. I -or this reason roadbuilding machinery such as bulldozers, scrapers excavators, rollers, truck cranes, concrete mixers, asphalt pavers, and triieks are readily available and are used throughout the island. Because of the rapid increase in the n of motor vehicles and the city's rapid urLanization, Singapore, in common with most Sotitheast Asian capital cities, is confronted with massive traffic congestion. 'Traffic density is centered around the island's commercial sectors. where populatioe density may reach :about 90,000 persons persquare mile. Also, is in other cities, urban development has taken the form of intensive frontal aevelopment along .major arterial roads. The activities generated by this development often cnruflict with traffic movement APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090013 -2 FIGURE 2. Nicoll Highway is concrete, 7 lanes wide, and divided by a 3 -lane center section (U /OU) i 5 along these roads. TO cope with the increasing volture of traffic a supplementary system of expressways with well- designed interchanges based rin the Pan Island expressway will soon be completed. ',!'he Pan Island Expressway is a limited- access, high -speed highway which connects the city of Singapore with Serangoon o, the northern side of the island. The system is expected to ease traffic congestion throughout the island by linking the city with the satellite towns and industrial estates. Other work in progress is the construction of special bus lanes on existing roads and adapting more streets in the busy center city to orre- way traffic Roads are being widened where possible and outmoded traffic islands are being removed. Bridges are being widened, redecked, and strength- ened. Lower quality roads in rural areas are being upgraded. Since pedestrians represent another element in the traffic problem, overhead bridges are being installed across some of the busiest roads. There are now 23 of ihese new pedestrian overpasses, .and six more are to be built. Climatic conditions are sometimes another traffic interruption factor. De:;pite numerous culverts and well constructed drainage ditches, heavy rains cause floods that temporarily halt traffic on some roads. The Road Transport Department of the Ministry of Communications directs, promotes, arid coordinates the various services and agencies concerned with land transport. Singapore has well developed and modern bus and truck services, but public transport facilities are considered inadequate for current demand. To increase the efficiency of the public transport system the former 11 bus companies have been consolidated into four companies to operate on a merged basis in the north, south, east, and west island regions. Priority has also been granted to increase the public bus fleet from 1,400 to 21000 by 1974. Bus services are provided on practically all city streets and most country roads. Principal commodities hauled by trucks are agricultural products and livestock, timber and gravel, fire] and lubricants, machinery, and manufactures. Traffic volumes are concentrated rrainly in the cit on the Bukit Timah Road, and on the Pan Island Expressway. On I March 1972 chicle registrations totaled 207,000: 165,700 passenger cars, 2,700 buses, and 38,600 trucks. In addition there were 110,000 motorcycles and scooters. Singapore has no facilities for producing motor vehicles but has seven plants which assemble four -wheel vehicles and one plant which assembles motor scooters. All of these assembled vehicles are of foreign design; U.S., British, and West German models are the lost important types. Since about 1970, the three I:rgest piants have usuLdIv accounted for more than half of total output. 'Total output of four -wheel vehicles in 1971 was 11,518 units. In order to improve safety, the government has imposed age limits on public service vehicles of 7 years for taxis, 15 years for trucks, 17 years for public buses, and 20 years for school buses. D. Ports (C) Singapore has three major Forts, Singapore. Sembawang, and Jurong, all under the administration arid control of the Port of Singapore Authority (PSA), a government agency. Singapore, on the south shore of Singapore Island, is the largest commercial port (Figure 5) in Southeast Asia and one of the world's major shipping centers. Essentially a free port on the important shipping lane between Europe and the Far East, Singapore serves as the collection and distribution center for Malaysia and other neighboring countries. The port is emerging as Asia's leading oil center with the rapie escalation of refining capacity, the coming of numerous exploration firms, and the network of supply and servicing companies. New developments include: 1) opening of the partiady completed container terminal in East Lagoon area of the port to the first container ship in June 1972; construction of a third berth at the terminal; 2) a planned multimillion dollar project to dredge the harbor and approaches; 3) reclamation of land for the Pasir Panjang warehousing project in the western side of C e harbor ultimately to provide 4,200 feet of berthing facilities for lighters arid coastal vessels arid 2A million square feet of covered storage. Sembawang came into existence in December 1971 when PSA assumed control of the port and a 1,200 foot segment along the northeast end of the Naval Stores Basin at Her Majesty's Naval Base. The remainder of the basin and most of the other naval components were retained for use by the Royal Navy. The naval dockyard at the base was handed over to the Singapore Government at the end of 1968 and is used for repairing both naval and commercial ships. The western part of the harbor contains a Roval Malaysian Naval Base arid a POL terminal. An area near the center of the harbor is being reclaimed by the port authority for future development as an industrial area with wharf facilities. The Jurong port was designed as a bulk- eargo- handling facility serving a number of industries making up the Jurong industrial complex 7 miles northwest of Singapore. The deepwater berthing, handling, and storage facilities (Figure 6) will be 5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090013 -2 sigrliicantly increased in the next few years to keep pace with the increased development. The Jurong Shipyard is being expanded to accommodate supertankers. Several large tanker berths are available at the POL installations in the port. The POL termini, on one of the islands on the southern side of the harbor has a single -buoy mooring about 3 miles offshore to accommodate 250 ,000 -ton supertankers. Details o; the major ports are tabulated in figure 7. E. Merchant marine Merchant shipping is of vital importance to the economy of Singapore, an island republic situated at the strategic gateway between the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea. An important entrepot and transshipment center in Southeast Asia, Singapore ranks among the leaning ports of the world in terms of shipping handled. During 1971, of approximately .19,000 vessels of all sizes that entered and cleared the port of Singapore, about 39,500 were oceangoing ships, the aggregate volume of cargo discharged and loaded by all v essels amounted to 48.1 million long tons, of which a sizable proportion was carried b\, Singapore register merchant ships. In April 1972, the Singapore-register merchant fleet consisted of 143 ships of 1,000 gross register tons (g.r.t. and over, totaling 763,338 g.r.t. or 1,022,918 deadweight tons (d.w.t.), as follows: TYPE No. G.R.T. D.W.T. Dry cargo 95 455,851 640,805 Tanker 12 83,652 128,506 Combination passenger- cargo Bulk cargo Refrigerator Passenger Car carrier Timber carrier 19 7 2 5 2 1 Total 143 90,120 72,035 7,469 41,622 9,982 2,607 763,338 93,722 103,785 7,036 33,320 11,894 3,850 1,022,918 Singapore -flag ships are characteristic old, small, and slow. Of the tc,tal fleet deadweight tonnage, 525(i) (79 ships) represents units that are 20 years or older, 37% (51 ships) are 10 to 19 years old, and only 11 (13 ships) are less than 10 years old. A to of 107 ships, comprising 53% of the total fleet deadweight tonnage are under 10,000 d.w.t. The largest ship in the fleet is it 20,600- d.w.t. tanker. Sixty -nine ships have service speeds of less than 14 knots, 69 have speeds of 14 to 17 knots, and five dry -cargo ships have speeds of 18 knots and over. Eight ships have oil -fired boilers, and 135 are diesel powered. Ownership of the Singapore- register "flag of convenience fleet includes governlnent, as well as foreign arid domestic private elements, and is vested in some 49 beneficial owners (entities which assume the profit or loss from operations). The three largest owners of total fleet deadweight tonnage), each with more than 100,000 (1 .w.t., arc the government owned Neptune Orient Lines, Ltd. (NOL), 1 12 ships, 112,031 d.w.t.), acrd two privately owned shipping companies Y.C. Chang (Pacific international Lines) (18 ships. 123,128 d.w.t.), and Singapore Cosmos Shipping Co., Ltd. (nine ships, 103,106 d.w.t.). There are 26 beneficial owners controlling a total of 45 ships of 400,0:39 d.w.t. under Singapore registry which have. their main offices abroad. There are eight shipping companies Enown to be, or suspected of being, owned and /or controlled b the People's Republic of China, accounting for Wr (55 ships) of the total nu,nber of ships, and 414 (420,084 d.w.t.) of the total fleet deadweight tonnage. "these shipping companies are: No. SHIPPING COMPANY OF SHIPS D.W.T. Y. C. Chang, Singapore 18 123,128 Guan Cuan Shipping, Ltd., Singapore 16 90,466 Hong Kong Islands Shipping Co., Ltd., Hong Kong 3 27,662 Kie Hock Shipping, Ltd., Singapore 3 26 Rickmers Rhederei G.M.B.H., West Cer- many Singapore Cosmos Shipping Co., Ltd., Sing- 1 15,552 apore Singapore Navigation Co., Ltd., Singapore 9 4 103,106 27 Singapore Shipping Development Co., Ltd., Singapore 1 6,350 Growth of the Singapore- registe- fleet has been rapid arid progressive sinc the flag of convenience legislation in J anuary 1969. In April of that year, the fleet consisted of 45 ships of 1,000 g.r.t. and over, totaling 255,706 d.w.t. Since 1969, there has keen a significant annual net increase of about 255,750 cl.w.t If this rate of increase continues, the government's goal of about 1.5 million d.w.t. will be reached within 2 years. As of February 1972, 18 ships totaling 429,100 d.w.t. for Singapore registry were on order with deliver\ scheduled betwe:,n 194 and 1974. Included are five dry -cargo ships of 35,300 d.w.t., two container ships of 20,400 d.w.t., and three tankers of 284,600 d.w.t. to be constructed by foreign shipyards, and eight dry -cargo ships of 88,800 d.w.t. to be constructed by a domestic shipyard. Trade operations of the Singapore- register fleet are conducted principally in the Far East area; however, an increasing number of Singapore flag ships are h APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090013 -2 FIGURE 7. Major ports (C) NAME; LOCATION; ESTIMATED MILITARY PORT CAPACITY* Singapore 1 103 �48'E.; on S. shore of Singapore Island. 42,550 Sembawang (formerly Her Majesty's Naval Rase). 1 �27'N., 103 on N. shore of Singapore Island. 10,500 ACTIVITIES Transfer of general and bulk cargoes, par- ticularly POL; container terminal; ship- building and repair. Transfer general cargo; maintenance and supply of British naval vessels assigned to Far East Fleet; naval operating base and headquarters of Commander, Far East Fleet; repair of naval and commer- cial vessels at former naval dockyard; naval base and headquarters Royal Malaysian Navy; POL transfer and bunkering. HARBOR Improved natural harbor, water area about 25 sq. miles; 3 principal divisions: Keppel Harbour; Western Anchorage; and Sin- gapore Road, including East Lagoon container terminal. Improved natural harbor occupying well sheltered 7 -sq: mile section of Johore Strait extending about 10 miles E. from causeway connecting Singanore Island and !Malaysia. Jurong Mainly bulk cargo; POL transfer and bunk- In +proved natural harbor occupying well 1 �19 103 �43'E.; on SW. shore ering; shipbuilding and repair. sheltered 5 -mile section of Selat Sembilan or Singapore Island. (strait) between Singapore Island and 4,900 cluster of islands to south. n F.RTHS Alongside- -For 19 large, 8 standard, 4 small ocean -type cargo vessels; 2 standard and 3 small coaster -type cargo vessels; 74 lighters; 5 large, 6 standard, 4 small ocean -type tankers; 1 standard coaster -type tanker; 1 representa- tive sound-and-river-type tank barge. Offshore pipeline berth -For 2 large ocean -type tankers. Moorirg� Several buoys in Keppel Harbour for small craft. Anchorage� Numerou berths of all classes in Western Anchorage and Outer Roads. Alongside �For 3 small aircraft carriers; 1 each light cruiser, frigate, destroyer, and submarine; 7 large, 1 standard, and 2 small ocean -type cargo vessels; 1 each standard and small coaster -type cargo vessel; 3 lighters; 1 standard ocean -type tanker. Fixed mooring �For attack aircraft carrier and frigate and 5 standard ocean -type cargo vessels. Free swinging -For small ^:.rz...:; carrier. Anchorage Numerous free swinging berths of all classes in Johore Strait. Alongside -For 5 large ocean -type cargo vessels; 6 small coaster -type cargo vessels; 8 large ocean -type and 1 coaster -type tankers. Offshore pipeline berth �For single -buoy moor- ing for 250,6011 -ton supertanker. Anchorage Numerous berths of all classes in strait and its approaches. *The estimated port capacity is thi. maximum amount of general cargo expressed in long tons �that can be unloaded onto the wharves and cleared from the wharf aprons during period of one 24 -hour day (20 effective cargo working hours). The estimate is based on the static cargo- transfer facilities existing at the time the estimate is prepared and is designed for comparison rather than for operational purposes; it cannot be projected beyond a single day by straight multiplication. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090013 -2 being employed in trade in other areas of the world. Most of the ships are engaged in nonscheduled (tramp) operations, but many are in scheduled (firier) service or are under charter worldwide. Neptune Orient Lines, Ltd. (NOL), Guan Golan Shipping (Private), Ltd., Straits Steamship Co., Ltd., Kic flock Shipping Co., Ltd., and Pacific International Line operate on it scheduled (liner) basis, maintaining service throughout Asia, Africa, Europe, the United States, and Australia. Singapore register fleet passenger ships engage in passenger operations in the nearseas area. Exports carried by the Singapore- register fleet include rubber, petroleum products, textiles, food products, machinery, and transport equipment; imports transported include textiles, industrial machinery, food products (live animals, rice, grains, fish, vegetables, arid fruits), iron and steel, fertilizers, chemicals, and petroleum products. In addition to strips of 1,000 g.r.t. and over, there are about 70 Singapore register ships of 100 to 999 g.r.t., aggregating about 35,400 d.w.t., utilized primarily in coastal acrd nearseas trade. Most of these ships are engaged in trade with Malaysia and Indonesia. Among other countries served are China (PRC), North Korea, and North Vietnam; it substantial number of ships serving these areas are operated or chartered by Singapore shipping entities that are controlled ur strongly influenced by China. In 1969 the fishing fleet consisted of more than 900 small craft, which included 565 motorized units. Fishing operations extend from the inshore areas of Singapore to offshore areas extending into the South China Sea and the Indian Ocean. Local interests beneficially own at least 36 ships of 1,000 g.r.t. and over totaling about 132,000 d.w.t. under foreign flag, including 22 registered in Panama, seven in Somalia, five in Malaysia, aril two h Hong Kong. Maritime matters are under the cognizance of the Marine Department of the Ministry of Communica- tions. The Director of the Marine Department is the principal adviser to the Singapore Government on marine matters affecting merchant shipping, and is responsible for implementing maritime legislation. The government encourages free trade and private enterprise, and no direct subsidization is provided the maritime industries; however, deferred terms of payment are offered to shipowners for domestically built ships designated for Singapore registry. Government policy encourages a viable, modern fleet capa%le of carrying a sizable portion of the nation's total seaborne trade aboard Singapore- register ships. In consonance with this airn, the government support..; Neptune Orient Lines, Ltd., in its hid to earn 405 i of this trade as recommended for national shipping lines by lh(� United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). Singapore is a member of the Inter Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization AMCO) and a party to the following IMCO conventio,s: Saf tv of Life at Sea, 1918 and 1960, Prevention of Collisions at Sea, 1960; and Facilitation of International Maritime 'Traffic, 1965. Official policy discourages calls by Singapore register vessels in the carriage of cargoes from Singapore to ports in North Vietnam; however, some Singapore registered ships under charter carry cargoes to North Vietnam. A flag of convenience registry was established in 1969 when the government amended the existing Merchant Shipping Ordinance to permit any person or company, irrespective of nationality and place of incorporation, to register their ships under the Singapore flag. Registration fees and tonnage tax rates :ender this legislation are lower than those offered by such well- established flags of convenience as Liberia, Panama, and Somalia. Shipping c.'1111panies under Singapore registry are not subject to taxation on earnings, set fees are guaranteed for20 from (late of registration, and a refund of 5091 of the annual tonnage tax is granted if Singapore nationals comprise at least 25% of the crew. As of March 1971, about 8,500 maritime personnel were registered for employment aboard domestic -flag vessels with tae Singapore Seamen's Registry Board, a government agency. There is at present an overall shortage of trained Singaporean officers and seamen to man the merchant fleet. Compared with European standards, wages and other compensation for maritime personnel are low; however, certain fringe benefits complement the modest wage schedule. No maritime unions are registered in Singapore to represent seafaring personnel aboard Singapore -flag ships. The Singapore Employment Act of 1968, which affects maritime personnel, restricts workers' right to strike and also imposes wage restraints. Maritime training facilities consist of the training ship, Singapore, and the School of Nautical Studies of the Singapore Polytechnic College. A 4 -year training course is offered at the college with an annual enrollment of 135 cadets, including 75 deck, 80 engineering, and 3 1 radio operators. Upon successful completion of formal Glasswork, these new officers receive training aboard Singapore- flag ships. Ratings receive a 3 -month training course aboard the training 9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090013 -2 ship in deck, e ngineroom and catering departments; about 500 of these seamen are trained annually. F. Civil air (S) Civi! air transportation in Singapore has been developed entirely since World War II. Since: that time the civil air fleet has pl"ved i t major role in linking Singapore with Malaysia and its East Malaysia states of Sarawak and Sabah. These traditional routing arrangements were changed in late 1972 with the separation of the heretofore dominant Malaysia Singapore Airline (!VISA) into two independent national airlines. Under this new arrangement, Singapore's national airline, Singapore Airlines (SIA), is entirely owned by the Government of Sing apore. The transition to an independent airline has caused SIA to temporarily issue a provisional timetable that will cover the first few months of the summer season. This timetable will reflect a shift in service whereby SIA will orient its se sharply toward iWernationul flights and reduce many of its regional flighs to points in Malaysia. SIA officials have indicated :hev believe that service to the various cities of Malaysia was uneconomical; therefore, they voiced no objectior.; when the Malaysians formed theirown airline, known as the Malaysian Airline System (MAS), to serve Malaysia. SIA has embarked on a vigorous program of expansion of international flights with service to 20 foreign cities in both Asia and Europe. Some of these services are operated in c onjunction with pooling and operating agreements concluded in January 1963 with Cathay Pacific Airways, Ltd. (Hong Kong), and "Thai Air�yays International, Ltd. japan Air Lines and SIA have also worked out an agree for joint operation of their route between Rome and 'Tokyo, with certain extensions both in Europe and in Asia. The SIA airfieet consists of three Boeing 707 -320B, two 707.3200, five 737 -100, one 737 -200, and two Fokker F -27 -500 aircraft. Two of the 737's will probably be put up for sale as being superfluous to SIA's reduced regional nerds now that MAS will be taking over that part of the operation. In 1972 SIA officials were considering the purchase of either Boeing 747 or DC -10 aircraft. However, three Boeing 707 aircraft were to be added to the SIA fleet in the latter half of 1972 for use by the airline pending the decision on whether to purchase the Boeing 747 or the DC -10 aircraft. The F -27's will be used for feeder and charter service. SIA employs over pe-)ple and this number ryill probably rise sharply as th airline expands its 10 international operations. Pilots for SIA number 160. with an additional 24 pilot trainees undergoing instruction in different flying schools. Aside from SIA, the chief air operato in Singapore is Saber Air, Ltd. Formed in 1966 as ;in air taxi ser�ice, Saber Air has undergone a number of reorganizations and name changes. In 1969, the Singapore Government acquired an 80% interest in its operations. In February 1971, a management and technical assistance pact was concluded with the U.S. supplemental airline, Overseas National Airwa s, in return for a 9% shareholding. Passenger and a ergo charter and -tour flights are operated throughout the Far East with its airfleet of one 1)C -8, one DC -6, one Aztec, and one Cessna :337. Twenty -three foreign airlines link Singapore with the rest of the world. Among these carriers are the Soviet airline, Aeroflot, and the Czechoslovak carrier, Ceskoslovernske Aerolinic (CSA). These air carriers operate into Singapore under a series of approximately 24 formal and informal agreements or arrangements. Singapore is a party to the 1944 Convention oil International Civil Aviation Whicago and a member of the International Civil Aviation Organization. Within Singapore, civil air activities are administered by the Department of Civil Aviation, a government agency responsible to the Depuiv Prime Minister's Office. Private fiving in Singapore is minimal, with only five or six independently owned and operated aircraft. There are some indications th"t the governme is moving to encourage interest in aviation with the establishment of the Singapore junior Flying (;1111) and the University Air Squadron.. The junior Flying Club will use Cessna T -41 aircraft to train student pilots at Seletar airfield. The University Air Squadron will use six Victa Airtourer -type aircraft to train students carefully selected from the University of Singapore. Another private living club operating in Singapore is the Royal Flying C!ub. which owns a mixed lot of six light aircraft. This flying club has its own maintenance section and can overhaul light aircraft engines. Singapore has complete service facilities for SIA aircraft exce for engine overhaul. The engines are shipped abroad for major overhaul work. SIA operates a Technical Training (,enter located in Singapore. This center offers pilot familiarization courses on the Boeing 707, 737, and F -27 aircraft. After World War IL about 100 aircrews and grounderews from Singapore trained at Air Services Training, an aviation school in Perth, Scotland. Training for a number of SIA pilots has been provided APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090013 -2 by the Indonesian Civil Aviation Academy at Tjurug, near Djakarta:, and pilots and flight engineers for SiA's Boeing air,�raft have been sent to the United States, New Zealand, and Australia for training. Singapore Provides for training of its air traffic controllers at the Technical Training (.'enter G. Airfields' (C) The air facilities system of Singapore consists of five airfields and one seaplane station. Three airfields are military and two are civil; four have hard- surface.; runways. Details of th(. ;our best airfields are tabulated in Figure S. The airfields are distributed throughout Singapore in a fairly even pattern, although a majorit island. are in the eastern half of the Singapore airfield, which has an 1 1,000 -foot asphalt re1.1wav and facilities to support aircraft up to and including C-1 and Boeing 707 aircraft, has long been u pivotal point of global Lir traffic for Southeast Asia. Seletar, the other civil airfield, can accommodate I ockheed Constellations. Tengah airfield, which has a 9,000 -foot asphalt runway, is the principal military base on the island. It can support sustained operations by jet light bombers and accommodated the Roi Air Force (RAF) V- bombers deploved there during the Indonesian confrontation crises. Changi, also it 'For detailed information on air fac9lities in Singapore see Volume 25, Airfields and Seaplane Stations of the World, published by the Defense Mapping Agency, Aero Space Center (DMAAC) for the Defense Intelligence .Agency. FIGURE 8. Selected Airfields (C) NAME AND LOCATION C;Iangi 1 103 Seletar 1 103 Singapore........... 1'21'N., 103 Tengah 1 103 LONGEST RUNWAY: SURFACE; DIMENSIONS; ELEVATION ABOVE. SEA LEVEL ESWL* Asphalt..... 7,985 x 150 10 Asphalt 4,950 x 150 35 Asphalt 11,000 x 200 65 Asphalt 9,000 x 150 50 Pounds 60,160 significant military airfield, can accommodate C -I21- type aircraft. Sernbawang airfield, with a 2270 -foot Pierced steal planking (PSP) runway, is the only temporarv- ;urfaued facility in the country. Although of minor significance, it provides accommodations for helicopters, a photographic unit, and training facilities for a parachute and survival school. The one seaplane station is of limited value. In general, airfield maintenance is performed on an "as needed" basis and this will suffice to sustain the system at its present I, vel. There are no major development programs planned or underway which would significantly alter the present effectiveness of the air facilities system. H. Telecommunications (C) Singapore's telecommunication (telecom) system is one of the most modern in Southeast Asia, providing a variety of dependable dornestic and international communication services. The telec