Document Type: 
Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
Release Decision: 
Original Classification: 
Document Page Count: 
Document Creation Date: 
October 25, 2016
Sequence Number: 
Case Number: 
Content Type: 
PDF icon CIA-RDP01-00707R000200090037-6.pdf3.77 MB
APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090037 -6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090037 -6 NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY PUBLICATIONS The basic unit of the NIS is the General Survey, which is now published in a bound -by- chapter format so that topics of greater per- ishability can be updated on an individual basis. These chapters Country Profile, The Society, Government and Politics, The Economy, Military Geog- raphy, Transportation and Telecommunications, Armed Forces, Science, and Intelligence and Security, provide the primary NIS coverage. Some chapters, particularly Science and Intelligence and Security, that are not pertinent to all countries, are produced selectively. For small countries requiring only minimal NIS treatment, the General Survey coverage may be bound into one volume. Supplementing the General Survey is the NIS Basic Intelligence Fact book, a ready reference publication that semiannually updates key sta- tistical data found in the Survey. An unclassified edition of the factbook omits some details on the economy, the defense forces, and the intelligence and security organizations. Although detailed sections on many topics were part of the NIS Program, production of these sections has been phased out. Those pre- viously produced will continue to be available as long as the major portion of the study is considered valid. A quarterly listing of all active NIS units is published in the Inventory of Available NIS Publications, which is also bound into the concurrent classified Factbook. The Inventory lists all NIS units by area name and number and includes classification and date of issue; it thus facilitates the ordering of NIS units as well as their filing, cataloVing, and utilization. Initial dissemination, additional copies of NIS units, or separate chapters of the General Surveys can be obtained directly or through liaison channels from the Central Intelligence Agency. The General Survey is prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency and the Defense Intelligence Agency under the general direction of the NIS Committee. It is coordinated, edited, published, and dissemi- nated by the Central Intelligence Agency. WARNING document contains information affecting the national defense of the United States, within the meaning of title 18, sections 793 and 791 of the US cede, as amended. Its transmission or revelation of tts contents to or receipt by an unauthorized person is prohibiteJ by law. CLASSIFIED BY 019611. EXEMPT FROM GENERAL DECLASSIFI- CATION SCHEDULE OF E. O. 11652 EXEMPTION CATEGORIES 5R (1), (2), (3). DECLASSIFIED ONLY ON .PPROVAL OF THE DIRECTOR OF CENTRAL INTELLIGFNCE. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090037 -6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090037 -6 WARMING The NIS is National Intelligence and may not be re- leased or shown to representatives of any foreign govern- ment or international body except by specific authorization of the Director of Central Intelligence in accordance with the provisions of National Security Council Intelligence Di- rective No. 1. For NIS containing unclassified material, however, Ae portions so marked may be made available for official pur- p:nses to foreign nationals and nongovernment personnel provided no attribution is made to National Intelligence or the National Intelligence Survey. Subsections and graphics are individually classified according to content. Classification /control designa. tions are: (U /OU) Unclassified /For Official Use Only (C) Confidential (S) Secret APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090037 -6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090037 -6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090037 -6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090037 -6 U+S*S*R* CONTENTS This chapter supersedes the scientyfc cover- age in the General Survey dated March I97I, A. Genera! 1 B. Organivitie,s, planning, and financing for reseama 2 1. Organization 2 2. Planning 4 3. Financing 5 C. Scientific education, manpower and facilities 6 D. Major research fields 7 I. Air, ground, and naval weapons a. Aerospace systems 7 6. Ground weapons and equipment 11 c. Naval weapons 12 SECRET No FOREIGN DissEat APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090037 -6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP0l- 00707R000200090037 -6 Page 2. Biological and chemical warfare 13 a. Biological warfare 13 b. Chemical warfare 14 3. Nuclear energy 15 4. Electronics 18 5. Electrooptical research 20 6. Medical sciences 21 7. Other sciences 25 a. Chemistry, chemical engineering and sciences metallurgy 25 (1) Chemistry and chemical 35 engineering 25 (2) Metallurgy 27 Page b. Physical and mathematics 29 (1) Physics 29 (2) Mathematics 31 c. Astrogeophysical sciences 31 (1) Meteorology 32 (2) Space and upper atmospheric sciences 33 (3) Terrestrial geophysics 35 (4) Geodesy 36 (5) Oceanography 36 (6) Hydrology, hydraulics, and coastal engineering 38 Glossary 39 FIGURES Page Fig. 1 Organization of Soviet science and technology (chart) 3 Fig. 2 Organization of the Academy of Sciences (hart) 4 Page Fig. 3 Model of Backfire bomber aircraft (photo) 8 Fig. 4 An -22 long -range heavy logistics carrier photo) 8 Fig. 5 TsAGI wind tunnel photo) 9 ii APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP0l- 00707R000200090037 -6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090037 -6 Science A. General (S) 'rhe U.S.S.R. from the time of Lenin has emphasized the importance of science and technology to industrial progress and as it means of achieving national political, military, and economic objectives. Th Soviets have encouraged the improvement and advancement of both basic and applied research and the expansion of scientific institutions and support facilities. The rapid growth in scientific and engineering manpower and facilities, particularly since 1965. is evidence of the large investment the reginne is making in many branches of science. The U.S.S.R. has applied its growing scientific and technological capability to solving problems of national importance. Priority is given to the development of new weapon systenns and the improvement of existing weapons and systems as well as to the space program. Soviet science, despite its considerable progress, remains second to that of the United States in main\ critical areas, and Soviet civilian technology generally lags that of the leading Westem countries and also that of some other Eastern European countries, at least in some sectors. Nevertheless, the U.S.S.R. has made some spectacular advances in military and space technology through concentration of its efforts and resources, and overall scientific and technical capabilities are improving steadily. Soviet control over science and technology is maintained by a nationally coordinated planning program, but in spite of these efforts, leaders have been dissatisfied with the "bility of science to provide it basis for it stronger and more versatile industry. A joint resolution in 1968 by the government and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), aimed at increasing the utility of science to industrv, introduced the concepts of profit and financial incentive to motivate institutes to increase the applicability of their research to production. 'There has been some resistance by scientists to the efforts to redirect their research, however, and it is not evident that party- governnnent pressures to strengthen industrial research capabilities have produced major benefits. There have been definite emphasis on applied and less emphasis on basic research in recent \-ears. According to Chairman V. A. Kirillin of the State Committee for Science and'r,chnolo* ((;KNT) on 16 July 1973, about 85% of the research and development effort in the U.S.S.R. is applied, i.e., in industrial rather than academic institutes (80,000 research workers in academic institutes �basic research; 570,000 research workers in industrial research and development institutes and universities applied research). Improved relationships between scientific theory, experimentation, and application have been in large measure the objectives of several reorganizations of the administration of Soviet science and of reforms in the educational system. A related program, still underway, is the geographic dispersal of scientific facilities and activities to help advance the economics of Siberia, the Far East, and other regions. In additit,n to extensive acquisition and exploitation of Western technical publications, the Soviets have employed intelligence and snhterfuge to obtain technical information and designs to assist in overcoming important research and (it velopnrent problems. M nch has been obtained from open sources, however, as well its from samples of foreign APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090037 -6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090037 -6 equipment. Numerous Soviet developments have been based on original Western work, and in some technical fields progress also has been accelerated by aggressive technical intelligence collection programs. In addition, the U.S.S.R. has drawn openly on and exploited to some extent the scientific and technical resources of Eastern European and other countries. Science has been an important tool of political strategy. Soviet achievements in space and other aspects of technology have increased national scientific prestige. The U.S.S.R. has attempted to exploit this prestige in the East -West power struggle by cultivating the image of the Soviet system as hest suited for achieving social and economic advancement and military strength. This image is projected through propaganda, trade fairs, exhibitions, and technical aid to less developed countries. In recent years Soviet leaders have increased their participation in international scientific affairs, including exchanges, meetings, and some cooperative projects, and they have become more aggressive in obtaining positions of leadership in international scientific organizations. However, Soviet leaders are still reluctant to allow some scientists to travel abroad and from time to time have taken restrictive actions that discourage scientific cooperation with the West. Among the East European Communist countries the U.S.S.R. has fostered the coordination of national research plans and cooperative scientific and technical programs under the auspices of the Council for Economic Mutual Assistance (CEMA), partly as a means of satisfying a desire for international prestige and of increasing the flow of scientific and technical information into the Soviet Union. B. Organization, planning, and financing of research (S) 1. Organization Research and development are controlled by the Council of Ministers and administered through various ministries, state committees, and other agencies, including the academies of sciences. General policy is set by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and controlled through party representation at Lill levels clown to t1w individual research facility. The party concentrates on establishing general policy, expediting high priority projects, and monitoring plan fulfilment with the objective of solving broi.d problems. Management of the overall effort is left to the governmental apparatus, which is organized to insure that most research and development projects a directly support specific sectors of the economy Figure 1). The research structure has undergone a series of reorganizations since the major decentralization of 1957. Reorganizations in 1961, 196 3 and 1968 resulted in a partial return to highly centralized management. Since 1968 greater emphasis has been placed on improving the efficiency of research and development and speeding their utilization in industry. The U.S.S.R. has about 5,000 scientific institutions, most of which fall tinder the following elements of the state administrative structure: the Academy of Sciences and the 14 union republic academies of sciences, which together are sometimes referred to as the academy system; the Ministries of Defense, Agriculture, Health, and Higher and Secondary Specialized Education; a large number of industrial ministries; various state committees; the State Committee for Science and Technology; the State Planning Committee (Gosplan); and various administrations and main administrations. The Academy of Sciences is the leading scientific institution in the Soviet Union, and many of the most important scientists and rescar ^h facilities operate under it. The academy has the prime responsibility for basic and theoretical research and conducts applied research in key technical fields. In addition, it advises the government on such other matters as the exploitation of resources and on various aspects of econornie planning. It also provides postgraduaw training for some of the best students, as well as other training designed to increase the capabilities of scientific workers. The academy has four sections Physical- Technical and Mathematical Sciences; Chemical- Technological and Biological Sciences; Earth Sciences; and Social Sciences �with 16 subordinate departments (Figure 2). Each department acts as a national coordinating center, responsible for guiding research in its specialized fields in institutes of the academy and in other institutes throughout the country working in the same fields. Recent policies have stressed the development of the resources of eastern regions of the Soviet Union. As a result, the Siberian Department, the Far East Science Center, aril the Urals Science Center were formed in the academy. "These centers, which are organized on it regional rather titan a substantive basis, are subordinate to the presidium and have their own general assembly and presidium. They are responsible for scientific and technical activities designed to benefit their own areas, especially those furthering economic devclopme'it. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090037 -6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090037 -6 FIGURE 1. Organization of scienca and technology (C) Most of the academy's research institutions, which represent between �1 and Sl of the Soviet total number of 5,000, are administered by the depart- ments; the presidium administers Borne directly. The academy also has 10 affiliates, which are separate institutes or groups of institutes little "academics of science" �often in remote areas. The primary function of the affiliates is to study the natural resources of the local regions and to aid in industrial development. I our of the affiliates are under the Siberian Department, and the other six are administered by the presidium of the academy. "There are also 1 -1 republic academies of sciences. The Academe of Sciences has considerable authorit over the planning and financing of their research, primarily to avoid duplication of effort. The republic academies do research in depth, usually on problems of particular concern to their own union republics. Most of the applied research and engineering development is carried out in facilities subordinate to the appropriate all -union ministries and state committees, councils of national econonn, or to similar agencies of the union republics. Military research and development are performed predomi- nantly by facilities of defense- related industrial ministries, including the All -Union Ministries of Defense Industry, Aviation Industry, Shipbuilding industry, Radio Industry, Electronics industry, :3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090037 -6 Presidium of CPSU Central Committee I Council of Ministers UNION REPUBLIC Al4UNION MINISTRIES STATE COMMITTEES ACADEMY MAIN ADMINISTRATIONS MINISTRIES OF' SCIENCES Agrladture... Avllu o Y of Atomk Geodesy and Cortogrophy Cotrrnunicnt(ons Daferw Inclu Defetue y El"drpiks IndusM Hydromeleorologkal Services Ferrous MatoRurpy vaneral MadtMe Butlding Silence and.Technolopy (GKNT) F inance Mkrobiologkal Industry Fop Indultry Machine BWWIp Health Mad(wn Machine Building PlambV (Gospion) Highs cw d Specialized Radio Industry Secondary Education Nonferrous Metailrrgy Shipbulldirp Industry CiNters 4aiards'' Research Raseardt Rewarch Research ;;,,Mstltutes'. IaMeufes 4attlnles Ibtitutes histimes Union Republk,Ccunclk of Mfniften MWshles and Union Republic Slate Committees Academies of Selene" I Higher Educational Research Research butbutes NwyI Wfutes Imithfies FIGURE 1. Organization of scienca and technology (C) Most of the academy's research institutions, which represent between �1 and Sl of the Soviet total number of 5,000, are administered by the depart- ments; the presidium administers Borne directly. The academy also has 10 affiliates, which are separate institutes or groups of institutes little "academics of science" �often in remote areas. The primary function of the affiliates is to study the natural resources of the local regions and to aid in industrial development. I our of the affiliates are under the Siberian Department, and the other six are administered by the presidium of the academy. "There are also 1 -1 republic academies of sciences. The Academe of Sciences has considerable authorit over the planning and financing of their research, primarily to avoid duplication of effort. The republic academies do research in depth, usually on problems of particular concern to their own union republics. Most of the applied research and engineering development is carried out in facilities subordinate to the appropriate all -union ministries and state committees, councils of national econonn, or to similar agencies of the union republics. Military research and development are performed predomi- nantly by facilities of defense- related industrial ministries, including the All -Union Ministries of Defense Industry, Aviation Industry, Shipbuilding industry, Radio Industry, Electronics industry, :3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090037 -6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090037 -6 PRESIDIUM FIGURE 2. Organization of the Academy of Sciences (C) `tedium Nhic�hinc Building, General Machine Building, and Machine Building. "These ministries control it large number of research institutes, desir' n bureaus, testing facilities, proving grounds, and experimental production plants designed to meet the needs for new and improved weapons, support equipment. and supplies. Soviet agricniteral and medical research fall within the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Agriculture and the Ministry of Ilealth, respectively. 1 ?ach ministry controls research institutions either directly or through corresponding ministries at the union republic level. The most importAnt research institutes of these ministries comprise specialized academies: the A11 Union Academy of :Agricultural Sciences intent V. I. Lenin and the Academy of Medical Sciences. The Ministry of Ilighcr and Secondary Spceialixed Education supervises research at higher educational institutions (VU %y), although inany \'UZ\' are administratively subordinate to vario agencies Lit the anion republic level. Pundainental and theoretical research at the W-J'Ly, as Lit other organizations, is guided by the- Academy of Sciences. Much of the applied resc�arcii is done on it contract basis for industrial organizations and is guided by them. Although the duality of research is high at it few VU %y, they play it lesser role in the total Soviet research effort than do higher educational institutions in Western countries. One reason is that the system of Soviet academics of sciences has assumed leadership in research areas held in other countries by universities. 2. Planning Scientific and technical plans are an int( _wl part of national economic and military planning and are developed by Gosplan bused on policies laid down by APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090037 -6 Councils Commissions c Physical Tedeikal and Earth Sdences Sedlon Che Tedmologkal and Social Sdences Secftn Motbema cal Sdences Section ;:000gkol Sdences Section Deportnrnts Departmams Departments Departments 'Modcamatks Gerlogy, Geophysics, General and Tedeical History adbmiitr*, and 0 ihft Chemylry General PAysks ad Phyda of the Atmosphere Physics� ChemMry, and Phllosophy of Law Oceanology, Water Balance, Tedewbq; of harganic and Gera by Materials Economks 6a myli BWiemistry, BbphyAa, and Literature and lcspuages a+eshY of Physbbgkally Physical and TecleYcal Alive Compounds Pewee. Problems Mcdtanks and CybemeHa, PhYo9Y. General Siobp Sdenlirk kaf hoes Sd iNdIrk hntitule, saenNflc Instltutss SeantMlc hutble support to areas such as agricultural meteorology and especially Arctic studies, probably because it large portion of their territory is located in polar and subpolar regions. Research carried out by military personnel or sponsored by military organizations is noticeably missing in Soviet publications. 32 Soviet research in numerical weather prediction has kept pace with U.S. work in the theoretical aspects. "::.vever, the Soviets have fallen behind in the applied aspects because of a shortage of sizable computers. The need for more advanced computers is even more keenly felt in the associated area of atmospheric modeling, in which the soviets have been able to run only a few models on computers. The most significant research on theoretical numerical weather prediction and atmospheric modeling is conducted under G. 1. Marchuk, at the Computing Center of the Siberian Division, Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk. Applied research in the field is concentrated at the Hydrometeorological Center of GUGMS in Moscow. Soviet research on weather modification is conducted largely by facilities subordinate to GUGMS, tinder the leadership of Ye. K. Federov. Early in their weather modification program, the Soviet policy was to direct large efforts toward solving specific problems. Accordingly, a sizable program was carried out in the 1950's to develop operational techniques to dissipate cold clouds and fogs, followed in the 1960's by work directed toward protection against damaging hailstorms. The Soviets claimed to have solved the hail problem in principle by the latter part of the 1960'x, using antiaircraft shells and rockets loaded with cloud seeding nuclei to induce premature precipitation from potential hail clouds. By reducing hail storms, lest cases have shown that the gross crop yield could be increased by 5% to 10 A project for dissipating fog at airports progressed so rapidly 'that operational programs are conducted at several airports in the Soviet Union with a high degree of success. Creditable work is carried out in precipitation augmentation; this work led to attempts to the technique in controlling serious forest fires in 1972. The results of the efforts are not known, but newspaper reporting did not attribute any great degree of success to them. The Soviets also study methods for dissipating warm clouds and fog. This work appears to have significant military support, particularly by the air force, but details of the extent and nature of this support are unknown. After considerable delay the Soviets began devoting attention to satellite meteorology. Although an experimental weather satellite program has been underway since 1966, it was not until 1969, when Meteor I was launched, that the program became operational. The Soviet satellite was equipped with television and infrared sensors that provided cloud photos of both the daylight and dark sides of the earth. The IR set;sors also were employed to provide data on earth and cloud surface temperatures and on the general radiation balance of the earth. Through June APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090037 -6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090037 -6 1973 the Soviets launched 13 satellites in 0ic Meteor series. This program has been carried wit ur GUGMS, although the military v !so clearly is interested in the developments and uses the data collected by the satellites. The military may also participate in planning some of the operational procedures for these satellites. The Soviet hydro meteorological service operates meteorological satellite receiving stations tat Novosibirsk, Khabarovsk, Moscow /Obninsk, and Tashkent. The development of instrumentation capable of determining atmospheric temperatures at various altitudes represented a significant advance in the field. Such instruments were flown successfully by the United States in 1969 and by the Soviets in 1971 on Meteor 8. This instruntentadon was not used operationally by the Soviets, however, and there is no evidence that similar instruments have been flown on later Meteor satellites. Nevertheless, such instruments are expected to become standard equipment, with measurements being made both in the infrared and microwave regions of the spectrum. 'rho Soviets have also indicated that they are developing radar and laser instrumentation for future weather satellites. Such instruments could provide data which could be used for sortie very sophisticated research in atmospheric and cloud physics. The Central Acrolegical Observatory, subordinate to GUGMS, is the major facility engaged in instrument development for weather satellites. The Ilydromcte.orological Center and the Main Geophysical Observatory, also under GUGMS, are the most important facilities engaged in analysis of the data. However, the Academy of Sciences and university facilities also are engaged in data analysis and research, but to a more limited extent. (2) Space and upper atmospheric sciences �The Soviets have maintained a very active scientific space research progra;a since 1957. Strong support for lunar and planetary exploration has been demonstrated consistently, and it is clear that this aspect of the unmanned scientific space program receives high Priority in the U.S.S.R. Nearly every available opportunity hats been used since the early 1960's to launch planetary probes to Mars and Venus, and many tines two or three: spacecraft have been launched (luring a launch window. Although the success rate. of the planetary probes has not been high, the Soviet Union has been the only country to obtain in situ data from the atmosphere and soft -land a pacecraft on the surface of Venus. The Soviet lunar exploration program has been highlighted for its use of automatic, unmanned devices both to pick up and bring back to earth small hrnar rock samples and to investigate various surface features in the vicinity of the landing site. Soviet space research in the vicinity of the earth has received lower priority than the lunar and planetary program, although the scope of the program is still fairly broad and second only to that of the United States. The Cosmos series of satellites, ostensibly launched solely for the purpose of carrying out scientific investigations, in reality is used primarily to carry out missions related to military intelligence, such as photo reconnaissance, electronic surveillance, navigation, communications relay, and geodesy. Over 500 Cosmos satellites have been launched through 1972; only about 7% have had an entirely scientific mission. The Soviets have included piggyback scientific experiments on many of their photo reconnaissance satellites that have helped compensate for the low number of purely scientific launches. The photo reconnaissance satellites provide stable, earth oriented platforms for the scientific package, but they severely limit the altitude regime over which the scientific measurements can be made. The time in orbit is also very limited (at most, 14 (lays), since the scientific package ceases to operate after the photographic package is returned to earth. The U.S.S.R. appears to be placing added emphasis on cooperative projects with other countries to carry out their scientific space program. They have launched nine Interkosmos satellites in cooperation with several East Euro countries and the Orcol satellite in cooperation with France. Aside from the piggyback payloads on photo- reconnaissance satel- lites, these five cooperative launches constituted the bulk of the Soviet unmanned scientific program (luring 1970 -72. The Soviets have established the Interkosmos council, headed by B. N. Petrov to initiate and carry through these cooperative projects. The Institute of Space Research and IZMIRAN, of the Academy of Sciences are the most important facilities for conducting scientific space investigations. Many of the measurements carried out by the Soviets its earth orbit recently seem to be directed toward collecting data pertaining to the effects of solar phenomena on the environment of near -earth space. This has involved measurements of solar particles, together with simultaneous measurements of ionospheric and magnetospheric conditions, with emphasis on conditions in the auroral regions. Such measurements have been made on several of the Interkosmos satellites, the Orcol spacecraft, and Prognoz 1 and 2. 'I'hc last two have very elongated orbits that have allowed the collection of data from relatively close to earth through the magnetospheric 33 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090037 -6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090037 -6 boundary region and into interplanetary space with the sar .e satellite. The program for lunar exploration has been marked by several successful flights during the past few years, beginning with the Luna 16 mission in IWO, which successfully returned lunar rock samples to earth. This mission was essentially duplicated in February 1972 by Luna 20, which soft landed in a mountainous region of the moon. The amount of lunar material returned by these two missions was limited, but it was sufficient to contribute to an under'anding of the early history of the m.,on. The sample collected by Luna 20 was particularly important, because it came from a region that had been inaccessible to any of the U.S. manned flights. Luna 17, which delivered th automatic Lunokhod mobile laboratory to the surface of the moon in November 1970, probably was the most successful Soviet lunar experiment to date. Lunokhod carried out a series of surface measurements over a time period that far exceeded the design lifetime of the vehicle. Lunokhod 2, which landed on the moon on 16 January 1973, did not last as long as Lunokhod 1, but covered much more distance on the moon and provided considerably more data. In planetary exploration, the Soviets have had their greatest success in exploring Venus. Venus 4, launched in 1967, was the first Venus probe to penetrate successfully the Venusian atmosphere. Although the Soviets originally thought that Venus 4 had reached the surface of Venus, they now privately admit that the landing capsule probably imploded before reaching the surface. Venus 5, 6, and 7 were also all intended as landing craft and met with varying degrees of success, but Venus 8, which landed on the surface in July 1972, probably was the most successful of all the Soviet probes. The Venus program has provided Soviet scientists with direct measurements of the atmospheric conditions on Venus whereas in this area U.S. scientists have relied more on remote measurements by Mariner spacecraft. The Mars program has been far less successful than the Venus program. Man 2 and :3, which arriv d in the vicinity of Mars in late 1971, had primary missions of delivering landing craft to the surface. Mars 2 probably crashed, and Mars 3 apparently landed successfully but returned almost no data. However, Mars 2 and 3 also contained instrumented capsules which were placed into orbit around Mars and returned a small amount of video and remote sensing data, somewhat similar to the U.S. Mariner. The Soviet solar flare prediction effort appears to be making some progress. A. B. Severnyy and his group at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (CAO) have 3 -1 modified their process of solar flare prediction, which was based almost solely on the magnitude of magnetic field gradients in active areas. They include information on the spatial distribution and time evolution of these field gradients, as well as other fac'ors, such as radio emissions and X -ray bursts from solar flares. Severnyy has stated that he can predict important flares over a 2- to 4 -day period with 80% success, a figure questioned by Western solar physicists. Some of the recent measurements by satellites, particularly Prognoz 1 and 2, should provide us(1 inputs into the Soviet flare prediction effort. The solar telescope at the CAO reportedly was modernized and enlarged and was to have been operational in the summer of 1972. A large solar radio telescope is to be built near Irkutsk. It will be a 128 antenna cruciform array, with each arm longer than 600 meters and each antenna 2.5 meters in diameter. Both instruments should provide useful data for improving the flare prediction effort. The program for conducting earth resources surveys from space is presently closely linked with efforts to establish a long -term manned orbital space station. The first comprehensive earth resources observations from space were conducted during the Soyuz -6, -7, and -8 mission in 1969. The Soyuz -9 mission in June 1970 repeated the experiments of the previous Soyuz mission but covered more extensive areas. The most comprehensive Soviet earth resources investigations from space were conducted during the Soyuz- 11 /Salyut mission from 6 to 29 June 1971. Observations included multispectral photography of approximately M6' meters resolution, polarimetrie measurements of reflected visible light, microwave radiometry, and spectral measurements of light reflected and emitted from the surface of the earth. Improved camera systems, microwave radiometers, and spectrophotometers are scheduled for future manned space station missions, and the Soviets plan eventually to include scientific specialists among the crews to assist in the observations. The Soviet vertical rocket sounding programs are designed to support satellite measurements by collecting a wide variety of data on the structure and composition of the upper atmosphere, on charged particle concentrations, and on characteristics of solar and corpuscular radiation. The Soviets rely primarily on the MR -12 Yo-ket, which is capable of reaching 180 km airs'' the M -100 rocket, which can reach 100 km. On se-. oral occasions, heavily instrumented rockets with a 500 -km capability have also been launched. Soviet vertical rocket launching sites include Kheysa Island in Franz Josef Land, Kapustan Yar (Volograd), APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090037 -6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090037 -6 Molodezhnava in the Antarctic, and several ocean- going research ships. In addition, the Soviets have launched approximately 90 M -100 rockets in cooperation with Indian scientists from the Thu:nba rocket launch station. Soviet space instrumentation generally tends to lag the Western state -of- the -art, and, together with associated data processing equipment, may well be the weakest part of their space program. In fact, in a recent report a prominent Soviet aeronomer stated that the major limitation in Soviet upper atmospheric experiments is their computer capability. Although the Institute of Space Research has a BESM -6 computer, apparently only the smu ler and slower BESM -4 (8,000 words and 20,000 operations per second) is available for their af.- ronomy work. In a few instances, however, especially with their scientific payloads piggybacked on photo- reconnaissance satellites, the Sw. have performed un;_-ue and advanced measurements. Microwave radiometers have been flown on three Soviet reconnaissance satellites and have provided significant meteorological and oceanographic data. Similar microwave radiometers probably will be incorporated into the Meteor weather satellite system in thy near future. Another instrument which may become a permanent feature of Meteor weather satellites is a visible light polarimeter flown on Meteor -8 and the Salyut -1 space station. Its primary function was to determine whether cloud tops were in the liquid or frozen phase, but it also has possible applications to aerosol studies. The Salytit -1 space station carried two additional notable instruments, a spark chamber to record high energy particles and the Orion telescope to record the emission spectra of stars. These are indications that the Soviets will use manned space stations to a considerable extent in the future to collect scientific data and to test advanced instruments because of the spacecraft size and the presence of a human to operate and service the instruments. The Soviets appear to be far behind in the use of satellites as data relay platforms for information collected by remote ground and sea sensors. Very recent information, however, indicates that this lug may not be as great as formerly believed. (3) Terrestrial geophysics �The U.S.S.R. maintains a large research effort in all areas of terrestrial geophysics, and in some areas this effort probably is the largest in the world. Despite this effort, however, the quality of Soviet research somewhat lags that of leading Western nations, probably primarily because of a weakness in the development and production of very accurate, highly sensitive instruments. 'There are also shortages of sophisticated data processing equipment and high speed, high- capacity electronic computers. The Academy of Sciences directs most of the theoretical research on terrestrial geophysics. Under the Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Physics of the Earth and IZMIRAN are two of the most important institutes involved. The Ministry of Geology plays the most prominent role in carrying out applied geophysical research, most of which is directed toward geophysical prospecting. The geomagnetics program has become the largest in the world �the excellence of Soviet geomagnetics research has received the acclaim of the worldwide scientific community. The Soviet program enjoys a high priority in the allocation of both scientific and monetary resources. The Ministry of Defense is a prime customer for this research, because the military is well aware of the many potential applications of geomagnetics. The Soviets have the largest magnetotelluric observational network in the world, and they have established several stations outside their territorial limits, many of which are operated in cooperation with other countries. One such station has been maintained for many years with the French on Kerguelen Island in the Indian Ocean. This station is magnetically conjugate to Sogra in northern U.S.S.R., and coordinated observations at these two points have resulted in several significant contributions to the understanding of geomagnetic micropulsations and natural VLF emissions. Such research contributes to the knowledge of plasma interactions and can also furnish useful information on ionospheric physics and electromagnetic wave propagation. In 197' the Soviets plan a cooperative project with the French that will involve a Soviet electron accelerator placed aboard a French rocket launched at Kerguelen. Electrons are to be directed up the magnetic field line, and studies will be made at Sogra on the effects of these electrons as they reenter the earth's atmosphere. The Soviets for many years have carried out a strong research program in seismology. Much of the work has been used to study the structure of the earth's interior and to advance the state -of -the -art in seismic prospecting, particularly for oil. Other seismic research has been carried out to support the nuclear detection problem, and the Soviets have established a nuclear detection network. In recent years it appears that the Soviets have begun a large effort in seismic engineering and earthquake forecasting. Gravinietric research in the U.S.S.R. has lagged leading Western work for many years, apparently because of the rather poor instrumentation. Possibly for this reason, the 35 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090037 -6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090037 -6 Soviets have riot stressed the use of gravity methods for mineral prospecting. In recent years, however, the Soviets have developed some respectable instruments which are being placed into service. Soviet gravity measurements at sea have suffered also from inadequate instrurnentation as well as from poorly stabilized platforms on which to mount the instruments. (4) Geodesy �The U.S.S.R. has an extensive and continually expanding research program in geodesy. Coordination of national research in the field is carried out under the auspices of the Multilateral Cooperation of the Academies of Sciences of Socialist Countries, the International Observations Program; the Council on International Cooperation in the Studv and Utilization of Outer Spacc of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. All civilian geodetic activities are conducted under the supervision of the Main Administration for geodesy and Cartography (GUGK), which controls the Central Research Institute of Geodesy, Aerial Surveying, and Cartography in Moscow; the recently established Research Institute of Applied Geodesy, Novosibirsk; the Novosibirsk Institute of Engineers of Geodesy, Acrial Surveying, and Cartography; and the local acrogeodetic enterprises. All local agencies and organizations undertaking projects which involve geodetic data or surveys must obtain supervisory professional guidance and approval from the corresponding authority. GUGK schedules all geodetic control and mapping projects, with the exception of migrational boundary areas, certain strategic areas within the country, and foreign mapping. These exceptions are the responsibility of the Military Topographic Administration of the Ministry of Defense, whose activities are highly classified. Active research programs include geodetic surveying, triangulation, leveling, astronomic determinations, gravirnctric and magnetic observations, spatial triangulation, and the construction of necessary technical equipment. Goals of the geodetic effort are to extend the astrogeodetic and uni0T.d coordinate system through the country, to resolve differences between tire: Soviet data and recently adjusted Western European data, to establish firm connections with the North American data, and ultimately to establish a world geodetic system. The Soviets classify all gravity data for the U.S.S.R. and European Communist countries. As a result of published U.S. data, the Soviets enjoy an advantage in the reduction of geodetic error contribution to the rniss- distance of future ICBM systems and probabiy will reduce these errors further 36 with less difficulty than will the United States. The Soviets have recently begun a geodetic survey by means of satellite tracking to tic precisely in a line. from Spitsbergen in the Arctic to Mirnyy in the Antarctic. Soviet efforts in satellite geodesy have expanded c'msiderably in the last few years. New overt optical trade ;ng stations have begun or >on will begin openuion in South America and Africa; the Soviets are approaching a worldwide optical tracking capability. At least one new covert station also has been discovered. All of their tracking stations arc registered with the international system Committee on Space Research. In the fall of 1971 it was discovered that as part of their geodetic program the Soviets have been using flashing lights aboard some satellite vehicles which had been considered part of the Soviet navigational satellite program. Based on the location of these satellites during the times of flashing, it appears likely that several more covert stations exist than arc'. r own. The flashing lights on these satellites allow the Soviets it greater time period for tracking, since they are not dependent on reflected sunlight. The Soviets plan to improve their geodetic net accuracy furthcr with the introduction of laser tracking, which was scheduled to begin in 1972. A prototype laser ranger built in Czechoslovakia has been used (in Czechoslovakia) with U.S. satellites equipped with laser retroreflectors. A similar instrument has now been set zip in Riga, and the implementation of laser satellite ranging into their worldwide geodetic program may begin within the next year or so. (5) Oceanography �The U.S.S.R. ranks second in world oceanographic research, closely following the United States but well ahead of Japan and the United Kingdom. The Soviets are expending tremendous efforts, using large numbers of scientists, technicians, research ships, instruments, and oceanographic facilities to achieve their committed naval and economic objectives. Their outstanding effort in applied oceanographic research has increased significantly. Much of the Soviet oceanographic research effort is in support of the marine fisheries industry; however, a considerable part of the research is applicable to the Soviet undersea detection program. Particular emphasis is placed on the study of marine fauna and flora and their ecology. The Soviets have been concentrating on food protein technology, and its ultimate goal is to he the world leader in oceanic fisheries. Soviet research and development of fish protein concentrate still trails leading Western APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090037 -6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090037 -6 countries. The U.S.S.R. is giving attention to the exploitation of Antarctic fishing areas for krill, which they consider it fish product of great potential. In addition to the coi derable effort in marine fisheries research, significant emphasis is placed on internal waves, htrbulence, and hydrooptics. The Soviets have it g( capability in the theory and ohservation of oceanic turhulence. Their internal wave and turbulence instruments are adequate for a broad range of these studies and are operated from both buoys and ships. An increased number of these studies arc directed toward support of naval operations, especially mine. bmarine, and antisubmarine warfare. The development of underwater optical instruments is wc'1 advanced. Dolphin research, which continues to receive excellent financial support, focuses on methods of underwater navigation, hydrodynamics, and target discrimination. Naval applications for the studies of echo .ovation capabilities of dolphins are likely to be the development of complex sonar equipment. The fioviets are making detailed synoptic surveys of various large oceanic regions. To accomplish these surveys, they have been adding about nine modern research ships a year to their fleet. Finland has just completed seven oceanographic research ships of the 1,500 tons DmiMy Ovtsyn class for the Soviets. The acquisition of these ships may indicate it trend towa -I smaller Soviet research ships. However. three modified Akadernic Kurchatov class, 5,460 -ton ship,, have been ordered from East Germany, and at least two have been completed. The Soviet oceanographic research fleet now consists of approximately 200 ships (naval and civilian) of more than 100 displacement tons, and this does riot include an estimated 125 vessels assigned to fisheries research. The use of underwater habitats capable of 100 -foot depths for subsurface observations is it relatively new research technique for oceanographers. Habitats capable of 300 -foot depths are presently being developed. Several deep submergence vehicles have been designed, but the Soviets have reported production of only one 2,000 -meter vehicle and have a second vehicle capable of operating to 600 meters. Meanwhile, the Institute of Oceanology has bear unsuccessful in its attempts to purchase vehicles capable of 2,000- and 6,000- foot -depth capability front the United States, Canada, and France, it]- though the Canadian purchase is being renegotiated. For several years the Soviets have been rising automatic buoy arrays in the Atlantic Oce,sn; the arrays are designed to provide synoptic temperature and salinity data and information on air -sea interaction. They have also established i hydroacous- tic buoy system in the Barents and Nor,vegian Seas its well as in other areas. They plan to use buoys in the Indian Ocean to collect and transmit data to their meteorological satellites. The. Soviet polar oceanographic program does significant research in ice and ice forecasting, and active oceanographic, meteorological, and geophysi- cal programs are conducted from several drifting ice stations in the Arctic Ocean. The Soviets have just established a new drifting ice station, SP -21. The U.S.S.R. deploys approximately 15 to 20 drifting automatic radiometeorological stations in the Arctic each spring and the same number in the autumn under the direction of GUGMS; however, nearly all are demolished during the severe Arctic winters. The active Soviet Antarctic program coptinues to include studies in oceanography, seismology, geophysics, meteorology, and glaciology. The 17th Soviet Antarctic Expedition (1971 -72), their largest survey of this type, utilized research ships from the Arctic and Antarctic Scientific Research Institute, GUGMS, and the Institute of Oceanology. They operate six permanent stations in the Antarctic region and have recently established a seventh station. Several institutes conduct geological studies in the Bering and Chukchi Seas. Offshore oil exploration in the Black Sea promises to open an extensive new field. The U.S.S.R. has a very active research program in earthquake prediction and is developing forecast techniques. Extensive seismic work has been accomplished in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. The All -Union Scientific Research Institute of Marine Geology and Geophysics, which was established in 1967, is responsible for ocean bottom mineral exploration. The Soviets are hampered by problems of maintenance and development of instrumentation for their oceanographic program. To overcome these constant problems it rather large group of engineers has been formed at the Institute of Oceanology in Moscow. The group has developed sonic rather specialized and sophisticated instruments, but the majority of the Soviet manufactured irastninients are simple and rugged. Elowever, it number of research ships are equipped y.ith sophisticated electronic sampling and measuring devices. 'I'll(- recently established AII- Union. Coordinating Committee for Oceanology in Moscow coordinates all oceanographic research conduced by the various Soviet and republic academic; of sciences, the Ilydronteteorological Service, and the Soviet Na% Directly subordinate to the Council of Ministers, the 37 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090037 -6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090037 -6 coordinating committee replaces both the Inter- departmental Committee for Oceanography of the State Committee for Science and Technology and the National Oceanographic Committee of the Earth Sciences Section of the Academy of Sciences. The most important organizations responsible for oceanographic research are the Institute of Oceanology and the Acoustics Institute. Academy of Sciences, both in Moscow, and the Marine Hydrophysies Institute. Sevastopol, of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences; the Flydrographic Service of the Navy, Leningrad; the Ilydrometeorological Services; All -Union Scientific Research Institute for Marine Fisheries and Oceanography, Moscow, under the Ministry of Fish Industry. Probably the most significant recent development in the Soviet oceanographic program has been it greatly increased interest in conducting cooperative surveys, international projects, Ind foreign exchange of data. The U.S.S.R. has long been an active member of all the prominent international oceanographic organiza- tions. Iceland and the Soviet Union agreed to it cooperative oceanographic program, with emphasis on geological and geophysical research, to he conducted during the summers of 1971, 1972, and 1973. Chile and the Soviets concluded it fisheries research agreement involving exploration of the Chilean Continental Shelf and spawning grounds. Although not a member of the International Hydrographic Organization, the U.S.S.R. is cooperating with member countries of that organization in the compilation of it General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans. Japan and the Soviets are conducting a joint seismic exploration of the offshore waters of Sakhalin Island. The United States and the U.S.S.R. recently signed an agreement for cooperation in oceanographic research and scientific exchanges. The Soviets have been giving Cuba oceanographic support and cooperation for over a decade in general oceanographic observations, seismic explorations, and fisheries investigations. The Soviet Union and Cuba are participating in the Cooperative Investigation of the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, UNESCO. The U.S.S.R. is interested in developing an international ocean buoy data acquisition systern in cooperation with other countries, particularly the United Slates. In October 1972 the Soviets agreed to participate with the United States in the Deep Sea Drilling Project. (6) Hydrology, hydraulics, and coastal em incer- ing�"'lie U.S.S.R. ranla second to the United States in hydroiogical and hydraulic research; investigations are directed toward practical ap- plication aspects. Hydrological research is focused on problems of river regimes, seasonal variation of river discharge and runoff, regional water deficiencies, extension of test -well networks for ground -water studies, ice phenomena on large rivers and reservoirs, evaporation, hydrothermal characteristics of perma- frost and frozen soils, protection measures against flash floods and mud and debris flow, and reclamation of swamp lands. Hydraulic research is directed toward three dimensional electrical modeling of seepage flow, superturbulent flow and rolling wave movement, routing of floods, and initiation of new techniques for hydraulic construction by using conventional and nuclear explosives. Research is directed also toward hydraulic construction in regions of subzero temperatures, unsteady regime in downstream pool, hydraulic resistance affecting head losses, developing pumped storage techniques, and aerated flow in open spillways and pressure pipes. Computers are used in studying discharge rating curves, plotting critical flood waves, programing reservoir volume, and estimating seasonal variation and control of reservoir balances. Several high quality instruments, such as remote control recorders, neutronic moisture tracers, gamma ray donsimeters, and underwater TV cameras, have been developed. Practical application of research is directed to problems in five broad areas electric power, inland waterways, irrigation, diversion of north flowing rivers into arid regions of central Asia, and water pollution. Continuing construction of clams and locks on major river systems enhances Soviet capabilities in hydroelectric power, navigational inland waterways, and irrigational systens. North- flowing rivers are diverted to irrigate and sustain regional water levels in portions of the Oh River basin, and the Pechora -Kama Canal is planned to be constructed to divert one -third of the Pechora River flow southward through the Kama and Volga rivers into the drying Caspian Sea. Soviet hydrologists and hydraulic engineers, some world renowned, are very active in national and international professional organizations. Several have been chosen as members of various working groups for the International Hydrological Decade (196 .3-74) of the International Association of Scientific Hydrology, which is under the auspices of UNESCO. The U.S.S.R. ranks second to the United States as it world leader in coastal engineering research. New study techniques and equipment that facilitate exploration of shallow water mineral deposits have been developed. Also, new research techniques and equipment have been developed to assist in the study APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090037 -6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090037 -6 of littoral drift and sedimentation effects. These studies help to determine the type and placement of protective structures needed to prevent erosion of coast and beach areas and silting of ports and harbors, especially in the Black and Baltic Seas. In rw:rinc dynamics and protective works, emphasis has been placed on the origin and occurrence of storms and their effects on coastal and protective structures. Special emphasis has been given to the development and use of continuous- printing current meters to record storm currents and the dynamics of waters in the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea. A proposed dam and breakwater would enclose the Gulf of Finland and protect the city of Leningrad from these storm currents. Glossary (u/ou) SECRET Coastal research and engineering programs in the fields of marine dynamics, shore processes, protective works, and instrumentation are carried out by approximately 40 organizations and establishments. The leading researcher, V. P. Zenkovich, heads the Laboratory of Dynamics and Morphology of Shores, an element of the Institute of Oceanology in Moscow under the Academy of Sciences. The Soviet Union is playing greater emphasis on the study of seas and coasts and plans to increase its research and engineering efforts. Recent studies, especially of shallow coastal waters, have achieved international recognition. Scienti:-ts participate fully at interna- tional meetings and conferences on coastal research and exert great influence on research conducted by the Eastern European countries. A nno.v. -np( RVBBIAN ENGLISH GKNT........ Cosudarslvenyy Komitet po Naukc i State Committer. for Science and Tekhnike Technology Gosplan....... Cosudarslvenyy Planovyy Komitet..... State Planning Committee GUGK........ Glavnoye Upravleniye Geodezii i Karto- Main Administration for Geodesy and graJii Cartography GUGMS...... Glavnoye Upravleniye Gidrometeorologi- Main Administration for Hydromete- cheskoy Sluzhby orological Services IEOS......... Institut Elementoorganicheskikh Institute of Elemento- Organic Com- Soyedineniy pounds IES........... Inslilul Elektrost,.,rki imeni Ye. 0. Institute of Electric Welding imeni Ye. Paton 0. Paton IZMIRAN.... Institut Zemnogo Magnetizma, Ionosfery Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, i Rasproslraneniya Radiovoli Ionosphere, and Radio Wave Prop- agation VINITI....... Vsesoyuznyy Institut Nauchnoy i Tekh- All -Union Institute of Scientific and nicheskoy Injormatsii Technical Information VUZy......... Vysshiye Uchebnyye Zavedeniya....... Higher educational institutions SECRET' NO FOREIGN DISSEM 39 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090037 -6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090037 -6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090037 -6