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E A 0 Thailand April 1974 NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SUR\ CONFIDENTIAL APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090029 -5 i NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY PUBLICATIONS The basic unit of the NIS is the General Survey, which is now published in a bound -by- chapter format so that topics of greater per- ishability can be updated on an individual basis. These chapters� Country Profile, The Society, Government and Politics, The Economy, Military Geog- raphy, Transportation and Telecommunications, Armed Forces, Science, and Intelligence and Security, provide the primary NIS coverage. Some chapters, particularly Science and Intelligence and Security, that are not pertinent to all countries, are produced selectively. For small countries requiring only minimal NIS treatment, the General Survey coverage may be bound into one volume. Supplementing the General Survey is the NIS Basic Intelligence Fact book, a ready reference publication that semiannually updates key sta- tistical data found in the Survey. An unclassified edition of the factbook omits some details on the economy, the defense forces, and the intelligence and security organizations. Although detailed sections on many topics were part of the NIS Program, production of these sections has been phased out. Those pre- viously produced will continue to be available as long as the major portion of the study is considered valid. A quarterly listing of all active NIS units is published in the Inventory of Available NIS Publications, which is also bound into the concurrent classified Factbook. The Inventory lists all NIS units by area name and number and includes classification and date of issue; it thus facilitates the ordering of NIS units as well as their filing, cataloging, and utilization. Initial dissemination, additional copies of NIS units, or separate chapters of the General Surveys can be obtained directly or throug) liaison channels from the Central Intelli- once Agency. The General Survey is prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency and th9 Defens. Intelligence Agency under the general direction of the NIS Committee. It is coordinated, edited, published, and dissemi- nated by the Central Intelligence Agency. WARNING This document contains information affecting the natiunal defense of the United States, within the meaning of title 18, sections 793 and 794 of the US code, as amended. Its transmission or revelation of its contents to or receipt by an unauthorized person is prohibited by low. CLASSIFIED BY 019641. EXEMPT FROM GENERAL DECLASSIFI- CATION SCHEDULE OF E. O. 11652 EXEMPTION CATEGORIES 5B (1), (2), (3). DECLASSIFIED ONLY ON APPROVAL OF THE DIRECTOR OF CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090029 -5 -jnno1nM1nM- YY .a WARNING S f The NIS is National Intelligence and may not be re- leased or shown to representatives of any foreign govern- ment or international body except by specific authorization of the Director of Central Intelligence in accordance with f the provisions of National Security Council Intelligence Di- rective No. 1. For NIS containing unclassified material, however, the portions so marked may be made available for official pur- poses to foreign nationals and nongovernment personnel provided no attribution is made to National Intelligence or the National Intelligence Survey. Subsections and graphics are individually classified according to content. Classification /control de-signa- tions are: (U/OU) Unclassified /For Official Use Only (C) Confidential (S) Secret r APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090029 -5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090029 -5 14aikocoftd CONTENTS This chapter supersedes the transportation and telecommunications coverage in the General Survey dated March 1970, A. Appraisal 1 B. Strategic mobility 2 C. Railroads 3 D Highways 6 E. Inland waterways 10 F. Ports 13 G. Merchant marine 14 A Civil air 19 I. Airfields 21 J. Telecommunications 23 CONF DENTIAL APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDP01-00707R000200090029-5 JJ-J\VJ7 t7 I CJ� fJ7 IN 71'&_1 IIII10YIII:7fiI f-SAIMEMr.w-J 01 J IN W III II I II fill III VJ I I I I I C I I I I YC IL FIGURES 0 Page Page Fig. 1 Principal railroad routes table) 4 Fig. 11 New Harbor at Bangkok photo) 16 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Rail- highway bridge photo) Diesel- electric locomotive photo) 6 6 Fig. 12 Sattahip, deepwater berthing facilities Fig. 4 National Highway Route 4 photo) 7 (photo) 17 Fig. 5 National Highway Route 2 photo) 7 Fig. 13 Major ports table) 18 Fig. 6 Principal highway routes table) 8 Fig. 14 Hawker Siddeley 748 photo) 20 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Principal inland waterways table) Rice barges (photo) 12 13 Fig. 15 BAC -111 aircraft photo) 20 Fig. 9 "Shrimp -tail' type craft photo) 13 Fig. 16 Selected airfields table) 22 Fig. 10 Khlong Toei wharf at Bangkok Fig. 17 Terrain and Transportation (photo) 15 (Map) follows 24 0 C A. Appraisal (C) The transportation and telecommunication (tele- com) systems of Thailand, though sparse and inadequate in the outlying areas, have been greatly improved, particularly in the Bangkok area. Bangkok, the capital and hub of both transporta- tion and communications, is the most significant port and the site of the country's principal naval base, has the only international airfield, and is the nerve center of communications. Facilit' are densest in the delta area around Bangkok, where the intricate waterway network is supplemented by railroads and an improved and increasing net of highways. Away from the capital, however, transportation routes generally consist of a single road or railroad, in(] these in turn are fed by earth or gravel roads, tracks, trails, and waterways; lateral routes between the arteries are relatively few. Sattallip, the other major port, has deep -draft berthing facilities and is an important naval base. The port is under military control and was constructed primarily to handle military supplies, but some of the deep -draft facilities are now open to commercial use. The port has good highway connections but no railroad clearing the port. Until the 20th century 'Thailand depended almost entirely on inland waterways and trails for transportation. Railroads were introduced around the turn of the century to supplement the waterways and have since been a continuing stimulant to Thai economic development and national unity, especially in the Khorat Plateau, the peninsula, and the northwest. Because railroads became a profitable government monopoly, tile government took little interest in promoting highway development; roads Wert: built mainly as feeders to rail and waterway systems. This official attitude began to change only after World War 11 as the Communist threat to Southeast Asia was recognized. Thailand aligned itself with the Western powers, became a member of the Southeast Asia 'Treaty Organization (SEATO), and in the early 1970's began major transportation and telecom development programs with extensive U.S. financial and technical assistance and additional aid from the World Bank, SEATO, and othersources. The aim of these programs has been to build modern networks capable of supporting rapid movement and effective communication to all areas of the country and to sustain an adequate logistic base for SEATO on the Asian mainland. M uch progress has been achieved under successive economic development plans, especially in highway and airfield construction and rail and telecom system improvement. The rail lines and the primary highwa system are considered adequate for present traffic requirements. Terrain and weather present problems to construction and maintenance of land routes in large areas, especially in the heavily populated and farmed centea! plain, where: monsoonal rains annually flood the labyrinthian waterways and canals of the Mae Nam Chao Phraya system. As a result, inland waterways are the most important mode of transportation in this area. In the country as a whole, as a result of rapid development in the past few years, highways are considered the most important mode, with rail second and inland waterways third. Civil air is small and is significant only in the transport of high priority traffic. The only pipeline is in the port of Bangkok. The merchant marine is very small, and Thailand must rely heavily on foreign vessels to haul foreign commerce and aid. 'The port system is inadequate for the thriving economy. Although wharfage completed at Sattahip has enabled the United States to divert .military shipments away from Bangkok, the, eby reducing congestion at that port, additional deendraft maritime facilities arc urgently needed. Airfields are well dispersed over the country, some being located in each region. Greatly improved in the past several years, the half -dozen largest fields are excellent. The telecom system is still unable to meet the requirements Of the economy, but facilities serving the military and government agencies are generally adeq!,! Open wire lines supplemented by high- frequency radio circuits provide the primary communications. Telephon wrvice has been improve(] during the past APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090029 -5 several years, but three fourths of all instruments are located in the Bangkok area. International service is by radio and a communication satellite earth station. The government owns and operates the telecom system, the rail lines, the ports, most airfields, IS of the 22 ships of the merchant marine, a majority of the steel hulled barges, and the two principal highway transport firms. I addition, the government controls the airlines; it owns one, holds 70% of the stock in another, and has a financial interest in and close working relations with a third. Construction and maintenance of national and provincial highways are the responsibility of the Ministry of National Development. Control of inland waterway transporta- tion and waterway maintenance is the responsibility of the Department of Transportation, under the Ministry of Communications. Almost all administration of transportation and telecom systems is by the Ministry of Communications, but certain aspects of radio and television are tinder the Ministries of Defense, Education, and Interior. Land connections exist with all contiguous countries, but only those with Malaysia and Laos are significant; an open -wire line extends into Malaysia. Overall, the transportation and telecom systems of Thailand compare well with those of other countries of Southeast Asia. Inferior to those of Malaysia, the systems are better than those of Burma and much superior to those of Laos and Cambodia. Develop- ment of the Thai systems continues to he pushed aggressively and with skilled foreign assistance. B. Strategic mobility (C) The rail lines and the primary highway system are considered &dequate and are capable of supporting sustained military operations from the major ports of Bangkok and Sattahip to northern, eastern, and southern centers of distribution; certain airfield facilities have been improved to the point that they were capable of supporting U.S. Air Force operations against North Vietnam; and military communication links are largely reliable. Major deficiencies in the system are an inadequate port system, the lack of feeder roads serving the rail lines and arterial highways, and inadequate telecommunications in the outlying areas. The major ports of Bangkok and Sattahip are adaptable to military use. Naval bases at both of the ports arc able to provide berthing, repair, and logistic support for naval ships. The major ports and several minor ports provide easy access to most coastal areas of the country. Inland waterways which can be used for 2 �1 logistical support are located in Thailand's central plains, in the northeast, and in the south. \Vater%vays are significant in both current and potential military operations. They provide a line of communication from Bangkok as far north as Nakhon Sawan. In conjunction with coastal waterways, this route can extend through barge movement frum the military port at Sattahip to points as much as 245 miles inland. In the northeast, tributaries of the Mekong will probably become more significant as the insurgent threat increases in that area. The shallow -draft craft that operate along these streams could support either insurgent or caunterinsurgent forces. Vulnerability of the ports and waterways is generally moderate. Particularly vulnerable factors include the up -river location of the port of Bangkok and the many locks which control waterway shipping. Aspects of low vulnerability are the many scattered smaller ports and the extensive interconnections of the waterwav system. Of Thailand's oceangoing merchant fleet (22 ships of 1,000 g.r.t. and over totaling 114,009 d.w.t.), at least 21 ships (13 dry cargo, 8 tanker) of 112,325 d.w�.t. have military- support potential. The dry -cargo ships have a moderate potential for short -haul (up to 48 hours steaming) in nearseas operations. These ships have a military lift and supply transport potential of 61,642 cargo d.w.t.; their self loading and unloading capability is enhanced by three of the units having large hatches (more than 50 feet in length), and one having both large hatches and heavy -lift booms (40 tons or more). The eight tankers have an estimated capacity of about 260,500 barrels (U.S.) of petroleum and could provide a moderate military- support capability. Twelve dry -cargo ships and five tankers are government owned and, if accessible at the time of emergency, their use for military support would be assured. The complete control of all aviation facilities by the government, its ownership of TAB;, its majority interest in TAI, and its close working relationship with Air Siam insure ready availability of all civil aviation resources, including equipment facilities, and employed Thai nationals. It is probable that most of the Thai pilots have at some time, in their careers also been members of either the RTAF or the Thai security police force. The civil aircraft and the skilled crews would form a valuable reserve airlift force in the event of a national emergency. Of the 176 usable airfields, 47 have permanent surfaced runways; of these eight are military, seven are joint military /civil, and 32 are civil. Military airfield capabilities have been substantially improved in recent years. Many of the small airfields are located APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP0l- 00707R000200090029 -5 along the borders and are used to support Border Police. The military operates its own telecom networks. Military communications are provided mainly by microwave and high frequency radio. A comprehen- sive U.S. installed microwave network functions as part of the Integrated Widebarcd Communications System, which supports counterinsurgency tortes in Southeast Asia. The Royal Thai Air Force communica- tion network, one of the most modern in the country, utilizes very high frequency FM equipment. This system can be connected into the public telephone network in Bangkok. In addition, a backup high frequency radio network links all air force stations. The army, with headquarters in the capital, has a 1,000 -line automatic exchange. The'I'hai State Police, in conjunction with the Border Patrol Police, operate an interregional radio teleprinter system, as well as numerous fixed and mobile stations. C. Railroads (C) The Royal State Railway (RSR) holds a position of primary importance in the economv of Thailand and is adequLte for present traffic requirements. The RSR has a distinct advantage in long- distance and large volume transportation; however, highway competi- tion is increasing as modern roads are built, and waterways offer competition in bulk freight in the areas they serve. All rail lines (except for a few plantation lines) are owned and operated by the RSR, an autonomous agency of the government under the authorRv of the Ministry of Communications. The formulation of policies and the supervision of the general affairs are entrusted to the Board of Coromissioners, consisting of a chairman and six members. The RSR general manager is appointed by the Board and is an ex officio member of the Board. The network consists of 2,339 route miles of meter gage (3'3R lines; all lines are single track, with the exception of the 56 -mile double -track section between Bangkok and Phachi. There is no electrification. Bangkok is the focal point of the system. Four main lines radiate north, northeast, cast, and south from Bangkok to serve the large administrative and commercial centers and to provide international connections with Cambodia and West Malaysia. International train service to Cambodia was resumed in 1970, while service to West Malaysia continues to be limited by the interchange of equipment due to coupler incompatibility. Some cars nave been equipped with special couplers and are reserved for this service. The RSR carries most of the international traffic of landlocked Laos. Details of the principal railroad routes are given in Figure 1. The rail lines tr�iverse fairly level terrain. The network has a maximum i;rade of 16/i and a minimun radius of curvature of 394 feet, but most sections have ruling grades of 1 ic' or less and cw�ves of more than 1,000 feet in radius. The track structure is of typical meter -gage construction, ano main -line track is generally in good condition. Standard T- section rails weighing 50, 60, 70, and 80 pounds per yard are in use. Under the improvement program 50- and G0- pound rails are being replaced with 70- and 80 -pound rails. Although hardwood ties are predominant, there is an increasing use of concrete tics. Crushed stone ballast, 6 to 12 inches deep, is used throughout the system. All rail and rail fastenings are imported, principally from Japan. As of the close of FY1972 the 2,696 bridges on the network totaled 192,730 feet in length, or 1.52% of the total length of running track. Principal bridges are predominantly of the steel through -truss type (Figure 2) with spans ranging from 70 to 394 feet in length. Most short bridges are of the steel deck- girder type. The six tunnels total 8,055 feet in length. All structures are in good condition. Train movements are controiled by the absolute block system; with the exception of some color -light signals in the Bangkok area, all fixed signals are semaphores. Communications are by telegraph, telephone, teleprinter, and radio. The principal locomotive fuels are wood, diesel oil, and fuel oil. Wood is obtained locally, but diesel oil and fuel oil must be imported, principally from Indonesia and Malaysia. An adequate: supply of water is generally available but is untreated. Adverse climate, terrain, and shortages of skilled labor and maintenance equipmeni constitute major construction and maintenance problems. Much of the soil becomes unstable when wet, making it difficult to establish and maintain a firm roadbed. Very heavv rainfall (generally in December and January in peninsular Thailand, and from mid -Maw to October throughout the country) causes considerable damage to roadbeds and structures. Most of the roadbed across the plains is embanked to minimize the effects of flooding. Under the third 5 -year development plan, 1972 -76, the RSR is to continue the rehabilitation and modernization of physical properties in order to increase capacit� to meet future traffic demands, improve operating efficiency, and decrease operating cost. '1'hc principal features of the project are 3 r APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090029 -5 -nno mcic. 'i K r hc 90 Y C a OG b a C4 r c L U a t m C'I J OU L c E c m cbo E 4 m c E E p 00 �a a v E `c a� a a c of a a N a c�_ z E E y v O C a r a u 'i a 1 eo G o r r o d E a a m be �a O E f!. O C ..n.. C 7 O n a 4 C C Y O L` Y C C 0.. O E :D a 10 L .p. m E ci E= E a s o m CS a o o o y E; u m c m y E �o c s c m d E oo E o E C L r C E ,y F C ,r- C r 1 G Sc c L L E a U c c c o a_;� o M eo p- a E c a s C C`0 a a O Oo O a O t t> M r; O N co` a a O M G. M a M d C w`.+ O N N E E. a c a a n 0.. M Y 7 v. L a M a s O M .y N+ G E .E a C ID E .E E_ y E a E s E a n E .o Id m o m a i c U a a a c a a c y c m E a o o- e E r O eo E E s c d o d Y cz i m ep E c 'r. M E r ac c a v x Y b a m v c n m a n U a L U a c L a a L E nr.., c i_:S a E:cJ7R: eolU N w+ (13 :q u a 4 o D c a s bb a C F c E o Y s a t E -Ld to D h a LL 4 m 4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090029 -5 C J J Z '.0 v .`o CV 3 OI u O �D n L O C .t u O O y h N u G a; v Z rn C v :L ,n cc F c a en q O b cl to E 0 `u r, yJ c a b0 w .r Y cd DO q u C C C C E o L 14 C O 1 O O j E 7 n 5C q C L U a C I y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090029 -5 E 1 '.K 5 O r O rJ n C J J Z '.0 v .`o CV 3 OI u O �D n L O C .t u O O y h N u G a; v Z rn C v :L ,n cc F c a en q O b cl to E 0 `u r, yJ c a b0 w .r Y cd DO q u C C C C E o L 14 C O 1 O O j E 7 n 5C q C L U a C I y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090029 -5 E 1 '.K 5 Et", acquiring diesel locomotives and rolling stock, strengthening track and bridges, remodeling yards, constructing or extending sidings, and installing signaling and telecom equipment. The construction of new lines, including the Bang Su� Khlong Tan loop line which was a part of the 1967 -71 5 -year plan, was postponed to future program:. Many surveys for new line construction have been carried out since 1970, including the 155 mile Den Chai� Chiang Rai line where both engineering and economic surveys were completed and submitted to the National Economic Develop- ment Board. However, because of the high cost of investment and low priority of this project, the Board considers that it should be treated as a reserve project. Other projects include the 70 -mile line from Chachoengsao to the port of Sattahip. TrJfic on the RSR flows between Bangkok and the interior; there is sonic local traffic between stations. Principal commodities carried on the network are clinker and marl, rice products, petroleum products, lumber, and cement. 'Traffic statistics for 1971 were as follows: Freight (short tons) 5,354,000 Short- ton -miles 1,534,200,000 Passengers 51,952,000 Passenger -miles 2,741,480,000 Most of the passengers carried are commuters in the Bangkok area. In 1972 passenger traffic continued the upward trend of recent years, accounting for 51.3 of the operating revenue; freight accounted for 44.W0. The RSR continues to operate at a profit; the operating ratio in 1972 was 88.68%. The 1972 RSR inventory consisted of 226 steam locomotives, 191 diesel locomotives (Figure 3), -15 diesel railcar sets, 9,186 freight cars, and 936 passenger FIGURE 3. General Electric diesel electric locomotive built for the RSR (C) 6 i l i curs. "Thailand i, complete ly dependent 0n imports for motive power and rolling stack. Primary suppliers of equipment are the United States and Japan. The Makkasan shops in Bangkok, the principal workshops, can assemble roiling stock and perform major overhauls on all egnipRnew. The Nakhon Ratch;asinua and Thung Song slops nlake medium repairs, and all other shops make only !ighl repairs. The equipment is in good condition and is adegnale in quantity. The RSR had 33.976 ennployees (22,499 pernnanent and 11,477 temporary) in September 1972. 'I'll( general level of efficiency is fairly high, but there is a shortave of trained personnel at all levels. The two methods of training are on- the -job training and 3 years of formal training at the Railway Technical School, .which offers courses in mechanical engineer- ing and operations. This technical institute was established in 1940, and as of late 1971 it graduated a total of 2,3813 students, with about 300 students still under instruction. D. Highways (C) Flighway transport is of major importance in the national ec�01l0nny of Thailand. Highways are not only important as short 'maul feeders to the railroads and waterways, but with the trunk -line network radiating from Bangkok to all provinces nearly completed, highway transport has increased rapidly in the past few years. Ilighway transportation has increased significantly_ as a result of 'Thailand's rapid economic growth for the 1962 -72 period. This increase is largely due to the progress of the second National Ec�0110111ic� and Social Development Plan (1967 -71 which emphasized the rehabilitation or construction of ate national and provincial highway network. *['his situation reflects the government's positive road policy and attitudes toward the increasing importance of APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090029 -5 FIGURE 2. Rail- highway bridge over the Mae Nam Chao Phraya, 3.5 miles west of Bang Su. This 1,468 -foot structure is the longest bridge on the RSR. (C) 0 highways. flowerer, in order to meet the overall needs of the economy. considerable improvement and extension of the feeder road system will be required to provide minimal road access to areas not served by the primary or secondary highway net%vorks. As with all other transportation Irtodes in 'Thailand, the focal point for the highway network is Bangkok. The chief arteries over a hich most highway tonnage and through traffic move are four trunk routes ra diating from Bangkok. The most important route runs nearly the north -south length of the country from the "Thailand -Burma -Laos tripoint to the Malaysia border, north of Bangkok the route is designated Route I ant' 'rorii Bangkok to the Malaysian border it is Route 4 (Figure -1). 'I'll(! Sara Buri -Nong Khai I ighway, Route 2 (Figure 5), is the major route from the central Plain to the Khorat Plateau and north to the Mekong river and Vientiane, Laos. The fourth FIGURE 4. National Highway Route 4. Highway extends along the Isthmus of Kra between Bangkok and the Malaysia border. (C) '1 t trunk route. Route 1 leads southeast front Bangkok, paralleling the shore of the Gulf of Thailand, to Trat, from which i t branch continues to Khlong 1'ai at the Cambodia border. International connections are made with all countries contiguous to Thailand: Two with Burma, four with Laos, three with Camhodia, and three with Malaysia. "Three of the cornec�tions with Laos are by ferries across the Mekong at Nong Khai, Nakhon 1'hanom, and Mukdahatr. Additional border connections Nyith Laos are possible \vhenever vehicle ferries are available for crossing the Mekong at Bung Kan, Kene Thao Laos), and Chiang Khong. The Thai road s\,stem density of 0.083 mil(- of road per square mile of area compares favorably with that of neighboring Burma (0.079:1). Laos (0.03:1), and Cambodia (0.045:1) hilt is less than the ratio of West Malaysia (0.018:1). The Royal llai Ilighway 1 Dcpartnient, under the Ministry of National Development, is responsible for the 16,550 -mile official }riglnyay system, which made up of 6,850 miles of national primary highway 5,900 miles of national secondary highways, and 3,800 miles of provincial highways. About 7,100 miles (42nD) of the highways are stir' accd with bituminous or bituminous surf ace treatment; 4,066 miles (24%) are gravel, crushed stone, or laterite; and 5,362 miles (33 are earth. In addition to the official systent, there is a small but growing mileage of local roads under the Ministry of Interior and other government agencies. Details of selected principal highway routes are given in hit. *,ure. 6. Although there is nu specified standard code for the design of highways and bridges in 'Thailand, the Departinent of highways has adopted the official specifications of the American Association of St itu Iligltways. Surface: widths range front 18 to 23 feet on primary highways and 13 to 23 feet on the secondary. The primary highways support two -way traffic, but about 70% of the secondary highway are too narrow for anything hill one -way travel. About 67 of the national primary highways and 50 ,0 of the national secondary highways are it' good condition. I'royincial highways are generally too narrow `or efficient two way passage and arc in poor comdition. Shoulders on new roads consist of cow- 1- ic�ted crushed stone or gravel and vary front 3 to 10 feet ill width. Matt\ of the older roads have no shotr'.ders, but where shoulders exist widths range up to 10 feet. Surfaced roads generally have bases of laterite covered with a 4- to fl- inch layer of rolled aggregate hound Nvith earth or surfac�c treated with hitttminous material. First class highways are generally constnnc�ted with a 6 to 8 -inch W i 3 i I i 1 I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090029 -5 FIGURE 5. National Highway Route 2, between Khon Krten and Udon Thani (U /OU) j010 1. n.1B ff B F I T y T O 3 Q. S Q C 00 00 IL 00 c0 00 00 00 t0 t0 t- 1 I 1 -V C 00 I 1 r. O O C O O M ID V w u C w Q L w G w C u G M u w C O t+ N N M O N O O o O a M M 00 b C O J 0 c_ Y C be O O O d O J m O N O N O CV 00 M O n I- 00 N 00 n N O O O t0 N O S CV -T N N C1 M N C C N M N y r N N CV I I N N oe bc w c ec u O w C r w y C C C -O I C u 0.7 rf) C 1 f t t. o 3 L C d a i I C n Got G .O O u C C C w m n u u N C, u E C y j Y u U b0 I y n c O c .7 t w p u u vi u F J I. u v C a c 7 'D 64 o o C C C `o C o L bo E m. E 8 u o 1: c y a> 0 g n E d o 0 a a c' 3 o O O V p C O O C p y c j 0 o C C a Q O .0 O O 7 O 'TS O v .p O 7 m u O _a p 'D '77 b O p %p 'i7 v C, y y y .ua u �ua as E a �E E 00 00 IL 00 c0 00 00 C to M t0 to I 00 t0 t0 t- 1 I 1 -V C 00 I 1 r. O O C O O M ID 7.. A V li E 1 M M tp D C -7' M O t+ N N M O N O O o O a M M 00 b C O J 0 In I C rA O O O d O J O N O N O CV 00 M O n I- 00 N 00 n N O O O t0 N O S CV -T N N C1 M N C C N M N N N y r N N CV I I N N oe c; d d d m p'q a v a a a d ,x 7 u I 0.7 rf) 1 f t t. o d a a :.7 y F O 7 a c p O 64 o G C o o C C C o C o u c m C a C a c C C a C C a Q G C '-d a O O 7 O 'TS O v .p O 7 m u O _a p 'D '77 b O p %p 'i7 v O p v :D y y y .ua u �ua as E a �E E m E E E E C E a C E a E E E a E a c a a� n a d c v a 0. v a 0. O y v: n W N O T n O I -r t+ O Cl :u O0 O n r0 M O t- M M .M -n n M M ti M n N .6 t+ -Y -3r n M N to M M N N N N O OI C a m I w O f C a d a O= v a V 0 C I 41 :77 a Oyp cd 3 9 a o r. l r 7.. C M c M 0 -V w C') c 0 O to n% r,l E li E 1 M M tp D C -7' M O t+ N N M O N O O o O a M M 00 b C O J 0 In I C rA O O O d O J O .�.,1 to ,n "o, y pl 1 1 N O n a Q+ l 1p CA t0 O> C I w -w O t- N M M 'J O CV d ,O -,N-i C O M O N CI C O M M O y x a, an m m d 'r oe c; d d d m p'q a v a a a d ,x 7 u I 0.7 rf) 1 f t t. �a O C Q C 9 r APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090029 -5 r. l r 9 r APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090029 -5 %;;5 7 .vw..n< ...^c.. ..'.urn- >-l.� U AA kyj J base course and 2 inches of bituminous concrete. In most cases, pr; ncipal roads have long straight stretches; curves are gradual and grades moderate throughout ;he central plain and the Khorat Plateau from the lowlands to the south and west and on segments of Route 4 in southern Thailand. The development of transportation and telecom facilities during the previous 5 -year plans was geared to the completion of the main transportation and telecom systems. Most of the targets set forth in the two previous development plans had been achieved. The highway system a total of 5,095 bridges 20 feet or greater in length. Reinforced- concrete slat) with reinforced concrete pile piers predominate on the main r but man narrow timber structures remain in service, mostly on secondary roads. Most bridges are of the deck type and have unlimited vertical clearances. Reinforced- concrete bridges of recent construction generally have load capacities of 36 tons or more; older concrete and steel bridges generally have load capacities of 13 tons. Ferries are not common, but powered ferries re in use on the Mckong between Nong Khai and r.aos, and at Phra Pradaeng, west of Bangkok, and Songkhla in the far south. Paved -ramp landing facilities at the Nong Khai fetry crossing permit operations in all seasons despite the fairly strong currents and water level variations of up to 40 feet on the Mekong. Several low capacity ferries operate in the far south, and on the Mekong at N��khon Phanom and Mukdahan. 'There are many fords on the low -t} pe roads but none is improved; streams are fordable only in the dry season (generally from early November through mid- March). There are no known tunnels on the highway system. The Maintenance Division of the Might ay Department directs the overall maintenance activities of 12 field division offices 'hat in turn direct 60 field districts. The district offices furnish personnel and equipment for rn cinlenance work on highways within their own boundaries. Ti, budget of the Iligh"vay Department favors new construction and upgrading rather than maintenance; the rapid pace of construction of national highways suggests that maintenance will continue to be poor on provincial highways. Weather and ^rrain cause problems in construction and maintenan e. The topography of 'Thailand varies significantly from region to region. The heavy rainfall during the southwest monsoon (ntid -May through September) provides most c:f the annual precipitation over most of the country. The immediate effects are the overflowing of drainage systetns, flooding, the undermining and eroding of roads, and the, interruption of vehicle operation and road work. The rainy season also affects the construction of embi,nkments, except when rock is the material involved; the building of earth fill and the laying of base and surface courses can be clone only during 7 months of he year. Availabuhty of material suitable for base- course and subs *rade construction is one of the most critical highway construction problems. Local soils generally are used primarily laterite, which is found throughout most of the country. The output of crushed stone 'Jnadequate; quarries must be developed for each road project and worked with portable crushers. In the delta area, crushed stone must be hauled long distances, but sand and gravel are usually obtainable. Concrete road surfaces are found only in the Bangkok area. Elsewhere, cement concrete is used t:s a basic material only for bridges and culverts. [iomestirally pr !iced cement and bituminous materials are in r.c )d supply. Good grades of lumber, including plywood for concrete form work and timber for bridges, are available from domestic sources. Some reinforcing steel is produced locally, but most, including special steel for prestressed- concrete structures, must be imported. Constructiov and maintenance equipment is imported, practically all types being on hand in the Bangkok area; principal sources of supply are the United Slates, Japan, the United Kingdom, %Vest Germany, France, and Australia. Spare parts are also available locally. During the last decade higb%va% transport has been quite extensive. The total length of paved road has more than tripled and vehicle registration has increased from about 50,000 in 1965 to more than 100,000 in 1971. More recent and major accomplish- ments in the highway transport system have taken place during the second 5 -year plan, 1967 -71. A total of 5,153 miles of highways were constructed or rehabilitated, of which 3,582 miles were natiotal highways and 1,871 miles were provincial highways. The third 5 -year plan, 1972 -76, will carry on the transportation policies of the previous plans. I lighway development will continue. to have a very high priority; however, the emphasis will he on provincial highways and village roads. An engineering and feasibility study is being made of a proposed rail highway bridge across the Mckong at Nong Khai, opposite Vientiane, Laos, on which an agreement for joint construction was signed between the Thailand and Laos Governments in April 1967. However, because of cost this will at first he limited to 9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090029 -5 I highway traffic with provisions to accommodate rail traffic in the future. The monsoonal climate and the terrain features that cause the main problems for highway construction and maintenance are also the chief traffic interruption factors. Oier much of the provincial and village road network, traffic comes to it virtual standstill during part of the rainy season. Many roads become muddy and soft and some become impassable. In mountain- ous areas the rains precipitate landslides, cause w ashouts, and fell trees, all of which obstruct highwa traffic. Fords become impassable, and ferry operations are hampered. During the dry season, dust from low quality roads reduces visibility. Some areas are subject to early morning fog that limits visibility. In the hills and mountains are many sharp curves and steep grades. In a military tactical situat -on, during the monsoons the bridges would pla an important role ir, route trafficability. In the flatlands, byp corr structir.rr would be more difficult than replacing destroyed bridges because of the flooded terrain on both sides of the roads. Since most bridge sites are short, they can be spanned with tactical bridging. The two principal transport firms, the Express "1 -ansportation Organization (ETO) and the Transport Co., Ltd., are government ownd. ETO operates a public trucking service with about 1,000 trucks, some of which are privately owned but operated under thr supervision and control of the organization, subcontracting the transport of heavy equipment (usually over 10 tons) to the Trailer Transport Co. In 1968 the ETO handled a total of 2.3 million tons of freight. The Transport Co., Ltd., provides bus service on 12 major routes. Other truck and bus owners operate only small fleets or single vehicles; transport statistics are not maintained. Seasonal traffic volume on the high \vays is influenced by a n ,mber of factors, such as the availabi! �ty of alternative modes of transport and the seasonal effects of weather. Traffic reaches its peak during the early part of the dry season, when the delivery of agricultural products to the Bangkok area occurs. Principal types of goods moved are building materials, rice, corn, timber, petroleum, and fruit. Ill 1971, trucks and buses comprised about 40% of the total motor vehicle traffic, Buses normally carry as much cargo as they tlo passengers, and trucks often carry it few passengers in addition to freight. The volume of traffic in the vicinity of Bangkok is about 20 tir,!es the average cr of rural areas; each !rf the main routes into Bangkok carries over 7.006 vehicles per day. The volume, of traffic within it radius of 100 miles from Bangkok is about 2,400 vehicles daily 10 within 100 to 200 miles it is 1,300; and within 200 to 300 miles the volume of traffic decreases sharply and averages only 200 to 300 vehicles per day. Highwa transport has grown so rapidly in the past decade that it has become the countn s most important mode. Human porters and beasts of burden are important, in the Dallying regions they are the primary and often only means of transport. In the central plain and the southeast, water buffalo and, to it lesser extent, oxen are used, in the Khorat Plateau, oxen are most important; in the mountains of the north, porters and pack trains, mainly of cattle but also of ponies and mules, are the most common means of transport; and in peninsular Thailand, oxen, water buffaloes, and elephants are used. As of January 1973, there were 947,000 registered motor vehicles in Thailand. consisting of 282,600 passenger cars, 183,200 trucks and buses, and 481,200 motorcycles and motor bicycles. Trucks have capacities of about to 7 tons. Vehicle maintenanc^ is improving but is poor, consiting mainly of keeping vehicles on the road and meeting the clastic licensing requirements. Except for expensive diesel- powered vehicles, the mechanical condition of all but the newest privately owned vehicles is generally poor. As of 1972, 12 motor vehicle assembly plants were producing about 6,300 passenger cars and 5,400 trucks annually. The plants can produce some components but cannot manufacture complete vehicles. In 1970, imports included i t total of 22,982 passenger cars and 30,300 trucks and buses supplied b 10 countries; 90% of the imports earn( from Japan. E. Inland waterways (C) Inland waterways are a minor but important part of Thailand's transport system. The country has about ',485 miles of principal waterways navigable at high water, of which about 2,400 miles have navigable depths of 3 feel or more throughout the year. Of the latter, 1,320 miles are on central and north central waterways,, 725 miles are in the northeast (including the Mekong), and 353 miles are on southern rivers. In addition, about 11,700 miles of minor tributaries and canals navigable by shallow -draft native craft considerably increase the total mileage. Long -haul commercial barges operate over 1,230 miles of the system, accounting for an estimated 620 million ton miles of transport annually. Two- thirds of that figure is accrued in hauling foodstuffs, about 30% in building mate ial, and :h(, remainder primarily in fuel and fertilizer. Thai waterways also carry more than half the annual crops of timber, which is assembled 1 i@ni�une Offm CN.J into rafts for floating from forest to sawmills in the Bangkok area. An enormous amount of local commerce is also carried on the waterways, especially in the central delta, but no records of this traffic are maintained. The significance of the waterways varies omo regions. Central Thailand has the most concvntr.ted system. Seven principal rivers drain southward through the prosperous delta land, emptying into the Gulf of Thail through four estuaries. An elaborate network of interconnecting canals serves virtually every population center in this region. The Lam Nam Chi -Mae Nam Mun river system in northeast Thailand provides the principal drainage of the Khorat Plateau but is only sectionally navigable. The most important international wateryav is the Mekong, which forms most of the border with Laos. In southern Thailand, rivers flow generally eastward across the Malay Peninsula into the Gulf of Thailand, but a few drain westvard into the Andaman Sea. One of these rivers, the Pakchan, forms the Thailand Burma border for it distance of 62 miles. Data on principal inland waterways are given in Figure 7. Most principal waterways are open to craft drawing tip to 4 feet. The most important waterway is the Mae Nam Chao Phraya, which is navigable for il)out 35 miles by oceangoing vessels and for an additional 210 miles by craft drawing 6 feet. it is fed by three major streams, the Mae Nara Ping, the Mae Nam Nan, and the Mae Nam Yom, which is it tributary of the Mae Nam Nan. Of these streams, the Mae Nam Nan is the most significant, providing safe draft of 3 feet or more perennially for 174 miles to Uttaradit; the other two streams provide limited navigation for craft of 1.6 -foot draft. Branching from the Mac Nam Chao Phraya in the vicinity of Chainat are the Mae Nam Nakhon Chai Si, a 190 -mile distributary, and the Mae Nam Noi, which rejoins 84 miles downstream; both ai o