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CONFIDENTIAL 50B /GS /TT N 1li $ea February 1973 NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY CONFIDENTIAL NO FOREIGN DISSEM APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100007 -8 Am NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY PUBLICATIONS The basic unit of the NIS is the General Survey, which is now published in a bound -by- chapter format so that topics of greater per- ishability can be updated on an individual basis. These chapters� Country Profile, The Society, Government and Politics, The Economy, Military Geog- raphy, Transportation and Telecommunications, Armed Forces, Science, and Intelligence and Security, provide the primary NIS coverage. Some chapters, particularly Science and Intelligence and Security, that are not pertinent to all countries, are produced selectively. For small countries requiring only minima! NIS treatment, the General Survey coverage may be bound into one volume. Supplementing the General Survey is the NIS Basic Intelligence Fact book, a ready reference publication that semiannually updates key sta- tistical data found in the Survey. An unclassified edition of the factbook omits some details on the economy, the defense forces, and the intr:i!igence and security organizations. Although detailed sections on many topics were part of the NIS Program, production of these sections has been phased out. Those pre- viously produced will continue to be available as long as the major portion of the study is considered valid. A quarterly listing of all active NIS units is published in the Inventory of Available N!S Publications, which is also bound into the concurrent Factbook. The Inventory lists all NIS units by area name and number and includes classification -ind date of issue; it thus facilitates the ordering of NIS units as well as their tiling, cataloging, and utilizaiion. Initial dissemination, additional copies of NIS units, or separate chapters of the General Surveys can be obtained directly or through liaison channels from the Central Intelligence Agency. The General Survey is prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency and the Defense Intelligence Agency under the general direction of the NIS Committee. It is coordinated, edited, published, and dissemi- nated by the Central Intelligence Agency. WI RNING This document contains information affecting the national defense of the United States, within the meaning of title 18, sections 793 and "4 of the US code, as amended. Its transmission or revelation of its contents to or receipt by an unauthorized person is prohibited by law. CLASSIFIED BY 58 -0001. EXEMPT FROM GENERAL DECLASSIFI- CATION SCHEDULE OF E. O. 11632 EXEMPTION CATEGORIES SB (1), (2), (3). DECLASSIFIED ONLY ON APPROVAL OF THE DIRECTOR OF CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100007 -8 WARNING The NIS is National Intelligence and may not be re- leased or shown to representatives of any foreign govern- ment or international body except by specific authorization of the Director of Central Intelligence in accordance with the provisions of National Security Council Intelligence Di- rective No. 1. For NIS containing unclassified material, however, the portions so marked may be made available for official pur- poses to foreign nationals and nongovernment personnel provided no attribution is made to National Intelligence or the National Intelligence Survey. Subsections and graphics are individually classified according to content. Classification /control designa- tions are: (U /OU) Unclassified /For Official Use Only (C) Confidential (S) Secret APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100007 -8 This chapter was prepared by the Defense Intelli- gence Agency and includes contributions on the merchant marine from the Department of the Navy and on airfields from the Department of the Air Force. Research was substantially completed by November 1972. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100007 -8 NIGERIA CONTENTS This General Survey supersedes the one dated De- cember 1969, copies of which should be destroyed. A. Summary 1 I. Systems 1 A?equacy of transportation and telecommuni- cations systems; development projects and ad- ministrative agencies. 2. Strategic mobility 1 Capability of systems for supporting military operations. B. Railroads 2 Nigerian Railroad Corporation; data on rail sys- tem; classification yards; bridges; conununica- tions; equipment inventory; fuel and water; maintenance and improvements; traffic statistics; tabulation of selected lines. CONFIDENTIAL NO FOREIGN DISSE\i APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100007 -8 Page C Highways 3 Mileage figures and principal characteristics of the road networks; bridges; con- struction and maintenance; development plans; traffic problems; vehicle inventory; data on selected highways. D. Inland waterways 6 Limited role of river transport; effect of civil war; future plans to improve Niger and Benue; freight hauled; terminal facilities; craft, data on selected waterways. E. Pipelines 9 Located mostly in eastern Niger Delta; mileages and characteristics of the system. F Ports 11 Two major ports, Lagos and Port Harcourt; 10 minor ports. G. Merchant marine 11 Specifications of the fleet; ownership; service; personnel training. H Civil air 14 Nigeria Airways, Ltd., provides domestic and international service; four charter airlines; aircraft inventory; administration; maintenance; personnel. I Airfields 15 Air facilities and maintenance; deiails on selected fields. J. Telecommunications 15 Administration; domestic radio -relay links; international service; special- purpose facilities; raaiobroadcast and TV facilities; equipment imported. 1. iGURES ii APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100007 -8 ?age Fig. 1 Railroad line characteristics table) 4 Fig. 2 Concrete deck bridge (photo) 5 Fig. 3 Combination highway /rail bridge (photo) 5 Fig. 4 Ferry crossing Niger River photo) 6 Fig. 5 Selected highways table) 7 Fig. 6 Physical characteristics of waterways table) Fig. 7 Selected pipeline systems table) 10 Fig. 8 Port facilities, Lagos photo) 12 Fig. 9 Major ports table) 13 Fig. 10 Selected airfields table) 16 Fig. it General telecommunications pattern map) 17 Fig. 12 Terrain and transportation map) Iollows 18 ii APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100007 -8 Transportation and Telecommunications A. Summary (C) 1. Systems Despite many improvements over the past 10 years, the transportation and telecommunications (telecom) facilities of Nigeria are hard put to satisfy normal demands. The civil war adversely affected the condition of most of the communications facilities, especially highways, and caused the postponement of several planned development projects. The chief transportation features are two rail lines and two highway systems which originate at the principal ports of Lagos and Port Harcourt and extend north (Figure 12). The highways converge in a regional network centering on Kano in the north central part of the countrv; the main rail routes and their branch lines connect the leading agricultural, mineial, and population centers of the interior with the two principal ports. The Niger, Benue, and Cross rivers and coastal waterways are also significant, especially as means for moving bulk cargos. M:::a of Nigeria's 620 miles of pipciines are located in the eastern part of the Niger Delta and include a 140 -:rile -long crude -oil line from the Ughelli and Kokori oilfields in the western delta to an ocean terminal at Bonnv. Merchant shipping provides the major transporta- tion link with fry -�ign n arkets and suppliers. The Nigerian merchant fleet h is only 13 ships of 1,000 gross register tons or over, nd seaborne cargoes are carried principally by foreign -flag ships. Air transport has become increasingly important; the government owned Nigeria Airways provides both domestic and international service. International airfields which handle large jet transports are located at Lagos and Kano. Nigeria's telecom system consists of a combination of several types of facilities widely distributed over the country. The principal center is Lagos, and secondary centers are Ibadan and Kaduna. Networks are densest in the south. A major effort to improve the transportation and telecom systems is taking place under the Second National Development Plan (1970 -74). Among the projects underway or about to begin are the construction of an expressway between Lagos and Ibadan and of highway bridges at Jebba and Makurdi; the drawing up of plans for the Trans African Highway extending from Nairobi, Kenya, to Lagos; complete dieselization of the railroads; significant improvements to inland waterway navigability, made possible by the completion of the Kainji Dam project; construction of an additional 140 miles of crude -oil pipelines; and continued modernization of telecommunications facilities. Administration of transportation is accomplished by several subordinate agencies of the Commissioner for Transport; the Commissioner for Communications is responsible for telecommunications. 2. Strategic Mobility (C) 'I ansportation and telecommunications in Nigeria are inadequate to support large -scale sustained military operations. Both communications systems were employed extensively for military movement and resupply during ;he civil strife, however, and would provide substantial support in future emergencies. Rail lines clear the major ports of Lagos and Port Harcourt and would be of considerable assistance again in these areas. However, vast areas of the country have no railroads. The highway system would also provide substantial logistic support especially in the southern part of the country. Fast -west roads provide border to border movement in the north, and highways link Nigeria with Dahomey, Niger, and Cameroon. However, operations would be limited by the large numbers of low- capacity narrow roads and bridges and small ferries. Prolonged or extensive use would require bridging equipment and major repair and maintenance work on the roads. Seasonal factors such as lengthy rainy periods adversely affect highway APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100007 -8 conditions particularly in the interior. During the do season dmt restricts vehicle speeds and damages equipment. The inland waterway stein would be useful in the movement of bulk cargos, but the Niger Delta cannot be entered by oceangoing ships. All maritime ports are adaptable to miliiary use. The merchant fleet constitutes a considerable military support potential. With an estimated cargo capacity of 122,340 deadweight tons, the 13 -unit fleet has a short -haul (48 hours steaming) troop -lift capability for nearseas operations. The self loading and unloading capability of the units is enhanced by the fact that five ships have booms of 40 tons or more lift capacity. Twelve ships, which are employed primarily in international trade, are government owned and operated and thus, if accessible at the time of emergency, would be assured for military support. The 77 usable airfields are evenly distributed throughout the country, near cities and villages along the rail lines and highways. Kano and Lagos airfields can handle large jet transports; 10 other fields also have paved runways and are capable of supporting smaller transports and liaison craft. Most of the 100 civil aircraft, including 13 major transports, would be readily available to the government in the event of hostilities, but the limited availability of indigenous flight personnel could restrict their use. Nigerian telecommunications services would provide telephone, telegraph, telex, and radio ;1nd TV support to military operations. The telecom however, lacks alternate facilities and, because of the great distances covered by unguarded wire lines, is highly vulnerable to sabotage. In many sections of the country unfavorable terrain including mangrove swamps, impenetrable rain forests, arid mountainous areas renders defense of telecom facilities and emergency construction and maintenance measures extremely difficult. B. Railroads (C) The Nigerian railroads are government owned and are operated by the semiautonomous statutory corporation, the Nigerian Railway Corporation (NRC), which reports to the Commissioner for Transport. The rail system consists o.2,178 route miles of 3'6" -gage single -track lines; there are no lectrified lines. The system !gas two main lines which connect the seaports of Lagos and Port Harcourt with the interior; branch lines serve major centers of population and production. There are no international connections. The topography of Nigeria is generally 2 favorable for rl; constnction o f r:ilroads, but an escarpment h hated in the :-cniral part of the country presents soarr:e construction and maintenance problems. Do :}a ;s the ;:ge and poor condition of ,one lint the system is able t(- satisfy economic demands. The railroads aro am::: the hest in western Africa in spit: of their corlipa.-azive old age. Track is being renewed and new locomotives and freight cars are being pu,chased. Expenditures are being tioanced by a Can$ million, 50 -year, interest -free loan from the Canadiar: Agency for International Development, a US$3A million loan from Japan, arid US$25 riillion loan from the World Bank. The principal officers of the NRC are a chairman, general manager, deputy general manager, and secretary. Until 1970 the corporation had been highly centralized, with railway officials throughout the country reporting directly to headquarters located at Ebute Metta, a suburb of Lagos. During 1970 the corporation chairman, with support from the general manager, was successful in decentralizing the corporation. The four newly formed districts and their headquarters are: Western, in Ibadan; Eastern, in Enugu; Northeastern, in Bauchi; and Northern, in Zaria. Two subdistricts are located at Kafanchan and Minna. The railroad, one of the largest employers in the country, has about 30,00 employe Most of the skilled personnel are Ibo. In order to augment its skilled staff NRC is recruiting at home and in the United Kingdom, West Germany, and India and is operating training schools at Zaria and Bauchi. Locomotive operator schools are located at Zaria, Kano, and Kafanchan, and a mechanical engineering school is in Zaria. All classification yards are of the flat type and are adequate for normal operation; 1 1hese arc located at Ihadan, Minna, Kaduna junction at Kaduna, Zaria, ED -,go, Lagos, and Port Harcourt. Rail bridges are in fair to good condition. There are approximately 715 bridges 12 feet and over in length; of these, 64 are over 100 feet long, the longest being the 2,520 -foot combination rail- highway structure crossing the Benue at Makurdi. Bridges are primarily of steel construction. The system has tunnels. The absolute manual block system of train control is used; train movements are protected by electric train staff, key token, and telephone train control systems. The electric train staff has been replaced by the key token system in many areas, and tvvo- aspect semaphore signals at more important stations are being replaced by color light signals. Flashing -light warning signals are being installed at major level APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100007 -8 crossings. Communications are by railroad owned telephone and telegraph. Equipment is in fair to good condition and is adequate for current needs. Automatic buffer couplers centered 34 inches above top of rail are used on iz'i equipment. Most rolling stock has four axles and is equipped with automatic vacuum brakes. The railroad equipment inventor\- in 1970 was as follows: TYPE UNITS Locomotives: Steam, mainline 164 Steam, switchers 48 Diesel, mainline 84 Diesel, switchers 17 Railcars, diesel trainsets 2 Passenger cars 535 Freight cars 6,666 Nigeria has no equipment manufacturing facilities; equipment and parts are imported from the United Kingdom, the United States, West Germany, Italy, Canada, and Japan. Major repair facilities are located at Ebute Metta in Lagos, Enugu, and Zaria. NRC repair shops produce: some spare parts and rebuild freight and passenger cars. Service cars equipped for welding rail are stationed at Ebute Metta, Offa, Minna, Zaria, Kano, Kafanchan, Bauchi, Makurdi, Enugu, and Port Harcourt. Coal and diesel fuel are the sole sources of energy for motive power available to the NRC. Coal has been imported since 1967 due to the closure of the Enugu mine. Refined petroleum products are imported; the only refinery, located at Port Harcourt, was severely damaged during the hostilities in 1967 but has since been repaired and is on- stream. Major bulk diesel -oil storage installations, with a capacity of 150,000 U.S. gallons, are located the Lagos area; other installations are at Offa, Minna, Kaduna Junction, Zaria, Kano, Kafanchan, and Bauchi. Water is of good quality and readily available except in the north during the dry season (November through April); water- storage facilities supplied by wells are being constructed to correct !his dry season deficiency. The NRC is engaged in a continuous effort to maintain its railroads by strengthening bridges, roadbeds and tracks. Construction and maintenance are hampered by washouts caused by seasonal rains. Current improvements to the network include replacing rail :ies and ballast, welding rail, and installing m -,dern signaling devices. Complete dieselization is in progress, with late 1973 as the projected completion date. Several loans are to be used primarily for the purchase of new locomotives and freight cars. Traffic in 1969 totaled approximately 2.7 million short tons of freight transported 1.7 billion ton -miles and 8.4 million passengers for 376.6 million passenger miles. Approximately 35`,'(' of the freight revenue was derived from exports principally peanuts, cocoa., hides, timber, and minerals �and about 21% from imports of machinery, vehicles, and petroleum products. The NRC has operated at a deficit since FY64 (1 April through 31 March). In FY67 an especially large deficit of $10.9 million resulted primarily from a decline in traffic caused by the cil it war. In FY69 the deficit was only $2.3 million. The loss of traffic due to highway competition and high interest charges paid on capital liabilities compounds the problem. The NRC uses T- section rail weighing 60 to 80 pounds per yard and ranging from 30 to 40 feet in length. Some portions of the main line have welded rail in lengths of up to 320 feet. A plant for flashbutt welding of rail is located at Zaria. s't'ood, steel and concrete ties are in use. Tie spacing ranges from 2,080 to 2,336 per mile on main lines and from 1,760 to 2,112 on secondary lines. The Pandrol Clip, a United Kingdom import, is being used as a standard fastener for steel, wood, and concrete tics. Ballast is of crushed granite and laterite. Rail and steel ties are imported from the United Kingdom; concrete and treated timber ties and ballast are available locally. Figure I lists characteristics of the rail lines of Nigeria. C. Highways (C) Roads are classified into three groups based on responsibility for their construction and maintenance: 1) federal roads (Trunk A) which connect federal and state capitals, link the ports to their hinterlands, and provide access to foreign countries; 2) state roads (Trunk B) which connect the most important trading centers and provincial capitals with the state capitals; and 3) local authority roads that supplement these trunk (or primary roads). The main high -ways of the system originate at the ports of Lagos and Port Harcourt and extend north, converging in a regional network that centers on Kano in the north central part of the country. The primary routes generally parallel railroad lines, and short feeder roads have been established to connect agricultural areas with the primary north -south routes and to provide access to railroad stations. The highway system is most dense in the southerr, part of the country, although there are relatively few cast -west through routes in this area. Some east- west routes in the north provide border to 3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100007 -8 F*URE 1. Selected railroad line characteristics (C) na Data rot, available. *Estimated. border movement. International road connections link Nigeria with Dahomey, Niger, and Cameroon. Also, Fort -Lamy, Chad, may be reached via highway across the northern tip of Cameroon. The road network totals approximately 55,400 miles, of which about 9,500 miles are bituminous surfaced; the remaining 45,900 miles consist of laterite, gravel, crushed stone, and �improved and unimproved earth. Bituminous- surfaced roads range from 10 to 24 feet wide. Gravel, crushed -stone and laterite surfaced roads are front 10 to 25 feet wide. Shoulders on surfaced roads are up to 10 feet wide. Improved and unimproved earth roads range in width from about 10 to 15 feet and generally do not have shoulders. Roads are in poor to good condition, depending generally on the type of surfacing, on the frequency of maintenance, and on deterioration occurring during the rainy season. The alignment of roads in mountainous areas, particularly at the eastern border and in the Jos highlands. is frequently winding, with sharp curves and steep grades. Information on the total number of bridges on the Nigerian highway network is not available. Of the approximately 3,000 bridges on the primary (or trunk) 4 road system, more than half are constructed of steel or concrete (Figure 2); the most common, types of construction are the through and half through truss, girder, or beam. However, there are still many timber structures on the primary and secondary networks. Most bridges have unlimited vertical clearances; the through truss bridges with horizontal cross members above the bridge deck (Figure 3) have vertical clearances of 14 feet or more. Horizontal clearance varies considerably; most timber bridges and permanent types constructed prior to 1960 are only 12 feet wide. Structures built after 1960 are up to 24 feet wide or generally equal to the road width. Load capacities vary widely depending on the age of the structure and the construction material but range from 8 to 25 tons on the Trunk A and Trunk B roads. Timber bridges on many local roads have low load capacities estimated at from 2 to 5 tons, depending on the original design and condition of the structure. Present construction designs specify that new bridges have a gross load capacity of approximately 3i tons. Most steel and concrete bridges are in good condition; war- damaged bridges or bridges neglected during the 30 -month civil war are being repaired as rapidly as APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100007 -8 PASSING TRACK. MAXIMI'M GRADE: MINIMUM RADII'S OF MAXIMUM Maximum Minimum TERMINALS AND ROUTE MILES going C oming CURVATURE AXLELOAD Interval Length Perrenl Fect Short ions Mdrs Feet Lagos -Minna 1.5 1.5 662 18.1 12.4 1,400 462 route miles Minna Kaduna Junction �l.11 +1.3 +765 13.8 11.8 1,400 99 route miles Kaduna Junction- Zaria +1.0 +1.0 +765 13.8 11.8 1,400 52 rout:t miles Zaria- Nguru +1.3 +1.3 +574 13.8 11.2 908 230 route miles Zaria -Kaura Nsmoda 1.0 +1.3 +717 13.8 15.5 908 137 route miles Minna- Baro 0.7 0.7 717 13.8 20 971 111 route miles Port Harcourt Kafanchan 1.0 1.14 574 13.8 14.2 1,300 458 route miles Kafanchan Kaduna Junction........... 1.3 1.3 574 13.8 14.9 1,300 111 route miles Kafanchan- Bauchi 2.0 I'.0 574 13.8 19.2 951 148 route miles Bauchi- Maiduguri 1.5 na 950 12.0 22.9 1,500 291 route miles Kuru- Jos +$.0 *2.0 +574 13.8 18 na 22 route miles Ifo- Idogo 1.3 1.5 574 13.8 na na 27 route miles na Data rot, available. *Estimated. border movement. International road connections link Nigeria with Dahomey, Niger, and Cameroon. Also, Fort -Lamy, Chad, may be reached via highway across the northern tip of Cameroon. The road network totals approximately 55,400 miles, of which about 9,500 miles are bituminous surfaced; the remaining 45,900 miles consist of laterite, gravel, crushed stone, and �improved and unimproved earth. Bituminous- surfaced roads range from 10 to 24 feet wide. Gravel, crushed -stone and laterite surfaced roads are front 10 to 25 feet wide. Shoulders on surfaced roads are up to 10 feet wide. Improved and unimproved earth roads range in width from about 10 to 15 feet and generally do not have shoulders. Roads are in poor to good condition, depending generally on the type of surfacing, on the frequency of maintenance, and on deterioration occurring during the rainy season. The alignment of roads in mountainous areas, particularly at the eastern border and in the Jos highlands. is frequently winding, with sharp curves and steep grades. Information on the total number of bridges on the Nigerian highway network is not available. Of the approximately 3,000 bridges on the primary (or trunk) 4 road system, more than half are constructed of steel or concrete (Figure 2); the most common, types of construction are the through and half through truss, girder, or beam. However, there are still many timber structures on the primary and secondary networks. Most bridges have unlimited vertical clearances; the through truss bridges with horizontal cross members above the bridge deck (Figure 3) have vertical clearances of 14 feet or more. Horizontal clearance varies considerably; most timber bridges and permanent types constructed prior to 1960 are only 12 feet wide. Structures built after 1960 are up to 24 feet wide or generally equal to the road width. Load capacities vary widely depending on the age of the structure and the construction material but range from 8 to 25 tons on the Trunk A and Trunk B roads. Timber bridges on many local roads have low load capacities estimated at from 2 to 5 tons, depending on the original design and condition of the structure. Present construction designs specify that new bridges have a gross load capacity of approximately 3i tons. Most steel and concrete bridges are in good condition; war- damaged bridges or bridges neglected during the 30 -month civil war are being repaired as rapidly as APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100007 -8 funds and manpower permit. Timber bridges are frequently in poor condition because of the destructive effects of seasonal floods which undermine or otherwise weaken the structure. Manv of the unbridged waterways are crossed by using modern diesel driven or primitive cable- operated ferries. There are also a great number of fords on the less significant roads. Highway construction and maintenance are shared by federal, state, and local administrations. Trunk A roads are administered by the Commission for Works and Housing; Trunk B roads are the responsibility of the respective st- to governments; and local roads are administered by local authorities. The trend in recent years has been to improve local roads and transfer them to state maintenance as Trunk B roads. In addition, there is a trend to upgrade certain of the "Trunk B roads and transfer them to federal maintenance as Trunk A roads. The increasing federal and state mileage has caused some political and fiscal problems stemming from the costs of maintaining these routes. The Federal Highway Authority, a statutory corporation, was established in 1972 with resp�;, Jbility for planning, construction, and maintenance of the network of federal (Trunk A) roads. Apart from the destruction and damage which the roads and bridges suffered as a result of the civil war, manv of them had reached an advanced stage of deterioration caused by a lack of maintenance during this period. In addition, major construction and maintenance problems are caused by a shortage of skilled personnel and equipment and by the effects of climate. I rains occur from March through November along the coast and from June through September in the interior of the country; during these periods construction and maintenance activities are curtailed or halted. The many miles of low -type roads deteriorate rapidly in wet weather and require considerable maintenance. Construction of roads is difficult in hilly and :mountainous areas, where extensive excavation and the construction of embankments and retaining walls are required. The manv rivers and streams require the construction of numerous culverts and bridges and, in some cases, the installation of ferry facilities. There is an abundant supply of laterite, gravel, and sand; several rock quarries provide suitable aggregate for road construction. There are several cement plants in the country, but production has not vet achieved prewar levels. Cement requirements are supplemented by imports, and all structural steel is imported. Bitumen obtained from the petroleum refiriory at Port Harcourt is supplemented with imports. The Federal Republic of Nigeri.i has instituted the Second National Development Plan for the 4 -year period from 1970 to 1974. Total investment in the transport sector during the plan period is to be $678 million, with $468 million to be provided by the federal government and $210 mi:'lion to be provided ;)y the states. The biggest area of expenditure is to be roads, where the states are scheduled to spend. $202 million and the federal government $263 million. In addition to continuing work on projects already started, several new road construction projects are to get underway during the plan period. One of the most important of these projects, to be completed in 1974, is the construction of a $25 :pillion expressway between Lagos and Ibadan, Nigeria's two largest cities. Also, engineering design and about half the construction of two new road bridges at Jebba and Makurdi should be completed during the plan period. In addition to 5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100007 -8 FIGURE 2. Concrete deck bridge between Zoria and Sokoto in northern Nigeria (U /OU) FIGURE 3. Combined highway -rail bridge across Benue River at Makurdi (U /OU) FIGURE 4. Ferry crossing Niger River near Yelwa (U /OU) actual construction, some 15 potential road segments will be studied and designed. Nigerian roads are assuming increasing international Significance as manifested in February 1972 with the signing of a contract to rebuild and repave the road link between Idiroko in Nigeria and Porto -Novo in Dahomey. The Trans African Highway from Mombasa, Kenya, to Lagos, for which studies are presently being conducted, will extend from the northern Cameroon border to Lagos, bisecting Nigeria from east to west. Repairs to the Niger River Bridge at Onits'na are underway to restore the bridge to its prewar cc iition and capacity. Highway traffic is impeded by many bottlenecks on the system, including ferries (Figure 4), fords, narrow and low- capacity bridges, and sharp curves and steep grades. In addition, traffic is hampered by the many miles of narrow roads and routes that are poorly constrL� tea and aligned. In the rainy season -Hiles of poor quality roads are closed to traffic for short periods to prot the surfaces, and many earth roads become slippery or impassable. Ferry operations are also curtailed or halted because of high water. In the dry season vehicle operations in the northern part of the country are impaired by intense summer heat and by dust conditions. Temporary traffic problems are being experienced since the country switched on 2 April 1972 from driving on the left side of the road to driving on the right. There are numerous transport firms that operate about 25 to 200 vehicle- each. Service is offered to all parts of the country; some classes of vehicles are restricted to operations over certain routes because of regulations pertaining to weights and dimensions of trucks and trailers. "Mammy wagons," which consist of a truck chassis and a locally built body adapted for freight and passenger use, operate t., any part of the R country where traffic warrants. Ownership of these vehicles varies from an owner- driver to a large transporter who may own a fleet of up to 100. The number and use of this type of vehicle have slowly decreased as more modern equipment, especially buses, come into us In addition, the government is increasingly regulating "Mammy wagon" operations to force them off the roads. The Nigerian Railway Corporation operates a fleet of vehicles to provide pickup and final delivery services from railroad terminals to the consumer. In January 1971, there were 125,654 motor vehicles registered, including 84,941 passenger cars and 40,713 trucks and buses. All vehicles and spare parts are imported, rnainly from the United Kingdom and other countries of the European Communities (EC). Figure 5 lists characteristics of the most important highways. D. Inland waterways (C) Inland waterway transportation has played a very limited role in the carriage of goods and passengers and generally has not fulfilled the high hopes held by the government. This is due mainly to navigational restrictions and tl.e rapidly developing highway network. River transport accounts for less than 6% of total surface tonnage; cargoes consist mainly of forestry, agricultural, and petroleum products. During normal operations approximately 365,000 short tons of cargo are moved and about 125 million ton -miles are produced on the principal waterways by organized water transport companies. An additional 35,000 short tons usually are carried by privately owned craft. Approximately 165,000 short tons also move throughout the Niger Delta, particularly to and from the maritime ports of Lagos and Port Harcourt. About APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100007 -8 FIGURE 5. Selected highways (C) Jet. 43 mi. SW of Jos to Pambe- guwa. Pambeguwa to Zaria.......... Zaria to Sokoto Sokoto to Illela Shagamu to Cameroon border near Mamfe, via Benin City and Enugu. Shagamu to Benin City. Benin City to Onitsha........ Onitsha to Enugu. Enugu to Bansara......... Bansara to Cameroon frontier. Jos to Ngala via Potiskum and Maiduguri. .Jos to Maiduguri Maiduguri to Ngala 148 Bituminous. 12 to 24 SURFACE SHOULDER 52 ORIGIN AND DESTINATION DISTANCE. SURFACE TYPE. WIDTH WIDTH REMARKS 12 to '24 Miles Fair condition. Undulating to hilly Feel Feet Lagos to Niger border via Ilorin, 792 Bituminous. to 24 0 to 10 Fair to good condition. There Kontagora, Kaduna, and are Kano. Narrow surface west of Benin City. several long bridges in Lagos; the Numerous bridges over 150 ft. long new Eko Bridge is reinforced con- on this route. The longest is about crete, 5,000 ft. long. There are 4,600 1t. long over the Niger River approximately 20 additional bridges at Onitsl a; damage incurred during over 150 ft. long on this route. Port Harcourt to Illela at Niger 1,067 do........... although temporary Bailey bridging Undulatinb alignment. permits one -lane passage. Numerous bric;ges on the route; the border. 0 to 5 Fair condition. Hilly alignment. 86 longest is a 2,628 -ft. rail and high- 0 to 5 Poor condition. Undulating align- way bridge over the Benue River Port Harcourt to Aliade....... 303 12 to 18 0 to 6 near Makurdi. Fair condition. Hilly alignment. Aliade to Jet. 43 mi. SIN' of 200 Gravel 16 to 18 0 to 6 Do. Jos. 10 to 22 0 to 5 Do. 455 Jet. 43 mi. SW of Jos to Pambe- guwa. Pambeguwa to Zaria.......... Zaria to Sokoto Sokoto to Illela Shagamu to Cameroon border near Mamfe, via Benin City and Enugu. Shagamu to Benin City. Benin City to Onitsha........ Onitsha to Enugu. Enugu to Bansara......... Bansara to Cameroon frontier. Jos to Ngala via Potiskum and Maiduguri. .Jos to Maiduguri Maiduguri to Ngala 148 Bituminous. 12 to 24 0 to 6 Do. 52 Gravel 12 to 18 0 to 6 Do. 306 Bituminous........ 12 to '24 0 to 6 Fair condition. Undulating to hilly alignment. 58 Improved earth. 8 to 12 0 to 6 Poor to fair condition. Undulating to hilly alignment. 454 Narrow surface west of Benin City. Numerous bridges over 150 ft. long on this route. The longest is about 4,600 1t. long over the Niger River at Onitsl a; damage incurred during civil hostilities is being repaired, although temporary Bailey bridging permits one -lane passage. 176 Bituminous........ 24 0 to 5 Fair condition. Hilly alignment. 86 12 to 15 0 to 5 Poor condition. Undulating align- ment. 24 do............ 24 0 to 5 Fair condition. Undulating alignment. 108 do 12 to 14 0 to 5 Do. 65 Gravel 10 to 22 0 to 5 Do. 455 Some bridges on this route, but only four are known to be over 150 ft. long. Longest bridge is 360 ft. over Ebeji River at Gambaru. 367 Bituminous...... 12 to 24 3 to 5 Fair condition. Hilly alignment. 88 Gravel 12 to 14 0 to 2 Fair condition. Undulating alignment. two- thirds of the total tonnage moved is from the interior of the country to the maritime and delta ports. The Nigerian civil disturbance had an adverse effect on inland waterway operations, halting river tre ffic on the Niger �Benue system and causing severe losses to commercial operators. The two largest and most successful river fleets (Holt Water Transport and Niger River Transport Company) liquidated their assets at the conclusion of the war. Much of the traffic on the Benue is expected to be absorbed by the Transcam- eroon Railway upon its completion in the early 1970's. Although adequate for normal economic demands, the waterway system will require major improvements, including improved navigational conditions and operating procedures, to accommodate any really significant increase in water transport service. Nigeria has 5,330 miles of navigable waterways within three major networks: the tidal creeks and coastal lagoons; the Niger and Benue and their tributaries and deltaic distributaries; and the Cross. In addition, the newly formed Kainji Lake offers several hundred miles of navigable lake routes. The creeks and lagoons are interconnected and form a natural communications link between Lagos and the Niger 7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100007 -8 Delta. The Niger and Benue, two of the principal waterways, afford lengthy routes inland, the Niger to the northwestern interior, Dahomey, Niger, and Mali, and the Benue to the eastern interior v nd Cameroon. The third principal waterway, the Cross, serves eastern Nigeria and is utilized primarily by native craft. The Niger is one of the world's great rivers, almost rivaling the Nile in economic potential and geographic importance. Formerly, inland waterway craft could travel up the Niger to a point northwest of Jebba, where further passage upstream was prevented by rapids. However, with the completion of the Kainji Dam in February 1969, it is believed possible to develop the Niger as a commercial waterway on a national and international basis. Experimentation is underway to determine the feasibility of regular commercial water transport service to the Republic of Niger. The Niger is expected to be navigable up to 7 months a year by barges of 700 tons capacity traveling th(� entire length of the Niger within Nigeria. The Benue and the Cross are not navigable throughout the year due to low water conditions in their upper reaches. Owing to the short duration of navigation on the Benue, the commercial shipping companies concentrate their fleets on the river from late June or early July to the end of October to move seaEonal cargoes from Garoua, in Cameroon. Yola, Numan, and Makurdi shipments are loaded and moved downstream as the shipping season progressively deteriorates. The largest coasters able to reach Makurdi on the Benue are from 550 to 850 tons. The largest river craft operating on the Niger and Benue are semi integrated tows consisting of a towboat and eight barges with a total carrying capacity of 3,600 tons. The Niger and its delta complex of waterways cannot be entered by large oceangoing vessels. Excluding Port Harcourt, which can be reached by maritime vessels of considerable size, the principal entry into the Niger is via the Escravos River and Chanomi Creek stream channel to the Foreados River, the major distributary of the Niger. Fluctuation in water levels, shifting channels, silting, rapids, and extreme meandering are the main factors adversely affecting navigation on the principal waterways. Channel widths are not restrictive to passage by commercial vessels, and in only a few instances, in the Niger Delta area and the upper reaches of the Benue, does curvature make navigation difficult. The water levels in the upper reaches of the Benue and Cross become so low during the period March to June and January to March, respectively, that commercial navigation becomes impossible. 0 Tidal currents and vegetation carried downstream during high -water periods are interruption factors in the delta region. Rock protrusions, especially at the confluence of the Niger and Benue at Lokoja, are hazards even though they are marked by buoys. Very few bridges span the waterways. There are bridges at Onitsha, Kainji, and Jebba on the Niger and at Makurdi on the Benue. Only the Makurdi railroad bridge is restrictive, preventing further upstream passage by small coasters during the high water season. The Kainji Dam, located on the Niger 630 miles from the sea, can be bypassed via a canal fitted with two locks. The 2- mile -long Awuru Canal, located 11 miles south of Kainji, permits the bypassing of the heretofore treacherous Niger rapids by push -tow units consisting of a pusher and two barges of the gondola type. Inland waterway ports fall into two categories. Within the first category are the maritime /inland waterway ports of the delta area. These serve basically as transshipment centers from river craft to maritime vessels and include the ports of Burutu, Warri, and Sapele. Within the second category are the strictly inland waterway ports serving the interior. Trans- shipment here is from river craft to rail or highway transport. The major inland ports are Baro �a leading railhead and the most important facility� Onitsha, Lokoja, Makurdi, and Yola. Yelwa, the northernmost port on the Kainji Lake, is expected to become a major waterway facility. In most inland ports, facilities for the quick handling of goods are inadequate; manual handling and poor storage arrangements are the general rule. Dugout canoes, long the traditional means of w;.terway transport in Nigeria, have been supple- mented b more modern passenger and cargo craft. Canoes and other similar shallow -draft craft ply all waterways and carry a large amount of tonnage. Their services are used extensively in areas inaccessible by other transport means. On the main creeks and rivers, craft vary from dugout canoes to modern barge trains. A very common vessel in use has been the stern- wheeler with a draft of from 4 to 6 feet. Diesel powered towboats are in use with push- towing the general practice. These vessels are capable of pushing from 4 to 8 barges with a total load of about 1,500 tons and have a draft of from 5 to 6 feet. The total capacity of the commercial barge fleet is approximately 45,000 tons. The fleet serves the Niger, the Benue, and the coastal creeks and distributaries; in 1964 it consisted of at least 69 nowered vessels and 180 barges ranging in carrying capacity from 10 to 1,000 tons. The government operates a fleet of 86 powered APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100007 -8 and 114 dumb craft. In addition, there are estimated to be 2.0,000 small craft of private ownership. The average barge capacity is approximately 200 tons with a draft of 6 feet. Dugout canoes vary i capacity, with the largest capable of transporting 20 tons of cargo. Much of the equipment is poorly designed, old, and in need of repair. Construction and maintenance of river craft are performed at various river and delta ports. Local boatyards construct small craft drawing from 1.9 to 3.8 feet and equipped with either outboard or small diesel engines. Control over inland waterways is vested primarily in the Inland Waterway Department (IWD), under the Cornmissioner for Transport, with headquarts:rs in Lokoja. The IWD has the responsibility for river management and conservancy, which includes the operation and maintenance of government -owned craft, channel improvement, navigational aids, and waterway regulations. The Nigerian Ports Authority ha. jurisdiction over 10 maritime /inland waterway ports. Prior to the civil war about 95% of all waterway operations were organized by private concerns; however, state controlled organizations are now the principal operators. The Central Water Transport Company, which is jointly owned by five states, was inaugurated in February 1972 with the aim of improving river transportation. The existing private carriers include the Niger Benue Water Transport Co., Compagnie de Transport ,-t Commerce, and J. Elder Dempster Line, Ltd. A few relatively small companies operate specialized transport firms. Unskilled labor is plentiful in all parts of Nigeria. Artisans and technically trained personnel are scarce, but this situation has improved as a res-ilt of the experience gained front the Kainji Darn construction project and training offered by the Nigerian Ports Authority for the IWD. The completion of the Ka..inji prcject provides numerous improvements to navigation, including the extension of the upper limit of through navigation on the Niger to bevcnd the .Dahomey border. More importantly, the dam permits control of flood waters and thereby extends the navigation season down- stream. Plans for the improvement of the Benue, principally through extending the navigation season by the construction of flood control dams, is being considered in light of the pending loss of traffic to the Transcameroon Railway, which will serve areas that have been using the Benue. Also, increased dredging operations, improved navigational aids, fleet rehabilitation, the introduction of night navigation, and the construction of a water- control facility at Jebba are planned in an extensive effort to make the waterway system more responsive to the country's transport requirements. Physical characteristics of selected Nigerian waterways are listed in Figure 6. E. Pipelines (C) Most of Nigeria's pipelines are Icz!ated in the eastern part of the Niger Delta. Their total length is in excess of 620 miles, including 581 miles of crude oil lines, over 40 miles of natural -gas lines, and 3 miles of refined products lines. Over 100 miles of crude pipelines are planned or are under construction. FIGURE 6. Physical characteristics of selected waterways (C) CHANNEL CHARACTERISTICS NAME, TYPE, AND NAVIGABLE LENGTH Width Safe draft CONTROLLING LOCK DIMENSIONS; LENGTH AND WIDTH; DEPTH OVER SILL CONTROLLING UNDERBRIDGE CLEARANCES Hori- zontal Vertical REMARKS NIGER: Feet Natural and dredged stream: 249 4.9 (H W) 390 x 40; 8........ 140 30 (HNv) Safe draft 20.6 ft. in delta laud -cut raual; 790 mi. 2.9 (MN') region. BENUE: Natural stream; 564 mi...... 196.8 4.9 (II w) No locks.......... 214 40 (M11W) River extends additional 46 2.9 (Mw) 0.98 (L NV) miles to Cameroon port of CROSS: Garoua. Estuary; natural stream; 238 na 9.8 (H1v) 328 na River extends additional 69 mi. 3'9 (LIV) miles to Cameroon port of Mamfe. na Data not available. 0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100007 -8 m x a e w a T N d T N a 'a m t d d N W ad LL 10 0 IC W z 5 0 p a o m a z a a F U a U a I O O m O N 00 00 00 N N N N N N C N N cp 00 00 00 oo cv m W eq A c x E- 0 E- 2 0 a m c c Cd v DO CO E .7 zz WZ �w x n v G c cd a c E e ro c co 0 0 bo Y L o m 0 .0 :n 6 e N o 0 0 E5 oxw0O..AO a d I O .O a0 J a e a) N U v1 U r>'a C m C G d O O fl 00 E E o J J po d cc C .p y d y� m cis 0 0 0 0 m E_ o v `o co w o E C M p N O vi C C Q. td G .a :a y- G d v n m J s n p B r; c o oo M .0 c C l N m m U" 3 G N U a y a e E r a d Q J L "q .0 a L E d' O W V G m d y o U o m as C n W C y J co Cd .c Cd bC m c E E -v c d� N c b m E d e v as ad ad c W 000 m c a o" M o E v e o m d d o `w L bO c c as 4 cdd cd y x .a E E E E CL bC v 3 3 E 6 C C L 7 C G E O .0 C C J C e 'G O ed m L '0 "a C� 'fl O. 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U m O 'm G as C C O E U L m y C ad 'fl d C� t y a O G a m> c4 CL v ;C ad an U o E r 0 a a� cd Do cd J Y `o o J m E cd v fl U U E G q m 'y cd 'C G U a m C t L C -0 C v e a p m O Ce L a o a o o d m 06 r- 0 ^aG. 3 t.- y C J C J E 'fl o. a O L E m e L a J J m dJ 0 a b a) V O cd E �L d .c E 3 G `o J c U ca m A y ,�.a aa, U a E m G J m J OC v p E C L a G m G v 3 y U fl J C U a7 Y a) O y N U d E E cd a4 U Y 1i ad v m V cd ma M O m ai a ai v E C a O m L U m: U m O. m U U c J :zoo Q7 o c E M E bo J o C O 0 d m A O 0 w p o 0 o, a w y L t J g E E s J a) O J m C Co o a m G U 7 03 E a `o m ad e d 30 G J C as C U G U O J J C U m y c a G yl c ad J �C C 0 G as d J as m Dd d E L ad x cu h o s a mF 0 m a U E U C O L 00 a c o J o p 3 E C 03 ca J a E E U E c E a N L L U N m J d o. c >a cd 0 0 E �0 b C6 ad c E c a d m ad F o E L d 13 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100007 -8 Nigerians a.e trained as deck and engineer officers on selected oceangoing ships under the sponsorship of the Nigerian Ports Authority. On board, the cadets learn all phases in ship operation, receive some training overseas, and usually take a correspondence course for preparation of shore -based studies at the end of their sea term. These apprentice cadets are fully occupied in training for about 8 years before quali.iying as master mariners. H. Civil air (C) Nigeria Airways, Ltd. formerly known as West African Airways Corporation WAAC (Nigeria), Ltd. is the national flag carrier providing both domestic and international services. The airline was initially organized in partnership with British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) and the Elder- Dempster Shipping Co., also a British firm; Nigeria Airways became a state enterprise in April 1961 when the government purchased the British holding. The carrier, which suffers financially from a lack of technical and managerial competence, has recently signed an agreement with Trams� ::'arld Airlines, Inc. (TWA) to serve as management consultant. International service is scheduled between Nigeria and 12 countries in Europe, the Middle East, and Africa, to soine extent in a pool with British Caledonian and other airways. Direct service to New York and London is available through blocked space agreements with Pan American World Airways, Inc. (Pan Am). Domestic air travel is provided to 12 cities and towns �Benin City, Calabar, Enugu, Ibadan, Jos, Kaduna, Kano, Lagos, Maiduguri, Port Harcourt, Sokoto, and Yola. Nigeria Airways is a memb-- of the International Air Transport Association (IATA) and the regional Association cf African Airlines, which plays a complementary role to 1A TA in Africa. Domestic and international charter services are provided primarily by Pan African Airlines (Nigeria), Ltd. (PAA), which is based at Ikeja Airfield (Lagos). This American -owned company conducts chartered flights for the U.S. Government, the Government of Nigeria, and private companies. PAA currently operates a number of helicopters on charter to Nigerian Gulf Oil Company. PAA's sister corporation, Tropical Aircraft Sales, with headquarters in Lagos, is the Cessna Aircraft agent for West Africa. A new company, ARAX Airlines, also provides charter services. Aero Contractors Company of Nigeria, Ltd., offers nonscheduled and general aerial work, including, contracting charters for oil companies operating in 14 Nigeria. The carrier, a subsidiary of Schreiner Air Transport N.V. of The Hague, started operations in Nigeria in 1960 and at times has operated scheduled services, chiefly in northern Nigeria. Air taxi and air utility services are also provided by two other charter operators� Bristow Helicopters (Nigeria), Ltd., a subsidiary of British Caledonian, and Delta Maritime and Aviation Co., both of which operate out of Lagos airfield. Other organizations participating in flying activities include the Nigerian civil aviation school, the Lagos Flying Club, missionary groups, government agencies, and business firms. Approximately 100 civil aircraft are registered in Nigeria. Of these, 13 have a gross weight of 20,000 pounds or more. Nigeria Airways owns nine of these major transport aircraft: one Boeing 707 -320C, three Fokker F- 27- 200's, two F- 27- 600's, and three F -28's. It also owns a Piper pA -23 -250 Aztec which is used for charter services and leases one Boeing 737 which is used for scheduled services. The remaining four major planes are distributed as follows: the federal government, one Hawker Siddeley HS 12Z 1RAX Airlines, two Douglas DC 3's; and PAA, one L ,u: las DC-6. PAA also owns 13 light fixed-wing and rotar- wing aircraft with Nigerian registration and operates a varying number of DC- 4/C -54 -type aircraft with U.S. registration. In addition, Nigeria Airways has ordered one Boeing 707 -320C and two 737- 200's, which are to be delivered by early 1973. An estimated 3,000 persons are engaged in civil aviation activities in the natio,,. Nigeria Airways employs approximately 2,500 pees: nnel, including 45 pilots (24 Nigerian) and 570 maintenance personnel. PAA employs about 60 persons, including 12 pilots, and Aero Contractors has a staff of 80, including 14 pilots. There are an estimated 100 additional private and commercial pilots in the country. The number of pilots and mechanics fluctuates considerably. Training programs are conducted both at home and abroad. The government, in cooperation with the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), operates the Nigerian Civil Aviation Training Center at 'Laria. The center provides training for commer- cial pilots, aircraft mechanic,, radio mechanics, communications operators, air traffic controllers, and meteorologists. Courses for various airline posi- tions are also amducted at Nigerian Ainvays' aviation school at Lagos airfield. Airline personnel are sent overseas for advanced and specialized training. The Lagos Flying Club, which operated f �)m Kiri Kiri airstrip (Lagos), provides basic flyin instruction. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100007 -8 Electronics and engineering courses are offered at the five Nigerian universities. Aircraft maintenance facilities are located chiefly at Lagos airfield. Nigeria Airways' engineering base is used for routine airframe and engine servicing. Major maintenance and engine overhaul are accomplished in Europe. PAA's hanger facility at L_ >os handles roltine engineering services Spare pars stacks are located at Nairobi, Kenya, where Safari A:r Services (Kenya) undertakes all FAA engine overhauls. Other firms with a maintenance capability at Lagos air include Aero Contractors Company of Nigeria, which does contract work for the government and private firms; and Aeronautical Services West Afri::a, Ltd., and Delta Maritime and Aviation Company, both of which service light aircraft and engines. Bristow Helicopters' maintenance facility is located at Port Harcourt airfield; minor maintenance service is also available at Kano airfield. The quality of main- tenance varies. Responsibility for control and regulation of civil aviation is vested in the Aviation Division of the Ministry of Transport. The Civil Aviation Act of 1964 came into force on 1 December 1965 and replaces all former orders and regulations on civil aviation in Nigeria. Nigeria is a member state of the ICAO and is represented on the ICAO Council. The Nigerian Government has civil aviation agreements or provisional arrangements with at least 30 countries, including the U.S.S.R. Eighteen foreign airlines, including the Soviet carrier Aeroflot, conduct scheduled services between Nigeria and 35 cities in 33 countries. I. Airfields' (C) The air facilities system of Nigeria consists of 77 usable airfields, of which six are civil, one is military, three are joint military /civil, and the remainder have limited or no facilities. In addition, there are 13 emergency landing sites and four seaplane stations. The airfields are evenly distributed throughout the country, generally near cities and towns along the lines of surface communication. The two most important international airfields, Kano and Lagos, are capable of handling aircraft of the C -135 and C -141 classes, respectively. Both are equipped with navigational aids and have hydrant 'For detailed information on individual airfields in Nigeria see Volume 20, Airfields and Seaplane Stations of the world, published by the Aeronautical Chart and Information Center for the Defense Intelligence Agency. refueling accommodations, complete repair service, and support facilities. Taxiways and aprons are generally well maintained and are in fair condition. Twelve airfields have hard -surfs ced runways; the remainder have temporary or natural surfaces. Most of the latter have no facilities. One airfield can support C- 135 -type aircraft; two airfields, C -130; one, C -124; one, C -141; four, C -54; one, C -46; sixteen, C-47; two, C -97; the remainder can handle liaison -type aircraft. The four seaplan- stations, Calabar, Burutu, Lagos, and Port Harcourt, could be used in an emergency; they have no known support facilities. The 13 emergency landing sites have little or no significance. Maintenance of the airfields is generally good. It may vary from minor repairs at lesser airfields to periodic major repairs at larger airfields which have support and service equipment readily available. The extensio:: of Makurdi airfield is still in the planning stag;.- Lagos airfield hus been strengthened and extended from 7,600 feet to 9,050 feet. Figure 10 list characteristics of Nigeria's most important airfields. J. Telecommunications (C) The Commissioner of Communications has the responsibility for administering Nigeria's telecom- munications (telecom) system. Radio and televisi -n broadcasting are managed by the Nigerian Broadcast- ing Corporation (NBC), a government corporation. There are also several commercial radiobroadcast and TV companies. Domestic te ecom facilities are owned and operated by the Posts and Telegraph Department under the Commissioner of Transport. International telecommunications are managed by Nigerian External Telecommunication, Ltd., a joint -stock corporation, 51 owned by the Nigerian Government and 49% by the British company, Cable and Wireless Ltd. Some private companies and organizations operate their own telecom networks under license by the government. The domestic long- distance system is based on radio -relay links. The highest capacity radio -relay circuit, 1,200 channels, connects Lagos t;) Kano via Ibadan, Oshogbo, florin, Minna, Kaduna, and Zaria. Two important branches extend from this ciruit. They are the Minna -Enugu route (via Baro, Lokoja, and Nsukka) and the Kaduna Maiduguri route (via Jos, Bauchi, and Potiskum). These high- capacity links were completed in the first phase of the current long range telecom development program. Older, very high- frequency (VHF), radio -relay extentions provide most of the long- distance connections between Bauchi 15 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100007 -8 FIGURE 10. Selected airfields (C) LON%iEST RUNWAY: SURFACE; DIMENSIONS; ELEVATION ABOVE SEA NAME AND LOCATION LEVEL FSWL� Feet Poundn Benin City Asphalt............. 59,893 6'19 10,000 x 200 260 Calabar Asphalt............. 4'58 8'21'E. 7,400 x 150 206 Enugu Asphalt............. 6'29'N., 7'34'E. 6,000 x 151 461 Gusau Laterite 12'10'N., 6'42 4,800 x 150 1,520 Ibadar Asphalt............. 7'26'N., 3'54'F.. 4,540 x 150 769 Jos Asphalt............. 9 8'54 5,100 x 150 4,250 Kaduna Macadam........... 10'35'N., 7 8,530 x 150 2,126 Kano Asphalt............. 12 8 8,600 x 200 1,562 Lagos Asphalt............. 6'35 3'19'E� 9,050 x 150 132 Maiduguri Asphalt............. 11'51'N., 13'04'E. 6,000 x 150 1,162 Port Harcourt. Asphalt............. 4'51'N., 7'01'E. 7,000 x 150 58 Sokoto Asphalt............. 13'00 5'15 4,900 x 150 1,150 Wawa Asphalt............. 9'54 4'28'E. 4,000 x 100 750 LARGEST AIRCRAFT NORMALLY SUPPORTED REMARKS C- 124........... Joint. Scheduled internal services. Aviatiog fuel available. 28,160 C- 54............ Joint. Domestic airways. Scheduled services available. 14,200 C- 47............ Joint. Aviation fuel available, sup- ports scheduled airline flights. 14,200 DC- 3........... Civil. Scheduled internal services. 14,200 DC- 3........... Do. 14,200 DC- 3........... Civil. Scheduled services. Aviation fuel is available. 17,034 C- 131........... Joint. Aviation and jet fuel is avail- able. Scheduled services. 56,607 Boeing 707...... Civil. International airfield. Aviation and jet fuel is available. 65,100 C 141........... Joint. International airfield. Avia- tion and jet fuel is available. Scheduled services. 28,160 DC- 4........... Civil. Aviation and jet fuel is avail able. Scheduled services. 35,500 C 130..... Joint. Scheduled internal services. 35,500 L382B.......... Civil. Domestic services scheduled. (Lockheed 100) Aviation fuel is available. 28,160 DC-4 Civil. Scheduled internal services. *Equivalent Single -Wheel Loading: Capacity of an airfield runway to sustain the weight of any multiple -wheel landing -gear aircraft in terms of the single -wheel equivalent. and Yola, Jos and Makurdi, Oshogbo and Lokoja, Zaria and Sokoto, and Aba and Ogoja. Carrier equipped open -wire lines extend beyond the radio relay system to several outlying towns, including Nguru, Benin City, Ijebu Ode, Enugu, and Kafanchan. Radiocommunication stations supple- ment these networks. A continuing program of installing automatic exchanges has resulted in more and better telephone service in major towns, but smaller towns still have manual exchanges. In early 1972 Nigeria had about 82,000 telephones. 16 The principal international facility is a high frequency radiocommunication station of the Nigerian External Telecommunications, Ltd. (NET), with transmitting and receiving sites at Lagos. Direct radiocommunication circuits to some 20 African and world capitals provide two -way telephone, telegraph, and telex service. Secondary international radiocom- munication stations are at Kano (circuits to Fort Lamy, Chad, and Zinder, Niger) and Yola (circuit to Garoua, Cameroon). Old single channel submarine telegraph cables connect Lagos to Accra, Ghana, and APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100007 -8 Cotonou, Dahomey. Low capacity VHF radio -relay l inks cross the border westward to Porto -Novo, Dahomey, and eastward to Buea, Cameroon. A recently completed earth satellite communication station is located at Lalate, approximately 90 miles north of Lagos. In addition to improving international telephone and telegraph communications with Nigeria, the station will be equipped to relay international TV programs. International communica- tions are integrated with Nigeria's telephone and N I G E R 7 a Sokoto UPPER VOLTA O Bussa M Jebba El Oshogbo D I] Lalate Ibadan Namoda telegraph nets in Lagos and relayed between Lagos and the Lalate station by a microwave circuit. Special purpose telecor_t facilities are operated by government and private organizations, such as the police; aeronautical, maritime, and railway au- thorities; and marketing and export organizations. Business enterprises operate networks for various purposes, one of the largest being the radio -relay system of the Shell -BP Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria, Ltd., for pipeline control in the IAKI 0% Cl/.1 rl 4 OD I D Maiduguri u Zaria 0=1 I] Kaduna OI] Bauchi Gombe Jos rr/ Kafanchan