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�/cS /S iweden lay 1973 ATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SUN Z OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090021 -3 NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY PUBLICATIONS The basic unit of the NIS is the General Survey, which is now published in a bound -by- chapter f xmat so that topics of greater per ishab!lity can be updated on an individual basis. These chapters Country Profile, The Society, Government and Politics, The Economy, Military Geog- raphy, Transportation and Telecommunications, Armed Forces, Science, and Intelligence and Security, provide the primary NIS coverage. Some chapters, particularly Science and Intelligence and Security, that are not pertinent to oil countries, are produced selectively. For small countries requiring only minimal NIS treatment, the General Survey coverage may be bound into one volume. Supplementing the Gererai Survey is the NIS 9-j Intelligence Fact book, a ready reference publication that semiannually updates key sta- tistical data found in the Survey. An unclassified edition of the factbook omits some details on the economy, the defense forces, and the intelligence and security organizations. Although detailed sections on many topics were part of the NIS Pcogram production c` these sections has been phased out. Those pre viously produced will continue to be available as long as the major portion of the study is considered valid. r A quarterly listing of all active NIS units is published in the Inventory of Available NIS Publications, which is also bound into the concurrent classified Factbook. The Inventory lists all NIS units by area name and l number and includes classification and date of issue; it thus facilitates the ordering of aIS units as well as their filing, cataloging, and utilization. Initial dissemination, additional copies of NIS units, or separate chapters of the General Surveys can be obtained directly or through liaison channels from the Centro! Intelligence Agency. The General Survey is prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency and the Defense Intelligence Agency under the general direction of the NIS Committee. It is coordinated, edited, published, and dissemi- nated by the Central Intelligence Agency. WARNING This document contains Information affecting the national defenso of the United States, within the meaning of title 18, sections 793 and 794 of the LIS code, as amended. Its transmission or revelation of its contents to or roceict by an unauthorized person is prohibited by low. CLASSIFIED BY 019641. EXEMPT FROM GENERAL DECLASSIFI- CATION SCHEDULE OF E. O. 11632 EXEMPTION CATEGORIES 3B 1), (2). (3). DECLASSIFIED ONLY ON APPROVAL OF THE DIRECTOR OF CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090021 -3 WtVIVIVIL OM �1V3 r -IN WARNING The NIS k National Intelligence and may not be re- leased or shown 'o representatives of any foreign govern ment or international body except by specific authorization of the Director of Central Intelligence in accordance with d the provisions of National Security Council Intelligence Di- rective No. 1. For NIS containing unclassified material, however, the portions so marked may be made available for official pur- poses to foreign nationab and nongovernment personnel provided no atti ibution is made to National Intelligence or r the National Intelligence Survey. Subsections and graphics are individually classified according to content. Classification /control designa- tions are: (U /OU) Unclassified /For Official Use Only i (C) Confidential (S) Secret I N i' 5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090021 -3 This chapter was prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency. Research was sub- stantially completed by November 1972. �7��.�..+.+s+wraswrs rxisfnvarlrgttsa'.' edztireF: w. r' Ni ?0.viaa4'. +.:t.;'AH::Y3 ?f, 1 l 1 5 Y x r �7��.�..+.+s+wraswrs rxisfnvarlrgttsa'.' edztireF: w. r' Ni ?0.viaa4'. +.:t.;'AH::Y3 ?f, LVV.71VV1 IV. L111 SWEDEN CONTENTS This General Survey supersedes the one dated Sep- tember 1967, copies of which should be destroyed. A. Introduction 1 Characteristic traits of society, homogeneity, Sweden "the conscience of the world develop- ment with minimum disruptions; industrialization; labor as a political force; labor management re- lations; social measures and suLservience to state bureaucracy. B. Structure and characteristics of the society 3 1. General 3 Similarities to ot%er Teutonic peoples, respect for authority, influence of geographic isolation and climate. factors making for cooperation. 2. Lingering class stratification. 4 Traditional egalitarianism, survival of the mon- archy, distinctions based on occupations, routes for advancement. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090021 -3 3. The family i Patriarchal, with expanding role of women and some evidence of disintegrating family unit. 4. Social values and attitudes Strong custom and tradition, social discipline, individualism, group affiliation for economic purposes and for culture and recreation, ma- terialism, avant -garde attitude toward sex, national pride, peace seeking role. f C. Population 1. Size and distribution i Population of 8 million, with concentration in southern third of nation, low degree of urbanization along with advanced industrial development, growth of urban centers, con centrations of rural population. 2. Ethnic types Uniform, with 5% outside strains and the 1 Lapps. 3. Emigration and immigration The Great Emigration, increased immigration since 1930. 4. Structure High proportion of elderly persons. 5. Vital rates Declining birth, infant mortality, and death rates, life expectancy, marriage and divorce rates, probable static population. D. Manpower and labor 1. Labor force Some 3.9 million, including recent immigrants, comprising three fourths of these 15 -64, dis- tribution of the force� increase in number of working women, source of aliens. 2. Employment and unemployment Full emnloyment a national policy, 3% un- emplo, .vent in early 1972, with highest per cent in construction, programs and services to cope with unemployment. 3. Wages, hours, and working conditions Highest wages in Europe, increases in past decade, nominal and real wages, rates and "wage drift," costs to the employer; hours covered by collective agreement and legisla- tion; constant improvement in wc:king con ditions. 4. Organization of labor High percentage of both blue- and white collar workers, the LO� affiliates, organiza- tion, activity, and role in society; the TCO� affiliates, organization; other organizations. 5. Organization of management The SAF members, organization, function; composition of the SFO; farmers' organiza- tions; international affiliation. g S Page 4 5 7 7 8 9 9 10 11 11 12 14 15 17 6. Labor- management relations Peaceful relations with few strikes and lock- outs, the Labor Market Committee and its accomplishments, boards with labor repre- sentatives, limited scope of labor legislation, days lost because of labor disputes, agree- ments, the Labor Court, changes in deter- mining wages and conditions. E. Living conditions and social problems 1. Material welfare Even spread of the "good life," high rate of taxes, average money income, per capita consumption, short supply of adequate modem housing, prevalence of renting. 2. Social security Acceptance and. development of compre- hensive program, administration, money re- gnired from national and local budgets. a. Old -age, disability, and widows' pensions Basis and coverage, supplementary pen- sion. b. health insurance Coverage and provisions, charges by in- come levels. c. Workmen's compensation Coverage and financing. d. Unemployment insurance Coverage and benefits. e. Family allowances Provisions for children, horsing allow- ances. 3. Social problems No tensions from great inequalities, high sui- cide rate, increase in crime, juvenile delin- quency, and alcoholism. F. Health Excellent health conditions. 1. Incidence of disease and causes of death Mortality from degenerative diseases, rheu- matic and respiratory disorders, high rate of venereal disease. 2. Animals and plants Freedf,m from serious animal diseases, few species of animal vectors, poisonous plants. 3. Nutrition Satisfactory dietary level, caloric intake, eating habits. 4. Public sanitation Modern, adequate fool processing and stor- age, good water supply, waste disposal, air and water pollution, plans for purification plants and regulations on environmental pro- tection. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090021 -3 Page 18 20 20 G 23 24 25 25 26 26 27 28 4l:? 29 R f Page 5. Public health administration 30 Responsibilities of the Ministry of Social Affairs and of the National Board of Health and Welfare. 8. Medical care 30 Excellent medical ar.d paramedical personnel and training, number of physicians, hospitals. G. Religion I...... 31 Strength of the state church and religious habits. 1. The Church of Sweden 31 a. Organization and activities 31 Divisions, the Church Assembly, role of the bishops, the pastorata, the parish, lay organizations. b. Doctrine and policies 32 "basis, no direct political and social stands, the ecumenical movement. c. Relations with the government 33 Domination and subsidies by the national government, church revenue, possible sev- erance of state church ties. 2. Protestant free sects 33 Identity and following. 3. Other religions 33 Catholic, Greek Orthodox, ?ewish. H. Education 34 1. General 34 Conditions until 1840, state direction of schools and financial support, selective higher education, reform to widen educational oppor- Wnities, student participation in reform, sepa- ratior of college and university, centralized system, education to servo needs of the econ- omy. 2. Educational system 36 a. Elementary and secondary education 36 Replacement of traditional elementary and intermediate schools with the compre- hensive school, its three divisions; the secondary system, composed of gym iuWuvi, continuation school, vocational training, merging into an umbrella sec- ondary school. b. Higher education 39 Increase in university enrollments. and i degrees awarded, the six universities, tech nical, medical, and specialized schools, S teacher training, closed and free fa ^.ulties, enrollment, classification of students, e state financial support, financial assistance i to students. c. Extracurricular student activity "student 42 Sports, nations," the SFS. Page d. Adult education 42 Folk high schools; study circles, broad- casting, correspondence courses, efforts by local government. 3. Scientific research Financial support, research councils, scien- tific academics. 1. Artistic and cultural expression 1. Literature Old Norse influence, development of the lan- guage, Dutch and German influence in the 17th century, 18th century, romantisism, realism, idealism, renewed German influence, decadence and pessimism of the early 20th century, proletarian school, expressionism and ultrarealism of World War II period. 2. Theater A factor since the 19th century, coopera- tion between motion pictures and the legiti- mate stage, theaters. 3. Music Its importance since the end of the 19th century, symphony orchestras, composers, and singers. 4. Art and architecture Pa:nters of national note, wooden structure, stone churches, significant original architec- ture, urban planning. 5. Handicrafts and industrial arts Efforts to promote arts, furniture, ceramic art, silver, glass. 6. Recreatiun Outdoor sports, international competition. T. Public information 1. Press and periodic -lc High rate of readership, decline in number of newspapers, their partisanship, govern- ment subsidies, major publication centers, quality and format, news services, circulation in relation to party strength, freedom of the press, weekly magazines and professional journals. 2. Book publishing Numbers and languages, fields of interest. 3. Libraries Excellent public and school facilities. 4. Radio and television Responsibilities of the SBC, revenue, stations and programs, growth of television, channels. 5. Motion pictures Theaters and attendance, the Swedish Film Institute, production and type. K. Suggestions for further reading 43 44 44 45 46 46 47 47 48 48 51 51 52 52 53 Glossary 55 ii APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090021 -3 Z'1'i'J L'i'fer l Jl FIGURES NOTE: The entire content of this chapter is UNCLASSIFIED but is FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY. iv APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090021 -3 Page Fig. 1 Population and population density Fig. 2 (chart) Mayor areas of population chart) 7 7 Fig. 3 Area, population, and density by Fig. 18 Province (table) 8 Fig. 4 I... Swedish types photo) 9 Fig. 5 Age -sex distribution (chart) 10 Fig. 6 Percentage distribution of age g.,. aps 24 Fig. 7 (chart) Vital rates (chart) 10 Fig. 8 Birth and death rates, selected 11 Fig. 23 Western countries chart) 11 Fig. 9 Population and labor force chart) 11 Fig. 10 Gainfully occupied by sectors of the Fig. 26 economy (table) 12 Fig. 11 Age -sex distribution of labor force Fig. 12 (chart) I........ Unemployment in selected Western 13 Fig. 28 countries table) 13 Fig. 13 Hourly wages, cost of living, and S3 real wages (chart) 14 Fig. i4 Workers, L. M. Ericsson Telephone Corporation photo) 15 NOTE: The entire content of this chapter is UNCLASSIFIED but is FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY. iv APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090021 -3 Page Fig. 15 Working days lost because of laivr Fig. 16 disputes (table) Budget for a family (table) 19 20 Fig. 17 Distribution of net income, selected Fig. 18 countries chart) Comparative levels of living chart) 21 21 Fig. 19 Dramatic growth of welfare expend- Fig. 20 itures (chart) I I. Apportionment of costs of social 23 insurance (table) 24 ig. 21 Danderyd Hospital photo) 31 Fig. 2S Church at Leksands -Noret photo) 32 Fig. 23 Educational facilities (photos) 37 Fig. 24 Educational system chart) 38 Fig. 25 Production of the glass industry Fig. 26 (photos) Selected daily newspapers table) 48 49 Fig. 27 Newspapers by political affiliation and circulation (table) 50 Fig. 28 Radio and televisi;,., broadcasting (table) S3 NOTE: The entire content of this chapter is UNCLASSIFIED but is FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY. iv APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090021 -3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090021 -3 25X1 democracy help to guide the affairs of a free enterprise economy for the benefit of a stutt- directed welfare society. Geographic isolation and the insulating effect it had tin Swedish social development during the tnedievul and early modern eru enabled the society to avoid most of the abuses a.n,ciated with feudulistic Europe to the south and east. rhe impact of tho social and industri,:l revolutions was therefore less disruptive in Sweden than in most other countries of Europe, because the privileged classes were not so firmly entrenched and de termined to protect their interests, and there was no severely oppressed peasant class overly anxious to mif;rute to the cities. Existing rural population pressures in the ratter part of the ;9th century found relief through eraigration-- principully to North America. During this twriod the essential decentralization of Swedish industry and coasequent reduced pas.: of urbanization, the establishment of a pervasive public welfare system in step with the ucceleruted industrialization of the 20th century, plus the avoidance, or at least minimization, of wartime disturbunces d+iring the modern era further mitigated the shock of far reaching sociueconornic change. Although Swedish society has remained decentral- ized and has retained many values and attitude: associated with rural life., it is essentiully indust�iul, with a highly skilled and productive labor force, o 90% of Which is employed in nonagricultural pursuits. Because industrialization came relatively late, munugement and government leaders profited from the experi -mce of the United Kingdom and "'ermany and an icipute-I many of the difficulties associated with uugmented labor forces in congested urban areas. 'rhe ugitat,on of the growing Social Democratic Party in the 1890's and early part of the 20th century for legislation protecting labor was met by the business leaden and other conservr,cive government elements with relatively enlightened labor codes. ReIr.tions between employers and workers never becume, us severely strained as in some other Western democratic nations� notably France. The period of greatest tension, rincipally over labor's right to organize and its socialist doctrine, ended shortly after the abortive general strike of 1909. Labor became a force in polities wit!n the extension during the same year (1.909) of the suffruge to nearly all adult males. Labor's political arm, the Social Democrutic Labor Party, helped obtain the extension of basic civic rights to all sections of the population in 1921 with the full exercise of universal suffrage (introduced in 1919). By 1928 the government recognized the binding force of labor management agreements, and general long -term labor peace was achieved bi the late 1930's through 2 agreements on negotiating procedures between the central trade union and employer federations. CAmCnued adherence of socialist working class leaden to democratic pructices and the Swedish hubi! of moderation in domestic politics have encouraged the use of peaceful methods for reconciNng conflicting interests. The concept of extensive governmental social responsibility received general acceptance, and orgunized labor, the principal exponent of such doctrine, becatne politically dominant in the 1930's. Powerful national organizations representing capital, labor, agrarian interests, and others have since come to play a major role in promoting group objectives. Partly because industrialization came, nnnre slowly to Sweden and partly because the labor movement turned from revolutionary to democratic socialism at in early date, there was never any important hostility to a free enterprise economy, and negotiation between different interest groups has been noted for its successful spirit of mutual accommodation. The practice of compromise has been most highly developed in lab; management relations. Disputes rarely require utiliza-ion of government fLciliti s, and then only for .)urp oscs of mediation and judicial interpretation of enntracts. Swedish society, through the government, has acted to reduce extremes of wealth as well as to assume responsibility for the consequences of itidividuul adversity. The objectives of social policy over the past three decades have been to raise standards if living (now among the highest in the world), improve the already high health standards, expand existing social Welfare programs. and enlarge the population. While this policy commands the support of un overwhelming majority of Swedes, there has been some criticism by conservative elements that such elaborate social meast.res tend to discourage initiative and risk- taking and may undermine the self reliance of the people. The "subservience" of the orderly Swede to the omnipresent state bureaucracy has inspired some adverse commentary by foreign observers. They note, albeit somewhat less criticaily, a similar acquiescence in the authority of an efficient civil service in neighboring Denmark, Norway, the Netherlands, and to a degree. in West GL- rmany. The remarkable freedom of cultural expression throughout the area, however, as usually seen its banks and journais, in the cinema, and on television, is hardly u sign of mural, spiritual, or intellectual regimentation. In Swedenn nonetheless, it is riot easy to oppose the prevalent ra d ical -chic lines on a few specific topics, notably Vietnam, national independence movements, and race relations. Llere, there is in fact a notable APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090021 -3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090021 -3 25X1 2. Lingering class stratification The sharp socioeconomic cleavages associated with the industrial revolution of the ISth and 19th centuries never fully developed in Sweden. Since many of the new factories, which came relatively late to Sweden, were dispersed in the countryside and in small towns, the massive migration to the towns and cities that characterized industrialization in Europe to the south did not occur. Class differences initially accentuated by the more moderate population movements blurred again with the rapid development of the comprehen- sive welfare system during the present century. A. traditional relative egalitarianism, fostered in part by the historic absence of great landed wealth, was similarly stimulated in modern times. Whereas tie crown retained title to the choice lands in an earlier period, allowing the nobility to maintain its privileged position largely through service to the state, the new industrial barons were prevented from acquiring too much independent wealth and hence personal power through the early impos'stion of the progressive income tax. Other factors militating against the development of sharply defined social classes in modern times are the political strength of the industrial workers, stemming from a powerful, well organized trade union movement; the traditionally respected position held by farmers as a class: and a level of living second to none in Europe and dispersed with remarkable evenness among all elements. Many sons of small farmers have risen to influential positions within the church and in the school system, and a number of individuals in the working class have attained positions of political prominence as the result of capabilities for leadership developed in the labor movement. At the same time an attitude of exclusiveness still pervades the essentially industrial upper class, whose ranks include members of the old aristocracy. The extent to which some class consciousness linuers with all Swedes is perhaps reflected in the continued popularity of the monarchy as an institution. It was also seen as recently as the 1950's in the official breakdown of lists of persons entitled to vote for the now defunct Upper House of the old Riksdag. The register was diN ided into three social groups: uppej class approximately 5 middle class (approximately 40 and manual workers' class (approximately 55 with roughly the same economic and educational affiliations as elsewhere; in Western Europe. The somewhat exaggerated attachment to social leveling evident in the 1960's and 1970's not only put an end to such official classifications, but also 4 has tcinded to foster attitudes of envy, with the result that a mild jealousy of the material well -being and success of others has become a rather pervasive characteristic. The behavior patterns of the average modern Swede still reflect an awareness of distinctions based on occupation. Formality, reserve, and a certain deference to "position" may still characterize social relations. Here, as in other northern societies, the successful industrialist or engineer may commaN4^'. den,`., 15 �,'.'t!u.'.i:7:V:J,At*%.:V6Y5; gun'+ as' aamrnsyeruixrrc,:,,'+r.wksw :mFs..y:;C ..ka.:.:.:a yi.�r'v tt APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090021 -3 ran receive speci;tl scholarships of SKrIO, 7 5A tier year, Tog ether Willi or dinary gn"1ts and loatis, they provide the student with an t"llltial tax-fret income of tibnost SKie20.(XX) per yvair, In additiotl, students !n higher rdueation receive indimet henefits, including lo`a'th cam at state suhsltlizrd health services, low cost hotisillg in student housing facilities, redtieed tramporlittioti costs, lo\\� -cost nletIs it governmeut- S11110di ed student restlturanls, and low-cost merchandise at shopping centers run by student unions, c. Exteacurricular student activity As lit other northwest I:urpeuti societies, orgimize d extnteurri('ulur student activities Al l the arcvtildury !e\rl AIM sonlewh;lt :;cur` in vvidelle .c than ill the f.uliti Mkilitries to the south, 'They At" not, however, pursued tm the \Cale of their l .S, cYtitilrrpurls �\which are pmhully unitple in the free world --,old Iilaty he orgutiired 11\� the village or town authorities, rather tilt"' sperificalh' hY tilt schools, As in other 'I vittoniv societies, team sports, as oppost`d to itldividua) sports, enjoy popularity, ca11d ski anti ltikitig Clubs. Choral groups, told various hohh trg aniAations are in evidelive, But the high school hands, tlrt llua eblbs, attic] M101% debating soeirlies, so much it purl of the U's, NVOW, at,` less in evidellvv, At (lit titiiyersity level sludt`uts still lisscilkle in student niations. vomparithit` to the tradiliomil ("ertlum fr aternities (although himlly devoted to fetivitig) or 11 ,5, fraternities anti sor)rities, e\cY`pl I1,11t most am ('orducalionatl, These 1111tious aim rooled ill lilt` (;rrmatiic piast, In the (ar9t tuetrpolit lit n uuivenll, Ihrir print`itut] f111101rnl is Io britig logrtl'rr sotvitlly those` stutlrnts from tilt' satiltV (oral tim i or p1minet" 1`41('11 option hits its own house" or mrrtltig placY`, cYtnt>santblr to the 1 fritternity or eittilog villb, where tilt` sllitleilts meet (or t`tlm"Istltioll ittld oct"I"onid d "'0119, ritual sitigltlg, air other group aelivily, As is the t`asr 11"Mighotit fore hirpe, stlttients orgarlizt` to prlleCt u"tl to try to ativative their special itllen`sts, Ill S\k"Icl', nmlrll '1`811 t) In the one timhr`lla Swedish Utiiou of Sttidellts (SIBS) is 1111"Idulorr, The SI"S has s1lVVt'tided, as of late I972, ill pursuing student interests inside ralht'r tilt ill ollkldt' of the rstalNsh- ment, Although student pitrlic`lpation in derision mukilig Ill tilt milversities wits n`Itttively 111111te(d I)efo it the Ic"1rn`hi11g of the Period of experimmiltllioll \will, student demoera vy ill 1969/70, the SFS has long had rollsith11hit` itlfblt`tice \with govvnim+itill botlirs VOIRI `reed with higher miucalloll itnd lilts limi"tailwd good mlatious with Ihetu, It is r +prose "led toil tntu'y of -1;2 the six`clal committees set kill to study partickilar problems, and it is tY �isultrd oil till government proposals for change tlffeelili sludvilI interests, Membership in the SF S is normally attaitied simply by j :iuing the compollrnt student union al the tiniversify or institute \where one is euntlled, Neither the iudividtatl unions nor dw SFS receives government financial support for their activities, so all C0Sts lutist IN met by dues. The SFS anima) illcome from sttidetil fees is uboul SKH6,5 miliitm, `Tlic illtlividkiai unions at,` entirel} self governing and an` in no \way subject to control by school officials, I`:atch student union mprrsents the student hotly hvfor` the faculty, public authorities, and other organiiatiotli, '!'he S:.S repmsents the various tilliolls Itilliollidly. d, Adult tWucatirm (apse to our fourth of Sweden's population is rnrIlt'd lit sonit` form of adult rd licit liolk, Otie distiurtiyely S till.lirltayiati institution which hie bong played tin important role in MIllit education is tilt folk high school (folkhogshilor), Importe(I from Dvilmark, \when` It was devt`Iopt`d by Bishop Nivolui F, S, Gnotidtvig mid Kristen Koltl, the folk high school arrived in SM'th`, in 1868, Its purpose is to provide it sense of national COMIlltinity mid geuerid vtilhiral owtlr`tims ---to imikv, ill holler Imt` vili %ells, Clirricullr emphasis is not oil vocational training, although such Irililling is included, The schools attempt lit ro id out the students' gern`rt] vdimitiou it' such subjects cats Swedish, arithmetic, civics, history, geogriwk, hookkeepitig, and religious yalblrs, \yllilr also enlplt "1119 Iessons, It`c`ttln`s, atilt] shitty groups to help "devel_p el tractt`r mid give tilt sttitdt`nls it deeper onderstilnditg of their onvirtiult`nl itlid (Ykin It' utiiIV, In 14)71) then` were` Ill,' folk high schools Pius 12 affiliates thrtmgilout till cotmlry, Abotit holf o the schools Ater operaleti b pnvi "rill) c`tinrils cult) tilt reniltindl,r by diffc`n`nt popular nitovements and orga Ill ialions, such its the trade unions, t pill Prn111cc societies, i"d di The millimtltll age of eligibility is 18 years, lustrurtiol is tlstial given in r `sideticY` and is free, although tilt shiderlts must ptly for hoard alit) lodging, tilany of tilt students hold scholarships from nlullit`iptllilies and organixatiolls, however, whip` other finanrhli aid is cavailitble is tilt` form of sitiall stone stiprmds, The folk high schools \\r`r` voled appropriations of SKr76,8 million in the 1 171 goverutnenl budget, 'Three different kitids of wo rse ill,` offert`da w inter, NIIIII llrr, illltd spt`c`il subjects, "Tilt w illlt`r votirse, rinmilig I'n till 3 tt 3 yrtars, tYIllnlatids the largest rlln)Ilmrnis, with nhoul 1 )l) sitidrlits iti the IM 9/ 70 7l) academic` y ear, Ahotil ",,(KX) APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090021 -3 yt students took special subjects In IWW 7l). No central(} determined syllahus is laid down for the folk high schools, which are free to shalpt- their own programs within the parameters oollhied ahovv. For it !Iron` detailed discussion of the philosophic origins of the folk high schools', sec 1)ennuirk, Genera) Survey, March 1968.) Uother significant form of adult t` itivation has been undertakt-n Iy lilt- study circles run by educationill (associations, The informal educational leclud( jut` was first adopted by the lemperativl` movement al the tilrn of the evvittlrv, li I970 Own` were 12 officially wtogniced vducaliomd associatiotls that recelve and alliot goverlum`tit subsidies to adult education programs, SKr98 million in govenimenl subsidies was appropriated for 1-1'71, A daily eimiv Inust Iliave at Ieasl five and no mon> thaall 20 participants in order to qualify for financial aid from the sponsoring association, Then` an` al presvit about 1500X) stit(h eirelt-s \011 1,5 millioll participants. The slide circles (`cover it wide viarivt\ of interests ranging from avadt,nlie subjects to hobbies. '1'lu` circles do not opercatt` a(vorditlg iu till\ f ixed s\- habits, Educational broadcasting odds importantly to adult millealion in Swetien, lit 1967 the Commillee for hthleaticul by Telrvisioll amt Radio ('fliU) wits formed, its main purpose living lc coconut-( experiments with vdtlealional broadviols addressed it adult leicrnt`m The fist THU cout-ses ill Flighsh tuul business economics, both at (ht- secortlary level, got ituderwaa\- in 1wi& During 11170 'I'llu hnuuieas(s b\ radio and (elevision \sere on I lit` afr about 18 hobs pt r wei k, 'fill! wIlahorales in its work wiih other sponsors of adult edietillon, The guve rmilt`tll run schools ii Norrkoping a Ilarmsatid vmibim` correspomivittt, studies with r`sidenee training, in u{lt`rnaling c\eles, Ili tilt- hope of r`emiting adult learners nationwide, The itistmoiun give! lit lilt schools follows (ht` curricihirls of grades N) in the ttim im school, the eoilirlualion sehtol, and lilt` ,gymnasium, 1 ?Ilrollmt,il at holh schools was eslimatted tit 7,5M lit the 1966)/7(1 academic year, of whorl 3,750 wen` slith irlg by vorr`spondowe, Ili themid- 1970's 12,M)studentsart emweted to takt` advaniagt` of Ilit`se voovsys, No tuition fees art- charged, and the governtnt underwrites staff sallivit,s amt pales the rust of stiltl' matt`riids, Appropriations totaling AMU million \ww voted in the 16)70�71 govenitm`nl hidgt,l, ImuitI goverimment aulhtrilies also spomur conventional wi mtmit\ adult ,`tluciation clauses, Sim`t 16X(7 the ntullivipal milivalioll v orltlttilIvvs have lead lilt lask of providing edtaration opportunities for adults, mating in tilt- form of eveoing classes, The iistruction, which is fret, of ciutrge, follows tilt- citcriculmus of the compn`ht-nsive school, the gymnasium, (lie colitinuatiou school, and tilt- vocational school, In the 1967 tits academic rar about 30 Ill till idpaalitivs offered adult t-dueatioi courses in night high schools, whilt` in tilt- 1969/70 \vlkr adult education wits a vitila h 1t` ill about 210 Ill ullicipaliIivs \\ith ;I'll ettrol{mt-nt of 65,M) adults, Although completion of work in tilt- gymnasiu n or its etioivalt,nt is retluirt,d for university entmitte, since 1969 adults Illay mitivrlakv studies at the imiversit\ Ievel even if Ilivy htck (ht formal tlualif Iva tioits, Uidvr tilt- nt-w regulations, lit adult student Itllst have reacht-d the age of 25 at the lime of registration and either lute hven eitlplo\ed for at least 5 \ears or have actpilre l ettuivalent kno\tlet;ge by some other lueaus, 'flit` program is still lit the t,xperimvuta) stitgv, with present enrollments tvtlfinrt{ Ito cr`rlain ruurses ol'frrrd b\ the faculties ul' arts air sciences, In 19170 pion` than 8W aduit Iearlters sctr enrolled at div universities aid their branches, a. Scientific researell Iligher education and scientific research arc tied togelht,r closely lit Stteden, with svit-nlifit` research an integral part of the prognlm of till tilt- univt,rsilivs :iml teehmologica) institnies, Abotit one -fifth of all rl`searell and developlurnt Is ewried out alt Institutions tit' hight,r t-dncation, 'Total imrslmenl Ili research in FY69 amounted to SKr2,(KH) million, or about 1,7''t of tilt gross intioral product, The govornntt`111 aevouits for ahoul No- fifths of lilt total cost of rest,;or`h, rhilr t41111merdal and industrial interests aceount for the rt'st, Tht major portion cI' government n`seareb I'unds is allovalml Iii tilt lttliversitivs and tilt iltstitulvs of Icehnolop wlilt aahont one third of the Iligber education Itltlgel of the Minislr\ of Edlivaliol and Evviesiasliea) Affairs devoted to seienlifie research, Swedcli's uuivel -sits Ievel histituliolls Move otll\ limited basic n`solives iavililable for research, and their onlillary appropriatiom air gt-ta`ral iol sifficit-il fur extensivt` reseiurh prujeels. Supporting r`warcll h\ inslituliotls of higher cdut`itlloti, Iherefure, an` 12 public( finance(( ir`st-ii'eil trn11101s, 'file\ air allat`ht,tl to vilrious mhkislrit,s and allocate govt, I'll lltt,rlt funtis (o various research pwivos for which grails have brel wiliesletl or to projeels fnitita(ed b\ lilt- rtuneih tilt`list-l't`s, t'tveril111vlit grallls I'm "At`ar tit iiiversilivs, inclining (host provint-tl thn)ugh lilt msclirch vollitell�, ire -reast,d I'mill SKIM,,,) million in FYti.'S Ill SK 1.89J) Inillioll in 1"1'67, APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090021 -3 Three scientific ticad(-ulies also play an important role` In line supervision of researeil. 'I'll( Oldest of these atcademiex, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, runs various scientific institutions, publishes it nunlher cat .lournuls, arranges for Swedish metllbership lit metre internulional scientific organizations, and is responsible for awarding the Nobel prizes in chemistry and physics, in addition to conducting research in nlathenittties arid the matural set (-nct,s. The Royal Swedish Academy of I;nginet,ring Scienct,s, lilt first of its kind in the world, supports viirious khlds of technical resvarch, The Rrn;d Swedish Academy of Agricultitre voordinates research in agricuittlre mid related industries, I. Artistic and cultural expression 1, Literature Swedish ilteraturt lids gent,rally presented it picture of it culture shaped to tilt I pattern lit limes creative alld tlrigillid, tit o1iier tittles merely reflecting current cultural forces. The oldest stone- varved and written literary mb show Sweden to have beell strongly infiuetwed by Old Nowt, traditions. The sagas told ba {lads-- rtimmin literary expressions of the scandirtavialt ethical will mvlhica) ht,ritage ---are au Important part of Swedish literature, Certain milque folk song forms, such as the lyrical dunce song, wen Swedish contribillions to the region's 12111 and 1,3111 century literature and milt' (e regarded as the first original Swedish Iflerwttlre, Sweden, however, slid not figure as promiltenily as Norway or lceluid in this early literary outp111, and it wits not tmtil the Reformation pliectvl the stanip of approviil tilt bltell ^etilil) expression in local languages 111111 Swedish literill Ire began the ,stelidy develtyllie l \which kites (-ti,,,,r111et1 to the prest'lll (111\11 The 1.11011 aiphahet superseded rank viliaracto -n throughout most of Sweden by the I�Itll celllllm" and with the advent of tilt pril1ing press in Ille 1501 century, viume into general use, IAtentry activily centered Ill religious writings, begilming in earnest with lilt vermicular traltsllliolt of lilt Bible lit 15 During the Mill will 17111 evithirivs the language look on new stilmhirds of cllrity and prevision, Georg Stivnihielm (1.' 98.1(772), hailed its tilt Father of Swedish poetry, proved through his poetry that the S\wodish liulguage could be used for intricate e11ts,.ic meters, lit \\orked iucessanlly to purify the litilguiige, to revive will prvwrve old Swedish \wortis mill expressions, and to refire wild stiuuhlrlixe the grilmmar. European cimsviousness in Sweden and Swedish willingness to accept foreign cultural influence increased sharply in the 17th century with the reigiis of Gustavus 11, Adolphus, and Ghristinw. During the Swedish period of greatness num vious universities were founded, the Swedish Academy was organized, libraries and art erolivetions were formed, theaters were opened, and till the forms of high cultural v\pression were fostered by the iticrealsingly self conscious wild l:uropeauized arislocracy. initially the chief cultural influences were Dutch and then Gernitm, but in tilt 14111 century it thin French overlay wits applied to the life at court and among the very shall aristocratic elite, This only partially filtered down to the growing burgher class and did not overwhelm the iotellecttul) vir`ies; its it restdl. Sweden avoided tilt extrellies of Frailetophilia which so inhibited indigenous currents ill central itlid (-list Ellr pe otilturitl expression during the vssvnlially Frendiwk. A Kill 'gilt t,nnumt, Inslcad, the Itith lenlury pnfit',,.it�ach local geniuses its the naturalist, Carl von Linne (17117.78), whose literary production wits prodigious, and Ematmel S\wedenhorg (1688-172), scientist alld philosopher, who is today most noted for his work in theology, Antlers C.Asins (1701 �14), tilt origimitor of lilt centigrade thermome- ter, \was also it scientific writer of some mote. The outstanding purely literary figur of the period wits the pull Carl Mikael Bellmtln (17 111.6)5), who drew much of his inspiration from everyday lift in Stockholm, Military defeat by litissiw and political change at home, marked h\' the adoption of lilt Collslilutiotl of 1809, \weer` reflected \with Some lag ill lileralurt,. Ronu11ifeism dune to tilt S\w(les, its to other I"Illrpealls, its a reactfou to tilt, rationlllism of the previous celltlu'y, \whivil, instead of bringing the prillised plrgress of I1n1111mil\ plunged the volltinent Into it eluarler ct,nlury of warfare, Romamlicism wits also peolliarly suited to lilt rising tides of nationalism, SO in motion by that warfare, \wllich \wort, (e) wash over I ?grope throughout Ow 161111 will into (lit 211111 century, Swedelt dist,ngaged from its flirtation with French culture and reolicnled its focus to Cerlllalty, Gernan influellm was preemineltt until the 1920's, Mid Swedish Iiterwlllre silevessively reflected t ierlilim rnuultivism, idt,talisn, and rettlisn, The prirlcipwi early 19111 century expomvnl of rnnwntic interest in Sweden's past was F.A. C111stav (;vIjvr (175;3 1!7.171, an eminent historlin, philosopher, poet, will musician, Ditrillg the nliddlt deevuites of the 14th cvltury, Swedish Ilteritittry oscillated im0mvell r`alisill will idealisnn, new Interests ill everyday life, and it rumi tit icizing of peculiar mllional traditions, Modern Swedish literielum beghis with the work of August APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090021 -3 Strindlerg lN49- 1912), for till` modern dranitl dates frlrn Iris Afustt�r O1of (IS72) and till` modem rn)yel from Ills The Beth Bran (1 ti; 2), BY Ills originttlit lis ulAsterr of pros, and dialogue, .111(i tit(. infltl,ncc` of his work Auld personulih On S\\�t,( ish, not to stkN' F,11rol) `ao li.eruturr, ht` is lc fur the grt`ilt(-st writer S\vrdrn has pro(luc411, Thu` sharp sovi ;tl satire to which he devoted himself throughout his life hiss 1 4 .11 of marked si!{ull'it,nm'r` ')()tit sociitlIN' told Barra rih withi11 Sard(`n, Rt`tiction to Slrimiflt`rg ill lilt I880's took the form of a tiro- mnluntirlst nuvl`nu`nl, Iwo leaden of a'hiell wen` Verner yon Ilei(Iehstilnl (I 11)til) and Selma IISN(I Itimi, \nuns (lt hest known works is a series Of romantic stories wovvil S\\`edish voltti ral iihiry. Dr factor lit ilia of around Charles \11, St, Bridget, an(I tilt, ]13th auld I�Ith this century followed to It lar(e t c I 1 olkunlC kinds. \\'ills !'!u� Iltuulrrinl htslorir ;ll rmantv`, rnrl' ititn utYYf Sardri t :\r /ern lulls t)f +111 /fllr UI) l, I I N first -raw plil\' \\'rlgilt, I()\1'l`r't`r, tint` gl` rntertaint`d c +hildn`n tlr ighout (ht world, and with Striud1wrg (IS�IIE- 1012), \\'host mill greal s ltevr her nllllallti(! (;oslfr /it�r1tlg1 tit ,{,eft, slit` (`slill)lisllt`tI Iliktiv Ills Italm ally Of 111v Illost iltlplrta of ill Illodern hers,if its olll` of the Illost Implllll� 1111111ors of the Iwo- dritlllat .Mother stimt,ssfnl (Irarrlalist is Par higt` nist, rIlAUttfc`lst school, llei(lt,nslarll told I,aurriof (,Ilse t how(It`11 Itlotic:tl plet(Ires and tilt` r(TO l`d tilt, Nobel Prue in literatun`, The earl\' tears of (In` 20th Mlitury were it period of dl gi flilla tt hu t` 11usl other S ed v i cvnnit ikh I\ to it g r luul Civeadvilve hind p in Swc`(Iish literatow, its in relatiollship }fives to S\v(-disl) files till nrlistit, Clclir aul(I +:unpt,un litrrutur` 111 1;t`Ilt,ral, lil`Irr st,llltlll \'t` of (Ills to Illtlll\' stil}1e I ltl's it Illtdertl, tl'11111t11t` rh1'tlltll, II 11100d leer I liaimar Soderherg I +ti(i4)�!I)�11) 1111(1 lio \noun( lilt ),It, at Swr`(1lsh perfornu`rs of tin` sta}(t` an 11 "9 1111111 (Iti(il)- IUti7), SOdc4'h(`I�H`s fort(` us Iht, shlrl sclr`rn hall (-rdit (itlrltl, In}(rid Ilrrumun, \'ivrrll short', in whirl) his, ps�ehoIlt;it,al suhllrtr and in111' Afar` l +in(Ifurs, Ili);rid 'I'hulin, Si at, I Basso, cohlhint`c) and In whit,ll, 11s ill Ills hovels Martin RiY`ks and liili ;\tide rs on, all af \\'htt11 111nx vu Sydow, 1jn, +(Irnt (1901) aud looklor Was (11)0,3), hrllppearsus tiloekholin's IO'al Dramatic 1'I Pat n master aster of SM11dish prose, liergman also prodilved Rrr}(nuuc, 11 iliteruntio11all\ famous film Inemorallt, short dories, hilt his n`a) nrtlium wars till till an p 9md surtv`ssftil (Ir well, \\'i +s cntnlist ies (lirrclor or of this fulls 1 \rll` Ill` th- \',loped alld "`fined Ills 1111t,11 st` 1 ill tl riesof llit`alt`r frtll 1!) \s n fllnlr\ 1.1 t\ f 011 t,liols from alfnrtlrrll(t 1901) to lilket IN�1�I din 11.3 111 1)t1, "j, `etor, ht, flllo\\a in I1), fool A it 11\' 1$)"'() 1$)"'() a ;3 ll,a' unnlp of "prolt \vritrls \'itdor lt ,i us lrm Mid Mtatlrilx StilitIr, I1), gn`11( Ilom`en of Sav`dish aI)I)t41rt`d 1111 (Ill` stv`11t`, Thesc` writers, klill\\'ll its The Illt11t)11 picture tort, f u Ih`r}(Illtlll is ill tlltlll n`spt`lds it lnk iivr "w� \lour I,utidkyisl (1)(Ni 1, Ililrrt dist,iplr tf Slustrm, Both pn`ft,rr`(f :1 rralisifr sl'lr of 1`111rtinson (19M. t;ustnv S1u1d1(nal (!I)t>�I- ?r'k 1ac`tilt}( 1tn(1 fnslstr(1 On nulhrnlic` s,llititts in \\'hic`h Ihr lsklunel (11)O i- 1, and Josef K1r111(rrll (190 hilldse'apr` curd moods Of natltrviiO roils almost as oIx`11rd nra' fields fur literary pr tlot (,lust, to essrnlial as Ihost, (if tilt at,tcal rd,n's It,ndin); ild Johllsoll them stands E% (1)tH1 orle of 111111 prodliver of ducumetltart filnl, sere Surksdorl'f tvillilrt swedt`ll s trust gifted ruvvilsts, who was (1917- is best known for oils filth drulinu ailh the` Auld prinulril\' ill hrla11 Auld illtlistrial sociel\ world of uuimiah iglu) riyilixr mite's e\isl lj r\ era' its problems, \Vorld \1'ur I1 pIr)du(.v`cf ut Ill ultriurullsli, school of I AIIII 1 11 l ulilkr rnnrk l'ft,t,li\vdv lielll \\'ritt`rs, t`tlk,l� Ito e \pvrilllelll will Ile s1des and "`prt I\' I ts bill Il lit` 1s v est PrOgi \v ilh \\fiat I ,I tvnsich`n`d Ihr slog� rill, of kma'n for cvntrd ralhrr data y h,ilvier file` pn11X1l`ss Illaltl, It' Ill!` "pr letarioll" wrltvrs, I)tll' 1 e11irt \!`111,(1 b 11(nimill, I (""1- \\11)0 won the N oIt`I Prix, for +fill Ircltillig Ihealrr is till Ronal 1 raillctlit heater, Ilte`rntluv` !11 !iE"11, is rrlKnnlyd It mane as tilt gr`alt'sl "'Ili,ll \yes foundt'd ill 1"O NN h} Kink (:usttivlls 111, t)f Swedish wrll,r of' tilt ;20th t`t`lll 'm, Air I w ou(Imak of hisloricai hUen`sl is Iht, tval(ury (;oon'1 '1'1)(` sin) World \ljilr 11, I +agrrkuisl hhad 111r`ndt sho\\'n himsl`If I)rafl'1iulxholnl (,ilsllr, \\'hi,h uses till s11tHr pnp,rtirs u}(!t infltic`mv`rl bt. til, 1lleralurt` aan(1 arl of iuul 111118h rl> of tlual a{I, \vlth the oril(ilutl stv`nrr\', 1 +:\pressionisnl, In Ills 1mviry and drallUt ht` gralduadIv shaped Ills owlt s till power tend sinlplicit' of \yhich chalrat,lerixe his later prose works�The u o f alld /if rrubas ---ill wiliell tilt` difficult cvmfliets of the limes are elearly al)pareu( under the historical) (lisgIlisr, G(Illuttr Ekelof, wlu Ie1Cuu writing; surren list it. pot,nls t,arl in ale lyt3 t's, later dt a n1usU`r%' of nurt` traditional forms, and finally arrived lit it kill I(Iuenrss of st\'It and vitulih' t1) makes hire oltc` of Srvrdeu's most popular ports, 2� Theater -i.1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090021 -3 Outside of Stockholm, which is amply endowed with private theaters, tilt Itgitimatt- stage is he avily supported with puhlic funds, Many of tilt- larger cities have mtmieipal pla.lyhoalst,sa the Malmo City Theatt.r Is one of the largest in Emrpe. A number of touring companies. which operate tinder the educational sVstt,nl, give over 2,M) performatlrt.s each winter. 111 the sullimerlime various companies ,appear in municipal nvreation parks. The theater dt,partnment of the Swedish BttatlCalstitig Corporation also pnduers plaNIs for radio and television. 3. Music The latter part of the 15th century was an w1xv of vigorous cultural activity in Sweden, and music in particular flourished at the court of King Ctistavus 111, j lit founded the ACadt,my of Music in 17 and the Royal Opera, itlelutfing lilt !loyal Mullet, in 1773, Ilowever, it w as not 1111til the Crvatimi of orgy mird vonevrl activities with proft oreht.stras at tilt (111i of tilt- 14th wtittlry that Swedish musical lift- rail he said to have rvikOwd any.brvadth or indrpeucirller. This is oa of the rvasotts why S\wdvit's greatest sympholtist. F rattle Bvrwald (1796-1868) was not ii4aloMmIged in Ills own country ualil nmaly yrirs after his death. Sweden's foremost s\ nlpholly composers inelalde, in addition to Berwuld. Wilht,bn Stetilminuar (Iti71. 14);27), Ilogo (1872- 1960), whose Midsummer Vigil is oftt,n heard it lilt. Visited Slittes cider the (illy, Swwdish flhaitxctdy, finding Rosmilierg (1134)2- and Karl- liirger Blondahl (1431 (i-ti,4 Sinn tilt- hegiloiltg of tilt' 001 velllury, synlpbony ordwstnts subsidirt,d by national will (oral govemilletits halve hevii formed ilt lhr larpr vilies. In addition to tilt 111mv outstanding Sloekholm t`nsemblesp �tilt` Ito\'a l Opent Or`heslral, till` Sttwk- holm Phillmrinoie, will tilt Hotho Owhestm- and dw permanent symphttly owliestrits in tilt five largest Cities, some fill orrhrstrats lhrllghoalt the vonntry any composed of proft,ssiond dual aallialt'lir musicians, During the 1960's musleill life has t,xpandvd gmally hveaust of div formation of at govt.rultrul- supported milimial Cotivt.rt bun which arranges Cotievri tours by outstaanling artists to vitrious parts of lilt t4nmlry, '1'ht,sr 1wrbrnutuCt.s, \\hlrll mitidwr over (,iN1U alllllmilly, Include both evvning emievris and daytime alppraraulres in whools, Mmly of Swrdrn's finest singers aucf itlslrutnviditlish at- periodically ('tlgllgt,tl ill such activities. Corlrniporar> tmllt,strad aald Cham1wr mole, both luternaatlomil will Swti at-` fairly \vet) w1m in lilt Swedish mtlsivaal rvpvrtorr, The most important Im modern S\ %vdish eomixser\ itieludv Sven -Erik Duck, Ingvor I.Idholrn, Alhm 1'ettersson, and Lars johan Werle. Focal music is popular ill Sweden, as in tilt other Cerintude Countries, and tiruws heavily from the reservoir of folk songs, as well as it series of inspired hallad writers, anxng them Carl Mikad Bellnaul, Birger Sjoberg (1885- 141241), and Evert Timbe (1890- Sweden's International wputation in vocal music, however, stems principally from it number of foam mis o1wral singers, such us jenny Lind (1820 -h" u "Swedish Nightingale", Kristina Nilsson (11443 -I1a1 jussi 13jorling (1911 -60), the great tenor, Birgit Nilsson 0918. )c and Nicolas Ct.dda (11135 probably tilt' greatest living tenor. All of them began their careers tot the Swedish Royal Opera in Stoekholm, whose extensive wpertoin includes, besides Cltissiral and modern Eurolwan works, such Swedish operas its I'vienon- Berger'\ AmIjot, Itanlgstrol's Kru nbruden, iuld Ilomdihl's two ccotemporitry works, Aniara and Herr non Hatic k Ameriraun r eogililtou of Swedish operatic aarcyolplishtnt.ltts was marked by the rolling of lilt Royal Oper;t's thrector Ceran Getade (t) take over the New Turk MOrpolilan Opera. hnfortu- nalvIv Cenlele was killml iu 14172 ill ail automobile aareidvtit shortly afit he had iswmrd the position, d. AK and lamhiteeture None of the Swedish paitivr\ cult rank with the truly great internaliona) figiiws, Kul several hove altain d in their own maitre. Ertlst josepllsotl 0851.144) aural Carl Fredrik Ifill (1849- 1911) are widely rrgalyded is the most gifted S\\etlish Ilalinivrs of lilt Mill vviltilry, Both unllelplilml to some t (ht v\pr