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SECRET 11 /GS/ Svc May 1 NAT': SECRET NO FORE u ._f ear'. N _..a ww.:. ...v.u,� r. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090022 -2 i I i NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY PUBLICATIONS S t The basic unit of the NIS is the General Survey, which is now published in a bound -by- chapter forl-lat so that topics of greater per- ishability can be updated on an individual basis. These chapters�Country Profile, The Society, Government and PoWics, The Economy, Military Geog- raphy, Transportation and Telecommunications, Armed Forces, Science, and Intelligence and Security, provide the primary NIS coverage. Some chapters, particularly Science and Intelligence and Security, that are not pertinent to all countries, are produced selectively. For small countries requiring only minimal NIS treatment, the General Survey coverage may be bound into one volume. Supplementing the General Survey is the NIS Basic Intelligence Fact book, a ready reference publication that semi%:nnually updates key sta- +istical data found in the Survey. An unclassified edition of the factbook omits some detcils on the economy, the defense forces, and the intelligence and security organizations. :!though detailed sections on many topics were part of the NIS Program, production of these sections has been phased out. Those pre- viously produced will continue to be available as long as the major portion of the study is considered valid. A quarterly listing of all active NIS units is published in the Inventory of Available NIS Publications, which is also bound into the concurrent classified Factbook. The Inventory lists all NIS units by area name and number and includes classification and date of issue; it thus facilitates the ordering of NIS units as well as their filing, cataloging, and utilization. Initial dissemination, additional copies of NIS units, or separate chapters of the General Surveys can be obtained directly or through liaison channels from the Central Intelligence Agency. The General Survey is prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency and the Defense Intelligence Agency under the general direction of the NIS Committee. It is coordinated, edited, published, and dissemi- nated by the Central Intelligence Agency. WARNING This document contains information affecting the national defense of the United States, within the meaning of title 18, sections 793 and 794 er the US code, as amended. Its transmission or revelation of its contents to or receipt by an unauthorized parson is prohibited by law. CLASSIFIED BY 019641, EXEMPT FROM GENERAL DECLASSIFI� CATION SCHEDULE OF E. O. 11632 EXEMPTION CATEGORIES 3B (1), (2), (3). DECLASSIFIED ONLY ON APPROVAL OF THE DIRECTOR OF CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090022 -2 WARNING The NIS is National Intelligence and may not be re- leased or shown to representatives of any foreman govern- ment or international body except by specific authorization of the Director of Central Intelligence in accordance with the provisions of National Security Council Intelligence Di- rective No. 1. For NIS containing unclassified material, however, the portions so marked may be made available for official pur- poses to foreign nationals and nongovernmer.t personnel provided no attribution is made to National Intelligence or the National Intelligence Survey. Subsections and graphics are individually classified according to content. Classification /control designa- tions are: (U /OU) Unclassified /For Official Use Only (C) Confidential (S) Secret APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090022 -2 I This chapter was prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency. It includes contribu- tions by the Departments of the Air Force, Army, and Navy and the Defense Intelligence Agency. Research was substantially completed by November 1972. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090022 -2 SWEDEN CONTENTS This General Survey supersedes 'the one dated Sep- tember 1967 copies of which should be destroyed. A General 1 Facters contributing to a strong research and de- velopment capacity; scope of scientific research effoiis; membership In international scientific or- ganizations; international agreements for scientific and technical cooperation. B. Organization, planning, and financing of research 2 Informal coordination of research effort by various cwit oils, boards, ministries, and scientific acad- emies; function and organization of the National Science Advisory Council; funding and expendi- tures. SECRET No FOREIGN DISSEM APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090022 -2 1 Page C. Scientific education, manpower, and facili- Page ties................ 6 Higher educational institutions offering scientific instruction; degrees; number of students in tech- 3 nical training; adequacy of research facilities and Royal Institute of Technology photo) equipment. Fig. 3 D. Major research fields 8 1. Air, ground, and naval weapons 8 Weapons development situation; aircraft de- 19 velopment, production, and marketing; missile 19 program ground force weapons and equip- (photo) ment; nbval research and development. 2. Biological and chemical warfare 12 Restriction to development of defensive capa- 20 bility; scope of BW research; CW research and development capability. 3. Atomic energy 14 Nuclear research facilities and equipment; 22 nuclear power projects; uranium deposits. 4. Electronics 16 Research and development facilities; signifi- cant developments; projects and programs underway; computers Page 5. Medical sciences, including veterinary Page medicine 17 Areas receiving primary emphasis in bio- medical research; efforts in biochemistry; bio- 3 physics, microbiology, physiology, and cardio- Royal Institute of Technology photo) vascular research; pharmacology and psy- Fig. 3 chiatry; research facilities; veterinary medical research. (photo) 6. Other sciences 19 a. Chemistry and metallurgy 19 Efforts in biochemistry and physical, (photo) ganic, inorganic, and analytical chemistry; scope of metallurgical research. b. Physics and mathematics 20 Research activities in solid state, nuclear, plasma, laser, atomic, and molecular phys- ics; mathematical research. c. Astrogeophysical sciences 22 Efforts in astronomy and space sciences, meteorology, terrestrial geophysics and geology, geodesy, hydrology, hydraulics, coastal engimering, and oceanography. Glossary 28 FIGURES ii r.nn .ar.w:�. h.t ^.u.S t:*'.riKi1/,N71 !.!?4ei4'i^ `1ri i; Page Fig. 5 Armored recovery vehicle, BGBV -82 (photo) 11 Fig. 6 Armor,,d bridge launching vehicle (Photo) 11 Fig. 7 Selected sites of scientific activity (map) 27 i I i i APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090022 -2 Page Fig. 1 Government organization for scien- tific and technical activities chart) 3 Fig. 2 Royal Institute of Technology photo) 7 Fig. 3 Chalmers Institute of Technology (photo) 7 Fig. 4 IKV -91, mounting a 90 -mm gun (photo) 11 ii r.nn .ar.w:�. h.t ^.u.S t:*'.riKi1/,N71 !.!?4ei4'i^ `1ri i; Page Fig. 5 Armored recovery vehicle, BGBV -82 (photo) 11 Fig. 6 Armor,,d bridge launching vehicle (Photo) 11 Fig. 7 Selected sites of scientific activity (map) 27 i I i i APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090022 -2 Science A. General (U /OU) Sweden enjoys an impressive position in the field of science and technology, ranking well ahead of the other Scandinavian countries. It has made 111.111% important contributions to science, and several Swedish scientists have been recipients of the Nobel prizes, derived from funds provided by the Nobel foundation of Sweden. Because of the rapid grog% th of scientific research in mat:% ether corntries, the overall impact of the Swedish Scientific effort cm worldwide Science and technology has decreased, but the duality of scientific research remains very High. A country of the size of Sweden with a population of h million cannot have the financial resources or the number of technically trained personnel to compete effectively in all scientific fields with such countries as the United States, the United Kingdom, the U.S.S.11., or West Germany. Nevertheless, efficient management of limited resources, well equipped research facilities. and excellent scientific manpower have contributed to a strong research and development capacity. Swedish leaders "re, aware of the rapid progress of science and techtology and of the inipact of advancing technology on social progress and economic development. Because the growth of the population is slow and the level of employment is high, further expansion of the economy must corne mairIv from more advanced technological methods, the develop- ment of new skills, and improved utilization of manpower. Research is being deliberately stimulated and directed toward meeting national needs, and both private industry and the government are cooperating in the endeavor. The government has set up it rnechanisrn to give greater direction to the planning Mid coordinating of research and has undertaken programs for the expansion of higher educational facilities. Most of the research is of am applied natitre, although some excellent basic research is done in the medical, biological, and physical sciences. Outstand- ing research ;s underway in biochemistry and litri Sweden is (-lost to attaining world leadership in these fields, paralleling its traditional prominence in the bionledical s(+ noes. Sweden cooperates internationally in scientific affairs on a bilateral basis as well as with mnitilaleral organizations such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). the European Nuclear Energy Agency (ENEA). the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CEBN and the Southern Euronean Observatory. It is it member of the principal international astrogeophysical organizations. Sweden also participates in the European Space Research Organization (f.SRO), hilt is not it menber of the European Launcher Development Organization (EI.DO). Although there have been some indications that Sweden might discontinue its FSRO membership and concentrate on a national progra in of space research, it has agreed to participate in the various programs at ESRO at least until 1974. Sweden is a nember of the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) and the Scandinavian Council for Applied Research, which was set up in 19 -17 to promote cooperation in scientific research and development among the Scandinavian countries. Swedish scientists take an active part in international scientific APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090022 -2 conferences abroad, and many internatiotal scientific meetings are held in the country. Sweden has numerous agree for scientific and technical cooperation with Western and Cornmuutist countries. fit 1967 the Drench initiated the formation of a Swedish French Research Association as �.t means of furthering scientific contacts between the two countries. Several scientific agreement have been signed with the U.S.S.R� in January 1970Sweden and the U.S.S. R. s ;greed an agreement relating to economic and technological- sci(!ntific cooperation, The agreement covered such areas as construction. shipbuilding, electrical equipme transportation, and forestry, and provided for an increased exchange of researchers and scientific information. Individual agreements �re signed with Hungary in Whip). Cooperation among the Scandinavian countries in all matters has been a long- standing tradition And is promote by the Nordic Council, N Cultural Cornmission, and the Scandinavian Council for Applied Research. One of the principal fields of cooperation is the peaceful us(- of alorn;c energy. As a result of action taken by tit(- Nordic Council's Cultural C ommitte e, the Nurdi,. Institute of Theoretical Atomic Physics (NORLITA) was established ill Copenhagen. Swedish scientists have participated in important fundamental research conducted at NORDI'I'A. Sweden aas one of the first countries to use special attaches to follow scientific m tivities in other countries and has such positions in Washington, Paris. Moscow, Tokvo, and Frankfurt. B. Organization, planning, and financing of research (S) Research organization and guidance in Sweden, although diversified and decentralized, are effective. Government research councils, industrial research councils, and the universities and learned societies closely coordinate the scientific effort so that efficient use is made of the limited number of train( researchers and limited financial resources (Figure I). Four types of organizations guide and coordinate re search: I the research councils and research hoards. operating under relevant ministries, which guide certain fields of research and allot government funds; 2) the ministries of the government, which oversee st ate research inst allations; 3) the sc ientific academies. which operate on government and private contrihu- tions; and 4) groups of scientists and industrialists, w hich often operate with some state aid. i 'I'll( research council an� important govemnent agencies which supervise and fitance research. The councils usually have eight to 12 rncrnhers and act as advisory agencies to the government ert matters of science policy in their fields. '1'1c specific aims of each council arc to oversee the research in its field, to initial(- and review proposed projects, and to promote needed research by allocating go:enttnenl gra i... The Ministry of E(]ucation and Ecclesiastical Affairs directs most of the important re search councils. which are the Atomic Research Council, the Natural Science Research Council, the Medical Research Council, the Social Sciences Research Council, and the ffumanistic flesearch Council. 'I'll(- Ministry of Agriculture has the Agricultural and Forvstry Research Council subordi- rata to it. The Building Research Council is under the Ministry of the Interior, An increasingly important agency for industrially orient research is the Board for 'Technical Developtncttt (STU), established in July 1968, The STU is subordinate to the Ministry of Industrial Affairs ;end is concerned mainly with thcr support of applied research, tit(- industrial exploitation of research results, and the adaptation of innovations to the needs of society. It also supports basic research insofar as it advances technological developrnfnt. The STU essentially replaced and absorbed the functions of the following organizations: the'I'echnical Research Council, which made grants for applied research, mainly to individual:; the Foundation for the Exploitation of Research Results WFOR), which ;.tided researchers and inventors in securing industrial support; the Institute for the Utilization of Research Results ONFOR), which provided financial support to industry for undertaking deveioptn (-tit of promising; new methods and products; the Iron Ore Foundation (Malntfonden), which supported relatively large development projects, using funds (about US$2 million annually) received from the government owned iron ore raining company in Kiruna; and the Swedish Inventor's Office, which assisted inventors in patenting their discoveries and in making contact w ith industry. The STU supports the Scandinavian Council for Applied Research and directs the Council for Scientific Information and Documentation. The Ministry of Defense directs one of the largest government scientific research gro!tps in Sweden, the Defense Research Instituter (FOA). Stockholm. it is supported by and serves the three artned services. The FOA coordinates the basic and much of the applied research effort of the entire military estaW ?shment and conducts re-arch in its four departments, two divisions, and one laboratory: Department for APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090022 -2 Chernistry and Medicine J0A -I it Sundbyberg, Departnu-nt of Phvsies J'OA -2), Deparinu-tit of I ?Icctronics and Conunlmicutions (I'OA 3), Depart rnent of Nuclear Physics and Nu(lcur Clivinistry J*OA -4), Materials Division (1'M -M), Division for lieseurch Planning and Operations liese arch J'OA -P), and Ntilitary I ?Iectronics Labomturv(1'i'L). I'OA is concerned with cherrnicuf and biologic warfare studies. I'0A -2 undertakes research rebated to wcapous sysIvins. F'OA -3 is engaged in ;all phases of transmission, trunsform;ttion, and processing of commttnientions information and systems, as welf as h,isic radio research; special attention is given to wave propagation, antenims, and electron tithe. It also clots work on electronic warfare, radar, and sonar. The F'I'I, is part of I-M -3, ;ind its activities include electronics testing and standardization of electronic components and systems. I-OA cooper;ttes %vith the universities in supporting research in nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry. The l'0A cooperates with other orpniza- lions concerned with v;arions aspects of defense research, including the Swedish Defense Staff, Defense Services, Royal Swedish hortific ition Adininislniticm, Defense Medical Board, Medical licscurch Council. I)ireclorate of the Naticnul Defense Factories, universities, and industries. Defense- oriented organizatiolis which arc subordinate to other ministries include the Notional Aeronautical licscurch Institute, Ulvsundu, and the Stole Shipbuilding I?xlmrinumlul 'hank, Goteborg; both we under the Miiiistry of Industrial Affairs. The Nalioual Aeronautical liesearch Institute bas wind tunnels for static nand dynamic testing of airplane models in the range of subsonic to supersonic speeds, It also has cciuipment for testing complete structures, structural components, and test spe iniens under static and dyuontic fatigue loading. 'For diacritics on plat" names set� the list of manes at the end of the chapter. 3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090022 -2 I tdI ++w PRIME MINISTEP, llado/utl pt National Sdontd:c Advisory Council (NSAC Cabinet Sciences KVA) Engineering Sciences (IVA L tVBrMa Corbatisrae I1jNwltnrr #ndwtetlJ IiAri" Cayt!rihtunlatlav, tMarlor Defense Board for Swedish State Agricultural r CiflMrc /1o Research Technical Power Board and forestry Atomic Institute Development Research (FOA) (STU) Council Medical National N IS cience Clwat National Meteorological Agricultural Social Sconces Acronautiri and Hydrological and Veterinary Humanistic Research Institute Institutes fed'. Institute >rt6t Universitico and Co!sllayelatfoRaa National National Technological Atomic Energy Board Gootectimcal Environmental Institutes 1tnd= d Institute Protection chdntl Atomic En* Board Oirpbns; company h ind State Sn,yuuilding Experimental Tank Building Research Council :ai�Iih MauiYs Swedish Geological Survey State Bacteriological Institute FIGURE 1. Government organization for scientific and technical activities, 1971 (C) Chernistry and Medicine J0A -I it Sundbyberg, Departnu-nt of Phvsies J'OA -2), Deparinu-tit of I ?Icctronics and Conunlmicutions (I'OA 3), Depart rnent of Nuclear Physics and Nu(lcur Clivinistry J*OA -4), Materials Division (1'M -M), Division for lieseurch Planning and Operations liese arch J'OA -P), and Ntilitary I ?Iectronics Labomturv(1'i'L). I'OA is concerned with cherrnicuf and biologic warfare studies. I'0A -2 undertakes research rebated to wcapous sysIvins. F'OA -3 is engaged in ;all phases of transmission, trunsform;ttion, and processing of commttnientions information and systems, as welf as h,isic radio research; special attention is given to wave propagation, antenims, and electron tithe. It also clots work on electronic warfare, radar, and sonar. The F'I'I, is part of I-M -3, ;ind its activities include electronics testing and standardization of electronic components and systems. I-OA cooper;ttes %vith the universities in supporting research in nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry. The l'0A cooperates with other orpniza- lions concerned with v;arions aspects of defense research, including the Swedish Defense Staff, Defense Services, Royal Swedish hortific ition Adininislniticm, Defense Medical Board, Medical licscurch Council. I)ireclorate of the Naticnul Defense Factories, universities, and industries. Defense- oriented organizatiolis which arc subordinate to other ministries include the Notional Aeronautical licscurch Institute, Ulvsundu, and the Stole Shipbuilding I?xlmrinumlul 'hank, Goteborg; both we under the Miiiistry of Industrial Affairs. The Nalioual Aeronautical liesearch Institute bas wind tunnels for static nand dynamic testing of airplane models in the range of subsonic to supersonic speeds, It also has cciuipment for testing complete structures, structural components, and test spe iniens under static and dyuontic fatigue loading. 'For diacritics on plat" names set� the list of manes at the end of the chapter. 3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090022 -2 The 11iuistry of Industrial Affairs directs the Atomic Energy Berard (AiB), whusr functions arc to advise the government un alI mutters pertaining to atc,nic energy, to plan for the development of :atomic c�nrrly within the frarnework of the co :,rtry's e rgy supply and requirenrents, to handle internation.: ooperation in the field of atornic energy, and to deal with I and safety (Iuestions. The AEB also makes recommendations to the Ministry of Industrial Affairs concerning appropriations of I'Mids to the Atomic Energ) Company, which was formed by the government and industry in 14 17. '['It(- government assumed full ownership of the cumpauv in 1969. The company adrninist�rs applied rescar.-h and the air rniic energy program; it also supports a significant amount Of basic research in certain key areas of nnclvar energy development. Basic nuclear research is supported b grants from the Atomic Research Council of the Ministry of Education and Ecclesiastical Affairs, The nuclear power progr is directed by the Swedish State Power Board of the Ministry of Commerce, 7'he Ministry of Agriculture directs agricultural and veterinary research institutes, i:� ;ding hr State Veterinary Medical Institute, Stockholm, and the Skara Veterinary Institute. Skara. Also subordinate to the ministry is the National Environmental Protection Board and its research committy"% The Institute for Water and Air Pollution Research, Stockholm, was established in 193 -1 and is jointly supported by industry and the government. Ili I!)7() the institute established the Foundation for Water Ind Air Pollution Research to reduce sharply the country's environmental pollution while retaining the industry's international connpetitiveness, The Ministry of Local Covemment and Communic dire the Meteorological arrd flydrologic,I Institute and the National (;(-()((.Clinical Institute, both in Stockholm. Coordination of both the national arrd international space programs is carried out by the State Delegation for Space Activities, which was appointed in July 1072 to replace the Space Research Committee. The latter, it joint committee of the STU, the Natural Science Research Council, and the Medical Research Council, resigned in protest against inadequate funding of the space program, The Swedish ESPO Cormittee, established in 1964, represents various ministries, the space research community, and industry. in the international organization. A significant part of research, particularly fundamental research is cavied out in facilities for science and medicine of the universities which are operated by the government through the Ministry of Education and Ecclesiastical Affairs. 'rhe technical 4 unive rsities, also under the ministry, conduct c016iderable research with emphasis oil the applied aspects. University research is supported by the national research councils, by variors foundations, and b industry, as well as by funds directly appropriated by the government fur the ape-ration of the universities. Several academies of science act as private sponsors in various arr of scientific development. All of them dispense public aril private funds for research arid for Sweetish participation in international scientific and cultaral conferences. Two ucadetnies are particularly influential; the Royal Academy of Sciences (KVA), founded in I N,31 and the Royal Academy of E'nginceririg Sciences OVA), foundrd in 191ol Both acradetnies are substantially private organizations, but receive a small amount of support fro the government. Since 194 a large part of the KVA 's income had been derivod from the printing of calendars, almanacs, and cortair, related publications; this source of funds was abruptly withdrawn in july 1972, and the government is considering a direct subsidy to replace the lost funds. 'I'll( IVA's funds are de "ved mainly front industrial support. Although there is considerable overlap in their interests, membership. and v etivitics, essentially the. KVA prornotes the basic sciences, while the IVA prornc es research tit engineering sciences to further industry and to improve utilization of natural re:;ourees. The KVA cunhibutes to science planning arid offers :advice on science policy. It maintains an excciient scientific museum and libran� arid direct, several institutes in various parts of the country, the most important of which is Ou� Nobel Institute, Stockholm, which is financed by the Nobel Foundation. The KVA awards the Nobll prizes in chemistry and physics. Membership in the KVA iF restricted, and election to the aca,- ay is Wonsidered a high honor of scientific recogn'tion by one's peers. The IVA's membership is larger than the KVA's, its resources are greater, and its activities are inure diverse. It has I number of committees embr --ing virtually all engineering specialities, and it sponsors a variety of symposia, seminars, and publications. IVA shares with the STU the responsibility for selecting and administering Sweden's counterpart to the U.S, program of scientific attaches. Industrial research is growing rapidly. A number of industrial enterprises have well- equipped laboratories and compeient research staffs of their own. The greater part of industrial research and development is carried out within the big companies, especially the wood, pulp, paper, telecommunications, steel and APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090022 -2 I machinery industries. The 98 largest enterprises (those with over 1,000 employees) account for more than three fourths of total industrial research. Industrial applied research also is conducted in some of the universities, particularly the institutes of technology, in governmental laboratories, and in cooperative research institutes (Branschforskningsinstitut). These latter institutes have research programs of interest to a particular branch of industry and represent an effort on the part of Swedish industry to acquire tyre benefits of research through cooperative activity. In 1966 there were almost 40 of these institutes, some of which received partial financial support from the govern- ment. They play an important role in industrial research programs and are of particular importance to the smaller industrial organizations, which find it difficult to finance researeh programs in their own laboratories. The Swedish Institute for Metal Research, Stockholm, is one of the larger cooperative research institutes, employing about 55 people. The Swedish Forest Products Research Institute, Stock- holm, also a cooperative institute, employs about 100 people in its main facility and 150 in special laboratories. Sweden has no central organization responsible for coordination of research and for long -range planning. Informal coordination has been adequate for the small Swedish scientific community, and an intricate interlocking network of boards, committees, councils, and panels insure constant contact among key scientists of the country. Nevertheless, there is a growing sentiment within the government for the establishment of a formal body to be responsible for long -range planning, to establish priorities, to insure a balanced research and development program, and to provide for the allocation of resources to meet anticipated needs. The National Science Advisory Council (NSAC) was created in 1962 to provide long range plans and counseling, but its role has been entirely advisory and without real authority. It has functioned mainly as a forum for dis�,-ussion of research policy and consideration of research matters of broad interest to the scientific community. It is composed of highly respected individuals from higher education, the government, and commerce. In a reorganization in February 1969 its membership was reduced from 30 to 18, primarily by dropping industrial representatives. The Prime Minister is the chairman of the NSAC; there are two vice chairmen, the Minister of Education and the Minister of Industrial Affairs. The former is responsible for basic research and the latter for applied research and industrial development. Since World War 11, Swedish scientists have received steadily increasing and relatively generous financial support for their programs. however, during FY72 the amount approved by the government for research and development increased only 8% over the previous year; this is essentially a maintenance budget since mounting inflation and rising costs of rescarch are expected to consume most of the apparent increase. Almost one -half of the total expenditure for msearch and development comes from nongovern- ment sources, indicating a growing interest by industry and private organizations in research and the industrial applications of research results. Total expenditures for research and development during FY72, including that for private industry, amount to about US$500 million' or about 1.4% of Sweden's gross national product. Complete data on the government's support for research and develop- ment are not available; such fn:uls are scattered among various agencies and are not in readily identifiable form as research and development funds. A partial breakdown of the government's support of research and development for F1'71 and FY72 by major recipient is as follows, in millions of U.S. dollars; The amounts shown for the Office of the Chancellor of the Universities represent 30% of the total amounts appropriated for university operations; this is the percentage estimated that the higher schools spend on actual research activities. In addition to the arnounts shown, the Building Research Council received an additional $7.9 million during FY71 and $8.1 million during FY72 from a special building research tax. Approximately $35 to $40 million is spent annually by other government organizations with research and development responsibilities, including the National Aeronautical Research Institute, Shipbuilding Experimental Tank, Geological Survev, National Institute of Public Health, and numerous smaller facilities. 'SK r5.01 US$ 1.00. 5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090022 -2 FY71 FY72 Office of the Chancellor of the Universities $54.9 $60.1 Board for Technical Development 19.0 22.1 Defense Research Institute 16.6 19.8 Natural Science Research Council 8.4 9.3 Medical Research Council 8.0 8.6 Atomic Research Council 3.2 3.5 Agricultural and Forestry Research Council 1.9 2.1 Building Research Council 0.5 0.8 Atomic Energy Company 12.0 10.4 Environmental Protection Board Research Committee 2.2 2.4 Other state -owned research institutes 39.4 35.0 The amounts shown for the Office of the Chancellor of the Universities represent 30% of the total amounts appropriated for university operations; this is the percentage estimated that the higher schools spend on actual research activities. In addition to the arnounts shown, the Building Research Council received an additional $7.9 million during FY71 and $8.1 million during FY72 from a special building research tax. Approximately $35 to $40 million is spent annually by other government organizations with research and development responsibilities, including the National Aeronautical Research Institute, Shipbuilding Experimental Tank, Geological Survev, National Institute of Public Health, and numerous smaller facilities. 'SK r5.01 US$ 1.00. 5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090022 -2 The Atomic Research Council has requestrd it budget of US$6 million for FY73. In May 1971 the parliament placed the responsibility on the council for the additional costs of Swedish participation in the CERN program for a European 300 GeV accelalor. This will amount to $1.:i million for FY73, an almost i 50% increase over the FY72 allocation. Iligh priority is 1 given to plasr:ja physics, and in FY72 the council received $320,000 for research it t:is field. The higher educational institutions receive the 4 major portion of their research funds from the Ministry of Education and Ec.:!u iastical Affairs. In recent years these funcls have inc ased rapidly at the rate of 13 to 20 per year. In addition to the support received from the ministry, funds also are obtained from the research councils, private foundations, arid industry for contract research. The national research councils comprise an important medium for the distribution of government funds to universities, technical universities, and research institutes. Of the US$47 million spent on research and development at the universities and other institutes of higher learning during FY68, $12.7 million was received from the national research councils, $3.9 million from foundations, $98,000 from contract research, and $195,000 from sources abroad. Several private foundations provide about US$4 million annually for contract research at the institutes of technology and various research association laboratories. The most important foundations are the Wallenburg, Johnson, Bergwall, IDunkers, and Ericsson. Although the FY72 budget provides only it modest increase for research activities in general, broad environmental protection activities have been accorded priority status, and the overall funds for this purpose have been substantially increased. The responsibility for these activities is centered primarily in the Ministry of Agriculture. The total environmen- tal protection budgets for FY71 and FY72 amounted to US$38.3 million and $49.3 million, respectively. Of these sums, the specific ollocations for research and development were $2.2 million and $2.4 million. A 5 -year budget (1970 -75) for the Atomic Energy Company amounts to US$60 million. About $4.5 million is being spent annually by the company for research and development on thermal and fast reactors. The space budget has offered little consolation to the Swedish space scientists. T he recommendation for a national satellite was rejected by the government as were the recommendations for increased space technological activities. National space activities are funded by the STU and the R research councils. The Space Conmittee feels that $1.6 million is necessary for it viable program. The major space effort continues to be participation in the European Space Research Organization (ESRO). The appropriation for ESRO showed a modest increase in 1 -172, $5.6 million from $5 million the previous year. The Swedes consider this it practical investment since Swedish industry has been awarded it substantial portion of ESRO's developmental contracts, The STU's budget has increased steadily since its establishment, but the .v.propriations have been consistently far Iess than :',je STU believed necessary to fulfill its responsibili:aes. Although for FY72 the STU requested almost double the US$18.9 million it had received during 1.171, it received only $22 million. C. Scientific education, manpower, and facilities (U /OU) Sweden has a long tradition as it leading nation in t'ic field of education at all levels of learning. With the exception of it few specialized schools, the educational institutions and their associated research institutes and laboratorie are under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Education and Ecclesiastical Affairs. The state maintains six universities and three technological institutes at the university level: the Universities of Stockholm, Goteborg, Uppsala, Lund, Umea, arid Linkoping (the Lst established ill 1970); the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm (Figure 2); the Chalmers Institute of Technology (CT11), Goteborg (Figure 3); and the 'Technological Institute of Lund. Supplementing the institutions of higher learnir -g are a number (;i colleges, each covering a specialized field. Students are not classified according to year as is customary in U.S. universities. A typical student will pass it general examination leading to the degree of filosofie kandidat or filosofie magister 3 to 5 years after admittance, arid the degree of filosofie licentiat after several more years. The degrees of filosofie magister arid filosofie kandidat are broadly equivalent, except the former signifies inclusion of pedagogy in the program. The degree of doktor is acquired several years after the filos. )fie licentiat; it is awarded in recognition of it major scientific contribution accomplished through independent research and represents a standing well above the average American doctorate degree. The excessive requirements of these degrees probably account for the relatively small number awarded. For instance, in 19w3l only 600 filosofie licentiat arid 80 doktor degrees were awarded APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090022 -2 in the medical sciences and only 220 filosofie licential and 65 doktor degrees in the natural science and engineering fields. The exclusiveness of higher education seems to have had some beneficial byproducts. Students that go on to a higher education are strongly motivated and a c_reer comparable with their education is expected by them. Also, a large irurnber of students who are not qualified to enter universities enroll in vocational schools, and as a result the country is well supplied with technicians, In spite of a rate of population growth of only about 0.691. per year, enrollment in institutions of higher education has continued to rise rapidly, as has the number of degrees granted. Enrollment in higher educational institutions rose from 36,300 in 19ti0 to 70,200 in 1965 and by 1970 had reached more than 11(),000 The total enrollrricnt of new students in !970 was 2.1,700, 16% of which were enrolled in scientific subjects and I 1 in engineering. The number of students desiring technical training in 1967 was nearly three times the miniber tl.ait could be admitted to the institutes of technology. Although expansion of the institutes was underwav, facilities for technical education were expected to remain far below needs for several years. Scientific and technical manpower resources have improved considerably in recent veal's as a result of the increased era rollments in higher ducatiotial institutions, as well as by the immigration of scientists and engineers from other Scandinavian countries. Nevertheless, there is a continuing shortage of personnel with doctorate degrees despite an increase of 2W(r in doctoral candidates since 1967. A 1966 report prepared by a special government commission recommended the creation of a degree similar to the Ph.F. in the United States in order to d torten considerably the period of degree candidacy. The long period of study at a low level of recognition and comp;'nsation required for the traditional doctorate is felt to have restricted the number c+ individuals pursuing careers in science. By 1971 approximately 20,000 persons were vrioged in research in industrial facilities and another 7,700 in universities and government research institutes. Among the larger government facilities in 1966. the FOA had 1,600 emplo of whom about �400 were qualified scientists one engineers the National Aeronautical Research Institute had about 230 scientists, engineers, and supporting personnel; and the Swedish Nuclear Research Center at Studsvik employed about 800 persons. The Swedish public appreciates the relationship between science and economic and social progress, and has a high regard for scientific training. Scientists and engineers enjoy positions of respect and prestige and are generally well paid. The government pays scientists about as well as does industry and provides more freedom of action. Many professors receive extra income as consultants. The pay of Swedish scientists is suhstantially above the levels in Norwav, Denmark, and Finland and in part accounts for the immigration of scientists from these countries to Sweden. The woportunities for first -class research in Sweden are attravtive. Laboratories are well equipped with modern instrarrnents, marry of which are of U.S. make. Throughout the \'cars Sweden has procured modern and sophisticated instruments and equipment from leading manufacturers throughout the world. It also manufactures excel lei) t- laboratory research equipment of its own design. Researchers are well supported by laboratory spacer, shops, and technicians, although there is a general shortage of research assistants and associates. A scientist is generally free to exploit the d APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090022 -2 FIGURE 2. Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm (C) FIGURE 3. Chalmers Institute of Technology (CTH), Goteborg (C) commercial benefits of his discoveries, and the government organizations will assist to make the exploitation effective. An atmo%phere of freedom in the way a researcher works is typical of the Scandinavian countries. The response of industry to new discoveries is gratifying, and the IVA serves as a valuable link with industry between pure and applied sciences. D. Major research fields 1. Air, ground, and naval weapons (S) Sweden hits a strong military research, develop- ment, and production capability. Although its weapons research program is limited in scope�, the work being accomplished is of high quality. The lev -1 of progress achieved is attributable largely to adroit management of the nation's limited resources, well equipped research facilities, and extremely competent scientists and engineers. Sweden's policy of strict neutrality, combined with the nation's geostrategic location along the access routes to '.he Baltic, have impelled the government to adopt it strategy of total defense. Such a strategv is designed to provide adequate defense against atomic or conventional attack, invasion by sea or by land, or offensive actions by foreign aircraft or missile penetrators. The effectiveness of the Swedish defensive forces is based on the good cooperation existing among the milit forces, the government, and industry on a sound, well regulated military research, development, and procurement program. Every factor of the Swedish econom and industry is a part of a totally integrated defense plan. For the past 25 years, the country has followed it plan that essentially calls for the government, in making its yearly appropriation to industry, to approve also it long term program specifying what weapons and related equipment will be purchased for the ensuing 4 -year period. This system of long -term procurements planning has given Swedish defense industry a healthy stability, which in turn has been reflected in the high standard of equ:pment turned out by its manufacturers. However, limited manpower and financial resources have made it necessary to conduct weapons research along specific lines with definite goals. Toward this end the focus is upon the development and production of defensive -type weapons; there is no discernible activity associated with the development of strictly offensive weapons, such as intercontinental ballistic missiles, intermediate or medium -range ballistic missiles, and medium and heavy bomber aircraft. 8 (Major Swedish weapons are of indigenous design, and concerted efforts are made to r.intinue an independent capability in the oevoloprnent and production of advanced weapon r y. The maintenance of this capability has c l�per heavily on the acquisi, on of licenses and tcchnolog from abroad. r ll Swedish weapons research and development programs are planned, implemented, and conducted in it meticulous �.nanner, and stringent cost analysis procedures are followed .hroughout each step of a given %%-capon system's development. Operating with little reserve and coupled with the growing complexity and costs of c ontempor ary weaponry, the Swedish defense industry is becoming more vulnerable to any weakening of the country's Spending limitations imposed in the 1968 -72 defense budget have constituted the single major factor to slow progress in weapons research and dew ^lopment. To offset the impact of military spending cutbacks, the Svedish aircraft industry, with government support, is vigorously attempting tc improve its potential for civil aircraft development and production. In 1968 SAAB- Scania AB (SAAB), Linkoping, purchased Malmo Flygindustri in Malmo in order to acquire it light aircraft production capability. Of greater significance is the fact that. following several abortive attempts to initiate a Swedish commercial transport program, SAAB is joining with the British and West Germans in it collaborative effort to develop and market a quiet short take�- off and landing (STOL) transport. An agreement with the British Aircraft Corporation and Messerschmitt- Boelkow -Blohm GmbH has been negotiated, and deve lopment activity on the resulting aircr has moved into the- preliminary design phase. However, despite all efforts to improve the nation's potential in the civil aircraft field, the main commitment of the Swedish aeronautical industry in the foreseeable future will be to military programs, i7cluding both aircraft and tactical missiles. SAAB has developed several types of air -to -air and air -to- surface missiles which provide growth possibilities through the application of improved technology in the missile guidance, control, and propulsion fields. The Swedish aeronautical industry, while relatively small in terms of total output, has one of the most advanced design, development, and production capabilities in Europe. The main aeronautical capability is represented in two organizations, the Aerospace Group of SAAB- Scania AB and the Fly_ gmotor Division of Volvo at Trollhattan, producer of jet ctigin.,!s. SAAB has it highly successful history of jet fighter development and production, and generally APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090022 -2 speaking its policy has been to have one major system in operation, one in production, and one system under development. Since the late 1940s, SAAB has developed four jet fighter or interceptor aircraft: the J -29 Flying Barrel, J -32 Lansen, J -35 Draken. and J-36 Viggen multirole combat aircraft. The Aerospace Group of SAAB- Scania AB employs about 5,800 workers, representing roughly 20% of the entire corporate work force. In production at Linkoping are the export version of the J -35 Draken supersonic fighter and Saab 105 trainer and light aircraft, as well as the initial production version of the AJ -37 Viggen. The production of Flygmotor, where 2,000 workers are employed, includes the RIM-8 adaptation of the Pratt and Whitney JT -8D engine; production of the RM -6C Swedish version of the Rolls Royce Avon :300 series has been completed. Both of these engim!s are fitted with afterburners that are Swedish developments based on U.S. technology. The development of fast interceptor and striker (ground attack) aircraft has been emphasized. The manned interceptor is considered to be the cornerstone of Swedish air defense. and the mainstay of the air defense system is the J -35 Draken aircraft. The Draken is an all- weather multipurpose (interceptor /reconnais- since /strike fighter) system capable of Mach 1.4 in sustained flight. Flight testing of the AJ -:37 Viggen essentially has been completed, and initial production of the systern is underway. The Viggen is expected to absorb most of the Swedish aircraft production effort into the early 1980's. The Viggen is a multipurpose aircraft; its variants are intended to perform the attack, fighter /interceptor, reconnaissance, and training mission rules. The basic system is a canard configured, double delta winged aircraft capable of exceeding Mach -2 flight. Compared with the J -35 Draken, the Viggen has higher top speeds and better accelerations at all flight altitudes; it has better STOIC performance, including that of being able to operate from fields with runways under 1,600 feet in length. The country has a small missile program confined mainly to the manufacture under license of foreign developed, short range, tactical weapons. Swedish technology is more than adequate to produce missiles of foreign design, to modify such weapons to meet particular needs, and in some cases to improve upon the original design. As a small counts with limited financial and scientific resources, Sweden cannot develop a missile industry to meet all of its needs. Therefore, by means of independent, continuous study, the Swedes strive to keep themselves informed of the latest foreign missile research and are competent envugli to recognize those developments abroad that have significance to their defense effort. The missile program includes the development and production of air -to -air, air -to- surface, an :antiaircraft, and short range ground and naval launched missiles. In the air -to -air missile field, the Swedes have manufactured under license the U.S. Falcon missile, bearing the Swedish designations of RB -27 (xvith radar homing) and RB -28 (with infrared homing). The Swedes are developing an infrared homing air -to -air missile, the RB -29. This missile is to have a low -level capability, longer range, and a larger warhead than its two predecessors. Development testing of the RB -29 is projected for the spring of 197-1; tooling up for production will be initiated following the end of RB- 28 production that is being carried out to fulfill an order from the. Finnish Air Force. Production of the RB -27 has already ended. Air -to- surface missiles include the RB -04 and a modified version, the RB -04E, that is expected to enter production in 1973. The E modified system employs a higher thrust rocket motor and has improved guidance over the RB -04 model. Another missile program, the RB -0.5, has been under development for almost 10 years, but little success has been achieved. An antiaircraft missile system is being developed by AB Bofors for the Royal Swedish Armv. Designated the RB -70, the system is designed for use where optical identification of enemy aircraft is possible and reportedly is immune to jamming. Sweden has an excellent capability for the design and development of army combat material. The country has designed and produced virtually all of its ground force material for many years, including fire control equipment :rnd tanks. Research on artillery weapons has been especially noteworthy. The Swedes have developed a rapid- firing 155 -mm automatic self propelled gun and are developing a 155 -mm towed artillery weapon. Work on the latter weapon has progressed to the prototype stage. Work also is underway on the development of supporting ammunition. Rocket technology has continued to advance, and several rocket -type weapons have been produced. In the design, development, and production of rocket assisted projectiles and shoulder fired rockets, all necessary components have been prod ed in- digenously. Research is underway to improve the mobility and firepower of combat vehicles, an area of endeavor in which Sweden has an excellent capability. One of the more significant armored vehicles under development in a non- Communist country is the self propelled gun 9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090022 -2 being tested by the Royal Swedish Army. Designated the IKV -91, or intantry gun vehicle (Figure 4), it consists of a turret mounted, low- velocity 90 -mm gun on a relatively large, lightly armored hull of simple design and construction. This vehicle is expected to fulfill Royal Swedish Army requirements for an amphibious armored vehicle with excellent mobility over marshy terrain and across water obstacles, as well as with the capability of combat with arid in support of both the S -tank and infantry troops. Three prototypes of the IKV -91 are undergoing tests. If no major problems are encountered during the tests. delivery to army units is anticipated by 197.1. Research also is underway on two other armored vehicles, both of which employ the chassis of the Swedish designed and developed PBV -302, an amphibious armored personnel carrier. These are the BGBV -82, an armored recovery vehicle (Figure 5), and the BROBV -941, an armored bridge- launching vehicle (Figure 6). The bridge mounted on the latter vehicle is undergoing test and evaluation by the army. Other research efforts are directed toward improved weapons and ammunition, specifically to improve kinetic energy performance, terminal effects, ranges, and fuzes. A 76 -mm antitank weapon, des:gnated Miniman, is a smooth -bore recoilless throwaway type and is intended for infantry use as additional firepower when combating armored vehicles. An 84- mm infantry recoilless weapon, the Carl Gustav, is being improved, aril it 90 -nim shaped- charge antitank projectile is under development. The Swedes also are developing radar- guided, light antiaircraft automatic weapons. The FOA has scheduled a research program to improve the performance of shaped charges to defeat bar armor arrays, to increase warhead lethality, to increase reliability, and to lenghen stand -off performance. A new antitank mine and two new antipersonnel mines have been developed by AB Bofors for the Royai Swedish Army. The antitank mine is a shaped- charge mine designed to penetrate the hull of an armored h.icle and cause extensive damage internally to the vehicle and crew. One of the antipersonnel mines, nonmetallic and completely weatherproof, is a [)last, contact, casualty producing mine which is relatively shockproof; the other is a Claymore -type weapon that disperses lethal fragments over it 120 are out to a maximum range of 400 meters. Sweden has an impressive capability for the development and production of a wide range of transport vehicles, components, and related equip- ment. A number of tactical cross country trucks in light, rnedimum, and heavy categories have been 10 developed for the military. The principal companies involved in militan vehicle research and develop ment, Volvo Pena AB at Goteborg and SAAB have produced powerful high mobility vehicles incorporat- ing all -wheel drive, locking differentials, high ground clearance, flexible rough terrain suspensk-ns, and wide- profile tires. Amphibious versions are equipped with eater -jet propulsion providing for operation in excess of 5 miles per hour in water. Swedish industry also has developed compact, high torque hydraulic motors suitable for installation in terrain vehicles. Such motors are available in models of much greater specific power output than equivalent electric ;rotors arid in confihurations suitable for wheei hub mounting. I- the field of vehicle diesel engine research, develiprnent, arid production, SAAB is foremost and its products are noteworthy. Compactness, durability, and ease of maintenance: are features which make the company's engines attractive to vehicle designers. United Stirling of Sweden, established in 1968, render license from Philips of the Netherlands, has undertaken an extensive program to perfect the Stirling engine and produce it in a range of sizes from 10 to 200 horsepower. Stirling's investigations cover moth the rhombic drive engine, developed by Philips. and a double- acting V -type engine of unique design. Series production is planned for 19 16, and applications include vehicle propulsion and miscel- laneous special- purpose equipment. The Swedish topographic equipment capability is small but of international importance, principally because of Swedish geodimeters. These olectro- optical distance measuring instruments, developed originally in Sweden by Eric Bergstand for geodetic and engineering surveys, are the hest known and most widely used instruments in this equipment category. Because of their high accuracy, they are used in many countries as a standard for calibration of other electronic and electro- optical distance- instruments with it 40 -mile range. The geodimeters are produced by AGA All in Lidingo. The company also has developed a land navigation system for vehicles that has been demonstrated for the U.S. Army and is marketed to other non- Communist countries. Gyrotheodolite aiming circle used by the Royal Swedish Army are produced indigenously. Swedish research in photogrammetry, photo interpretation, and remote sensing has been recognized interna- tionally. SNveden has the capability to conduct research and development in the field of engineer construction equipment, hut, because the country has no active APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090022 -2 FIGURE 4. IKV -91, a self propelled infantry gun vehicle mounting a 90 -mm gun (U%OU) FIGURE 5. Armored recovery vehicle, BGBV -82 (U/OU) FIGURE 6. Armored bridge- launching vehicle (U /OU) APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090022 -2 tactical army, very little research is directed toward military engineering equipment. However, many types of civil construction equipment, such as tractors crane shovels, graders, road rollers, air compressors arid dump trucks, have been designed and produced in Sweden. Larger types of heavy earthworking equipment are imported from the West. The country has an adequate capability for research, development, and production of a wide range of materials arid POL- handling equipment. Research activities concern materials handling vehicles for special cargo configurations, such as straddle carries and a newly patented ISO (international Standard Organization) container stacking system which utilizes special fastening devices to hold the containers within the stacking structure. Significant developments of POL- handling equipment include the "Liquitainer" and a semisubmersible bottomless tank. The Liquitainer is a collapsible 400- gallon container designed for the transport of liquid POL products by general- purpose vehicles; when empty, this container can be folded to one -third of its original height and can be used as it platform on the truck bed to hold solid goods or personnel on the return trip. The semisubmersible bottomless tank is constructed of fiberglass- reinforced unsaturated polyester plastic. It is designed for storing oil while anchored in the open sea, lakes, ponds, or harbor basins, and for servicing deep draft vessels that canna; enter shallow harbors. These tanks have capacities ranging from 5231,400 gallons to more than 2,642,000 gallons and have been supplied to the Swedish armed forces. An area in w hich the country possesses an appreciable capability is the research and develop- ment of naval weapons. The general design of warships is influenced by the defensive nature of Swedish military policy. Economic considerations have caused increased emphasis on coastal destroyers and smaller vessels, especially minesweepers and motor torpedo boats. The motor torpedo boats in the Royal Swedish Navy, displacing about 190 tons and capable of over 40 knots, aie among the largest and fastest in the world. A comprehensive: program to develop an improved version of their high performance patrol craft is concentrati -g on research in hull form, supereavitating propellers, armament improvements, and engine design. Submarines are being designed for high submerged speeds, although it design of art advanced hull form, such as the U.S.S. Albacore, has not been seen. Research on submarine propulsion centers on the fuel cell concept of electric propulsion, and the Swedes are developing 200- 12 kilowatt cell, which will provide iur an increased submerged capability. Much emphasis has been placed on deep -sea diving using mixed gases. Progress has been made on saturation diving techniques using submersible decompression chambers aboard ship. These efforts will greatly enhance Swedish capabilities in submarine rescue and ocean bottom searching. Swcdea is aware of the need for advanced underwater weapons systems, and research and development in this field are given high priority. Work on improved torpedoes is underway, and considerable progress has been made in the design of wire- guided torpedoes for use against submarines and surface ships A small but competent sonar program exists. 2. Biological and chemical warfare (S) In accordance with the terms of the 1925 Geneva Protocol, Sweden adheres to a formal policy of restricting its biologics) wariure (BW) arid chemical warfare: (CW) activities tc. the development of defensive capabilities. There t ave been unconfirmed indications, however, that t':e Swedes were doing some classified research %wh+clo might be applicable to the development of an offensive BW capability. 'Sweden has the necessary organization facilities, qualified professional and technical personnel, and funds to support an offensive BW rr�;earch and development program. it is one of the best prepared of all naticros in overall CW defense and is capable of supporting defensive military requirements. The county- has it solid foundation for an offensive CW capability which has evolved from defensively oriented research. The Swedes have conducted at, active defensive BW program. The two principal organizatir,ns responsible for such work are FOA -I of the FOA and the Bacteriological Institute of the Royal Caroline Medical Surgical Institute.. Defensive BW research and evelopment have emphasized rapid detection and identification systems. Dr. Sven Johan Lundin of the FOA has done research on the use of ultraviolet absorption to measure the fluorescence of biological agents for rapid detection; he has been successful in detecting a single bacterium under laboratory conditions. Dr. Lundin also has studied the attachment of fluorescent antibodies to molecules of ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of microorganisms. The ultimate aim of such research is to develop an automated BW agent detection system that will collect a sample, fix, stain, read fluorescence photometrically, and provide specific identification. The Swedes also have demonstrated their fa,niliarity wi +.h detection concepts APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090022 -2 haled upon the principle that biological material luminesces in the presence of luminolating luminol and upon the identification by gas chromatography of cellular metabolites likely to be present in disseminated samples of agents grown in cell culture. There is no indication that any biological detection system has been fielded. According to FOA, cloud physics studies related to agent dissemination have clearly demonstrated the vulnerability of the country's coastal areas to BW attack. During Swedish studies on cloud travel, data were ohtained concerning aerosol dissemination and sampling technologies. Intensive interest shown at the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) concerning problems of chemical arid biological warfare insures that Swedish scientists are thoroughly conversant with modern concepts and techniques for both defensive and offensive biological operations. Swedish scientists are preeminent in the field of bioengineering, it technology whip h roust be mastered if BW agents are to he produced for military applications. Fermentation equipment and related instrumentation of Swedish design and manufacture are of superior duality. A pilot,.cale fermentation plant exists at the Royal Caroline Medicr.l- Surgical Institute; other facilities equipped to support process research exist at the Microbiological Laboratory of the Swedish rational Defense Laboratory and at the Kaki Company, Stockholm. There is no ev ;dence that Sweden has produced or stockpiled either pathogens or microbial toxins for offensive -,varfare purposes. Potential BW agents of tularemia, botulism and of foot and -mouth disease have been studied in programs which emphasized rapid diagnosis and surveillance procedures, perhaps because these diseases have. occurred within the country. A Swedish official ha, expressed an interest in the problem of stabilizing certain viruses, in particular those causing Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) and eastern equine encephalitis (EEE), neither of which has ever occurred in Sweden. Toxins of Clostridiurn tetanus have been concentrated in it biphasic growth system which also would support the growth and elaboration of a protective antigen from the etiological agent of anthrax. All such studies could contribute data applicable to basic programs characterizing the potential of these various agents for biological warfare purposes. The Swedish armed forces are not known to possess special organizations for BW purposes, and there is no evidence of any overt military training for such operations. The Royal Swedish Army maintains a caernical, biological, and radiologi �d (CBR) school at Solna, near Stockholm, but courier: are primaril% desig:jed to teach protection against CBR agents for both the individual and small units. Swcder, has an excellent CW research and development capability and is well ahead of other Scandinavian countries in CW research. All aspects are explored by highly qualified scientists at modern, well equipped facilities and by a vigorous exchange of scientific information at international conferences. The FOA -1 is responsible for most of tt'c CkV research. By virtue of its excellent defensive research and development program. Sweden has acquired much knowledge pertaining to CW offense. Swedish scientists have conducted CW agent research, including synthesis of the G- and V- nerve agents. Researchers feel that there is little possibility of synthesizing a nerve agent more toxic than those already in existence; consequently, they are investigating the possibility of increasing the lipid solubility of the existing nerve agents with a view toward increasing their speed of penetration. The Swedes also are interested in nonphosphorylated systemic poisons, such as galantha nines and carbanates; these substances contain no phosphorus but, like the G- and V- agents, can inhibit cholinesterase. Research has been conducted on natural poisons which could be candidate lethal C\V agents. These irclude bacterial toxins (emphasizing botulinum toxin), marine poisons, and snake venom. The Swedes apparently feel that the incapacitants show promise as successors to the lethal organo- phosphorous compounds as CW agents. Researchers have bec interested in such compounds as psychochemicals, Including lysergic acid diethyh:micle LSD -2:5). Several years ago the Swedes conducted studies on glycolate incapacitants. Other in- capacitating agents synthesized at FOA -1 were a series of glycolate esters with 3- quinuclidinol as a common moiety. Processes for the production of nerve agents have been developed, and blueprints for manufacturing agents are available if the country_ should reverse its policy of maintaining a defensive posture only. As in the BW field, cloud travel studies related to CW agent dissemination is of concern to Sweden, The Cloud characteristics of aerosols disseminated b\ specific weapons including bombs, shells, and aerial spray devic,s are studied. The Swedish detection effort c'�res n differ significantly from the U.S. program, aithough variations in approach to the problem may produce data of interest. An effort is underway to exploit the 1.3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090022 -2 characteristics of the cholinesterase- ait ticholinesterase reaction in an attempt to develop a rapid- acting, sensitive., nerve agent detection system. This work involves the isolation and purification of cholines- terase from the plaice fish, which reportedly is as much as 10 times mere sensitive to organophosphorous compounds than cholinesterase derived from other sources. FOA -I is actively working on an automatic detection system using a combined gas chromatog- raphy -mass spectroscopy system; it is envisioned that the instrument would periodically sample the atmosphere, fractionate the sample in the chru- naatugraph, and automatically eharacteriz, the components. The system would be amenable to computerization. An attempt also is being made to perfect Ypoint source manual detection methods. The most recent development is the "spin disc' detector. Each of the two to four small holes in the disc can be fitted for a different indicating or detecting capability. 'rhis device appears to have good potential for semiquantitative detection of single agents or qualitative detection of several agents. Providing the capability for military personnel to operate successfully in a toxic environment is of foremost concern at FOA -1. The current military mask is becoming obsolete, and the Swedes are preparing for a new series to be introduced during the 1970), 'rhe development of it new concept for individual troop protection was to begin in 1969; this concept may involve more throwaway items, such as clothing. The Swedes also plan to design new collective field shelters. In keeping with national defense policy for it strong CW defense, the country is pursuing an intensive research effort in nerve agent prophylaxis and therapy. Although this effort has been extensive, no new antidotes have been found that surpass those already known. Scientists are studying fluorine substituted oximes as possible antidotes against refractory nerve agents, such as soman. FOA -1 is investigating the distribution of the botulint.: toxin in the body .::d the action mechanism that affects the acetylcholine level. Antibodies, tagged with fluorescent compounds, were used in this study. Swedish scientists believe that the Soviets have an antidote for botulinum toxin. Such an antidote has not yet been developed in Sweden, but the possibility exists that a chernical antidote may be found or that it modified antigen will be developed to produce an antitoxin effective against all types of hotulinum toxin. FOA -1 also reportedly is researching antidotes for incapacitating agents such as psycho chemicals. A strong Swedish interest in the U.S. 14 incapacitating agent BZ is support(-(] by efforts to develop an antidote for this agent, and a series of potential antidotes has been synthesized. :3. Atomic energy (C) Sweden has it nuclear energy program of moderate size characterized by expanding electric power production facilities and a supporting research and development program emphasizing reactor physics and fuel development. rite country Kati acceded to the nuclear nonproliferation treaty which, as it non- nuclear weapon state, prohibits it from developing nuclear weapons. 'Fit!- Atomic Energy Con,,nany was established in 1947 as the central body for applied research and development in the nuclear energy field and is responsible for the construction and operation of nuclear researca reactors, the production of uranium, the of fuei elements, and the production of radioactive isotopes. In addition, many industrial firms work closely with the Atomic F,nergy Company in the applications of nuclear energy. A group of private and municipal electric power concerns have formed the Atomic Power Group to cooperate with the Swedish State Power hoard, under the Ministry of Commerce, in the development of nuclear power. I'he universities and technical institutes also support the nuclear energy program through research in fundamental nuclear physics and chemistry. With the gradual commercializing of the nuclear power field, the Atomic Energy Company's tasks have changed. The company's activities are concentrated on research and development in close cooperation with industry and the power itilitics and the latter two parties have taken over responsibility for the design and construction of nuclear power reactors. TI jv change was emphasized in 1969 with th- establish- ment of ASEA -ATOM, formed on it fifty -fifty basis between ASEA (Allrnann( Svenska Elektriska Aktlebolaget) and the Swedish Government to construct nuclear power stations and to fabricate power reactor fuel. The present tasks of the Atomic Energy Company are to be an expert body to the government on nuclear matters, to represent the country in official international cooperation in the nuclear field, to supply expert knowledge on reactor safety matters, to be consultants to the power utilities, and to carry out research at the request of industry and other research organizations. The Atomic Energy Company has constructed six small research reactors. The first reactor, named R -1, was constructed in Stockholm and began operation in 1954. All subsequent research reactors were APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090022 -2 constructed at the Swedish Nuclear Research Center at Studsvik. Only three of the research reactors are still in operation �the R -2, R -2 -0, and Kritz. The R -2 reactor is a 50- megawatt thermal (MWO, tank -type reactor, fueled with 90% enriched uranium and moderated with ordinary water. The R -2 reactor, which went into operation in 1960, is employed chiefly for materials testing and fuel development, and it large part of the company's income is derived from materials testing commissioned from abroad. The 11-2 -0 reactor is it 1 -MVVt swininlng Pool type reactor, fueled with S)Wi enriched uranium and moderated with ordinary water; it also began operation in 1960. The third research reactor, Kritz, went into operation in 1969. Originally constructed as a subcritical assembly, it was reconstructed twice as it zero -power reactor. The second reconstruction is used for experimentation on various types of uranium and plutonium fuel. All of, the enriched uranium to fuel the research reactors was supplied by the United States. Three additional research reactors have been closed down; these were the R -1, the R -o, and the FR -0 reactors. The R -I and R -0 reactors were heavy water moderated, natural uranium fueled reactors. The 1 -MWt R -1 operated from 1954 to N;70, and the zero -power R -0 was in operation from 1959 to 1970. The FR -0, a 10- kilowatt critical assembly, .vas in operation from 1964 to 1972. Although the Swedish State Power Board has overall responsibility for the nuclear power program, construction of the nuclear power stations is done by private industry under the supervision of the Atomic Energy Corrrnany. There are two nuclear power reactors in operation and an additional ni,le are either under construction or planned. The R -3 or Agesta, it small 75 -MWt reactor, has been in operation since 1963 at Agesta, a suburb of Stockholm. It is a pressurized heavy_ water reactor and produces to MW of electricity as a byproduct of its principal use for space heating. Originally a demonstration project of the Atomic Energy Company, its operation was transferred to the Stockholm Electric Powerplant. The reactor has always operated at it loss and is scheduled to be closed down in 1974. A second heavy water moderated nuclear power reactor was constructed at Marviken but was never operated. The Marviken reactor has been abandoned, and the station will be converted to an oil -fired plant. Sweden has abandoned the heavy water moderated type of reactors for its nuclear power program, and all subsequent reactors are to be Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) or Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). The first truly commercial nuclear power reactor is the 440 MWe Oskarshamn -1 which went critical in 1971. Oskarshamn, originally i,anied after the nearbv small town of Simpvarp, is located on the east coast of the country south of Stockholm. Additional reactors will 1)(. sited at Oskarshamn, and three other power sites are at Ringhals, on the west c(:ast south of Goteborg; Barseback, also on the west coast but north of Malmo; and Forsmark, on the east coast north of Stockholm. The schedule for construction of the additional BWR or P'WR nuclear power reactors is as follows: FACILITY AND OU'T'PUT EXPECTED CHIEF M%ve) DATE TYPE CONTRACTOR STATUS Ringhals I 1974 BWR ASEA -ATOM Under 760 Construction Ringhals II 1974 PWR Westinghouse )o. 820 Osk,,rshan)n II 1974 BWR ASEA -ATOM Do. 580 Barseback 1 1975 BWR ASEA -ATOM Do. 580 Ringhals Ill 1977 PWR Westinghouse Ordered 900 Barseback II 1977 BWR ASEA -ATOM Do. 580 Forsmark 1 1978 BWR ASEA -ATOM Do. 900 Ringhals IV 1979 PWR Westinghouse Do. 900 Forsmark II 1980 BWR ASEA -ATOM Planned 900 The slightly enriched uranium for fueling the BWR �1d PWR power reactors will be purchased from other c�ountrics; fuel for Oskarshamn I has been supplied by the United States. The Swedes have built pilot plants for fuel reprocessing and heavy water production. Since the heavy water moderated reactor type has been abandoned, Sweden has no plans to construct a heavy water production plant. The plan to construct an industrial size fuel reprocessing plant has been postponed Ilrltil the nuclear power program is sufficiently large to permit economic operation. probably in the 1980's. The uranium content: of the oil shales of southwestern Sweden is estimated at about 1 million tons, one of the world's largest deposits. However, the ore is very low grade, containing only about 300 crrams of uranium per ton of shale. Processing such a low grade ore is expensive compared with world market prices of uranium, The :hest Swedish uranium deposits are in the shale of the Billingen area, where a uranium processing facility, the Ranstad Uranium Works, went into operation in 1965. The plant's present capacity F about 120 tons of uranium oxide per vc �ar, but the Swedes may well increase this capacity in the near future. 15 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090022 -2 4. Electronics (S) Electronics research and development activities, although somewhat restricted by decreasing fiscal allocations in recent years, are comparable in quality to those of other leading Western European countries. Highly coinpehmt scientists condhet electronics research at universities, industrial ente and militan� establishments. Sweden is very active in military and commercial electronics development, and the government strongly supports laboratories and schools for this purpose. Applied research, some cif it under contract for military agencies and for private industry. is done at laboratories attached to the various tec hnical institutes and colleges. The two %world- renowned technical institutes in Sweden, the KTH and CI'H, have modern facilities wher( mach electronics research and development are carried out. The most important industrial electronics researc facility is the L.M. Ericsson Telephone Corporation, which has large modern research laboratories located at the site of the main factory in Midsomrrarkransen. A new development company, BELLEM"t EI has been formed to do ;pecialized research and development, concentrating on advanced electronic communications systems and products; it is owned jointly by the I... M. Ericsson Corporation and the Swedish Telecommunications Administration, the government agency in charge of communications. Department FOA -3 is concerned exclusively with military electronics research and development and has done work in communications, electronic counter- measures (ECM), sonar, guidance, radar, lasers, and other electro -optic efforts and in component developments. The KTH has b investigating broadband countermeasure devices and reportedly is doing good work in plasma, Gunn, and avalanche semiconductor research. A considerable effort has been undertaken Ibv KTH and others in fluidics research, hut, because of failures of several ambitious programs, researchers are developing their technology from the basics. The field of fluidics is attracting the attention of c ontrol systems developers, and research is unde on such items as fluid amplifiers and vortex rate gyroscopes. Sweden has made valuable contributions in instrumentation for macromolec�ular research, such as the Svedberg ultracentrifuge and the Tiselius electrophoresis apparatus. Other developments of significance have included Hannes Alfven's "trocho- tron," a stepping beam switching tube: three level, solid -state maser; and ferrite one -w attenuators for wave guides and steerable antenna systems. Research 16 ;;lso is being conducted on radar backscattering, medium gain antennas, and phased arrays. An intensive development effort is underway on semiconductors. Sweden ha; made significant contributions to semiconductor technoiogy through ion implantation work with silicon and germanium. Considerable research is underway involving thin films and flatpack miniaturized c�amponents for future COMM till ication systems. Research is being conducted on cryotrons, microwave action in plasmas, methods of producing long -life electron tubes and transistors, and techniques of increasing the data rate to bandwidth ratio. Other projects have been concerned with analyzing and synthesizing 1 n transistors, with lotiw noisc amplifiers for radioastronony applications, and with O type carcinotrons with bifilar helices. Other subjects of interest' have included parametric traveling -wave amplifiers, traveling -wave masers, very -low- frequency (VLF) propagation, and tropospheric scatter techniques. A broad program of military electronics re :iearch and development is underway. Microwave !ubes developed for military applications include I �band spin -tuned magnetrons for frequency -agile radar, high -power wide -band traveling -wave tubes and crossed -field arrilAfiers for advanced ECM applica- tions, an i phased- locked magnetrons for coherwit intercept i.tdar. Other military developments have included an iniproved airborne infrared camera; fuel cell power supplies, fire control systems for air, ground, and sea applications: and mis >Jle- fuzing systems employing both optical and radar priuc�iple�s. Research and development are t-ontinuing cn proximity fuzes, laser -diode fuzes, and im optical communications device. Philips Teleindustri AB in Stockholm has undertakea extensive programs in the development of frequency -agile radars and is considered a leader in this particular field. Emphasis continues to be placed on improving system advantages to further reduce problems caused by sea /ground clutter, fading. jamming, and mutual interference. New programs have centered on developing frequency -agile equipment in gun fire- controi systems. The FOA has developed a combination search- and -track radar used by the Swiss- produced fire control systern, Skyguard. A number of Swedish -built laser devices are available for military use and are tieing evaluated, tested, and given limited deployment. These include a variety of ruby and neodymium- glas. laser range- finders for man portable field artillery use, tank mounted use, aril airborne systems. The rangefinders' APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090022 -2 capabilities and configurations are varied to accommodate specific task requirements and cover a range from 300 meters to 30 kilometers with an accuracy of plus or minus 10 meters. A cooperative agreement reportedly has been reached between a Swedish and a Yugoslav company for co- production of laser rangefinders for tank and field artillery applications in Yugoslavia. Swedish industry has been in the forefront of cloud height measurement technology, an area which has potential for both military and commercial applications. Automatic laser equipment to measure ground -to -cloud level distance and to provide information on the thickness and structure of cloud formations has been developed. There has been some evidence of Swedish interest in plasma gent -ition b laser and in controlled thermonuclear rc. -H -n (CTR) experiments at the University of Uppsala. An infrared communication system involving detectors operating at 10.6 micrometers and at 0.9 micrometers reportedly is under development for military applications. Although the country has several hundred computers, most are small- to medium -scale types. The only significant manufacturer of computers is DATASAA13, the computer division of SAAB at Linkoping, which Produces the inedium -scale models, D 21 and D 22. It also developed small computers for airborne and industrial control applications. Sweden has, however, been an important supplier of peripheral devices, including magnetic tape units and punched tape equipment that are used with many foreign computers. 5. Medical sciences, including veterinary medicine (S) Sweden has achieved and maintains a very high standard of excellence and productivity in biomedical research. This is founded on the competence and training of its personnel and generous financial support of basic and applied research. Medical investigations are linked closely with teaching. Most of the fundamental biomedical research is done in the raniversity medical schools and in the KTH. A national policy foresees intensification of contacts between scientists of the northern countries, including Finland, Norway, Denmark, Iceland, and Greenland. The Medical Research Council coordinates Swedish biomedical research and stresses research in nutrition, cardiovascular diseases, environmental medicine, industrial medicine, pediatrics, alcoholism, phar- maceuticals, immunology, neural and psychiatric disorders, and diabetes. Biochemistry and biophysics are research areas of particular excellence in Sweden. The biochemical approach pervades other areas of Swedish biomedical research and scientists emphasize the need for a fundamental understanding of the chemical and physical nature of physiological functions. Swedish scientists have developed an international reputation for competence in the biophysical separation of biologically important materials. Outstanding contributions are being made in the separation of proteins and other biopolymers, the characterization of antigens of cell membranes from human tumor strains, determination of the crystal structure of human enzymes, and the biochemistry of virus multiplication. Precise methods permit processing of single cells and biological materials on a rnicrograrn scale. Advanced techniques employed include X -ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatog- raphy, electron microscopy, specialized absorbing agents, and mass spectroscopy. Attention is devoted to the study of the physicochemical properties of fats and fatty -acid derivatives, enzymes, peptises with extended aminoacid sequences, nucleotides, nucleic acids, and high polymer carbohydrates, especially dextrans. Study of energy exchange has included investigation of transport and energy conservation in photosynthesis and respiration, and the development of model systems of biological energy transfer. Microbiological studies at the State Bacteriological Laboratory are undertaken to support diagnostic, bacteriological, virological, immunological, and parasitological examinations and to support production of sera, vaccines, and related substances. The Swedes have gained wide recognition for their germ -free studies with animals. Microbiologists are developing laboratory and bioengineering techniques for the continuous culture of micro- organisms. Procedures have been developed for the cultivation of bacteria and tissue cells and the preparation of crude enzyme systems. Practical interest includes research on biological fixation of atmospheric nitrogen and microbiological processing of vegetable wastes and the effect of environmental milieu on host parasite relationships. Immunological research in the country is outstanding. A World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Reference Center for Genetic Factors of Human Immunoglobulins is located in Lund. Impressive research deals with the diverse aspects of cell- mediated immunity to tumors. Fundamental research in physiology is closely associated with the application of biochemical and biophysical techniques. Investigators are examining the effect of chemical or physical intervention on 17 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090022 -2 sensory response, electrical and mechanical activities Of single muscle fibers, intraocular pressure, and acoustic middle -ear reflexes. Clinical research in physiology is creative, adequately supported, and of high quality, with emphasis on circulation problems, pulmonary function, physiology of work and physical training, and evaluation of physiological testing and measurement procedures. Sweden is cooperating wide Norway anc. also the U.S.S.R. in investigations of the physiology of deep sea diving. Research on alcoholism is concerned with the examination of morphological and functional changes after prolonged consumption, with the ultrastructural injuries of acute liver damage, and with vitamin therapy. Cardiovascular research is ai a high level of competence. Experimental hematology studies include pioneer work on the function of hemoglobin and the oxygen binding capacity of blood corpuscles, the clinical aspects of coagulation and the fibrinolvtic dissolution of blood clots, and the use of adenine additives for whole blood preservation. In a WI-i0- coordinated program, Sweden has contributed an investigation of the distribution and severity of atherosclerosis in the aorta and coronary arteries. Productive research is underway in isotope labeling, a technique that is being applied to the analysis of derangements in cardiovascular tissues and related clinical problems, capillary blood flow, tissue oxidative metabolism and wound healing, throm- boembolism, and cadaver kidney preservation. Projects are underway on the effects of radiation on biological objects varying from single cells to mammals with or without tumors, on radioecological problems, and on protection against radiation damage. Sweden is concerned _tbout environmental contamination with radionuclides, and investigators are examining the hazards of radioisotope internal emitters and the prevention and treatment of exposure. Combined use of adsorbents and radioiso- topes is assisting in the separation of fractions in immunological research. The country has an excellerji pharmaceutical industry, which is internationally recognized for the superior ct!uality of its drugs. A WHO Reference Center for A utheniic Chemical Substances is located in Stockholm. The National Pharmaceutical Laboratory in Stockholm undertakes research in the chemistry_ pharmacy, pharmacology, and therapeutics of drugs. Pharmacologists are interested in psychopharmaceuti- cals for treatment of depressions, the effects of drugs on cholinergic mechanisms in the central nervous system, and drug regulation of circulatory mech- anisms. 18 Growing interest �n problems of pharmacology and toxicology has increased the national demand for trained personnel. University preparation of pharmacologists is excellent, but pharmaceutical and industrial toxicologists are in short supply. Solna is the site of a collaborating laboratory of the WliO International Reference Center for Air Pollution. The National Institute of Public Health is undertaking studies on the relation of exposure to environmental pollution and the incidence of respiratory diseases, as well as on the toxic action of trace clern -tits in food and water. Excellent studies are underway on changes in metabolism following exposure to chlorinated pesticides. Noteworthy investigations in psychiatry concern the development of psychiatric epidemiology, analysis of the social and clinical features of drug abuse, and study of the relation of cerebral brain floN% during mental effort under normal and pathological conditions of the brain. Basic and applied research on food and nutrition is expanding. Prophylactic and therapeutic studies deal with lipid deposition in cardiac muscle, and protein caloric requirements, primarily in foreign lands. Microbiologists are studying the biosynthesis of edible protein and development of bacteria -free packing systems for milk and fruit juice. Irradiation of food is being tested .us it preservative technique. Sensory evaluation assay is being developed for control of food quality of preserved foods. Capabilities for military medical research are excellent. Military medical scientists cooperate closely with their civilian counterparts and benefit from civilian scientific efforts while retaining a research capability within the military services. The Defense Medical Research Delegation, under the Ministry of Defense, plans, advises, and coordinates applied military medical research and provides grants to the Military Medical Research (,enter of the Roval Caroline Medical- Surgical Institute, the Naval Medical Research Center in Karlskrona, and the Aeromedical Research Institute in Malrnslatt. The Military Medical Research Center is engaged in clinical, physiological, and BW investigations. The Naval Medical Research Center conducts research in submarine medicine and has a joint project with the U.S. National Institutes of Health. The Aeromedical Research Institute is concerned with general aviation medicine and is investigating the effects of low pressure and high altitudes on air force personnel. A Defense Medical Section within the Medical Research Council is concerned with coordinating and planning basic research and has six groups concerned with APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090022 -2 research in aeromedicine, naval medicine, bac- teriology, experimental psychology, toxicology, and burns. The FOA -i coordinates military medical research with cividan agencies, in addition to conducting research in such areas as nutrition and psycbology. The vett.-inary research capability compares favorably with that of other major European countries. Sweden has long had effective research programs which have led to efficient animal disease control systems. The principal diseases still affecting the domestic animal population are actinomveosis, foot and -mouth disease, parasitic infection, salmonel- losis, and swine erysipelas. Major diseases such as brucellosis, anthrax, tuberculosis, and Newcastle disease have been eliminated or almost eliminated. Sweden has approximately 1,200 veterinarians, and a significant number are engaged in some form of basic or applied veterinary research. The major research facilities are the State Veterinary Institute and the Roval Veterinary College of Sweden, both in Stockholm; the Agricultural College of Sweden in Uppsala; and the Skara Veterinary College. Research programs at the State Veterinary Institute are direelL l primarily to those economically important animal diseases and conditions which limit animal production, and include studies on viral diseases, toxicology, parasitology, and leukemia. The Skara Veterinary College has been concerned with clinical and experimental diseases primarily related to deficiency diseases and infertility. 6. Other sciences (S) a. Chemistry and metallurgy Chemistry historically has been an important field of research in Sweden, and Swedish chemists have been awarded four Nobel prizes since 1903. The overall level of capability in chemical research and development is substantially higher in Sweden than in other Scandinavian countries, but lower than in the major countries of Western Europe. The strongest fields of research are biochemistry and physical chemistry. Industrial research is weak, except for research associated with the manufacture of paper. The chemical industry is dependent to a considerable extent on processes developed abroad. There is little applied synthetic organic research except for a modest effort in pharmaceuticals. Research in biochemistry is broad and well supported at all of the country's leading educational institutions, particularly the Royal Caroline Medical Surgical Institute. Much of the research has concentrated on proteins, enzymes, and amino acids. Specific studies have concerned the purification of proteins, size ai d structure of viral proteins, sequences of amino acids, and enzymic oxidation, transforma- tion, and degradation. The quality of physical chemical research is very good and centers n molecular structure, physical chemistry of polymers, and reaction kinetics. The Institute of Physical Chemistry at the University of Uppsala is one of the outstanding centers of physical chemical res ^arch in Europe. T he institute, headed by Dr. Stig Claesson, is well staffed and very well equipped. It has done good experimental work on the physical properties of high molecular- weight mate= rials, such as cellulose and synthetic polymers. Research subjects are diversified and have included various types of diffusion experiments, light scattering, electron microscopy, flash photolysis, and the development of highly sophisticated instrumentation for studying polymeric materials. Good quality research on polymers is being done at the KTH and CTH. Prof. Bengt Ranby of KTH has been active in research on polymer structure, degradation mech- anisms, and radical polymerization. A small amount of significant organic chemical research is being clone in specific areas of interest to the pulp and paper industry such as on cellulose, lignin, wood extractives, and the chemical reactions which occur during pulping of wood and bleaching of pulp. Broader subjects of research under study at the universities have included synthetic growth sub- stances, terpenes, and organic sulfur and selenium compounds. Good research is underway at several of the universities in synthetic and physical organic chemical research. There has been some activity on the synthesis of pharmaceuticals. Tile Swedish universities apparent]-, are well equipped with nuclear magnetic resonance instruments, mass spectrometers, and other apparatuses used in physical organic chemical studies. High quality inorganic chemical research is carried on at the universities and technical universities on it variety of problems involving metal complexes, solubility characteristics of complexes in organic solvents, hydrolysis of metal ions, and especially equilibrium phenomena. Although the work has been largely fundamental, it has had a bearing on the practic recovery of uranium and other metals by solvent extraction techniques. Very little analytical chemical research is undertaken, although Swedish chemists have up -to- date analytical equipment and are skilled in the use of the latest analytical techniques. [n the area of physical ti ;r x 19 ,.,.....,a._a..,.,,,v ,.; ty.,�:: ak ,.w.. x., ct.. d._ f.ftec.S'etS'..a1PN', ?a'i y..... APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090022 -2 chemistry, electrochemistry is a subject of some I importance, and considerable work has been done on stress corrosion, as well as batteries and fuel cells. A variety of other subjects have been studied, including inorganic complexes, the chemistry of uranium i compounds, polyions, and the chemistry of seawater. The Institute of Inorganic Chemistry at the Universitv of Stockholm has contributed greatly to the understanding of structural inorganic chemistry. Richly endowed with iron ores but not with low -cost metallurgical fuels, Sweden traditionally has stressed quality rather than quantity in its metallurgical industries. A broad metallurgical research program is directed toward supporting the special steels and machine tool industries and is primarily developmen- tal. Only a limited amount of basic research is pursued and fundamental research is generally neglected. The level of metallurgical technology is excellent and compares favorably with that of West Germany and France in ferrous metallurgy. Relatively little effort is directed toward nonferrous metals, although some research is conducted on alurninum and copper alloys. The major metallurgical research facility is the Swedish Institute for Metals Research, a cooperative organization supported equally by industry and government. it undertakes research on analytical chemistry, physical metallurgy, corrosion, metals solidification, and powder metallurgy. The former director of the institute, Dr. Roland Kiessling, is world famous for his research on inclusions in steel, and the institute continues to perform excellent research on the subject. Other high- quality research is underway at the institute by Dr. Lennart Rahlin on metals behavior under combined creep and fatigue conditions, an area in which the Swedes excel. Considerable research is conducted on fracture mechanics. The institute also has conducted basic research on metal physics, chiefly stacking faults and transmission electron microscopy. The KTH is active in metallurgical research and its effort has included research on electroslag refining, the fundamentals of arc behavior in gas metal -arc welding, the interaction of creep and fatigue in austenitic stainless steels, fatigue crack growth, and the formation of graphite in alloy cast iron. The KTH has done excellent research on creep mechanisms and fatigue crack growth. Extensive studies on fracture mechanics have been undertaken at the Technical University in Lund under the direction of Prof. K.B. Broberg. Although the extent and scope of the metallurgical research conducted by governmental and academic facilities are impressive, the strength of the metallurgical effort rests almost entirely in the research conducted by private industrial laboratories. All of the 20 metal producing companies have research facilities, which are well funded, equipped, and staffed. Most of the industrial effort is devoted to the development of improved refining methods and improved ,Aloys. The Swedes have long been leaders in the development of advanced refining methods, and one of the first basic oxygen steel production processes, the Kaldo process, was developed in Sweden. The process, developed by Dr. B.O. Kalling of Stora Kopparberg Berslages AB in Domnarvet, is an excellent steel production process for relatively small plants. The Swedish Electrical Corporation in Vasteras and the Swedish Ballbearing Works, Inc., in Goteborg, one of the world's leading producers of bearings, jointly developed a ladle refining process for inductive stirring of the melt in the ladle to produce high quality steel. The Swedes have widely applied a Soviet development, electroslag refining, in their production of stainless steels and are more advanced in the use of electroslag refining than any other country in the West. Comprehensive research programs in this process are underway at various industrial firms. Other research on production processes has included work on heat- exchanger furnaces for magnetic reduction, sponge iron production, desulfurization of pig iron, and iron powder production. In addition, vacuum melting and vacuum treatment have been investigated thoroughly in connection with the production of heat treatable alloy steels. Hydrogen cracking in high strength steels has received extensive study. The Swedes have long been leaders in the development of improved special purpose steels. Sandviks Steel has developed several special- purpose corrosion resistant stainless steels that are gaining .wide acceptance in the U.S. petrochemical industry. AB Bofors, although not a metals producing company, has a metallurgical laboratory that has been studying hydrogen cracking of alloy steels, metals refining, fatigue creep, and corrosion fatigue. In addition to improved materials for weapons, the company has also developed materials for alloys for the pulp and paper industry. The Atomic Energy Company has conducted appreciable metallurgical research directed toward support of the nuclear energy program. The research has centered on cladding materials (zirconium alloys and stainless steels), structural materials, pressure vessels, and materials for fast- breeder, liquid -metal cooled reactors, as well as welding and fabrication. b. Physics and mathematics The scope of Swedish research in physics is impressive for the size of the country. Most of the essential branches of physics are covered with the APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090022 -2 greatest concentration in nuclear and solid -state physics. Other areas receiving a modest amount of attention are plasma, atomic and molecular physics, fluid dynamics, and superconductivity. Research in solid -state physics is of good duality and mainly of a highly theoretical nature primarily due to the competency of the physicists engaged in the research. The departments of physics of the universities and technical institutes are extremely active in studying the electrical, thermal, magnetic, ferromagnetic, crystal, optical, and semiconducting properties of solids. In essence, most of the solid -state research is devoted to the study of materials or. a broad scale. The KTH, CTH, and Lund Institute of Technology have conducted many advanced materials studies that have gained considerable recognition in Western Europe. Some of the outstanding research being done at these institutes involves studies of properties associated with dilute magnetic alloys and clustered magnetic ions by examining the energy spectrum and spin dependence. Other research is being done with such dilute magnetic alloys as cuprous fe rrides and cobalts to determine their specific -heat values. Physicists at CTH are active in examining the optical properties of semiconductor materials. Photoemission studies are underway to examine the effects of structural disorders of silver palladium alloys with regard to band structures of the pure compounds. At the Land Institute of Technology, optical ionization cross sections of gallium phosphate crystals are being studied by using the charge storage and impurity Photovoltaic effects measurements. A significant amount of research is being directed toward optical transmissions in cesium- coated copper. Although this work has been done only since 1970 in Western countries, the Swedish approach to using data from ultraviolet photoelectron energy spectra appears well advanced. A significant portion of solid -state physics research is oriented toward advancing the countrv's semiconductor device capabilities. For example, mesa diodes are being studied to determine the mechanism that causes edge breakdown. Some of the results concern the contributing factors such as band [)ending or microplasma usually associated with point defects in semiconductor materials. Other indications of concentrated efforts in semiconductor device development are shown by research into such sandwiched structures as silicon and graphite and processes for thermal etching of the semiconductor surfaces. Swedish physicists show competency in third- order optical mixing, which they developed as a powerful diagnostic technique used in semiconductor physics at Umea Universitv. There is a general trend in the nuclear sciences toward concentrating efforts in low-energy nuclear physics and engineering at some sacrifice to the high energy nuclear physics. The bulk of the low- energy nuclear research is being conducted in broad scope at the Swedish Nuclear Research Center at Studsvik at the FOA, and by the departments of CTH and the University of Uppsala. Much of the research has objectives aimed at determining the effects of prompt radiation exposures and at the study of nuclear decay schemes. This involves energy level studies of such radioactive isotopes as silver and cadmium which have importance because of their isomeric states. Transitions in decay are of interest for providing electron gamma directional correlations. Of particular interest have been studies of nuclear particle detectors that are formed by ion implantation, which have been developed with fairly good resolutions. The Atomic Energy Company also concentrates its efforts in decav studies. At the University of Uppsala, a large amount of effort is being concentrated in the development of nuclear instrumentation. Although Swedish industry produces good nuclear detectors, it is continuing to develop some good quality lithium drifted germanium detectors for studies related to absorption characteris- tics of materials subject to exposures at a broad spectrum of nuclear energies. The FO!'. is extremely active in nuclear research studies which appear to relate to defense against nuclear weapons and to radioactive characteristics of natural metal samples. The FOA has utilized germanium lithium detectors to conduct nuclear structure studies of inert gases via thermal neutron capture. It has done extensive research on neutral helium with regard to lifetimes of the excited levels of the gas. This involves a study of radioactive transition from doubly excited levels in helium and iodine. Swedish research in high energy nuclear physics is concentrated at the Nordic Institute of Theoretical Atomic Physics (NORUITA) in Copenhagen and at the University of Stockholm's Institute of Physics. Research is primarily theoretical and covers subjects concerned with elementary particles and cosm;e rav emanations. High- energy nuclear research also is being conducted at the Universities of Lund and Umea. At the University of Lund the research deals with photomeson effects in efforts to probe reactions connected with the light nuclei. Based on the studies of reactions leading to meson production, physicists 21 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090022 -2 have been able to determine th- number of nucleons that contribute to a reaction on the brsis of shell model considerations. Physicists at the University of Umea are examining the field -model theory for scattering to determine relations associated .vith broken couplings. between octet baryons and pseudoscalar octet mesons. A major portion of plasma research is performed at the KTH. Other groups at the leading universities and the Atomic Energy Company have modest programs. Researchers at the KTH are examining experimental results and related theory dealing with rotating plasmas aimed at advancing Swedish capabilities for nuclear fusion, cosmic physics, and special applications such as the plasma centrifuge, condensers, propulsion, and the plasma gun. Some of the KTH's research relates to the separation of different species of elements and isotopes; the researchers are aided by their expertise in the development and use of mass spectrometry. Work is continwn on the confinement of plasma by using strong magnetic fields. Special plasma guns that produce magnetized plasma rings are under study at the FOA. An impressive amount of laser research is being conducted at the KTH and CTI A large portion of such research is oriented toward laser beam optics and holography. The research is aimed at restoring holograph images of a distorted or defocused nature by using extended range spatial filters. Ultra -short pulse lasers and the means for measuring the properties of the output pulses also are under study. Development of solid -state lasers is progressing well, based on Swedish capabilities for growing synthetic crystals and for research in relaxation effects. The Swedes have always shown good capabilities in research related to atomic and molecular physics. Recent studies have concerned atomic and molecular structure of the benzene spectra and the isoelectronie series, such as thiophene, pyrrole, and furan. A major portion of such work is being conducted at the University of Uppsala. Some research is being devoted to the study and examination of hydrogen and helium atoms at the institute of Physics of the University of Stockholm; the beam foil spectra of helium and oxygen are being studied, using a special spectrometer located in the bean tubes of the institute's Van de Graaff generator for the purpose of observing doubly excited levels of lifetimes of isotopic gases. Fluid dynamics is a popular subject of physics research. The Kni is conducting limited studies of space charge conditions and Mach number in an electrostatic shock to note electron distributions that 22 are continuous at the boundary between free and trapped electrons. Stratified fluids arc of major interest to fluid dynamicists in connection with heat diffusion. Stratification involves a technique for arranging fluids in layers. Interest is in the mechanisms associated with basic stratification of fluid regions subject to thermal forcing, and the means for predicting properties for a wide class of boundary conditions. Research in superconductivity is of high quality but narrow in scope. Other research involves specific heat measurements of zirconium compounds and the study of superconductivity properties and electron- phonon interactions in tantalum- vanadium alloys using resistant measurements to determine parameters connected with transition temperatures. Sweden has been traditionally stunig in math- ematics. The quantity of research is substantial for it country of its size, and the quality is excellent. The Swedes are renowned for their work in statistics and are among the forerunners in data analysis and the use of computers in prediction theory and automation. Theoretical research centers on analysis, especially those branches of analysis dealing with the theory of partial differential equations, the theory of complex variables, and functional analysis. A minor but imaginative and competent research effort is underway in various branches of algebra, geometry, and topology. Sweden is active in international mathematical affairs and participates in most of the international meetings. Since September 1970 at least 14 Swedish mathematicians have made extended visits to U.S. universities. An exceptional rnathematic:a journal, Acta Mathemclica, has been published in Sweden with the cooperation of Denmark, Norway, and Finland since 1882. it has become one of the most prominent mathematical journals, and its exerllence is recognized Internationally. c. Astrogeophysical sciences (1) Astronomy and space sciences� Although the Stockholm Astronomical Observatory of the KVA at Saltsjobaden was established in 1784, there has never been an appreciable effort in observational astronomy. However, significant theoretic-il contributions have been made. The country's northerly geographical position has motivated emphasis on auroral studies, and these in turn appear to have encouraged interest in other areas of aeronomy, notably upper atmospheric rocketry and ionospheric radiophysical research. The former has progressed into it more extended interest in space science, while the latter has developed into tropos'plieric and other environmen- tally related radiophysical research areas. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090022 -2 Astronomical research is centered at the Stockholm Astronomical Observatory, observatories of the Universities of Uppsala and Lund, and at the ,halrners Institute of Technology. The Universitv of Lund has established a new observatory at Romeleasen. The Stockholm Observatory engages principally in sh.ndies in celestial mechanics, stellar statistics, and solar ph Since 191 the observatory has had a solar research station at Anacapri, Italy, on the Isola di Capri, which participates in solar flare patrol activities. The University of Uppsala has three stations: the University Observatory in Uppsala, it modestly equipped observatory c oncerned with the study of stellar statistics and galactic structure; tic Kristeborg Observatory at Malaren; and the Mournt Stromlo station in Australia, operated in conjunction with the Australian National Observatory in Canberra. The University of Lund hits i t small observatory principally engaged in rotntine studies. Swedish radioastronomy appears to he confined to the Raon Space Research Obsen -atory (also referred to as the Onsala Radio Wave Propagation Observatory)., which is located on the island of Raon about 25 miles south of Goteborg and operated by the Electronics Research laboratory of the um. The obseratorw has several radio telescopcs; the largest is it 25.6 -meter parabola, which was erected about 1964. Research has been devoted to the study of galactic structure and the large instrumentation permits reception of the very weak galactic signals. Space research is limited mainly to firing foreign supplied rockets for exploration of the upper atmosphere and ionosphere and for the study of solar phenomena. Space studies began in 1961 when the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Sweden reached an agreement for the exploration of space. Sweden established a launching site in 1962, the Vidsel Military Firing Range, near Kronogard in Lapland, and furnished range support facilities and operations personnel. In 1966 ESRO established a sounding rocket launching range, known its ESRANGE, about 10 miles from Kiruna in Lapland. ESRO's decision to abandon its sounding rocket program made unjustifiable its continued operation of ESRANGE� and Sweden agreed to assume responsibil- ity for its operation for a 5 -year period beginning in mid -1972. Plans are underway to reduce the staff in order to cut down the high operating costs. Launches from the range have been restricted to low- and medium- altitude flights because of the small size of the ranKv. Under the direction of the Spilee Technology Group of the Space Research Committee, the Flvgnuttor Company is developing a hybrid engine sounding rocket, SR -71. specifically for launching from the Kiruna range. The Ministries of Education and Ecclesiastical Affairs and Industrial Affairs have reported that the c�ountry will participate in ESRO's satellite projects for telecommunications, air traffic control, and meteorology. Scientists at the Kiruna Geophysical Observatory provided a device on the ESRO I A satellite to measure proton and electron energy in the 1 13 KeV range. Measurements front the satellite were correlated with ionospheric conditions at three Scandinavian sites and the observations front the all -sky camera and pl'otometer recordings from the Kiruna observatory. A similar satellite experiment is being prepared for the ESRO IV satellite. Cooperative agreenuMnts for space research have been concluded with other Scandinavian countries and with the Soviet Union. Sweden is a member of the European Telecommunications Satellite Conference (LETS) and the Internationa' Telecommunications Satellite Consortium (INTE''i,SAT). Sweden par- ticipates to it limited extent in the Scandinavian Space Research Organization along with Dennnark and Norway. A 1970 Swedish Soviet agreement oat space research provided for cooperation between the University of Lund and the Crimean Astrophysical Laboratory in the Soviet union and for use of Swedish -built solar spectrographs oat Soviet high altitude balloons and Soviet satellites. Sweden participated in 1971 in the planning of it U.N. study of surveying earth resources, with special reference to the use of satellites. Some satellite tracking is carried out b%- the University of Uppsala, and in 1971 the county was considering the development of it Swedish scientific satellite for magnelospheric studios with as launching target of about 1975. Sweden is active in a number of areas of aeronomy not associated directly with space l. Ground'- based aeronometric research is done in several fields. Cosmic ray observations are made by the Kiruna Geophysical Observatory and the IJplsalu Ionospheric Observatory of the FOA. These observatories also are conducting auroral and ruliophysics- related iono- spheric research. The KTH is active in Audying electric fields in the ionosphere. (2) Meteorology� 'I'herc are two separate meteor- ological facilities at the University of Stockholm that work in ('lose collaboration, the Institute of Meteorology and the International Institute of Meteorology. The fortner iwtitttte has long been one of the leading institutes it the world it its field Its research has enconra)ussed numerical forecasting, theoretical and (1\1. ,c� meteorology. nospheri 23 Y.fdV a;.v.,. I: TIaA' r..: 9 zx 'r:+Y :z �as�r�. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090022 -2 chemistrv, air -sea boundary oceanography, and cloud physics. It bus conducted studies of the global distribution of carbon dioxide. The International Institute is an independent organization affiliated with the University of Stockholm but granted direct support by the government. It was established after World War 11 to develop informal international cooperation in meteorological research. Its projects have included studies of circulation of ehernica) and radioactive substances in the atmosphere, cloud physics, and noctilucent clouds (clouds of unknown origin thought to be of dust, at altitudes of 50 miles, which may he observed at night in the reflected light of the sun). The institute participated in a sounding rocket project conducted from the Vidsel range in the early 1960's. The Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Stockholm, is the national weather service. and has departments for climatologv, hydrology, weather forecasting, and communications. The institute has announced plans for the complete automation, within 3 years, of weather observations and prognostic chart preparation activities. Opera- tionally, the institute utilizes the same numerical weather prediction techniques as does the United States. The institutes research is principally applied. Some meteorological research in the physics and dynamics of the atmosphere and in synoptic meteorology is done at the institute of Meteorology of the University of Uppsala. The university has an Institute for High Tension Research which engages in the study of the basic nature of lightning and its physical manifestations. It hits an observatory at Marsta near Uppsala, which is engaged in research in micrometeorology and atmospheric electricity and radioactivity. (3) Terrestrial geophysics and geology �The Kiruna Geophysical Observatory engages in terrestrial geophysical research. It is apparently the principal Swedish geomagnetic observatory; observations often are coordinated with auroral studies. The observatory has conducted geomagnetic and telluric current observations. Other stations engaging in geomagnetic studies are located at Abisko, Lovo, Enkoping, Uppsala, Lycksele, and on Svalbard in the Arctic Ocean. In addition, temporary stations are established at various sites during field surveys to make both geomagnetic and telluric current observations. The station at Lovo records secular variations of the geomagnetic field and has investigated field transients and giant pulsations. Along with lilt station at Abisko, it also has participated in an international program in which these stations act as fixed reference points for rtrtificial earth satellite measurements. 24 The Kiruna observatory also makes seismic observations, but the country's center for seismology is the Seismological Institute of the University of Uppsala, which has a participating station in the Worldwide Network of Standard Seismographs at Umea, on the calf of Bothnia. Other seismological stations are located at Karlskrona, Skalstugan, and Goteborg. At least since 1937 Sweden has seismically monitored Soviet and other nuclear explosions. 'Phew has been considerable interest in the Scandinavian Peninsula as it seisn.ic nuclear detection site. A survey of Scandinavian interest in the establishment of a Large Aperture Seismic Arrav (LASA) system in Scandinavia made in raid -1965. In 1968, 10 countries, including Sweden, the United States, and the U.S.S.R., participated in a seismic study group convened by the Stockholm International Institute for Peace and Conflict Research at which seismic methods for monitoring underground explosions were considered. A seismological observatory, under the direction of the FOA and located near Hagfors about M0 kilometers Nvest of Stockholm, %%-its inaugurated in May 1969. Its primary purpose is nuclear blast detection, but it will serve also for the international exchange of seismic data. The Nordic Cooperative Committee for Detection Seismology completed it study during 1969 for it cooperative effort by Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. Tile Swedish Geological Survey conducts scientific geological research and does consulting work for government agencies and private companies. it prepared geological maps of the country in accordance with certain standard procedures. Southern Sweden is mapped to scales of 1:30,000 or 1:10(,,000, while central and northern Sweden are mapped to scales of 1:200,000 to 1:400,000. Regions of special -rest may he mapped to the scale of 1:30,000. The s:,ryt,y is responsible for ail mineral prospecting and exploration activities. It also engages in applied geophysics related to geological research. In particular, it 10 -year program for the aeromagnetic mapping of northern Sweden is underway, and magnetic measurements have been made over the Baltic. Due to successes in locating large offshore reserves of natural gas and petroleum in the North Sea, mainly by British and U.S. consortiums, interest in offshore exploration is increasing in the Scandinavian countries. Sweden has announced plans for initiating off -shore exploration for petroleum which will he conducted by Swedish teams since no concessions are to he made available to foreign firms. The country stresses glacial geology, and from July to September 1966 it S\%edi -led glaciological expedition with participants from Sweden. Norway, APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090022 -2 Finland, and the Soviet Union made glaciological studies on Svalbard in the Arctic Ocean. The studies were an attempt to determine whether Svalbard was connected to the Scandinavian Peninsula by ice sheets s during P ast glacial g P' g periods. (4) Geodesy �The Geographical Survev Office, Stockholm, is the countrv's principal geodetic and mapping agency. It is responsible for geodetic, cartographic, aerial photogrammetry, and surveying projects, and also performs scientific investigations in geodetic and astronomic fields relative to measure- ments for the Swedish national network. Sweden has produced several outstanding personalities who are noted for research in geodesy. One of the foremost is Dr. Evert Arne Bjerhammar of the K1IT, who has in international reputation for his theory of gravimetry. The modern first -order triangulation network, begun in 1903, extends throughout the country and is tied to the networks of Denmark, Finland, and Norway. A lower order triangulation network was completed in 1964. During 1965 it was planned to continue work on the new first -order triangulation ne in the region of Skane, Halland, and Kalmar. In preparation for the 1965 measurements, numerous towers were constructed in the areas of Skane and Kalmar. Second -order triangulation and tellurometer measurements were intended to cover the remainder of mountains in the Lapland area for which geodetic survey data are lacking. The Geographical Survey Office is undertaking second -order triangulation, with use of geodimeter and tellurometer measurements, in five provinces, and is planning to remeasure a nortlr south traverse through Sweden as p art of the geodetic base line from Norway to Sicilv. The Second Leveling began in 1951 and was completed in 1967. Results became available for Swedish general use and official mapping in 1970 and is referred to as the 1970 Leveling System. In 1964 astronomic determinations with connection to Lovo were carried out on eight points in Jantland, Recomputation of older astropoints and the establishment of new points along the coast of Vasternorrland from Harnosand to Aapua have been completed, and data processing of the previous field season measurements has started. Stellar triangulation experiments through satellite observation have been carried out on Lovo. (5) Hydrology, hydraulics, and coastal engineering research Hydrologic and hydraulic research is comparable to that of the most advanced Western European countries. tctcilitie.s are adequate, and scientists are well trained and compe Most research is directed toward the production of hydroelectric power, river regulation, and timber flotation. Hydraulic studies are performed in laboratories at Alvkarleby, Goteborg, and two centers in Stockholm Alvkarleby is the principal center. Most hydraulic studies are conducted on scale models and are of an applied nature. Studies concern the design and remodeling of dams, with emphasis on spillways, log chutes, log flumes, and the location of energy dissipaters. hydrologic research is focused on the collection of river data. Swedish hydrologists and hydraulic engineers are active in national and international scientific organizations and conferences. The coastal engineering research capability has grown through the initiative of the KHT and the (;HT. The, coastal engineering research program compares favorably with those of other Western European countries in terms of skilled manpower, adequate fends, and well e(luipped research facilities. Research progranis by the institutes of technology are directed toward preventing shore erosion, engineering problems of shore structures, and met!iods of changing meteorological conditions over coastal and inland waters. Other projects include experimen- tal and theoretical studies of coastal engineering, currents, sea level variations, and sedimentation. Many of the extensive underground civil defense projects in Sweden require new types of coastal engineering before they can he initi,.rted. (6) Oceanograf)lry Oceanographic capabilities are relatively high, ranking next to those of Denmark among the Scandinavian countries. The research program is of a modest extent, limited by insufficient funds, personnel, and equipment for ocean area investigations. Research facilities are adequate for the coastal researc effort. In an effort to increase the source of protein in the country's food supply, the government h as supported the de velopment of marine fisheries. As a result, considerable emphasis is being given to biological oceanography. The Underwater Acoustics Section of the Ro Sw edish Navy has increased research on underwater sound, and a good capability exists for the development of small- object sonar detection. Sweden is increasing exploration of its sea floor and is developing techniques and instruments for these investigations. During 1971 Swedish oceanographic research ships engaged in a program of data collection from deep basin areas in the Baltic Sea, fisheries investigations, and water pollution survcvs. Development of underwater television is being pursued. Goteborg is the center of the oce anographic effort and the major research facilities are located there. The 25 wrxmgana.rav,tatawex,e:rrs-:aY-, APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090022 -2 most important are the Oceanographic lastitute of the University of Goteborg, the Marine Geological Laboratory, and the Research Institute for Marine Fisheries. The laboratory, formerly a division of the Oceanographic Institute, concentrates on studies of deep sea deposits, marine chemistry, paleo- oceanography, and marine pollution. The Research Institute for Marine Fisheries has undertaken biological surveys in the waters around Sweden, as well as investigations on the physiochemical characteristics of the sea as a biological environment. 26 Sweden is active in international oceanographic organizations and is a member of the International Association. for the Physical Sciences of the Ocean (IAPSO), International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES), Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC), and the Conference of Baltic Oceanographers. It is also a member of the Nordic Commission to provide student training in ocean- ography and the Nordic: Commission on Marine Biology. Sweden participates fully in arctic ice studies with other countries which have arctic interests. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090022 -2 ft APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090022 -2 27 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090022 -2 FIGURE 7. Selected sites of scientific activity (C) SFCHE'F Glossary (u feu) ABBREVIATION FoFtF.iGN ENGLISII AEB Atomic Energy Board ASEA Allmanna Svenska Elcktriska Aktie- Swedish General Electric Company Malmo............... bolagel 13 00 CTH Chalmers lekniska hoqAkola Chalmers Institute of Technology 170A.. Forstarets Forskningsard stall Defense Research Institute IVA Ingeiijorsvet.enskapitakademien Royal Academy of hngineering Sciences KTI1 Kungliga lekniska hogskolan Royal Institute of Technology KVA Kungliga V'flenskapsakademien. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences NSAC National Science Advisory Council SIPRI Stockholm International Peace Re- M idsom mark ransen (see. of Stockholm)..... 59 IS search Institute STU Slyrelsen for leknisk ulveckling.. Board for Technical Development 28 Places and features referred to in this chapter (u/ou) COORDINATES 11 COORDINATES NO FOREIGN DISSEM SECRE 7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDP01-00707R000200090022-2 0 'N. 0 PE. o P V a PE. Aapua 66 51 23 32 Malmo............... 55 36 13 00 Abisko 68 20 18 51 Malmsldtt 58 25 15 30 Agesta 59 14 18 05 Mfirsta 59 37 17 51 Alvkarleby 60 34 17 27 Marviken (cove)......................... 60 07 18 49 BarsebAck (estate) 55 46 12 57 M idsom mark ransen (see. of Stockholm)..... 59 IS 18 00 Billingen (upland) 58 24 13 45 Oskarshamn 57 16 16 26 Bofors 63 42 16 20 RAb (frm) 57 24 11 56 Copenhagen, Denmark 55 40 12 35 Ryon (ist). 57 24 11 56 Domnarvet (sec. of Borldnqe).............. 60 30 15 27 Ringhals (point) 5 15 12 05 Enk6ping 59 38 17 04 Romelefisen (hills) 55 34 13 33 Forsmark 60 22 18 09 Saltsj6baden 59 17 IS 18 G6teborg 57 43 11 58 Simpvarp 57 25 16 40 Hagfors 030 02 13 42 Skal8tugan (farms) 63 35 12 16 Halland 63 19 13 19 Skine (region) 55 59 13 30 MirnosAnd 62 38 17 56 Skara 58 22 13 25 Kalmar 56 40 16 22 Sol na... 59 22 18 01 Karlskrona 56 111 15 35 Stockholm................. 59 20 18 03 Kiruna 67 51 20 13 Studsvik 58 46 17 23 Liding6 59 22 18 08 Sundbyberg 59 22 17 58 Link6ping 58 25 15 37 TrAlWittan 59 16 12 18 Ldvii 56 .59 16 28 Ulvsunda (sec. of Stockholm).............. 59 20 17 58 Lund 1 55 42 13 11 Umek 63 50 20 115 Lycksele 64 36 18 40 Uppsala 59 52 17 38 MAlaren (lake) 59 30 17 12 11 Viisterfis. 59 37 16 33 NO FOREIGN DISSEM SECRE 7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDP01-00707R000200090022-2 SECRET NO FOREIGN DISSEM SECRET APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDP01-00707R000200090022-2