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CONFIDENTIAL SOB /GS /S Nigeria February 1973 NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY CONFIDENTIAL NO FOREIGN DISSEM APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100006 -9 NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY PUBLICATIONS fhe basic unit of the NIS is the General Survey, which is now published in a bound -by- chapter format so that topics of greater per- ishability can be updated on an individual basis. These chapters Country Profile, The Soc ety, Government and Politics, The Economy, Military Geog- raphy, Transportation and Telecommunications, Armed Forces, Science, and Intelligence and Security, provide the primary NIS coverage. Some chapters, particularly Science and Intelligence and Security, that are not pertl*nent to .311 countries, are produced selectively. For small countries requiring only minimal NIS treatment, the General Survey coverage may be bound into one volume. Supplementing the General Survey is the NIS Basic Intelligence Foci- book, a ready reference publication that semiannually updates key sta- iistical data found in the Survey. An unclassified edition of the factbook omits Some details on the economy, the defense forces, and the intelligence and security organizations. Although c'etailed sections on many topics were part of the NIS Program, production of these sections has been phased out. Those pre- viously produced will continue to be available as long as the major portion of the study is considered valid. A giarterly listing of all active NIS units is published in the Inventory of Availabie NIS Publications, which is also bound into the concurrent Factbook. The Inventory list: all NIS units by area name and number and includes classification and date of issue; it thus facilitates the ordering of NIS units as well as their filing, cataloging, and utilization. Iritial dissemination, additional copies of NIS units, or separate chapters of the General Surveys can be obtained directly or through liaison channels from the Central Intelligence Agency. The General Survey is prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence A ;cncy and the Defense Intelligence Agency under the general direction of -rile NIS Committee. It is coordinated, edited, published, and dissemi- nated by ti a Central Intelligence Agency. This document contains information affecting the national defense of the United States, within tF meaning of title 18, sections 793 and 794 of the US code, as amended. Its transmission or revelation of its contents to or receipt by an unauthorized person is prohibited by law. CLASSIFIED BY 38 -0001. EXEMPT FROM GENERAL DECLASSIFI- CATION SCHEDULE OF E. O. 11652 EXEMPTION CATEGORIES 5B (1), (2), (3). DECLASSIFIED ONLY ON APPROVAL OF THE DIRECTOR OF CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE. i a a APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100006 -9 WARNING The NIS is National Intelligence and may not be re- leased or shown to representatives of any foreign govern- ment or international body except by specific authorization of the Director of Central intelligence in accordance with the provisions of National Security Council Intelligence Di- rective No. 1. For NIS containing unclassified material, however, the portions so marked may be made available for official pur- poses to foreign nationals and nongovernment personnel provided no attribution is made to Ngtional 1 6P. 4 191ligence or the National Intelligence Survey. Subsections and graphics are individually classified according to content. Classificat :on /control designa- tions are: (U /OU) Unclassified /For Official Use Only (C) Confidential (S) Secret APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100006 -9 This chapter was prepared for the NIS unu'er the general supervision of the Central Intelligence Agency by the Bureau of Economic Analysis, Social 4, and Economic Statistics Administration, Depart- ment of Commerce. Research was substantially completed by November 1972. i 4-� APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100006 -9 NIGERIA CONTENTS This General Survey supersedes the one dated De- cember 1969, copies of which should be destroyed. A. Introduction 1 Extent of cultural and social differences; historical background; national objectives and potential. B. Structure and characteristics of society 3 Multifaceted social structure. 1. Ethnic groups 3 Size and location of major tribal groups; social composition; linguistic complexity; classifica- tion of languages; bilingualism and use of English. CONFIDENTIAL No FOREIGN DISSEM APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100006 -9 Page 2. Social structure 9 Effect of Islam and British control; developments after independence; West- ernization of tribal groups uneven; growth of modern sector of society; traditional organization and practice. 3. Values and attitudes 12 Overlay of Muslim and Western influences; urban -rural differences; geographic and religious differences; ;nterethnic rivalries; attitudes toward other countries. C. Population Size, composition, and growth; attitudes and government policy. 1. Size and distribution 15 a Size 15 Census data accuracy. b. Density and distribution 15 North -south distribution and by state; urban growth. 2. Age -sex structure 17 Population age; urban -rural differences. D. Manpower and labor 19 I Labor force Size and composition; participation rates; tribal differences; distribution by occupation; qualificatijns. 2. Work opportunities 23 Hiring practices; mobility; unemployment and underemployment; government programs. 3. Conditions of work 23 Work regulations and practices; wage rates and variations; inflation; fringe benefits; legislation; productivity. 4. Tabor and management organizations 25 Labor unions, size and effectiveness; government restrictions; labor federations; leadership conflicts, financial problems, and external affiliations; kind and effectiveness of management associations. E. Health 28 Health levels low; state and local governments largely responsible for health matters. 1. Environmental sanitation 28 Levels low and compounded by ignorance and indifference; water supply and extent of contamination; no modern sewerage systems; disposal of garbage; federal laws and enforcement; food handling. 2. Diet and nutrition 29 Food production increases less than population growth; diet unbalanced; geo- graphical differences; special problems of children. 3. Common diseases 30 Vector favorable environment; statistics on incidence of disease; disease control programs and problems. 4. Medical personnel and facilities 31 Critical personnel shortages; distribution; foreign assistance; medical schools; statistics on facilities. F. Welfare and social problems 32 1. Welfare problems 32 Employment, health, food, and housing all pressing problems; urban housing cost high; cost of living increasing; welfare traditional responsibility of family; gov- ernmental and private welfare institutions; social legislation; Nigerian Red Cross. H APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100006 -9 2. Social problems Page 35 Crime statistics; alcoholism and drugs; government and private efforts to combat crime. G. Religion 36 Secular state; strengths and regional variations of religious beliefs; history and relations with government and each other. 1 Islam 38 Areas of strength; basic tenets and pract;ces; Sunni, Ahmadiyyah, and Hamaliy- yah sects; Sufism; education. 2. Christianity 40 Areas of strength; Roman Catholicism; Protestant churches; syncretic sects. 3. Animism 41 Areas of strength; vestiges in other beliefs; characteristics of belief; social force in traditional society. H. Education Basic problems; geographic differences; general policy. I. Covernment and education 43 Federal and state responsibilities; voluntary agency schools; financing; supervision. 2. Educational attainment and opportunity 44 Literacy; primary school enrollment and objectives; geographic differences; access to schooling; morale. 3. Educational system 45 System not uniform. a. Primary education 46 Dropout rate; curriculum; problems. b. Secondary education 46 Kinds of training; curriculuns. c. Higher education 47 Numbers and location of educational plants; training available; fields of major interest; north -south differences; foreign study. 1. Artistic and cultural expression 49 Highly developed cultural expression; historical development and mediums; modern artists and forms of expression; traditional crafts; social role of music and folk literature; development of contemporary literature and drama; cultural societies and museums. J. Public information 57 Media most highly developed in wesi .`.Erica; government conk .)l of media; journal- istic standards and coverage; foreign publications and news services; publishing industry; availability of libraries; radio, television, and films� availability and popr,farity; government plans for expansion of services. K. Selected bibliography 61 FIGURES Page Fig. 1 Geographic distribution of principal tribal groups ("Wp) 4 Fig. 2. Representative Nigerians photos) 5 Fig. 3 Hausa trader (photo) 6 Fig. 4 Northern Nigerian market photo) 11 iii APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP0l- 00707R000200100006 -9 Page Fig. 5 Yako initiate (photo) 12 Fig. 6 Population, area, and population density, by state table) 16 Fig. 7 Population density map) 17 Fig. 8 Population of major cities table) 18 Fig. 9 Estimated population, by age group and sex table) 18 Fig. 10 Estimated age -sex structure, Nigeria and the United States chart) 19 Fig. 11 Estimated labor force, by age group and sex table) 20 Fig. 12 Estimated labor force participation rates (table) I...... 20 Fig. 13 Traditional economic activity (photos) 21 Fig. 14 Labor force, by occupational category and sex table) 22 Fig. 15 Employment in the modern sector of the economy chart) 22 Fig. 16 Professional manpower, by place of birth chart) 22 Fig. 17 Strikes and lockouts (chart) 25 Fig. 18 Size and national affiliation of trade unions chart) 27 Fig. 19 Vendor selling ingredients for home remedies photo) 28 Fig. 20 Public water hydrant photo) 29 Fig. 21 Food handling photo) 30 Fig. 22 Representative Fulani dwellings photos) 33 Fig. 23 Consumer price index table) 34 Fig. 24 Ibo masquerader (photo) 37 Fig. 25 Kano mosque photo) 39 Fig. 26 Typical Koranic school in northern Nigeria 40 Fig. 27 Animist invocation photo) 43 Fig. 28 University enrollment table) 48 Fig. 29 Benin pectoral mask (photo) 49 Fig. 30 Nok terra cotta head photo) 50 Fig. 31 Ife bronze head (photo) 50 Fig. 32 Benin ornamental mask photo) 51 Fig. 33 Benin bronze plaque (photo) 51 Fig. 34 Yoruba mask (photo) 52 Fig. 35 Example of present -day mural art photo) 53 Fig. 36 Muslim chieftain in ceremonial robes photo) 54 Fig. 37 Musical instruments (photos) 55 Fig. 38 Native dancers (photos) 56 Fig. 39 Nupe bronze sculpture photo) 57 Fig. 4 Daily newspapers table) 58 iv APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100006 -9 The Society A. Introduction (U /OU) Created for reasons of political and ewn, is expediency, Nigeria encompasses a bewildering array of languages, cultural traditions, and social mores. It is a land of extremes, its topography ranging from coastal mangrove swamps in the south to semidesert in the far north, its social groups from nomadic tribes to fully Weste: nized elements in urban centers, and its economy m subsistence farming to modern industry. Little is known about the origins of Nigeria's present -day population, which is larger than that of anv other country in Africa. Available information indicates that there were early migratory movements into the area from northern and eastern parts of the continent. While most of the inhabitants of Nigeria are of Negro stock, there has been some admixture of Hamitic and Semitic strains among northern groups. The Fulani began drifting gradually into the Hausa homeland in the 13th century, bringing with them Islam, the first major foreign influence that was to help shape the society of Nigeria. A pastoral people, the Fulani came in search of grazing lands, and as the migration continued over the centuries they became largely integrated with the Hausa and eventuallv assumed positions of leadership among them. One Fulani leader, Usuman dan Fodio, a fanatical sheikh, rose against the Hausa and compelled them to join with the Fulani in a Muslim holy war early in the 19th century, resulting in the conquest and conversion to Islam of many minor tribes in the north. Subse- quently, Muslim influence was extended farther south. Islam had a profound effect on Nigeria, molding not only the religious life of numerous tribal groups but their social and political structures as well. In the 15th century, the Portuguese, seeking trade routes to the east, became the first Europeans to enter what is now Nigeria. Domestic slavery was prevalent throughout the region, and slave trading soon followed, becoming a lucrative enterprise for the Portuguese and later for other Europeans, including the British. The trade was conducted with tribes inhabiting the coastal areas, but most of the slaves were from the interior. Many were prisoners of war or criminal'- others were obtained through organized raids. The slave trade triggered ruinous intertribal warfare which lasted for more Char. 300 ;rears. Growing sentiment in England against the trade led to the passage of an act in 1807 making it illegal for British subjects to engage in it, but the traffic in slaves was continued by other nations for several decaees. Meanwhile, Christian missionaries arrived, working mainly in the coastal areas, where they established schools and introduced Western -style education. Eventually they spread Christian teachings and Western values northward as avenues of travel were opened their effect in the interior diminishing as they encountered entrenched Islam. The British had occupied Lagos Island in 1861 in order to stop the slave traffic and to promote legitimate trade, and the island, along with a small strip of the mainland, became a British colony the following year, marking, the beginning of a presence in Nigeria which was to last until 1960. During the 1880's, the British extended their influence to the east and north in an effort to stem German and French encroachment, and by the turn of the cer �!ry their occupation of the area was virtually compi :e. In 1906 the region was divided into Northern Nigeria and Southern Nigeria, and in 1914 the two were united in one political entity, an unlikely amalgam of diverse peoples, nearly all of whom regarded their own tribe as the primary focus of allegiance. The British practiced a form of indirect rule, confirming Muslim emirs in power in the north, provided they recognized overall British sovereignty, and ruling through chieftains or other local leaders wherever possible in the south. During the colonial period, the static north became increasingly differentiated from the south, where such improvements as road and railroad building and harbor dredging fostered a spreading money economy and comparative economic well- being. Also, unlike the north, the south had the benefit of educational and medical services offered by Christian missions. When nationalism began to surface as a viable force in the period between the two world wars, its development was impeded by this regional di- chotomy, as well as by persistent tribal animosities and 1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100006 -9 religious difference:,. Nevertheless, an emerging indigenous leadership composed primarily of Western educated Ihu aril Yoruba elements pressed its demands, first for greater partic�ip =lion in seif- govcrnment end later for complete independence. When independence was granted in October 1960, the new republic came into being under a pr-carious triregional alignment inherited from the British: a vast Northern Region controlled by Muslin, Hausa Fulani groups, politically and socially conservative and inhospitable to secular education and other Western ideas; an Eastern Region dominated by th( largely Christian lbo, aggressive, substantially Westernized, and traditionally democratic; and a Western Region dominated by the Yoruba, almost equally divided into Muslim and Christian groups and tending to he more conservative than the Ibo but more liberal than the Hausa and the Fulani. Agitation b\- non- Yorubit tribes in the )'Western Region resulted in the formation of a separate Mid Western Region in 1963, Nnd in 1967 the entire Nigerian territory was reapportioned into 12 new states in an effort to meet the demands of many Eastern and Northern ethnic groups for separate areas and greater autonomy. The postindependence decade of the 1960's was marked by turmoil and strife as one crisis succeeded another. In the period leading to the outbreak of civil war in 1967, undiminished interethnic� and interregional antagonisms were augmented by the fact that the Hausa Fulani had been able to maintain control of the federal government, it circumstance which nourished additional resentment among the Ibo and the Yoruba and among many minor groups as well. The Hausa-Fulani, for their part, had come to fear that Western- educated Ibo were attempting to dominate the country by mon�spolizing the better Positions in the civil service and in private industry. A general climate of hostility was exacerbated by corruption and inefficiency in government administra- tion at all levels. The year 1966 was marked by massacres of Ibo tribespeople residing in the North and by two military c(,ups within it 6 -month period.. After the second coup, Yakubu Gowon, a Christian army officer and a member of a minority tribe from the Middle Belt, was chosen to lead the Federal Military Government (F1\1G). Despite his various efforts to preserve national unity including the previous)- mentioned reorganization of the regions into 12 states in the hope of balancing areas and groups �the Ibo dominated Eastern Region seceded from the federal union on 30 May 1967 to become the Republic of Biafra, thus bringing on a civil war which ran its destructive course for 2 1 /2 years. Essentially a 2 struggle betti%e�en Ibo secessionists and other Nigerians who were determined to maintain the federation, the conflict ended on 15 January 1970 when Biafran forces surrendered to federal troops. r'neonfirmed reports of casualties suffered by both sides, including Biafran c�iviha:rs who died of starvation or of diseases resulting from malnutrition, range from 200,(1(X) to 2 trillion. M:'hile the Nigerian Covenrnent is still wigaged in the work of reconstruction and rehabilitation necessitated bN ravages of the war, it is also committed to seeking solutions to the manifold problems that have plagued the country since independence. :'he primary goal of the FMG, as enunciated h� General G(wIrrt, is to weld Nigeria into it truly unified nation, an objective which he believes can be acained only through programs designed to reduce economic all('] social disparities between the various population groups and thereby minimize the rivalries and tensions which such disparities produce. The Second National Development Plan (1970 -74) stresses the advancement of the less developed states as an approach to solving this b:-,,ic problem. A major focus of the government's efforts will be the expansion of educational opportunity and a restructuring of the school system to meet national development needs. Nigeria has it promising economic potential, being richly endowed with natural resources, including an abundance of cultivable land. Because of a wide range of climatic c�ovdi: ions, almost every product of tropical agriculture can be produced. brit less tiurn 5051 of the arable acreage (including fallo\% land) is under cultivation, And most of that is devoted to subsistence farming. The country's rninerul wealth is also substantial, including petroleum, tin, iron ore, coal, limestone, lead, all(] zinc Most important has been the recent rapid growth of the oil industry, which is the roost significant single dk namic� force in the ec�ononry. 'Meanwhile, although living conditions vary throughout the country, depending on regional and other factors, the mass of the Nigerian people are still subject to extreme poverty and its attendant ills, a situation which is aggravated by it rapid rate of population growth. The FMG, administered by it Supreme Military Council and an Executive Council headed by General (:ow