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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090025 -9 91rCS /CP 0 9 Thailand April 1974 Ni1Ti()N/\L INTGZi_1(f NCI SUM Y 0 FOR OFOC1AL USE ONLY E' f S r �+2 F e iiAdAYYf'�' :As mow' APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090025 -9 NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY PUBLICATIONS The basic unit of the NIS is the General Survey, which is now published in a bound -by- chapter format so thc` topics of greater per- ishability can be updated on an individual basis. These chapters� Country Profile, The Society, Government and Politics, The Economy, Military Geog- raphy, Transportation and Telecommunications, Armed Forces, Science, and Intelligence and Security, provide the primary NIS coverage. Some chapters, particularly Science and Intelligence and Security, that are not pertinent to all countries, are produced selectively. For small countries requiring only minimal NIS treatment, the General Survey coverage may be bound into one volume. Supplementing the General Survey is the NIS Basic Intelligence Fact book, a ready reference publication that semiannually updates key sta- tistical data found in the Survey. An unclassified edition of the foctbook omits some details on the economy, the defense forces, and the intelligence and security organizations. Although detailed sections on many topics were part of the NtS Program, production of these sections has been phased out. Those pre- viously produced will continue ro be available as long as the major portion of the study is considered valid. A quarterly listing of all active NIS units is published in the Inventory of Available NIS Publications, which is also bound into the concurrent classified Factbook. The Inventory lists all NIS units by area name and number and includes classification and date of issue; it thus facilitates the ordering of NIS units as well as their filing, cataloging, and utilization. Initial dissemination, additional copies of NIS units, or separate chapters of the General Surveys can be obtained directly or tl.iough liaison channels from the Ci :ntral Intelligence Agency. The General Survey is prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency and the Defense Intelligence Agency under the general direction of the NIS Committee. It is coordinated, edited, published, and dissemi- nated by the Central Intelligence Agency. WARNING This document contains information affecting the national defense of the United States, within the mooning of title 18, sections 793 and 791 of the US code, as amended. Its transmission or revelation j -4 its contents to or receipt I�y an unauthorized person is prohibited by law. i i CLASSIFIED BY 019611. EXEMPT FROM GENERAL DECLASSIFI- CATION SCHECJLE OF E. O. 116,52 EXEMPTION CATEGORIES SB (1), (2), (3). DECLASSIFIED ONLY ON APPROVAL OF TfiE DIRECTOR OF CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE. l: �Ii9LaYi.v;,!'YSry �..+.r... APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090025 -9 o� WARNING 1 The NIS is National Intelligence and may not be re- leased or shown to representatives of any foreign govern- ment or international body except by specific authorization of the Director of Central intelligence in accordance with the provi-lons of National Security Council Intelligence Di- rective No. 1. For NIS containing unclassified material, however, the portions so marked may be made available for official pur- poses to foreign nationals and nongovernment personnel provided no attribution is made to National Intelligence or the National Intelligence Survey. Subsections and graphics are individually classified according to content. Classificatio. i /control designa- tons are: (U /OU) Unclassified /For Official Use Only (C) Confidential (S) Secret 0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R00020009002579 14ada*zd Tradition and Change 1 Bangkok at the Center The Rice Mystique As the Old Was s Change Chronology i(? Area Brief 13 Summary Map follows 13 This Country Proftle was prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelhgrn(r :jgr,j,y. Research was substantially comWeted by February 197.1. Fou OMCIA]. l'sE ON.y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090025 -9 A 4 'Q t Tradition Change In October 1973 the people of Thailand experienced imprecedented violence in their political life when pop filar demonstrations against the government of Prime Minister Thanon Kittikachon brought about the downfall of a 10 -ye rr military regime and the exile of its three leading families. Against strong traditions -f respect for authority and complaisance toward all officialdom, a broad element of the educated Thai Popilation� students, labor groups, some parts of the bur-aucracy, prominent citizens, and the press �join- ed ranks to express disaffection and deepening distrust of their government. Although the military regime shared no power with the people, it had generally avoided repressive steps while building a stable government under firm ex- ecutive control. It often showed remarkable flexibility, incorporatim, into government programs many of the ideas and some of the leaders of the opposition. For if hug time the regime was neither very popular no very unpopular, was firm but not brutal, and tolerated quite a lot of dissent although i! (]ill not like it. However, from November 1971, when the regimu� end- ed a 3 -year experiment in semiparticipatory govern- ment, until late 1973 the consensus grew that Thailand was being badly governed, that its top of- ficials should leave, and that the military es- tablishment's long domination of the nation's political life should he terminated. Student agitation was the catalyst that finally brought the government down. \'OTT -"Ihe vii tiry mi0vuI of this chapler i, l'ti(1,ASSIFII:1) Lot i. I-OR OFfI(AAI, t'SE Otill'. While repudiating one fixture of their recent history by removing the military's hold over the government, the dissenting 'Thais showed their continued affection for another constant in their political life: the monarch. Although all power is exercised in the name of the king, he has had very little real institutional Power in his own right since if 1932 military- civilian COUP ended the absolute monarchy. The stature of the mon. ;rcly has grown immeasurably, however, since the coronatFm in 1950 of the popular King I'humiphon- -ninth in the Chakri line which has held the throne since 1782. A hardworking ruler, King HiumiPhon keeps himself well informed on both inter- national and domestic issues. He uses his position shre\ydly to influence the tone of government through Private audiences with officials, and on occasion he has taken public actions which have guided Thailand toward a more democratic system of government. I'll( King has developed a strong rapport with the st comummllih': the student leaders had his support in the events leading to the doWlifall of the Thanom govern unent, and they continue to look to him for guidance. The King chose 'I'hanom's successor, the civilian educator and Supreme Court justice Sanya 'I'han)- nwsak, and also played the key role in forming an in- terims legislature which has been charged with drafting a nest' constitution. Ile picked more than 2,300 citizens from different walks of life to meat and choose the new 299 -man assembly which replaces the old parliament. iieflecting Ill shifts which have taken Place in the internal Power equation, only 12ri of the nest' ;sssennblN are from the military compared with APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090025 -9 671 of its predecessor. There is continuity between the new and the old in that nearly half of the Sanwa cabinet are holdovers from the Thanom regime, a number of them military men. Nonetheless, the new constitution being drafted in early 1974 is expected to Thailand's capital city, Bangkok �huh of com- merce and transportation, residence of the monarchy, and focus of political, intellectual, and cultural life�typifies the conventional Thai attitude to+vard continuity and change. Its founder, Rama 1, first of the Chakri rulers, chose its location in 1782 to forestall a Burrrnese attack similar to the one 15 Nears before that had demolished the old capital of Ayutthaya, yet he -wanted Bangkok to resemble Ayutthaya as closely as possible. He summoned experts +who could recall details of the old city, had some of its remaining Imildings razed and the bricks brought down the river, and ordered klongs (canals) cut including one wide enough for boat racing which had been so pop- ular in Avurtthava. Eventually, in 1972, the "twin cities" of Bangkok and nearby �I'hon Buri �site of a Temporary capital prior to Bangkok's construction� nivir �d into one city province uncle. a governor +who is also rya ;r of the single municipality. In the last four decade, their area has increased sixfold and their population, quin- tupled, reaching a total of :3. 7 million in 19721 that made the joint cih one of the world's largest. If its 6.5'1 yearly increase rate continues, Bangkok -Than Buri's population will reach 6 million hN 1980 and ex- ceed I 1 million by 1990. Long before the merger, over half the nation's ur- ban population already lived in Bangkok a:ul the c�itv's primacy rate (i.e., population of the largest city as it percentage of the total population of the four largest cities) +vas in the W's �one of the highest in the To merit primacy, says one orbanologist, a city "must not only he the most populous in the area, but reflect such civilian concerns as provision for a bicameral legislature with an eiected lower house, dis- tinct separation of power, it deeper commitment to social welfare. and protection against the excesses of martial I.m more importantly, the most powerful and evocative of rt .wards and splendors." Bangkok qualifies on a!l counts. Political influence literally begins and ends in Bangkok, and other cities quid provinces generally blow with the capital's political +winds. Major univer- APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090025 -9 a td sities such as Chulalongkorn and Thammasat �whose students spearheaded the Thanom regime's overthrow in October 197:3 �are in Bangkok, as are the best in Thai theater, dancing, music, and the graphic arts. It is also one of the few Thai cities to have a dail newspaper �in this case several in Thai, Chinese, and English. Bangkok is %%-her(- automobilf railroad, and airline routes converge. Don N1uang is the nation's only major international airport. and the seaport of Bangkok handles over 90% of all inbound. and out- bound sea cargo. Bangkok's superiority crumbles, ho.vever, at the in- frastructure level. Traffic jams not only clog the streets but generate noise, vibrations, and exhaust fumes .which endanger human life and national art treasures alike. Frequently dust from a cement plant, black smoke frorn a po.werplant, and sawdust from several sawmills combine with ether fumes to cover the metropolitan area with a veil of yellow sn::)g. Garbage and other refuse in the klongs are further health haz- ards, particularly when the water recedes in the dry season. Government measures to tackle these prob- lems have been sporadic and ineffective. The decade of `.he 1960's .witnessed a significant degree of economic diversificatio;i, which greatly affected Bangkok. Dunne; the period 1960 -71, total employment in agriculture rose by 25c and aon- agric�ultural occupations by 78('. As a proportion of the total .work force, the nonagricultural sector in- creased from 171 `1 to 23`i the greatest increase in employment .was experienced in services and corn merc�e. This buildup of the nonagricultural work force was primarily based on the metropolitan area of Bangkok, winere about -1051 of the industrial labor force and 625(' of all conunerc�ial .workers are activ. The� rapid growth of the Bangkok -Than Buri metropolitan area has strained existing .welfare services there, and created housing and some unernplovrnent problems. The growth of slum conditions has become acute. By rnid -1971 there were an estimated JW,000 families in the capital area living in slums. On the .waterfront, migrant laborers live on sampans or in shacks; many of the shacks are constructed of barnboo and scrap materials and are periodically swept away by floods or destroyed by fire. Other squatters live un- der bridges, in buildings under c�onstuc�tion, or wherever shelter can be found. The government has embarked on a few projects to improve public facilities in this area, but top priority has been given to socioeconomic development in the rural areas �in response to other economic and political realities. Onlc 1-151 of Thailand's total population live in ur- ban areas, and the overwhelming preponderance of economic production and national life goes on in the countryside. Agriculture still employs over 70 c of the labor force; together with processing and commercial activities related to farming and forestry �some of which occur within urban areas, of course �it ac- counts for more than two fifths of gross domestic product ;GDP). In 1972, 51 c of export earnings stemmed from sales of just five commodities: r.ce, rubber, tin, corn, and tapioca. Other agricultural products made up the bulk of the remainder, as ex- ports of manufactured products is small. Thailand's achievement of an average annual rate of growth of about 5c' in agricultural output during 1962 -72� matched by few countries in Southeast Asia �was sufricien't to provide for an increasing con sumption of food by the rapidly growing population and still maintain surpluses for export. The rural areas are also important because economic hardship in sonic areas has bred discontent, and because the government has in the past seriously neglecied its relationships with minority ethnic groups. Economic retardation is particularly apparent in northeastern Thailand, .which contains about one -third of the nation's population. There economic and social development has been impeded by poor soil, an unreliable water supply, insufficient irrigation facilities, inadequate roads and ccaununications, and a shortage of health and educational facilities. Although the population is ethnic Thai, most people in this area speak Lao or regional Thai dialects. They are culturally different from the Thais who live on the delta and .wide alluvial plain of the Chao Phraya river system in central Thailand which is the country's rice bowl and the center of traditional Thai civilization. Despite the government's increased attention to assimilation and development in recent ;ears, many people in the northeast still feel ignored and dis- criminated against. Thailand's mountainous northern provinces are in- habited largely by non -Thai hill tribes. The govern- ment generally ignored the hill tribes until 1959 .when it prohibited the cultivation of the opium pop- py �their traditional livelihood �and mo.rd to stop the slash- and -burn agricultural p!actices which were destroying significant areas of forest. Considerable antigovernment hostility persists despite the gov- ernment's later adoption of a Hill Tribe Develop- ment and Welfare I'rogram, and the efforts of the King to show his concern for their well -being and security by making personal visits. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090025 -9 a Ethnic problems also afflict the nation's southern- most area, the Thai part of the Malay Peninsula. a 5W- mile -long sliver of land extending southward from Bangkok, which has a substantial minority of ethnic Malays attracted by the area's tin deposits and rare woods. The peninsula's location astride the inter- national sealanes joining China and India has long at- tracted the attention of seagoing powers bent on using its narrow waist as a shortcut. The merits of digging a canal a the narrow poini of the peninsula, the Kra Isthmus, are debated both internatinnally and domestically. Japan and other major shipping nations favor a canal; Singapore, strategically located on the Strait of Malacca, firmly opposrs an alternate waterway. I'll( Thai Government believes a canal %vould benefit the nation in the .:hurt run, with canal construction employing as many as 1 million Thais. But in the long term, the government fears a canal might spur separatist sentiment among the peninsula's Malay residents. Although Bangkok is the nave center of Thailand, the nations heart beats in the countryside where most Thais live in villages along the rivers and canals and grow rice as their ancestors did. For at least half the population, rice is the only or principal sourer of livelihood. It grows on nearly 90' of the farms, takes ill-, 70 n ,r of all cultivated land, auutts to 40,E of the total value of farm production, and generates ]r''r' of the country's GDP Rice makes up about one -fifth of the value of all 'Thai exports and accounts for one -sixth of all rice in world trade. 'Prue rice (urtizn saliva can grow like wheat on dry slopes and in varying depths of water. Thailand has ric�efields at altitudes nearly 4,500 feet above sea level as well as in the brackish tidal flats of the Gulf of Thailand. Most Thai rice is the wet or lowland type grown by transplanting, and two thirds of the total ric: a+ ^a is plant( in nonglutinous rice. The area of Despite the many problems they face, tip, Thais have through the centuries maintained a continuity and a durability of culture due to many factors. From earliest times, the Thais' economy has been based on rice cultivation, which promotes communal life, and their religion has successfully blended Buddhism, Hin- duism, and animism. There has never been cause for a peasant revolt or class warfare, even though Thai governments have always been elitist and Thai rulers never really accountable to the people. Unlike its neighbors, Thailand has been subjected to foreign rule wily for rare and brief periods The nal ion's ability to absorb diverse influences still holds, as seen in the ad(.ption of European and American theories of government, administrative methods, and economic techniques during the 20th century. The Thais still in- terpret n( ideas and methods';rorr their own point of view, adapt the n to match traits in their owl character, anri through it all maintain a distinctive) Thai ethos. highest yields, but the smallest planted acreage, is in the north which stresses glutinous rice. Rice directly affects Thai life at all levels. it is the infant's first solid food, and is ritually burned on the funeral pyre. Rice is the chief part of every meal, an important source of cash for the fanner and revenue for the government, a major topic of village convee,a- tion, the goal of most work, and the basis for holidays, festivals, and even religious fervor. At harvest time es- pec�i.My, villagers share tasks, working together in the fields tip to 14 hours at a time. Traditionally, a hand- ful of grain from each rice crop is returned from the buyer to the farmer to assure the next year's crop. Since the mid -19th century, rice growing has played a major role in shaping the (,c�onony and boosting th(, popu:ation. Pe-sants who for years planted just enough rice for their own families began to grow more when they learned of the wide interest in their high- APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090025 -9 I_1 �:16IT M IM161:a0 :1 wo] dN1]: 111 KIIt) !Lt)/ :ZtItItYtItItIItItY'7 MR hLVA ytlalit% pre duct Large fumign p, rc -haws pushe(I Thailand from its sllhsistence level into an cschange eeononly in the world marketplace, and this in turn spurred hoth a population influx (large from China) and a rise in fertility In the ceotor% IS50 -1950, rice acreage rose by 13m,; from 5.8 million to `34 fi million rat (2.2 rat l acre), This striking gain Was generated largely by the initiative of independent farmers, but seas also aided by Ille governrnrat. The old custom that anyone might clam) all the state's land Ile could till was formalized ill the Consolidated Land Act of 1908. which men- dolled the amount one crndd 'tuns to profit, and the Land Act of 1936, which limited such acreage to 50 rai. l it both cases the fanner cotild mceive title after he lilled the land far 3 years. Ali incentive land tax, moreover, entmi3raged farmers to risk cultivaling new land in I ^ss fertile regions. These customs and l.lWS cn- cvnraged the growth both elf rice itself and of a nation (If "mail, independent owner- farmers. )Sven the emphasis placed hetwecn 1.950 and IOG0 on diver- sifying crops (lift Lint deter the rise in paddy yields or acreage which. by 1972, were respectively 31 -j and 30 higher than in 1962. The increase in vied was due la improved irrigation, seeds, ferliliztrs, and farm equipment. In the earl 1970? s, however, several clouds on the horizon were threatening the farmer's traditional role ill Thailand. and perhaps, tiltimately, the values of the rice -bused culture. Since a}rnat 1965 lite Thai popula. tion, expanding by 3.2% or I million persons a year, has consumed nearly 90 of each year's rice crop. At this ratr, 3 million more torn of rice m ust he raised over the nest decade just to meet domestic needs Moreover, farmers already Liss ['lost of the potential paddy area. Increasing rice yieids per revi on ahead% deveiopecd land �the obvious answer �has been stymied by the governulent's efforts to deveap in- dusU As a result of competition for funds, the government has failed to provide enutlgll irrigation, fertilizers, storage facilities, and agricultural credit; it leas .also tolerated or backed some policies that hamper OF irnpurrrish farmers, 7 his situatinn could be solved Ivy a change in governrneut priorities. Water control is a major p.. ;Nora in rh: +land, a�. it is throughout tropical monsoon Asia where maxinlurn rice yields require some 70 inches of raid in the June- \'avenlher growth mud maturing period Thailand regularly gels this much rain onh in the peninsular lowland and southerat coast. and areas where forests have liven destro mccive and retain anuch less than they used lo. 1- 93tinu. moreover. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090025 -9 covers only ahor 17(' of total rice land. As it result, some kinds of high-yielding, short- stemmed "miracle" rice that need controlled watering account for only 2.2� of arable land, an,', three other types are being tried and a fourth developed to grow at different water levels. Even in the fertile Chao Phrava Plain, where one -fifth of Thailand's rice is grown, the farmers can- not doublecrop for lack of suitable water control. Irrigation projects prior to the current Third Plan 1971- 6) emphasized building more dams rather than providing ditches and dikes to channel water front ex- isting dams to the farm lands. Two darns built in hhon haen province in the northeast, for instance, did not hell, provide %rater for the farmers, one provided only electricity and the other had no feeder canals. Fertilizer problems also hamper rice growing. Exor- hit unt prices force Thai farmers to use less fertilizer than any other .Asians except the Burmese �about 8.6 kilograms per hectare of arable lan(? compared with over 12 in India and Indonesia, 19.5 in the Philip- pines, and 60.8 in Western Malaysia. Poor storage facilities Iso depress the income of fanners wbo, tillable to store rice for long in handwoven baskets, must sell it soon after harvest when ,)rices are low. Uvnerally they sell about 60 "C' of their unmilled crop directly to mills, local dealers, or itinerant buyers, about one -third of the rest is used for seed and feed. Poor storage can also discourage doihlecropping, at least in areas where it second crop is harvested) while damp. In mid 1973, growers in five Centred Plains provinces found few buyers for their damp paddy rice since both the government and most private merchants lacking grain drying egnipment �were uninterested. Some government rice policies, %%bile well- inten- tioned and helpful to other Thais, have proved dis- astrous to farmers. The old 'rice premium" tax on ex- ports long raised revenues for the government (about l'SS15 million annually) and kept rice prices lo\y for consumers, hit farmers received less thaI: half the ex- port price. The farmers' share from the revised "rice premitin" tax �Which has been levied since late 1972 ni only ahota one -fifth of all rice exports �is still minuscule, but at least the government has announced plans to reinvest much of its tax proceeds into im- proving agriculture. The late 1973 crackdo\yn on rice hoarders is making more rice available to the public at reasonable prices but does not help farmers whose profits on this particular crop were long since sliced off by middlemen. With no financial reserves and no rice stocks of their o\yn, the farmers have simple tightened their belts. Rice graving is still all- important to Thailand, but the rice mystique is wearing a bit thin as modern problems ntonnt. Partictilarly damaging in the early 1970's were the severe droughts which forced some farmers �with oil]\ limited) agriccrltural credlit available to them under government programs �to borrow money at calamitous interest rates. Where the land speculators who ployide inoiwy have required deed as collateral, many farmers have been reduced from small landowners to impoverished tenants Some have accepted this fate stoicalh, but others have left the land to seek uncertain fortunes in Bangkok and other cities. In Jule 197:3 .he Bangkok Post found that the children of 80''(' of the farmers in four (ventral Plains delta provinces had left to try their luck in the cities. The conventional wisdom has it that they would rather he poor laborers than pour fanners. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090025 -9 6 The fer::c; at in Thailand since students toppled the Thanom regime in October 1973 raises questions about the traditional happy -go- lucky, live- and let -live Thai psyche, epitomized by the expression mai lien rai or "never mind." The Thais' emotional security stems partly from a long, permissive infancy with no rigorous disciplines. A child generally learns to walk, s vim, and gain motor coordination on his own, and probably gains a healthy self- reliance h so doing. Adult Thais feel little pressure to conform to any work ethic or nee for self- castigation. This kind of background .u- courages respect for authority without resentment. Buddhism also shapes Thai conduct. Unlike the Christian for example, the Buddhist does not have an accountability to a Creator who will decide the fate of his eternal soul. Being evil, grasping, or unkind merely extends ones own suffering, and it is only good act.;, charity, knowledge, and meditation that can free one. The 'Thai Buddhist senses the world's impermanence and the lack of reality based on outward signs, and is inclined to minimize facts and thing;. 'The most com- plex situations resolve themselves because the stream of life continually shifts and rearranges one's positions. Amid such flux where it would be absurd to try to be certain and exact, or to plan everything �only the pres- ent and the immediate are real. To most Thais the concept of time is vague and rather than actors, they tend to be acted upon. There is no doubt that the overlay of Western customs and artifacts superimposed through the years has greatly altered 'Thai life. 'Tradition still prevails in the countryside, but Westernization has made headway in Bangkok and a mixture of the two has changed the lives of smalltown residents. Superficial innovations include: a network of highways where there were once just quiet canals and winding elephant trails; television antennas, radio towers, and microwave parabolas dotting a landscape formerly dominated by forests and temple spires; chrome and plastic furniture supplanting lacquer -ware and inlaid mother -of -pearl tables and cabinets, and cars and air- planes figuring in temple murals along -,with traditional Buddhist figures. Modernization has also brought new kinds of people and conditions. What used to be an insular, little -known kingdom finds itself bustling with tourists, businessmen, military men, international agency representatives, news correspondents, and assorted kinds of Western expatriates. Many of these outsiders introduced new ideas and new technologies which helped generate massive new wealth in the country. A 44 increase in individual Thai income in one decdd^ has brought increased demands for luxury goods all over the country, with mixed reactions from Thai intellectuals. Western political ideas have been part of the scene since the 1932 coup ended the absolute monarchy but have prevailed only infrequently since then. The kev features of modern po' �tical dynamics in Thailand have been: rule by personality and faction, the coup d'etat as an instrument of change, absence of ideological debate in politics, concentration of political life in Bangkok, abuse of office for personal profit, and distortion of Western parliamentary and electoral forms. Most Thais still view political intrigue Mid change with a feeling of impotence. Until recently. military strictures against political assembly of five or more persons, against labor union activity and against student political demonstrations simpl- reinforc existing oulhtral restraints on troublemaking. Many 'Thais have traditionally equated opposition to the government with insulting the King virtually a sacrilege in their society. The resulting stability, coupled with the countrv's rich agricultural resources, has made Thailand a strong, non Communist cornerstone in Southeast Asia. At the same time, however, general and personal economic setbacks werc prompting a fairly wide cross section of the public to decide that perhaps the government shotdd he held accountable. A feeling that the poor no longer had access to justice was also giewing throughout the country. Official corruption, even extortion, f a i APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090025 -9 r 1Sr i YiG lrT tp. u .q+ .1'! .l I 4 l 'I tf,y,>a p 6 v p R P r G 4 O y Y a f c.. L R`�4k mom,... ti` .t�A "J. 'IA 1 1 b1s r Eli 11 JA el f ry rr t I 1 a y 4 a Another major reason for rising public concern is the nation's astronomical population increase. Before 1900 Thailand took more than a century to increase its population by more than a million, but by 1970 more than that number of persons was being added each year. If the 3.2`'; annual growth rate continues un- abated, Thailand will have about 50 million people by 1980, 70 million by 1990, and nearly 100 million by the end of this century. If the population continues to double every 22 years, the supply of many com- modities ill have to double or more than double in the same length of time. By 1990, one projection es- timat; there would also have to be 16 million ad- ditional jobs, 30 thousand more physicians, 5.7 million additional houses, and 160 thousand more teachers. The squeeze is already apparent on the lard and in the job market. The political events which Thailand and its neighbors in Southeast Asia have lived through in the past decade, as well as the recent advent of East -West detente, have also had their effect. Ancient an- tagonisms toward the Burmese, Vietnamese, and Cambodians persist, but efforts are now being made to open up discussioi on population exchange, border disputes, and rival claims for control of productive areas For most of the post -World War 11 era, Tiv,dand maintained diplomatic relations with only one` Communist country, the Soviet Union, and even in this relationship cuitural and trade contacts were kept to a ninimurn. In 1958, official commercial and cultural contacts with the People's Republic of China were banned. Beginning with 1969, however, Thailand's outward look gradually altered, first in- creasing contact with the European Communist coun- tries, and alter 1972 with China. 'I he development o f closer ties among Switheast As^n countries has become an important facet of Thai foreign policy. Thailand sees its membership in the Southeast Asian Treaty Organization (SEATO), which it helped form in 1954, chiefly in icums of the Un ted States' defense commitment, now waning. It iews other regional organizations �such as the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN �as more closely reflecting indigenous interests, and is active is sup- porting their goals. Multiple changes for Thailand, however, do not necessarily scan an end to the country's traditional ways. 'Throughout its history, religion, culture, mores, and other factors it: the nation's life have he; n altered, but strictly along 'Thai lines. 1?ven the students who took to the streets in October 1973 did not resemble the radical stereotype; they did not have unduly long hair, wore simple white shirts and dark trousers, were respectful to their elders, assemblod in dis 1plined ranks before classes, and loved and respected the Ding. Even the Thai version of Buddhism rejects the Buddha's central doctrine of Nirvana, or heaven. The Buddha taught that sorrow attonds existence and can end only when desire is extinguished. The Thais, who firmly beli-V existence is good, place the promised rewards of Buddhism in this life rather than in the next. Thailand's political, economic, and cultural bor- rowing will probably continue to be selective, and not destructive of national traditions. 9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090025 -9 Chronology 1851 -58 During reign of Mongkut (Rama IV), Siam embarks on modernization program to avoid colonization by Western powers. 1855 April Siam concludes Bowring Treaty with Great Britain which grants extraterritoriality and trading privileges to British citizens; treaty sets pattern for agreements with United States, France, Denmark, anal Portugal, and opens Siam to Western influence. 1868 -1910 During reign of Chulalongkorn (Rama V), Siam abolishes slavery, creates modern civil service, and founds Western type university. 1917 July Siam enters World War I on side of Allies and sends small military detachment to Europe. 1919 At Paris Peace Conference, Siam asks for abolition of extra- territoriality clauses in its treaties. 1922 United States signs new treaty with Siam renouncing all extraterritorial privileges; by 1926 new treaties with Euro- pean nations only provisionally curtail Siarn's sovereignty; by 1939 all treaties with foreign nations renegotiated to eliminate remaining extraterritoriality and fiscal privileges. 1932 June Absolute monarchy ended in coup d'Ptat by civilian and military groups headed by Pridi Phanomyong and Phahon Phonphayuhasena, respectively. 1938 December Phahon retires; Phibun Songkhram becomes Prime Minister. 1941 December .Japan occupies Thailand, forcing limited collaboration during World War 11; Phibun declares war on United Kingdom and United States in January 1942. 1944 July Phibun resigns in face of impending Japanese defeat.; Khuang Aphaiwong, hacked by Pridi, heads new government. 10 1946 January Relations with United Kingdom and United States reestablished. March Pridi assumes premiership. August Pridi forced out of office for suspected complicity in mysterious death of King Ananda Mahidol (Rama VIII). October Government lifts 1933 ban on Communist Party, after which U.S.S.R. does not veto Thailand's application for United Nations membership. 1947 November Pridi supported government ousted in coup by Phibun sup- porters; Pridi flees to Singapore and Khuang again becomes Prime Minister but tinder military dominance. 1948 April Military clique consolidates poc by coup, replacing Khuang with Phibun. 1949 February Pridi returns and fails in coup attempt; flees Singapore and later to People's Republic of Chim.. 1950 May King Phumiphon Adundet (Rama I\) crowned, ending regency and marking upturn n prestige of monarchy. June Government announces support of U.N. intervention in Korea; late: sends about 2,000 troops. September U.S. Econot iic and Technical Cooperation Agreement signed. October U.S. Military Assistance Agreement sign( 1951 June Coup by navy thwarted by army and police, but Phibun is weakened; rule assumed by triumvirate consisting of Phibun, Sarit Thanarat, and Phao Sriyanon. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090025 -9 9 1952 November Ban reimposed on Communist Pe.ty. 1954 September Thailand signs Manila Pact creating Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO). 1955 Phibun inaugurates democratization program; free public discussion and new parties permitted. 1957 February Regime narrowly wins general elections but is accused of election rigging; Sarit dissociates himself from Phibun and Phao. September Sarit stages bloodless coup; Phibun and Phao flee into exile; National Assembly dissolved and new elections proclaimed. December Sarit clique wins cloctions; turns g,; ernment over to acting Prime Minister as he goes abroad for rrediral treatment. 1958 October Sarit returns to take personal control of government; pro- claims revolutionary government and martial law, dissolves National Assembly, and bans political parties and labor unions. 1959 January Interim constitution promulgated. 1961 July Thailand, Malaya, and the Philippines form Association of Southeast Asia (ASA), whose activities are later suspended in 1963 over Malaya- Philippines differences. 1962 March United States pledges to defend Thailand in event of direct Communist aggression, interpreting SEATO abligations as both bilateral and unilateral (Rusk- Thanat agreement). Msy United States sends troops to northeast Thailand when Pathet [,so forces move toward Thailand -Laos border. 1963 December Sarit dies; Thanom Kittikachorn becoo,es Prime Minister. 1964 November Establishment of "Thailand Independence Movement" (TIM) announced by clandestine Communist radio station, Vaire of the People of Thailand. 1965 January Formaticn of "Thailand Patriotic Front" (TPF) similarly announced; Peking gives 'f!M and TPF strong propaganda I upport, and Thai Communists intensify propaganda and organizational efforts. June Communists beg. i to escalate subversion into hetive in- surgency; guerrilla forces increase terrorist acts and clash with government patrols, primarily in northeast. 1967 August Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) formed by Thailand, Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia, and Singapore. ASA members agree to gradual phaseout and transfer of programs to ASEAN. September Contingent of Thai troops sent to South Vietnam. 1968 June Constitution promulgated; provides for elections within 8 months for lower house of bicameral legislature. September Municipai elections held in Bangkok; opposition Democrat Party overwhelming'y defeats government party. 1969 January Voire of the People of Thailand announces formation of "Thai People's Liberation Armed Forces." February National elections held; government party wins slim 1'; a rali ty. March New government formed under Prime Minister Thanom with no changes in key power positions. 1970 March Bangkok agrees to let Malaysian forces conduct antiguerrilla operations in south Thailand near Malaysia herder. 1971 November Military takes full control of government; Thanom heads new Nan.onal Executive Council which annuls 1968 con- stitution, dissolves parliament, and cabinet, and declares martial law. 1972 February Thai troops withdrawn from South Vietnam. March Formation of labor "associatior s" allowed for first tune since 1958 ban. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090025 -9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090025 -9 6 Area Brief LAND: Size: 198,000 sq. mi. Use: 24% in farms, 56% forested, 20% other Land boundaries: 3,025 mi. WATER: Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 n. mi. Coastline: 2,000 mi. PEOt'LE: Population: 38,438,000, average annual growth rate :3.2% (current) Ethnic divisions: 75% Thai, 14% Chinese, i 1 minorities Religion: 95.5% Buddhist, 4% Muslim, 0.5% Christian Language: Thai; E secondary language of elite Literacy: 70% Labor force: 88% agriculture, 9% commerce, 3 1 U industry GOVERNMENT: Legal name: Kingdom of Thailand nmype: Constitutional monarchy Capital: Bangkok Political subdivisions: 71 centrally controlled provinces Legal system: Based on civil law system, with influences of common law; new constitution promulgated in 19ti8, sus- pended 17 November 1971; provisional constitution promul- gated December 1972; legal education at Thammasat University; has not accepted compulsory IC,1 jurisdiction Branches: King is head of state with nominal powers; Prime Minister heads a 22 -man cabinet; National Assembly uni- cameral and appointed by executive branch; judiciary rela- tively independent except in important political subversive cases Government leaders: King Phunriphon Adundet; Sanv� Thammasak, Prime Minister; Sukit Nimmanhemin, Deputy Prime Minister Suffragr: Universal Elections: Expected within :3 6 months Political parties and leaders: Dissolved under the revolu- tionary order 17 November 1971 but may be reestablished at time of new elections Communists: Strength of illegal Communist Party is about 1,000; Thai Communist insurgents throughout 'I'lailand 1('1.11 about 5,500 Other political or pressure groups: None Member of: ADI3, ASA, ASEAN, ASPAC, Colombo Plan, ECAFE, FAO, IAEA, ICAO, IDA, IF(', III11, ILO, I'I'I', Seabeds Committee, SEAMES, SEATO, U.N., UNESCO, UNICEF, ('PU, Wlltr, W *.iO ECONOMY: GDP: $7.4 billion (1972 est. in current prices), 5200 per capita; estimated 4% real growth in 1972 Agriculture: World's largest rice exporter in 1972; main crops �rice, rubber, corn; almost 100% self sufficient in food Fishing: Catch 1.6 million metric tons, exports, 32,000 tons, $22 million (1971) Major industries: Agricultural processing, t- xtiles, wood and wood products, cement, tin mining; world's fom th largest tin producer Shortages: Fuel sources, incbj;ing coal and petroleum Electric ,rower: 1,975,000 kw. capacity (1973); 6,300,000 kw. -hr. produced (1973), 170 kw. -hr. per capita Exports: SI,063 millio (f.o.b., 1972); rice, corn, rubber, tin, cassava, kenaf Imports: $1,484 million (c.i.f., 1972); excluding U.S. military imports; machinery and transport equipment textiles, fuels and lubricants, base metalS, chemicals Major trade nartners: Exports Japan, I1.S., Singanore, Hong Kong, Netherlands, Malaysia; imports Japan, I'.S., West Germany, l'.K.; about. 1% or less trade with Com- mumst, countries Monetary conversion rate: 20.0 baht USSt Fiscal year: I October 30 September COMMUNICATIONS: Railroads: 2,382 mi. meter gage; 60 mi. double track Highways: 12,590 mi.; 5,440 mi. raved, 4,820 mi. crushed stone or gravel, 2,330 earth and laterite Inland waterways: 2,485 mi. principal waterways; 2,306 ini, with navigable depths of :3 ft. or more throughout the ,year; numerous minor waterways navigable by shallow -draft native craft Ports: 2 major, Ili minor Civil air: 26 major transport aircraft Airfields: 2:36 total, 179 usable; 54 with permanent surface runways; 10 with runways 8,0()() 11,999 ft.., 25 with runways 1,000 7,999 ft.; 3 seaplane stations DEFENSE FORCES: Military manpower: Males 15 49, 9,807,000; 5,930,000 fit, for military service; about 424,000 reach military age (18) annually Military and internal security budget: For fiscal year ending :30 September 1! 1:4311 r- d1lion; 25% of central g� ernment budget NOTE This Area Ilrief is compiled from (hltdl appearing in the January 1974 issue of the NIS Rasir Intclligener F'arthook. FOR OFFICIAL USE' ONLY 13 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090025 -9 Places and features referred to in this General Survey I-V APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090025 -9 "I"InINATFS I COORnINATFR o 'V o 'F o o 'E Alor Setar, Malaysia 0 07 100 22 Nakhon P..thonl....................... 13 49 100 03 Andaman Sea (-"a) 10 00 95 00 Nakhon Phanoin....................... 17 24 104 47 Aranyaprathet 13 41 102 30 Nakhon Ratchasima (admd) 15 00 102 10 Ban Bang Chak 13 37 100 3:3 Nakhon Ratchasima.................... 14 58 102 07 Ban Bang Na 13 40 100 :38 Nakhon Sawan......................... 15 41 100 07 Br.n lion Maang..... 13 55 100 36 Nakhon Si Thammarat S 26 99 58 Bangkok 13 45 100 31 Nam Pung, Khuan (dam) W 58 103 59 Bang Pakong, Mae Nam (s(rm).......... 13 27 100 57 Nan, Mac Nam (sirm) 15 42 100 09 Bang Su (rvin) 13 48 100 33 Narathiwat................... 6 26 101 50 Ban Laem Chabang 13 05 '70 53 Noi, Mac Nam (.sirm)................... 14 22 100 25 Ban L am Nara! IS 12 101 08 _U Nr Khai 1 7 52 102 44 I-V APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090025 -9 yy Hawng Luk P0 In? Mae S 1 Xam Nu Ban Houayxay i Phial B u r m a e n r thong, e Muang Churg _Pa n g Mekong, _U Nan K .658j: Rai l i Louangphrabang n' f I Thoeng -Ban Ban a. t *Mae ai\` aw E N Muang Souy, F' Chiang Khanr y'I y t ro' r Muang., L a 0 �Xiangkhoang r ry Xaignabour, !fr r IPon a r Phire0 rPua I c. n Muang iD` t "O Vangviang Nammehek g !S e a Nan N y o i r+ 85J J i .'j 't un 1 3 t i4, .Muan i Y 4 -4 s Pakxe �7 t e Bung i 33..- N Kan Skn a 4 larhpang c *'Muang a NOT r a9 '.t c Phrae d r ,(Pak -La t. Hot 3S; x Mae y Viehtfane r`. Sfi z Z Den Fak The B ha hal Muan IChlafig' ng Khai v' a7 'M I qt 1 Kbnlhao ig `Khan e, 1- Ban Phu I� ti T Uttarit --v- Nara, Loei Udon Thani (UdOm) Ban Phang Kyaikto 6utln No sawankhabl DanS v 5 Sk: Khan 7'so Q Nong Bua {daml t_ Lamphu Su h 1 Thaton 7 ra y A4 Phite u 44 r i F Nhun ben n Rntnn is �LamSak ,.onq d ",l Myawad a t I tysm Phang Mae Sol a o j y Chum Phae Kawkareik 3 Kalasm Moulmein K en y it aee Phetcobun Khan Kaen (7 /1 mP C R A 'Nana .rT a m Roi T Ban Phai t5 Thanhyuiayat .o _t n �7644 I T t p �i ChBryaphum Phan P w A E 3 Nillchon Sswan Bus ai m �i UthaiThani rnd NamoQY hra Ban Ye a Khli Lam NFU Chai C y i Nekhdn 8tl haSlma Buriram 2 Khok to Wore i Sin i amro 9- C .iu In M1Aso Op B ri t x g T ng Prakhon Khoi F Chap A C 2 Suphan Sara a Bull N A O a no w c' T N I U K Samron T 4o sya NakIFtRNgF r ,s 9� a d Z n Path r autl is Phr* ?Tavoy to chanabu v Tha 'r r bin ha khiagg. 6 B u r m a' Ban Pon akhon athem Flrfci. 'haO 21 an rathe olpet Fiat Bvri i I yep Smophon r P anst NikhOtn, un t smut Sakhon Chon Bur 1 1 Slam Re Andaman K�S, ern ^.s;... a APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090025 -9 JkL IM will ^f `aIS11111111F I111i w1w -J III J Ili w 1 I WA I WA T'J ITO 102 ton Phu Ly -in6 Xam Nua Nam Din Hot Xuan`, r, o Ninh Binh 20 Nam Kn a Louangph.abang Thanh Hoa Ban Ban a, 'Chhiieng Nor t h Muong Sen r J e n m O C aXiangkhoang CuaRao aCui G U f f SO 0 f a Muang i angwan9 Cuong L' '1_ T o n k i n N t 5.1 Vinh .1 o r 1 Duc The Muang Pakxan Hi1.Tinh .Bung, tiara N9um Kan tg Vi@111idilA l Tan Ap 1e B ha Li t Ch hn 5 ng Khai L n yP Ban Phu.,. i t SOn9kh am ryas `Loei (UdOrg) Khon g i Pheo UdOn Than Muang flan Phan Nakhon P Khammouan a 11an Nong Bua 29e0 Sakon a Lamphu` Nal That Ph anom A a Khuan N.,m Phu'nq -dr. .7horig b" Raftno darn' Ts r Ph,ng �211 Makdahan W Chum Phae avannpkhf�t Kalasin !i Kl:on Kaen 1 F\ /T '1 Xi, Nfn 1hi rnp 'Matta �rte n- J S l a m Rot E? r L a o s, Bain Phai Khemm 16 mnat V,:; P..L,.....T. A 1 U A haro Cliaryaphum Phon Yas o +Muang Bua in Z P KhdngxAdhn i Nam Mu O n d N a ae Nana Mun a J ITha Tum Ubon at a r I Sisaket grin Charrrep Nakhdn atchasima` Bunram (KOra iDet Udom Su in Khu Khan Kantheralak Prakhon Ahat pHA OM DONGRA m K H Preah Wheat T H f U (temple rut,. 1 Samronga Ch Muan Ksan **dng to irn 71 Si c 5 7 oipet Sisophon Stung Treng a a Siam ReapO' Jt _J.p.. J..._......-...: os-._ a. a. n.,�.., r,,,�u.;,.r,axwt,:mti��.rti +crrcc,:mr..szadic al Miles APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090025 -9 I =r raw F;c Aii Chiang Han F: Ths I T ulok Fe f- w -Fe Obon Sn �119 Bad jjjok ho "i Ralchathapt S1 Il F Stiltahip Economic Activity P humphon Agricultural area Tealk (mainly rice) Other forest n Rubber L___ n Fishing Fe Major dam site VV.' INDUSTRY AND MINING Petroleum refinery lo Phukef F, Cement plant V Iron Songkhla Tin smelter Flu(u,te a o Hydroelectric W Tungsten powerplant APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDP01-00707R000200090025-9 Ullon a Chiang Ra, "kin So 17 Ch all Q Nan 11don Tham Philsanulok Mu dahan Roy El attah Makhon iI, Saran Ubli Pfachulp Kh Khan top Bun 11181ilion Polchrno K su Ehumahan V ealetation-__ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDP01-00707R000200090025-9 N ong Pla Duk (rain) 13 49 99 51 Brtnnang Sata 6 16 101 16 Ban Pak Nam 10 26 99 15 Ban Phala 12 40 101 02 Ban Tha Chalaep 12 3.`. 102 04 Ba- Tha Luang 14 33 100 46 Ban Tha Phra 16 21 102 48 Bun Yai (rain) 15 35 102 26 Bung Kan 18 23 103 37 C hachoengsao 13 42 101 05 C hainat 15 11 100 08 C hakkarat 15 00 102 16 C hanthaburi 12 36 102 09 Chao Phraya, Mae Nam (strm) 13 32 100 36 Chi, Lam Nam (airm) 15 11 104 43 Chiang Khong 20 17 100 24 Chiang Mai 18 47 98 59 Chiang Rai 19 54 99 50 C hok Chai 14 44 102 10 Chum Phae 16 32 102 06 C hu m phon 10 30 99 10 Den Chai (rain) 17 59 100 03 Det Udo m 14 54 105 05 Dom Noi, Lam (sirm) 15 17 105 28 Fang 19 55 99 13 Fiat Yai 7 01 100 28 Hawng Luk, Burma 20 28 99 56 llua llin 12 34 99 58 K abin Buri 13 59 101 43 K aeng K hoi(rain) 14 35 101 01 K anchanaburi 14 01 99 32 K antang 7 25 99 31 Kawkareik, Burma 16 33 98 14 K hieo, K hao (min) 14 28 101 52 K hlong Toci 13 43 100 34 K hlong Yai 11 46 102 54 K hon Kaen 16 26 102 50 K horat Plateau (plateau) 15 30 102 50 Klet Kaeo, Chong (marine channel) 12 45 100 51 Klet Kaeo, Ko (isl) 12 46 100 51 Kolok, Sungai (.sirm) 6 15 102 05 Krabi 8 04 98 55 Kra, Isthmus of 10 20 99 00 Krathing, K hao (min) 13 11 99 43 Krathing, Khao (hill) 12 43 100 56 Kuala Kerai, Malaysia 5 32 102 12 Laem Chabang, Khao (hill) 13 05 100 53 Laem N gop 12 10 102 26 Lak Si rain 1:3 5:3 100 35 Lampang 18 18 99 31 Lang Suan 9 57 99 04 Loci 17 29 101 35 Lom Sak 16 47 101 15 Lop Buri 14 48 100 37 Lop Buri, Mae Nam (sirm) 14 22 100 35 Mae (long Son 19 Ifi 97 56 Mae Klong, Mae Nam (sirm) 13 21 100 00 Mae Mo (rain) 18 13 99 43 Mae Sariang 18 10 97 56 Mae Sot 16 43 98 34 Makkasan (rain) 13 45 100 33 Malacca, Strait of 2 :30 101 02 Malay Peninsula (peninsula) 6 00 102 00 Mekong (strm) Ifi .5 105 00 Moei, Mae Nam (sirm) 17 50 97 42 M uang Kenthao, Laos 17 44 101 25 Muang Vangviang, Laos 18 102 27 M ukdahan 113:32 104 43 Mun, Mae Nam (slrm) IFi 19 105 30 Nakhon Chai Si, Mae Nam (.siren)........ 1:3 30 10(1 Ifi N ong Pla Duk (rain) 13 49 99 51 Nonthaburi 13 50 100 2f Pakehan (sirm) 9 58 98 3: Pak Phanang 8 21 100 1: Pakxe, Laos 15 07 105 4: Pa Sak, Mae Nam (sirm) 14 21 100 3: Pattani 6 52 101 H Phachi 14 27 100 4: Phitsanulok 16 50 100 1: Phong, Nam (sirm) 16 23 102 51 Phrae 18 09 100 M Phra K hanong 13 42 100 31 Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya 14 21 100 3: Phuket 7 53 95 2 Phuket, Ko (isl) 8 00 98 21 Phumiphon, Khuan (dam) 17 15 98 5! Pinang, Malaysia 5 25 100 21 Ping, Mae Nam (sirm) 15 42 100 0! Prachuap K hiri Khan 11 49 99 C Pran Buri 12 23 99 5! Ranong 9 58 98 3i Rat Buri 13 32 99 C Sakon Nakhon 17 10 104 01 Salween River 17 30 97 41 Sam ut Prakan 13 36 100 31 Sam ut Sakhon 13 32 100 1'. Sam ut Songkhram 13 24 100 01 Sara Buri 14 32 100 1 Sattahip 12 40 100 51 Satun 6 37 100 0. Savannakhet, Laos 16 33 104 C Si Racha 13 10 100 51 Sisophon, Cambodia 13 35 102 51 Songkhla 7 12 100 31 Sungai Kolok 6 02 101 5! Suphan Buri 14 28 100 0' Surat Thani 9 08 99 V Tak 16 52 99 0! Ta K hli 15 15 100 2 Takua Pa 8 53 98 2 Thawat Buri 16 07 103 51 Thon Buri 13 43 100 21 Thung Song 8 09 99 4 Trat 12 14 102 31 Ubon Ratana (Nam Phong), Khuan (dam). 16 46 102 3' Ubon Ratchanthani 15 14 104 5 Udon Thani 17 26 102 41 Uttaradit 17 38 100 01 Vientiane, Laos 17 58 102 31 Warin Cha mrap 15 12 104 5 X6.n6, Laos 16 41 105 0 Yom, Mae Nam (sirm) 15 52 100 11 Selected o'rfields J/ Bangkok International 13 55 100 37 Ban Ta K hli 15 17 100 18 Chiang Mai 18 46 98 Fib Chieng K hrua 17 17 104 06 Koke Kathie m 14 53 100 40 Korat 14 56 102 05 M uang Lam pang 18 16 99 30 M uang Ubon 15 15 10.1 52 Nakhon Phanem West 17 23 10.1 39 Nam Phong 16 39 102 58 Phitsanulok 16 47 100 17 Udorn 17 23 102 48 U- Tapao 12 41 101 01 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090025 -9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090025 -9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090025 -9 BatNnmba Kompong a Thom 5 _ur_`. Krati .n_ a m'. o 'd r z I Sfucg P c lt prllpong, rang 1 1 Kompong Churn i O` i.^ Khl. Ko Kut yai Phnom h` J *Krong Koh Kong 'Prey Veng Tay i Koh Kong I' f and Svay Rieng Takeo ear de Komoorg Koh Rong Kompong Sorr` Kampot hau Phu Long XuyenO quoc Rach Giap Can Long L Pao Phu C Thd' to ouch' Klan Long Vi imam C 1 uan Long Thailand Railroad Major road (Thailand only) Other road Trail t Airfield L Major port Populated places 2,800.000 50,000 to 200.000 0 20,000 to 50.000 Under 20,000 5(tr/ r�In afrr>ns rn !�,�I Scale 1:3,500,000 0 25 50 75 100 Statute MAes 0 25 50 75 100 Kilometers 8 Zola Bahru Mae als Kerai el 104 106 Agricultural area namly, rice) Tropica l evergreen forest Teak forest I`_ Broadleaf deciduous forest Coniferous forest Mangrove i Rai 20 Chiang' Mai Nan S 17 16 I 4 Udon' Thani i T0 63 PhitsandlaM I7 3 21 Ubon Lop Bun Na4hatr 02 Ratchasimr as Administ H Divisic 36 Y t 6 Province (char PPOV 4 Tnt 7 1 f: Mphon C FI 1 3 a Nakhon Sr Th "a PltuYel 1. ,Satun Palt nl +h m''*'.