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I_1� ZIGIT M IMIGI za N :I I l_F9 :44111 :7L(I:lli [s wo] F_a N 11 I11Il (I4L4 /:i(I(I4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100013 -1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100013 -1 K WARNING The NIS is National Intelligence and may not be re- leased or shown to represento.ives of any foreign govern- mentor international body except by specific authorization of the Director of Central Intelligence in accordance with the provisions of National Security Council Intelligence Di- rective No. 3. For NIS containing unclassified materMl, however, the portions so marked may be made available for official pur- poses to foreign nationals and nongovernment personnel provided no attribution is rnade to National Intelligence or the National Intelligence Survey. Subsections and graphics are individually classified according to content. Classification /control designa- tions are: (U /OU) Unclassified /Far Cfficial Use Wy (C) Confidential (S) Secret C, APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100013 -1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP0l- 00707R000200100013 -1 xi> M: 2 v: h. 7' 1". z:: N^a.k,^- u.,...n. f 6 l^ a f 4 This chapter was prepared for the NIS under the gencral supervision of the Central Intelligence Agency by the Bureau of Economic Analysis, Social and Economic Statistics Administration, Depart- ment of Commerce. Research was substantially completed by June 1973. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100013 -1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDP01-00707R000200100013-1 Page D. Living and working conditions 14 1. Health and sanitation a. Health problems b. Medical care c. Sanitation 2. Food oomumption and nutrition 3. Housing 4. Work opportunities and conditions a. The people and work b. Labor legislation Q Labor and management 15 15 17 18 19 20 20 Iii 24 25 Page 3. Islam 28 4. Protestantism 29 F. Educatinn 30 G. Artistic and cultural expression 34 1. Painting, sculpture, and handicrafts 35 2. Performing arts 40 3. Literature 44 IL Public Information 44 E. Religion 27 1. Printed matter 45 2. Radio and motion pictures 46 1. Animism 27 2. Roman Catholicism 28 L Selected bibliography 46 FIGURES Page Page Fig. 1 African physical types 'photos) 6 Fig, 15 Village shrine (photo) 27 Fig. 2 Mulatto girl (photo) 7 Fig. 18 Mosque in Tete (photo) 29 Fig. 3 Women pounding grain (photo) 9 Fig. 17 Urban schools (photos) 32 Fig. 4 Puberty ceremony for girl (photo) 9 Fig. 18 Modem architecture and decoration Fig. 5 Population density (map) 12 Fig. 19 (photos) Native wall painting (photo) 36 37 Fig. 6 Population, area, and population Fig. 20 Face masks (pf-jws) 38 density (table) 13 Fig. 21 Wooden sculptures (photos) 39 Fig. 7 Age-sex structure (chart) 14 Fig. 22 Sculpture of Makondc dancer (photo) 40 Fig. 8 Consumer price index (chart) 15 Fig. 23 Ebony sculpture showing Christian Fig. 9 Diviner studying fetishes (photo) 16 influence (photo) 40 Fig. 10 University Hospital (photo) 17 Fig. 24 Makonde and Makua -'-iandicrafts Fig. 11 Miguel Bombarda. Central Hospital (photos) 41 (photo) IS Fig. 25 Basket and bed (photo) 41 Fig. 12 Rural water supplies (photos) 19 Fig. 26 Thumb piano of the Chop! (photo) 42 Fig. 13 Non-African dwcUings (photos) 21 Fig. 27 Tribal dancers (photos) 42 Fig. 14 African huts (photos) M Fig. 28 Chop! ballet (photos) 43 i ii APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDP01-00707R000200100013-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100013 -1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100013 -1 "in spite of everything there is love that remains around us," contemporary painting by Mozambique's most noted artist, the African Molangatono. Critics see in Molongotana's paintings, in which violence and blood are dominant themes and there is frequent portrayal of teeth and claws, the artist's attempt to express the frustrations and anxieties of his race. (U Oil) APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100013 -1 4c:'1 rMl L The Society A. Introduction (C) As a Portuguese overseas state, Momnibique is one of the few remaining dependent areas in Africa. It is characterized by a large rural; traditionally oriented African society which� except far u few thousand insurgents in the north �is completely dominated bytt small, urban-band Portuguese community. The colonial nature of Portuguese rule, together with the agricultural focus of Moyumbique's economy, has helped preserve th:., fractured social structure. A vast gulf separates the sociocultural traditions of indigenous African society from those of the modern European community, while Portuguese attempts -to Instill Western culture and values have had a disruptive effect on tribal life. For centuries the Portuguesz have neglected lite interests of the indigenous population, whose living conditions are poor and level of literacy law, partly because Portuguese has been the only language of instruction used irr the schools. For much of the time, government administration of African affairs has beers marked at best by paternalism and at worst by forced labor and other forms of exploitation. Reforms instituted by the Portuguese since' 1961 have largely been the result of political necessity. To alleviate the unrest that swept through its African possessions early In the 1960's and to improve its image abroad, Portugal has increased development expenditures and instituted limited political, economic, and social reforms. African levels of living have improved slightly as u result, but Portugal still is not financially ab!d or psychologically prepared to make rapid and comprehensive changes in.the structure of society. Proud:.of _their cultural heritage, the Portuguese do not assign a high priority to the preservation of traditional culture andcontinue to claim a mission to civilize the tribal African: Thus, site government accords equal legal rights to. the few African's and mulattoes who: becorrie' fluent in Portuguese, attain advanced education, an& adopt 'Portuguese cultural values. While there is little eviticnce of racial discrimination as. such, wvhitc merchants� administrators,. 'and` luborers',. 7 with whom most Africans are likely to come into daily contact, are frequently patronizing in their treatment of Africans. The bulk of the African population appear apathetic about their role in Mozambique society. Mozambique's original inhabitants, thought to be bands of Bushmen and Hottentots, were displaced by extensive waves of Bantu speaking tribes which invaded the area and mixed with the indigenous population between t}te early Christian era and Cite 16th century. Some Bantu tribes remained cohesive, others broke up, or new tribes formed around the leadership of strong chiefs. Pastoral tribes tended to retain an aggressive military organivalion. In the 16th century, the liowerful Monomotapa dynasty, centered in what is now Rhodesia controlled much of the interior`Lambera River basin: The fact that Mo7ambique was situated on the southern edge of Arab influence along the cast African coast substantially affected Cite social and cultural development of northern Mozambiquc. Arab traders were in contact with areas of the region during the early Christian period; however, the first permanent Arab settlements were not inade until the ninth century, when fortified coastal towns as far south as Nova Sofala, inhabited by Arab merchants and people of mixed Arab and AMean descent, became centers of trade tiwitli Arabia, Persia, and India. Over the years the surrounding African population adapted Islam along with Arab dress and 'dietary customs. The Swahili language, with its Arable vocabulary and Bantu structure, slowly developed and remains today the lingua franca of many coastal peoples, including a few along tite northern coast of Mozambique. Pcro de Owillta in 1489 was the first Portuguese explorer to reach what is now Mozambique. The region was not opened to Europeat influence, however, until after it was visited by Vasco da Cama on: his historic voyage to India in 1498. In the following, years the Portuguese systematically conquered Arab, towns and established fortresses through which they could control the rich trade between; Europe and the spicelands of India and the East Indies: By 1520, Portuguese truding posts and APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 007078000200100013 -1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100013 -1 forts reached as far soul as the Zambezi River. Main settlements were established ut Vila de Sena in 1531 and, later, at Tete in order to secure a trading route to the fabled Monomotapa empire. At various times the Portuguese were able to conclude alliances with tribal chiefs, including those of the Monomotapa, but most of these alliances vere short lived, and the araount of gold traded generally did not cover the colt of the expeditions. The garrisons of coastal towns rs well as outposts in the interior were periodically attacked and destroyed. When the Dutch wrested control of the spix trade from the Portuguese in the 17th century, the latter turned toward Brazil, and Mozambique was left in the hands of traders, adventurers, and military governors. A slave trade developed, but it was never as extensive as that in Portuguese West Africa. There were seldom more than 1,000 Portuguese in the cast African territory at any time (luring most of the 171h and 18th centuries. Nevertheless, in order to stimulate die slack Zambezi River trade, Portuguese and lne1ans were encouragers to migrate to Mozambique. Some moved into the interior, where they prospered anti intermarried with Africans; others became well established on the coast. To promote permanent colonization, prazos da coroa (crown grants) were conferred on the Portuguese and Indians, as well as on ex- soldiers and even condemned criminals deported from Portugal. Although the holders of crown estates were expected to provide a focus for European settlement in the Zambezi valley, most concentrated on trade and became virtual local chieftains with more power than crown appointed administrators. They maintained private armies of Africans and made military alliances with tribe.: chiefs as personal advantage dictated. Portugal's inability to control the region was also manifested by continual uprisings of hostile Iola, tribes, the invasion of Nguni tribes from Zululand, and inmasing challeriges to Portuguese hegemony by European powers. In the first half of the 19th century, the prazo system was abolished and various codes and decrees were promulgated to create a more responsible provincial government, but these efforts met with little success. The prazeros continued to hold a monopoly over commerce, to collect a head tax from Africans, to use forced labor, and to openly defy Portuguese authority. Also, Portugal was unable to abolish the slave trade, the territory's largest and most profitable began an extensive pacification campaign in southern Mozambique, but responsibility for final control of tribal groups and prazeros north of the Rio Save was given to three large concessionary companies, whose officials performed the services of magistrates, tax collectors, educators, and licalth officers and maintained private police forces. Judicial functions, however, were reserved to [fie state. Meanwhile, solution to the longstanding dispute between Portugal and Great Britain over the boundary separating their southern African territories Ied to other agreements between the two countries which strongly influenced economic development in Mozambique and the consolidation o� Portuguese power. After the discovery of gold in the Transvaal in 1886, the British needed a cheap labor force to work the mines and a means of rapid transportation to the coast, while the Portuguese recognized the advantage of controlling rail and supping facilities for the transit of goods from British areas in the interior. Consequently, under the terms of a treaty signed in 1891, Portugal agreed to build a railroad from L.ourenco Marques to the Transvaal and, in 1.901, granted the exclusive right to recruit Mozambican labor to the Witwatersrand Native Labor Association. Simi 1928 the exchange of labor from Mozambique in ictum for transit trade from the Transvaal has been regulated by a convention between Portugal and South Africa. Since World bear 11 the Portuguese Government has used various agricultural settlement schemes to encourage white immigration to Mozambique. Although the European population increased substantially between 1950 and 1967, in recent years the number of immigrants has (leclined considerably, partly because of the growing insurgency in the north. The government has provided financial assistance to the settlers, including passage, land, a house, and equipment. Despite much publicity, the program has not worked well and has been a costly drain on government resources. Many settlers have not succeeded because of ignorance and refusal to accept advice. In addition to the agricultural settlement, or colonata, schemes, large -scale resettlement projects have been undertaken in nortlicm Mozamloigtie as part of a military plan to isolate Africans from rebel guerrillas and form a strong perimeter of fortified villages to contain the Mozambique Liberation Front A export business, (1: RMANIO). Since 19tH, when the movement As late as 1890, Portugal exerelsed little real control =For diacritics on place names, sec the list of name., an the apron of the region outside the coastal areas and principal of the 5urnmarn� clap in the G,untn' Profile chapter, the nuip ilw1f. river pmts. In 1894 an expeditionary force from Lisbon and maps in the text. a 2 !i APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100013 -1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100013 -1 X initiated armed insurgency against Portuguese authority, the insurgents have gained a degree of control over portions of Cabo Delgado, Niassa, and Tete Districts, By 1973, Portugal had committed over 30,000 troops to oppose an estimated 7,000 to 8,000 FRELIMO fighters in these arras. B. Structure and characteristics of society (U /OU) Mozambican society is divided between a small, mainly urban -bused modern sector dominated by Europeans and a large traditional sector consisting of rural Africans who adhere to the social institutions of their forebears. The two are separated from each other physically, culturally, and socially, and conimunira- tion between them is quite limited. Although the overwhelming numerical superiority of the black population makes African languages, culture, .in([ values looin large in Mozambican life, there is no organization among the many tribal groups and no tribe is clearly dominant. Political and economic affairs arc in the hands of the Portuguese, who occupy the tipper level in the highly stratified social system. They control the government and the important industries and commercial institutions, and their language and religion, Roman Catholicism, officially prevail in national society. L Ethnic composition Limited data available from the 1970 Mozambican census indicate that about 96.8�"* of the population at that time was African, the remainder consisting of Europeans (mainly Portuguese), Asians, and persons of mixed blood, designated us mulattoes. Most of the Asians arc from the Indian subcontinent, including the former Portuguese enclatvec cf Diu, Damao, and Cou. Therc is also a small Chinese communi The Afrieln population of Morumbiqup is made up of Bantu peoples whose ancestors began coming into the area from the north and west in the first millennium A.D. Other migrations from the south occurred in the 19th century. No complete delineation of the tribes inhabiting the state can he made because of the imprecise use of tribal names in some regions and ul, because of a more or less continuing prowess of amalgamation and separation among certain groups, .giving rise, to varying interpretations of tribal divisions.. Estimates of the number of tribes in Mozambique range from .:bout 70 to more than 100. Generally speaking. there are two major regional groupings, the northern and the southern, each including tribes with some degree of etiltural similarity stemming from historic, geographic, and economic factors. North of the 74imberi River dwell numerous tribes which, by tradition, are inalrilineal, tracing their descent from females; sonic are Islamized. South of the river the tribes arc muncly patrilineal and have been more influenced by tht! Portuguese. In the intermediate region of the Zambezi valley is a large, heterogeneous aggregation which has absorbed cultural traits from both northern and southern tribes. Many Mozambican tribes are part of largergroupings extending into the neighboring countries of Tanrania, Malawi, Zambia, Rhodesia, Swaziland, and South Africa. Ito kite northern region, the major tribal groupings are the Maktia, the 1.omwC, tite Maravi, the Makonde, and the Yao; the principal peoples of the southern region are the Thonga, the Shona, the Chopi, -nd the Nguni. Each encompasses a number of subtribes, Most Mona mbicans engage in sonic form of subsistence agriculture, practice the indigenous animistic religion, and live in small, scattered villa. -'es and hamlets typically consisting of round wattle and daub lints with conical roofs. 'rhe southern peoples arc- involved in cattle raising as well as agriculture, cattle being viewed as an important symbol of wealth among them. Because the tribes of t!cc �south have had greater contact with Europeans than have those of the north, a larger number are in process of detribaliza- tion. The tabulation below shows the approxi size of the major groupings in Mozambique's African population as indicated in the census of 1934, the latest year for which such information is available. The figures are understood to he estimates. Northern groups: Atakua 1,775,000 Lomwo 520,000 WWI 425,000 Makon 130.4= Yao I 120,000 Southern groups: Thonga 1,2ft0,OW Shona 300,000 Chop! 240,000 Nguni 14,000 Peoples of the Zambezi valley 800,000 to 1 milltan Largest of the groupings and one of the few found entirely within Moratmbiquc, the Makua are concentrated in the District of Mocambique and in parts of Cabo Delgado, Niassa, and 'Lambezia Districts. They are a peaceful people who enjoy good relations with most of the other groups �in the region, and there has been some intermarriage with the APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 0070711000200100013 -1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100013 -1 neighboring I..omuc and Yam. The coastal Makua were strongly influenced by Arab traders who had settled in tite area before the arrival Of the Portuguese, and many adopted Islam. The L.Omwe are culturally similar to lire Makna, and some scholars group them together; however. the L.omwe exhibit little Arabic influence. They are found primarily in Zarnbeiia. Since the beginning of the 20th century many have migrated to Malawi. Tile Maravi are cantered in Tete District but are also found in Zambezia and Niassa. Well- known subtribes are the Chewa, the Nsenga, and [lac Nyanja. All of the Maravi tribes extend across international houndaries, and there is considerable movement of Maravi laborers back and forth, especially across lite Malawi border. Among the major groupings, the tMakonde have perhaps the strongest sense of tribal identity. Isolslted for centuries on the Planalto dos Macondes in Cabo Deigacio, they were little affected by the Arabs who teuderl in the region and were successful in keeping most of their tribal customs. Known as a fierce and dissident people, they have long been hostile toward the peaceful Makua and are the principal group involved in the antigovernment irasilrgency which has been going on in northern Mozambique for several years. The Makonde have strong ties with fellow tribesmen in southern Tanrania. Also identified with insurgent activities are the Yao, who inhabit Niassa District, dwelling primarily between the Rio Lugenda and the Rio Rovuma. For centuries [lie Yao functioned as middlemen for Arab slave traders in eastern Africa and later were competitors with the Portuguese for trade in [he interior. They raided neighboring trifles for slaves, and many of the women whom they captured became wives or concubines of Yao tribesmen. There was also some intermixture with the Arabs. The Yao adopted a number of Arabic social customs and profess to be Maaslims while nevertheless retaining much of their traditional animistic religion. The largest tribal grouping iu lite southern region and second lan;est in all of Mozambique are the Thonga, most of whom Iive south of the Rio Save. There are four notable .'hongu subtribes: the Ronga, who inhabit the area around the capital city of Lourenco Marques and have been strongly influenced by the Portuguese; tite Shang: na, who OCCCapy much of Gaga Districi; and the Tswa and the I�ilengwe, who dwell in Inhumbuneand in northern.Ca7a. Migratory labor has become a pattern ;among the Thonga and is discouraged neither by the Portuguese nor by tribal authorities. About 40% of Thonp males reportedly work in the mines of Rhodesia or South Africa at some time in their adult life. The Shona grouping in MOiambictue is spread nut in the area between the 'Zambezi River and the Rio Save, now comprising the Districts of Beira and Vila Pery, but the main body Of Shona inhabits Rhodesia. Once organised into feudal states headed by powerful chiefs, they were conquered by raiding Nguni in the 191h century. Tire principal Sltona tribes located in Mozainbique traditionally have been the Bargve, the Danda, the Mauyika, the Ndait, and the Teve. Reportedly, [lie Bargwe are gradually disappearing as a result Of absorption into neighboring tribes. 'Fite Cbopi, 0110 of the more Westernised African pcaples in MOikambique, occupy coastrll areas in Inhambane and Cara. The main subtribes are the Gwambe, the Lenge, and the Tonga. Unlike most other southern Mozauibicaus, the Chopi usually live in square rather than round dwellings. Many have migrated to urban areas, and [he} are particularly numerous in I- cturenco Marques. They have also participated in [lac stream of migrant labor to Rhodesia and South Africa. IIistoric:ally, the Nguni have had an important impact 0,1 the Moanibican population �an impact far ant of proportion to their present small number, In the second gaarter of [lie I9th century Nguni tribes swept northward from their original territory of Zululand (nov part Of tits Republic of South Africa) and Overran numerous Mozambican tribes, driving some out of their native regions and bringing others temporarily under Nguni domination. In nlatty areas, however, the Ngtlni were themselves absorbed by local tribes throaigh intermarriage. They had. at well-defined culture, and their influence can be seen among the ThOnga, the Shona, the Maravi, and the Yao peoples. Today the principal Nguni tribe is round in the extreme south near the Swaziland border. Another small Nguni grouts inhabits the Angonia highlands in the northeastern corner of Tete District. The heterogeneous peoples of the zdmbcii valley conisist of many tribes with mixed and often unclear cultural characteristics. Throughout history, lite 7jimbezi River has been a miajor rotate to the interior for Africans as veil as for foreigners, includi-ig Arab traders, Asians, and Europeans, and the ensuing contact and ethnic intermixture have left the original tribes of the region fragmented and dispersed. Although ethnographic boundaries are difficult to define, it is possible to locutesomeof the better known groups. The Chuabo, of Makua- l-omwe stock but adhering to sonic U)UthCM cultural praci -m�s, occupy APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100013 -1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100013 -1 Z .e .....v. .e- .w-. �i... XR ..r.. ..,..w..'.,.. +w S cn -1'.. ......Nwaw .1 :..+.1 .r.a rw4r_ i...nw tw..n .wt)- ..w -w:.A x tD Elie north rank of [lie river near its mouth, as -ell u; the ad jacent delta region. On the south b ank ill like same area arc the Podzo, also of Maktia- Lornwc stock but with a culture that is mainly Shona. in the region west of the Podzo dwell the Sena, who are a inixttirc of NI -kua, Nlaravi, anal Shona peoples and who show signs of both Aral) and Portuguese influence. The 7eamibezi Tonga and the Tavara tribes are found farther up the river, tit) rtII west of the So nu, these are of Maravi and Shona origin, with Shona influences predominating. In tilt northern sector of the valley are Ol culturally sintilar Chikunda and Nyungwe tribes, of mixed 'Conga and Maravi heritage. '['here are few pliysical differences between [lie African peoples of Mornibigtte. Most are lypicaily Negroid �o their physical churacleris,ics (figure I Nevertheless, there is considerable diversity in appearance. Traditionally, various tribes were distingimlied by their facial and body decoration, their dress and ornamentation, or their hair arrangement, and this is still true to a considerable extent, The Makonde and certain tribes of the Makua are noted for facial and body scarification, which is sometimes done in Linciful patterns. Sonic members of these groups also wear a licrele, or lip plug; others file [lie upper incisors. A Popular method of heautificatiou among tribal women of the northern coast is to apply it white, musklike coating to the face. Tradilloral dress, often nicager, is still worn by large numbers of tribespeople. [it the urban centers, however, and even in sonic rural areas, simple Western -style clothing is common, The more devout Muslims of the north wear the typo: of garments dict=ated by the precepts of Islam slamlurlg, enveloping robes for both sexes. Muslim rnen also wear turlmns, Almost all of [lie state's Africans sp ^ak a Bantu language as their mother longue. These languages belong to the large linguistic family, part of the Niger Congo language group, whose speakers inhabit central and southern Africa. Although sonic of the tongues are related in terms of structure and vocabulary, most are mutually unintelligible or intelligible only with difficulty. All told some 20 Bantu languages and close to 100 dialects are spoken in Mozambiq [Ike use of (lie -major languages extending across international boundaries since linguistic divisions corresix)nd' in large part to ethnic divisions. As of 19.30 there were more toan 2 million speakers of Makua in the northem regime, snaking it the prhit6pal language in M67antbique. Tice most important language of the south is Thonga, with more than I million speakers in 1950. languages of note among the peoples of the Zambe valley are Shona, Omaha, and Sen.,. The Ngimi still speak 7.11111 dialects. forth of (lie Zambezi and Particularly along the coast, the trade language and lingua franca of a lumtibcr of tribes is Swahili, a Batittt tongue which has been influenced by Arabic. Portuguese is [lie official language of tilestalc, used in govcrrirnent, education, and inchistry. It list) dominates the public information media. Only a small proportion of the African population have a functional knowledge of the language; most of these arc urban dwellers who have steady contact 'with Europeans. Conversely, few non Africans are able to speak an African tongue. According to the 1970 ceitsus, Mozambique's norkblack population accounted for about 3.2%' of the total population, divided into Elie following categories: whiko (2N mulattoes (�10.00()), Ir,diaas (230M, and Chines (3,000). Although most of the whites are Porluf-tiese, there arc also small communities of ther Europeans and sonic white South Africans. The majority of the whites reside in urban areas, \here they function as govcrnnnent administra- tors, civil servants, managerial personnel. small husinessrnen, or laborers; comparatively few are involved in agriculture. 1407ambirlue's mulattoes are largely of mixed African and European origin (figure 2). Like the whites, they c ninionly reside in urban areas and usually assindit Portuguese culture. Most of the Indians it Movambique are Portuguese citizens, those With origins in Cott and former Portuguese enclaves in India are mostly Roman Catholics, living in the towns and working its civil servants or shopkeepers. A larger number of Indians are 1 and sonic are ,Muslims. These are mainly small businessmen who� ancestors emigrated to east Africa dale in the 17th encourtgeed by the Portuguese to develop trading in the region. In urban areas they form an important commercial elcme nt dealing mainly with low- income Africans, and in tit(- interior they operate trading stations; some travel from village to village. Most Indians wear Western dress, but the\ retain much of their native culture. Indian languages are little used however. Thesmall Chinese community largely descended front immigrants who hegan to arrive it the last quarter of the [()tit century, is concentrated c hiefly in L ourenca Marques aril Beira. The majority are Portuguese citizens and aw quite We sternized, although they have kept a sense of community by maintaining their own schools and associations. Many of [lie Chinese are proprietors o restaurants, ban. and grocery stores, and a fewoperate farms in the suburbs of Lourencn Marques, growing pr=oduce to supply the market stalls of [lie capilal. Most of the Indians and Chinese have little social interaction with the Europeans, S APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100013 -1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100013 -1 laI r1 (al Mokua girl in Muslim garb lb) Mokua man wearing traditional Muslim turban (cl Makonde hunter exhibiting scarificatlon on [ace and torso id) Makande trlbeunan with Sip plug (e) Chopt marimba player (f( Girt from a northern coastal tribe -coring beauty mask (g) Women of Itho de Mocambique In traditional island dress, among iho moil colorful in the stare (hl Thonge warrior 6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100013 -1 FIGURE 1. Representative African physicol type! (UIOU) APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100013 -1 a f- 3 r c f i is The offici policy of the Portuguese cc;onial aclmimistratl, :n is to prohibit racial discriznina(inn and develop a multiracial society. implicit in lids lxItey is the gradual assimilation of Africans throaagh their achievement of European behavioral patterns and literacy in Portuguese and throaagh theiracceptanceof Christianity To attain this goal, (he goverrumenl h:s en,curaged social conlact and intermarriage between blacks and whites, a position which ins promoted a degree of racial tolerance. Racial iutegratior: is nevertheless minimal. Sauce the� early 19i0's, settlement programs have been tmdertaken for the stated purprsc of providing the opportunity for both races to work together in .n agricultural setting where there isequality in leyelsof firing; and social status and where the pruhletns to be faced are similar. ifowever. complcle social integraticm is not yet a fact and there has liven a strong tendency for [lie while settlers maiedy newly arrived ixascml irmnigrauts from Portilgal --to remain aloof from the blacks 2. Social organization a. Crass In tiro traditional African sociely of Morainbigiie. life centc�ars arcrund snall villages which arc� usualhV occlipled by a single lineage or clan. 'There is no social stratification as suet. but slalus and prestige sac era, to certain persons wititiii the cnrnrnanily --the village elders, the heaeirnan, the local elivincr �who serve as ilticrpreters of custom and arbitrators o f conflict. The livatinaam gains his imsitimi through .accession :long slxeifit-d lines of kinship, depending on how desct-nt is reckon d. whether nial rill ueal or patrilineai; if the tribesman in line for (lie post is not acceptable to the elders, the may choose one of his brothers. The Portugti0e hove� generally recog ixed lilt- position of village hvaclnian and ill nruly cases have appointed headmen us agenls of tilt- gayernnacnt, siumsible for tax collection and other administrative ditties. Ili the largely urban- ccnlcrml modern sector of society, a three -class system prevails on they basis of wealth, occupation, educational at(aiumetat, and faintly baekgrnnd. The small upper class is wholly cif Eurolxari origin airid almost entirely Vortugume. consisting of _government officials, high- rankinA representatives of Portuguese enterprises, owners of large plauilations or beisinesses, and wealdl professionals. \lost nn�mbers of (his side have strong lies With Portugal ;yid do 1101 intend .FO relmaita ill i\lozambigae permanently. A smaller number he )oug to families which have lived ire tiro state for generations auad have acrurnulaled considerable wealth through I:andholdiugs. or other interests. Family comicctions are exlremt-ly imliortant to lhv upper class, as ore utalerial Cnmferl5 auxl social :amenities. The middle class is larger, and although its memhers are mainly Europeans, it also includes tmdians. Chinese, mulattoes and I :uropt-,nizec! Africans. This t-lement is anode up of civil service employet-s, salaried persons in industry, white collar workers in general. and (lac more prosperous merchants, Most aspire to uplxr class status but find it difficult to rise to that level of society. The lower class. lilt' largest ill lilt- mcaclern sector, encompasses. persons from all of tilt racial groupm including recent immigrants fmin Portugal who have little financial means or education_ Genercll t;aaracterized by tilt lived to do menial labor to sur�i�e. the lower class includes skilleel and unskillml laborers. those in service occupations. street vendors. small cash -crop farmers :itrd farm laborers, and the uncmplo- -d, A large proporticm of this class consists of Africans who work as unskilled laborers or servants and Who live ill oalivt- �aiarters on the periphery of the huger urban veliters. Living collditimis .among lower class People in the modern sector are poor, and there is limited oplKrtanity for upward mobility. Newly detribalized Africans air in a sorne�w i'M transitional slate. They have become wparaled front the traditional sector without yrl living totally integnited into the rnodcra sector, and. as a result. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100013 -1 F10URE 2. Mulatto girl. Most mulattoes are of African and European extraction. (UJOU) APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100013 -1 they participate marginally in both. Most of these Africans live in or near urban venters where..they have Lome to seek employment. Some have had their first contact with modernity as laborers on short -term contracts to work in the mitres of Rhodesia or South Africa. Others in the transitional group are still living in native villages but have had the opportunity to attend a school or to work in a nearby economic enterprise where they have contact with Europeans and are exposed to modern technology. A dichototny sometimes develops in villages .where a school is maintained; those who have obtained some education, etinve to Christianity, and adopted certain European customs may-dwell in one part of the village, while those still adliering to the traditional life style occupy another section. b. Family The faini!y and its larger kinship grouping, the lineage, constitute the most important units of traditional African society in Mozambique. A village commonly consists of two or more extended families which form a lineage united under the senior inale, whether in patriliucal or matrilincal succession. A lineage is generally reckoned in terms of several generations arid is based on real or culturally defined kinship with a founding ancestor or ancestress. Family organization has assumed various pattern's among the different tribes and has been influenced in varying degrees: by Islam and Christianity in areas where those religions liay. been accepted, as well is by European custom in some regions. For example, many Bantu tribes which were traditionally matrilincal are known to have become patrilincal either totally or'in some aspects. In bath putrilineal and matrilincal tribes, the extended family, is the norm and male authority is recognised: In matrilineal groups, however, children regard their mothers eldest brother, rather than their father, as the primary authority figure. A traditional, patrilineal family consists of a man and his wife or wives, their unmarried children, and their married sons, together with the families of the latter. A. matrilineal family, traditionally, comprises it group of sisters, their husbands and offspring, and their eldest brother. Insteiid of moving to his wife's village at marriage, as is customary, the brother remains in the village, of.his sisters in order to supervise their affairs Arid t :e upbringing.of.their children. The children receive their `mother's nanae and reckon dL:kcnt and inheritance from her; the husband has little: respansibllity for.them except in eontriliute' to their support. It is not clear to :.what extent the structure of [lie matrilincage and the pattern of ruatrilocal residence survive among Mozambican tribes today. Although the practice of pnlygyny is -+o longer common, it is still regarded as the ideal form of marriage fur the wealthier tribesmen. Plural wives usually work together as in economic unit under the direction of the first wife, but each is entitled to her own but for herself and her children. Where the matrilincage prevails, sororal polygyny is the most workable form of plural marriage. In this arrange mcut, a man marries ono pr more of his wife's sisters. The Portuguese have discouraged polygyny as much as possible, and since 194$ it has been prohibited among ii:ban -based Africans. Basically, marriage is regarded as a contract between two families. Patrilhical tribes require the payment of a bride -price by the grooms family; this may lie paid in cash or consist, of cattle or other goods. Some rnatrilitical peoples continue to maintain' the tradition of "-bride service" whereby the groom performs a period of service: for his mother-in-law, usually by working her land. lie may also give a token gift to the bride's eldest maternal inele. 1-'orinalizatinn of a marriage takes place in a ceremony performed in accordance with local custom, commonly in the presence of several witnesses. A marriage may lie casily dissolved, but the disruptive effects of the dissolution on a wife or children are moderated by the strength of the extended family and lineage system, which provides an individual with a large Body of kin whit reeogriixe a mutual obligation to support and assist tine another. Economic dependency is a stabilizing force within the extended fancily, characterized by a time honored division of labor. The men lutnt, fish, prepare the fields for sowing, construct living quarters. and sometimes earn money as wage laborers, while the women do the culvitating and harvesting, prepare the grain and other produce for use as food (Figure 3), perform household tasks, and care for the children. Herding is done by both sexes. Children are greatly desired, each child tieing regarded as an asset to the Family to which it Belongs. rhe hirth of a child confers status, particularly on the father, and barrenness in a woman is It Ctimrnon ground for divorce. Until age 6 or, 7 a child has considerable frecdom but thereafter must begin helping; with the fomily' s labor, li oys workit g in the fields and girls doing household tasks. Childhood ends tvith pubeity, which hi marry tribes is signifies an initiation into adulthood, an occasion of great iiiiportance to the participants, The .pntetices associated initiation vary cousidwably from one APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100013 -1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100013 -1 Irilr.l group to ,mntIIVT. lit nrttrilirleal triIWS the process is murc extrusive for girls than for hors, and traditionally it ll.ts iuwolvcd a period of C orifineuu -tit during which older wotneu provide the girl% with instruction iii sex and tither rnaIter4 deeim-d uppnpri,tlr for a utarricd woman. In some Irihcs the initiates undergo clituridectomy. ;old in others }roltingcd and elaborate cerenimues are performed (Vigtire -1). I rites for bows also comitioul i,IChrde ;t period of seclusion for the initiates, devoted to rigid discipliuc atA instruction in various male skills and tribal lore. This is followed by circumcision. with ucaoutpunyiug rituals. Youths who have golke 111"Olig t the initiation togelher frequently form so�ralled age gmde groups �hick are pledged to lifelorig solidaril5. Alter pi3hvrly. an individual, stein& or female, is considered to he prepared for marriage and for shouldering the responsibilities of adulthood Among newly delribitlirrd ACHuttis is the trrharl celiters. llie lriditioual extended fartlily has necVssaril givcu way to the imulear unit consisting of a rrrm.uul wife and lhcir unutarried children. Although ties in tine's larger kinship groue arid the n: ve village nta) be mlaitled to stimc cxlcut. ihcw iue�wilabl weaketed :old in titans cases completely abandoned. abut; witic the concepts of kinship obligation anel mslsect for senior male authority which urc implicit ill the extended fanli1% .tnd li:u�uge systeut. The awslem has also berii subject to erosion in rural areas anumg those peoples who have becvonle a source of migrant labor For rtiiTUrlg interests in Rhudesia ;rod South Africa. The iotig absences of married inert FtIfilling labor contracts have tilt adverse effect on family life. and participation in the none% rc,rlutlt) lends to undermine the tradilion of I.-MIM nic coo}x�ralion uticl interdeperldenv% which is characteristic of the tribal kinship group. In the European sector the typical fantih is nuclear. .dthuugh it is not uucommin to find tine or both parents of the hosbawl or wife dwelling in the household. 'I'lie PorUigttesc regard the family as the basic social institution and as the primarw soiree of material and psycholoigical support for till' indiwidti.& htintiiy lo are strong. and rnittual assistance is looked upon as an iTnportant obligation for famil mrutben. N -fast of the I'oringuesl' in \loz:irnhie}tu� arc married in a Catholic veretnoi i y, and the in..rrhiges are generally stable, Although divor�e is prohibited )IN the Catholic Church it is pereitilted under Port till nese haw. The legal provisions are restrictive, kowewer. involving stnictions against the spouse judged to be at faull. l cg �1 separation is also 1wrmNsibic. The httabilttd tied father wields strong authority within the 9 mar._ Y'. _'7'i'.^.' ?..v` r'y. "''�s:.: r':n:.:, !`�.,t:, a.f...7x }sts..:;'.. -r'- M, s'F. ,c e.. ...:,.ccasionully. caused strife between: newly, arrNcd; jobscekers, and' the emplayed, established slum dwellers. Although the �existence of :.high ;unemployment in tilt cities �stems mainly (earn, the' rural -fi" =urban exodus, otlcr "Factors, inrludirag the state's. small industrial base, have also been responsible. Additionally, a growing segment of the unemployed consists of discharged military conscripts who have been recruited in the countryside but are unwilling to return to farming after acquiring a substantial acculturation to European ways during their tour of service. African women, who are far less likely to seek wage employment than men and who normally remain behind {luring the seasonal migrations of their males, constitute the backbone of the agrarian labor force, serving as unpaid family workers. In subsistence farming they perform most of the day -to -day :Mores and many of the arduous tasks as well. On the other hand, the liberal amount of leisure time enjoyed by men farmers accounts in large measure for the prevalence of high underemployment in rural areas. While few women arc wage earners (5% of all female workers were so classified in 1963), the situtation does not derive entirely from their predilection`for farming, as the Portuguese community and most of the indigenous tribes traditionally have attached much importance to the woman's role as a mother and homemaker. Most women wage earners are household domestics. Certain profound differences between the African and Portuguese communities cause disharmony in labor relations and'contribute to low productivity. The lack of a common language perhaps is the most imposing harrier between employers and employees. Fluency in Portuguese, therefore, is lice basic .tool for obtaining a job that'pays wages. Even wheri fluent in Portuguese and acculturated in other ways, however, the African worker is apt to differ from his white counterpart in matters relating to job expectations and performance. The black worker, with poor working and living conditions and limited channels for improvement through advancement or the accumula- tion of wealth, often tends to b,, unresponsive to work incentives. For instance, black workers often fail to capitalize on incentive wage schemes offered by employers even though base wages are meager. In fact, many wage laborers from rural areas return to their villages after c_arning sufficient cash to pity the annual capitation tj)x and to purchase a few manufactured articles. Despite the hardships endured by urban workers and the high turnover that characterizes employment in -tire- wage sector, an ever increasing inumber of African workers, especially those with some schooling, permanently abandon agriculture. Such individuals find that the civil service generally affords greater employment opportunities and somewhat better 23 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100013 -1 I_1 :Z61Tl =1 Q;191;4;1 =1 [wo] /_d N IrZQrIrf Lrf :ZrIrIrYrIrZ[rIrIrZKi ch air_ -vs for advancement than does private enterprise. The promulgation in mid -1969 of a low�ereducational requirement For entry into the civil service opc;icd numerous positions in the lower echelons of the administrative service of government, including the police force and other municipal activities. The measure was not prompted solely by a desire on the part of the authorities to increase employment opportunities for blacks, however, but was motivated in part by difficulties experienced in filling these responsible but low paying; jobs. Tile employment of children in various branches of economic activity is commonplace. Although young children frequently work on family farms, the legal minimum age for agricultural employment is 12 years, at which age children may also be hired as domestic servants under certain criottitions. In :manuf acturing and commerce, the legal age varies from 1.1 to 16 years, depending oil the type of work. Pries to a revision in the minimum wage law during mid -1971. youngsters under age 18 were customarily paid at a flat rate equal to one -half the base wage for adults, At that time, however, a graduated minipuum wage 6 schedule was enacted, taking into account the location, occupation, and specific age of minors, with those nearing age 18 being entitled to higher wages than younger ones. Cenerally, minors in agriculture earn the equivalent of uboout US$0.30 to $0.50 per day, wltareas those In nonagricultural activities are entitled to wages ranging from $0.40 to $0.66. Deductions are made if the workers are supplied with food and clothing. Tile legal minimum wages for minors are roughly one -third to one -half lower than those stipulated for adult workers. b. Labor legiafafion (U /OU) Enacted in the wake of the Angolan rebellion of 1961 and in the face of international criticism of PorPigal's overseas labor policies and practises, the Rural Labor Code of 1962, as subsequently amended, is the basic device for regulating working conditions in Mozambique and other Portuguese possessions. The code in effect replacing the "duty of labor" laws, was designed to put an end to labor practices which had the potential for engendering unrest among Workers. Responsibility for implementing the labor -legislation rests With the labor Institute, a sem �autonomous cogency urider the State Secretary. for Labor. Although known as the rural Labor Code, the present statute applies to wage camels in enterprises of all types (including urba industrial plants) having 20 or more employees, except those covered under special laws or by contracts negotiated betw wen management 24 and worker organizations, locally known as syndicates. 'Thus, at the start of the I970's sonic 500,0{x) workers, representing roughly one Fifth of the labor force, were covered by the code; virtually all were black, Besides governing the 'health and safety aspects of employment, the late contains provisions concerning minimum wages, hours of work, and holidays; woman and child labor; workmen's compensation; recruiting, work contract terms, and dismissals; and fringe benefits and remuneration in kind, including food rations, clothing, housing. medical care, and educational Facilities. In addition, the code has established a limited social insurance program, providing old -age pensions and maternity benefits. Furthermore, in amendment to the code decreed the formation of the Social Action f=und, to be administered by the labor Institute and supported by contributions etit4valent to 2:a of wages, paid by employers anvil employees alike, for the purpose of maintaining and improving wworker welfare services. A lthough some workers are permitted to orgaruive, the requisites for syndicate inembership are stringent, and workers, whether organized or unaffiliated, are not allowed- to strike. The provisions of the code do not apply uniformly to all workers, as allowances are made for the size and location of establishments. Varying ill accordance with geographical location and type of activity, the present legal minimum daily wage for adults ranges from a low equivalent to US$0.30 for agricuitu rat workers in tine north to a high of 51.00 For industrial workers in the vicinity of Lourenco Marques and Matola -Ric. Wages in many industries, however, are higher than the rnininuun% legal amounts. For example; port and rail workers, who rank among the best paid, earn at least $2.80. per day. The minimum Wage levels were raised in 1966 and again in mid 1971, 'Out some observers maintain that they have generally lagged behind increases in the cost of living. Tire validity of such claims is difficult to judge, however, as many workers covered under the base wage legislation receive a substantial txwtitm of their earni6gs in kind. Housing, for example, must be provided to all migrant workers, including those contracted to labor in neighboring countries. The social inswanLe and workmen's compensation provisions of the code evidently are administered by the employers themselves rather that% by the government; firn %s employing 30 or more 'persons, h owever, a re o bliged to post a SCcurity d eposit w ith the Labor Institorte t.0 guarantee the poi �ment of valid workmen's compensation claims and retirement pensions. 'Workmen's compensation benefits, .which are payable to eligible workers w ho contract APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100013 -1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100013 -1 Occupational diseases or incur work-related injuries, amount to as much as two- thirds of the annual earnings for those experiencing total incapacitation. The spouse of a covered worker who is killed in the line of duty is eligible for an annual payment amounting to one-fourth of annual earnings. Other provisions of the code require the granting of at least 2 weeks, of vacation a year. The smaller establishments covered by the legislation are required to provide First aid, whereas larger firms must maintain more comprehensive medical services. Upon submission of medical certification, expectant mothers must lies given.6 weeks of leave prior to childbirth and an equal period afterward at a rate of pay equuI to at least one -half of the normal wage. Under pressure from the'busincss community and lacking sufficient staff and funds, the Labor Institute has not enforced the labor code fully, aria compliance has been characterized as "spotty." In fact, during the first decade of the codes existence, implementation and the policing of compliance proceeded at a faster pace in engola than in Mozambique. in hopes of correcting the situation, the director of [lie Angolan labor Institute was transferred in 1971 to head the counterpart agency in Morambiciue. Subsequently, 4 the Mozambique U bor Institute has been expanded and upgraded in importance, and it is now responsible for collecting labor and employment statistics and For evaluating [lie adequacy of minimerrn wage lev,;is. The authority of its labor inspection service has been strengthened; and its social services division plans to establish hotels, cafeterias, day -care centers, and recreational facilities for urban workers. In order to eventually do away with the private labor recruiters, an autonomous Employment Service has Been established which provides free placement services; training progntrrts for the unskilled- are also to be formed. c. Labor and martagernent (C) d Despite indications that workers were assuming u somewhat more .3riramic role in the state's socioeconomic life during'the early. 1970's, organized labor remains small and passive, subservient tv thewill of tine government. The syndicates are, in essence, corporate entities of the state, bleb limits them to serving.mainly as muttial aid societies; In'uddition to V hsidW the syndicates, the' government :appoints ,,their topmost- leudars;. lesser functionaries, althoitgh must re official sanction prior, to taking Nonetheless,, since� unskilled workers. usually cannot meet the;'entry..requir t I i n& whites occupy most skilled jabs; syndicalists`comprise sector of tine labor force. At the beginning of the 1970's, there were some 47,000 officially registered syndicate members, or about 24b of the labor force. Although Africans ost^nsibly arc guaranteed the right to join syndicates on an equal Basis with whites, the latter cornprisc approximately three- fourilis of the total membership. Besides Iimiting membership to skilled workers, other entry requirements hove effectively insured the movement's continued domination by whites*whil'e reinforcing its elitist character. Until recently few nonwhites met the minimum educational standard, which consists of 3 years of primary schooling, Also, few norlw:lites have been able to afford the membership dues, which are high. As a result, there are sharp disparities in employment opportunities and earning power hclwecn the :small minority of organized workers and the mass of unorganized rules. Whereas unemployment is high among unaffiliated workers it is nominal among syndicate members. Base wages among the organized workers, moreover, arc anywhere from 2 to 10 times higher than those prevailing among the mass of worker Jealousy safeguarding the privileged position of their constituents, syndicate leaders have not promoted as expansion in membership. Apprehension over the possibility that a substan- tially higher membership would overtax certain social services that are provided to svndicalists also has reinforced the policy of restricted growth. Exercising Iittle if any initiative as champions of workers' rights and otherwise performing few of the functions and responsibilities that normally accrue to the heads of freely organized worker groups, the leadership largel confines es itself to the operation of social soviets, mostly medical care, for members and their dependents. Syndicate spokesman seldom forward worker grievances to the Lubor Institute, a,rd they are reluctant to contest decisions by manageriient, even when involving such basic :rod, seemingly un- controversial issues as the granting of retirement pensions. This posture sterns in part from the fact that the syndicates are permitted, if not obliged, to accept the membership of management personnel. Before 1965 all syndicate headquarters -were in tine capital, with local branches throughout the territory. Complaints that the main offices �ere urtresponsive to tltp needs of constituent groups outside tim capital subsequently led to the granting of administrative aalnnomy to all local entities. Thus, at [lie end of 1970 36 syndicates were in operation, 7 of them in Lourenco Marques. 5 in Manisa c Sofarla, and 4 each in the remaining districts, except Massa, which had 25 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16. CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100013 -1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100013 -1 none. Reflecting the concentration of syndicalists in the capital and in Beira, the districts in which those cities are located accounted for three- Fourths of the total membership, El- ewhere, mast of the syndicates are little more than paper organizations. The syndicates in Lourcwto Marques represent bank employees, office employees, commercial and industrial workers, construction laborers, caiistruction supervisors, transportation workers, and dock and harbor workers. Paradoxically, the rank and file of the last -named group includes only foremen and white collar administrative personnel. of the Harbor%, Rail ay, and Transport Services Administration, an autonomous agency which is by far the states largest employer. On the grounds that they fail to meet the educational prerequisite, cargo handlers, who comprise tite bulk of the agency's worl :ers, and stevedores employed by private firms have been ineligible for syndicate membership. Although lacking formal cohesion, the cargo handlers and stevedores constitute the only element in the work forge to have manifested some degree of militancy. On a number of occasions since midcentury they have staged strikes, work slowdowns, and demonstrations to obtain higher wages.- While attempting to Suppress such activities, the government has at kitties authorized wage increases, as in mid -1972 when a 45% raise, plus liberalized bonuses for overtime and hazardous work, was granted in the woke of a slowdown. Deriving in large measure from the vital economic importance of Lourenco Marques, the second largest port in last Africa, the strength of the cargo handlers and stevedores also amnints for the fact that their wages are among the highest in the state, In view of the statutory injunction against work stoppages, and since voluntary collective bargaining is virtually unknown, tike slowdown is probably the most effective tactic available to workers wishing to improve 0 Jr lot. Even so, it is employed infrequently, the 1972 slowdown by stevedores being it landmark event. Negotiations between workers and manage- ment generally occur at the behest of the Labor Institute, which acts as an arbiter. Nevertheless, formal procedures exist for workers to lodge grievances with. tile Labor Institute concerning the interpretation and execution of collective labor agreements or of individual employment cbrttrncts. Issues that cannot Ix- resolved through the intervention of that agency may he forwarded to special labor courts or to the civil courts. Although manage: 'nent rim is able to maintain its position in matters of lid-or relations, file treatment accorded to African workers varies-widely throughout thv state. Many high=level managers, in both public and private sectors, tend to be paternalistic, if not condescending, toward their subordi nates. Whilee some observers in Uiurenco Marques have suggested that rapid change has taken place in this regard during the early years of the present decade, as recently as 1970, Antonio Rita Ferreira, a sociologist assigned by the Labor Institute to conduct the state's first survey of managentent attitudes, noted that w rite managers seldom gave blacks the opportunity to fill positions requiring thought, imagination, or considerable dexterity. On the contrary, they generally appeared to consider blacks superior to whites at monotonous assembly line tasks or at gathering raw agricultural products, because of their supposed ability to withstand boredom. A1tBnugh these attitudes, Coupled with the lack of effective work training programs, have constituted a hindrance to the upward mobility of African workers, Rita Ferreira found that most while foremen and fit t -line supervisors, themselves usually blue-collar workers, have constituted an even more formidable obstacle to progress by black workers. Perhaps because they regard bluckr as a potential threat to their own position, white blue -collar workers have been known to openly berate or otherwise abuse their black subordinates, whom they regard as indolent and untrustworthy. Artisans and tits urban sell- emplayed, who are ineligible for syndicate membership, may join assoications organized along occupational lines. Representing individuals in such varied occupations as shmnhining, barbering, and carpentry, the associa- tions, Bice the syndicates, are little more than mutual aid societies. Members, however, have been known to Pox base prices for their r iviecs. While management is represented within the labor syndicates, other organizations aw dedicated exclusively to promoting the int;msts of the bossiness community. Some industries are organized into officially sanctioned ci)rfx. -tatc entities known as gremfos, which have declined .harply in number during the 1.960's; by the end of 1970, 8 grendos representing 1'63 firms and 1,214 individuals were functioning, mostly in 1,ourenco Marques. Addition- ally, tleere is it states +ide Industrial Association, while various lesser associations, headquartered in cities throughout the state, represent businessmen, cattlemen, and agriculturalists, or groupings of these within a given region. a Chamber of Commerce operates in the capital, 26 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100013 -1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100013 -1 0 E. Religion (U /OU) religion. All tribal groups believe that communication does not cease with death but that'all acts of the living are under the constant scrutiny of the departed who may intervene Go aid or Binder the course of human affairs. The living and [lie dead, therefore, compose a close, interdependent community in which ancestors must be propitiated through gifts and ritual ceremonies, and taboos must be Followed to avoid offense. Disease, death, crop success or failure, human fertility, and similar phenomena arc attributed to the favor or disfavor of particular spirits. At is thus extremely important for a deceased,person to receive a proper burial; otherwise his spirit may cause harm. To bring good fortune and to insure immunity from dangers and disasters, various types of ritual ceremonies are performed, including symbolic masked dancing. The southern Thonga place offerings at the foot of a sacred tree, while northern tribes often maintain a shrine where gifts are left (Figure 15). In addition to ancestor spirits, there are numerous other deities, both good and evil, who may he "embodied" in humans. animals, trees, plants, or inanimate objects and must also be placated. Assistance from the spiritual world is transmitted by ritual mediators, akin to priests, of whom the most important is the diviner. Found in almnst oil trii�al communities. even Christian villages, the diviner is most often called upon to determine which spirit is the source of a particular misfortune and what must be done to restore harmony. Diviners may also interpret omens and dreams, locate lost objects, give advice on personal problems, and dispense medicines and charms. A diviner who has carried a reputation for success usually enjoys a position of great respect in the community and may wield considerable authority in local affairs. Sorcerers and witches, on tfieotherhand, Religion plays an important role in Mozambican life, encompassing a variety of indigenous beliefs, the niore formaiim-d doctrines of Christianity and Islam, and a number of syncretic faiths blending animism with Christianity or Isiam. At the beginning of 1971 (lie claimed religious affiliation of the people approximated the following (in percent). Animist 85.6 Roman Catholic 17.7 Muslim I0.5 Protestant 3.8 Ou ter 2.4 Although the Portuguese constitution guarantees freedom of religion, faiths other than Catholicism are closely regulated by law. Relations between [lie Vatican and the Portuguese Covernment are governed by the Concordat of 1940 and other accords. The promotion of Catholicism is an integral part of the Portuguese policy of assimilation, which also assumes that the church has a corresponding obligation to instill in the Africans not only the Catholic religion but also Pontuguesismo (an affinity for Portuguese values and traditions). Thus, in general, the government and the hicrarchy work closely togrther, especially in the Field of education, the former subsidizing the operation of mission schools for Africans and other church activities. The limited success of missionary efforts, however, with rudimentary and primary education in the hands of mission priests for generations, has occasioned some government criticism of lite church. On the other hand, a few Catholic clergy, as well as Protestant groups, have criticized [lie government For paying insufficient attention to the problems of poor blacks, for its slowness in implementing racial equality, and For alleged occasional atrocities against Africans by Mozambican troops. 1. Animism Traditional African religion, closely interwined with tribal culture, varies somewhat according to tribal and ethnic grouping, but all cults are ba