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APPROVED FOR RELEASE CONFIDED' 58 /&S/MG k`S S: M A ugus NATI CONFIDEN' APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100014 -0 :2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100014 -0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100014 -0 c1 i w a o n r+r a .r,. ar,,""a iY: c_" '?'.'R.E'E. :.i`v: �:.3'.: .i l y WARNING The NIS is National Intelligence and may not be re- leased or shown to representatives of any foreign govern- mentor intornational body except 5), specific authorization of the Director of Central Intelligence in accordance with the provisions of National Security Council Intelligence Di- rective No. 1. For NIS containing unclassified material, however, the portions so marked may be made available for official pur- poses to foreign nationals and nongovernment personnel provided no attribution is made to National Intelligence or the National Intelligence Survey. Subsections and graphics are individually classified according to content. Classification /control designa- tions are: (U /OU) Unclassified /For Official Use Only (C) Confidential (S) Secret APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100014 -0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP0l- 00707R000200100014 -0 This chapter was prepared for the NIS by the Defewe Intelligence Agenk'+1. Research was sub stantially completed by May 7.973. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100014 -0 MIA J, 1 130,111 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100014 -0 Page E. Approaches 15 1. Land 16 Fig. 1 Vegetation (map) Fig. 2 Flat to rolling plains north of Joao Fig. 11 Belo (photo) Fig. 3 Rocky hills in the northern plains Fig. 12 (photo) Fig. 4 Sinuous streams in the coastal plains near Beira (photo) Fig, 5 Rio Incomati northeast of Lourmco Fig. 13 Marques (photo) Fig. 6 Zambezi northwest of Chemba (photo) Fig. 7 Sisal plai,i nion in the northeast Fig. 14 (photo) Fig. 8 Coconut palms near the central Fig. 15 coast (photo) Fig. 9 Dissected, hills and mountains west Fig. 16 of Vila Pery (photo) Fig. 10 Mountain gorge east of Chicoa (photo) if Page 2. Sea 16 3. Air 19 FIGURES Page Purge 2 Fig. 11 Zambezi gorge near Tete (photo) 8 Fig. 12 Broadleaf evergreen forest near 2 Rhodesia border (photo) 8 Fig. 13 Open broadleaf forest near Vila 3 Paiva de Andrada (photo) 9 Fig. 14 Climatic factors (chart) 10 4 Fig. 15 Lago Chirua (photo) 13 Fig. 16 Lourenco Marques strategic area 4 (map) 14 Fig. 17 Lourenco Marques (photo) 15 4 Fig, 18 Beira strategic area (map) 16 Fig. 19 Beira (photo) 17 5 Fig. 20 Internal routes (table) 18 Fig. 21 Boundaries (table) 19 5 Fig. 22 Land approaches table) I 20 Fig. 23 Amphibious landing beach near 6 Beira (photo) 21 Fig, 24 Military Geographic Factors 7 (map) follows 21 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100014 -0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100014 -0 Military Geography A. Location and description (Uf OU) Mozambique Iies along the coast of southeastern Africa. Its long irregularshores face Madagascar across the 215- to 535-nautical-mile-wide Movambique Channel. Oil its landward side, Mozambique borders on six countries, two of which are also white dominated territories, South Africa and Rhodesia, and one of which almost bisects Mozambique, the black African state of Malawi. Mozambique has an area of 303,769 square mites and a population of 8,898,000 as of June 1973. The country is about 1,240 miles' long and ranges in width from about 400 miles in the north to approximately 30 miles in the south. Superimposed oil the eastern United States, ;Mozambique would extend from the Canadian border to northern Florida, and From v.estem Indiana to the Atlantic Ocean. 1, Topography The terrain of Mozambique consist` principally of fiat to rolling plain's, which rise gradually inland front the coast and culminate in rugged ranges of hills and scattered mountains in the north and west (Figure 24, the Military Geographic Factors map at theend of tltd chapter). Most of the country is forested, Although there are large sthvanna areas, mainly in the south and northwest, at,;! widely scattered cultivated areas, chiefly near the major settlements along the coast (Figure 1). Several large streams flow across the country from the west and discharge into the Mozambique Channel. The plains are flat to rolling (Figs re 2); however, north of the Zambezi, isolated rocky hills (Figure 3) and several small mountainous areas break the surface. Most of the plains are less than 1,000 feet above sea level, and extensive areas, particularly in the south, are less than 650 feet. Local relief is generally less than 200 feet; along the western margins of the plains, it is bctwcea 200 and 500 feet. Most slopes are less than 10%, and extensive areas are icss than 2%. 'Distances are in statute miles unless nautical miles are specifically stated. Isolated hill slopes are between 107o m.1 30%, and slopes in the mountainous areas are more than 305, commonly exceeding 45%. Several broad, deep perennial streams flow eastward across the plains in wide, shallow valleys. The streams are meandering and marshy in their lower courses, and mangrove swamps are coninion at their mouths (Figure 4). The larger streams and their major tributaries are more than 500 feet wide in most of their courses and are commonly more than 3.i feet deep at high water and less than 3.5 feet at low eater. The lower courses of the major streams are more than 3.5 feet deep throughout the year (Figure 5). The 7ambe7i, the largest stream in the country, is 1 to 3 Whiles wide and 6 to 9 feet deen all year (Figure 6). Streambanks are low but steep and locally marshy; stream bottoms are commonly sandy or gravelly. Extensive flooding often occurs during the high water period (early November through March or April). During this period, ninny small shallow lakes are formed. During the low water period (generally early April or early May through October), these lakes dry up, smaller streams become dry, and even the large streams are greatly reduced in size. Vegetation in the plains consists of open broadleaf evergreen and deciduous forests which contain numerous grassy or cultivated clearings. Dense mangrove swamps are scattered along the coast (Figure 25). Savanna of dense grass up to 5 feet tall and scattered trees or patches of forest covers over half of the area south of tine Rio Save; a large area along the northern coast between Lumbo and Porto Amelia= is covered by savanna that consists of sparse grass I to 3 feet tall and scattered thorn trees. Cultivated sueas, mainly plantations of sisal (Figure 7), coconut (Figure 8), cotton. and citrus fruits, widely scattered throughout the plains but are located primarily near the coast. The ground is chiefly firm nett.' dry or moist most a$ the year, although it may he wet and soft a few times a month for a day or less after rains, usually between "For dlacdtics on place names sec the list of names an the apron of the Military Gcogru.phle ructors map and the map itself. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009 /06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100014 -0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100014 -0 I mid November and mid -April. Io swine river valleys and in tnurshes and swamps, the ground is wet and soft much or all of the year. The coastal areas contain most of the major towns, the best road and railroad Facilities, extensive plantations, and many small rural settlements. Elsewhere. there are oniy a Few significant tOWEIS, scattered native villages, isolated plantations, and a few small mining coin muvities. The major cities and towns generally have a rectangular street pattern; the tnain streets are mostly wide, biturninous surfaced, and tree lined. Commercial and administrative buildings in the cities are constructed of masonry and concrete and are generally 2 or 3 stories high lzut may be as much as 10 or 12 stories in Lourenco Marques (Figure 17) and 13e In the European residential areas, houses are generally of concrete, timber, or Ild galvanized metal, have the or tar covered sheet metal FIGURE 2. Extensive flat to rolling mains cover most of eostem Mozambique. In the south, as in the area shown her,, north of Joao Belo, elevations generally are less than 650 feet, and slopes mostly are less than 2%. The plains are marshy in places and hove been re- claimed for cultivation. The network of drainage ditches that crisscrosses the almost featureless surface Is the only dissecilon for mr -)y miles. (U /OU) 2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100014 -0 FIGURE 1. Vegerotion (U /OU) APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100014 -0 ..6 x.........,a .i wc -..-5Y r..... .u.. 1... i...w..,... ...w.- iR+ 1 i r� 5 -S :.t several high, steep, discontinuous, north �south trending cscarpracnts. Elevatiom in the highlands are mostly between 630 and 3,280 feet; however, several mountain peaks are over 3,000 feet, and the highest point in the country is almost 8,000 feet. Laval relief in the upland plains is mostly between 250 and 500 feet; in the hills, 500 to 2,000 feet; and in the mountains, from 2,000 to 5,000 feet. Slopes in the plains am mostly less than 10%, generally 105o to 30a in the hills, and 30% to 455 in the mountains. The highlands are drained by several large, widely spaced, perennial streams and numerous short, intermittent streams. The major streams are over 500 feet wide and over 3.5 feet deep during the high water period (early November through March or April), and the Rio Lugenda and the %ambezi are over 3.5 feet deep throughout the year. During the high water period, the major streams have extremely high velocities and often flood valleys in the Iower plains. During the low water period (early April or early May through October), most small streams are dry, and large streams are generally reducer( in size. The 3 roofs, and are 1 or 2 stories high. (louses in the better built African communities are of stucco covered concrete blocks, but many African residential areas arc slums, consisting of flimsy corrugated metal and wooden shacks with scrap sheet metal roofs or of thatched roofed mud huts. Streets in the slum areas are narrow and mostly unstufaced. The cities and towns are connected by a sparse network of roads. The railroad network consists of several separate, unconnected systems. The railroads, which extend inland from the coastal cities and towns, are mostly 3'6" gage, single track, and in generally good condition. The highlands of Mozambique consist mostly of rugged hills interspersed with areas of rolling to moderately dissected upland plains and small but rugged mountain ranges (Figure 9). The hills and mountains are severely dissected by deep, steep -sided narrow valleys or gorges (Figure 10). Summits range from rounded domes to sharp pinnacles. Near Lake Nyasa and along parts of the Malawi border there arc APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100014 -0 FIGURE 3. Granitic knobs with domed summits and barren, rocky, striared sides rise abruptly from the railing surfaces of the northern plains, generally up to 1,300 feet above adjacent surfaces. Hownyer, they maybe readily bypassed. (C) APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100014 -0 streams have numerous falls and rapids, mostly tacky bottoms, and high, steep batiks; in many places they flow through deep, narrow gorges and valleys with walls up to 1,000 feet high (Figure 11). Most of the highlands are covered by open to dense broadleaf evergreen and deciduous forests (figure 12). Dense broadleaf evergreen forests with a thick undergrowth of shrubs and vines cover many valleys and fringe the larger streams. Scattered thickets of bamboo, large grassy areas (Figure 13), and cultivated areas are scattered throughout the open forests. Savanna, with dense grass 3 to 5 feet high, covers a large area of mostly rolling plains and hilt, along the upper Zjml)czi (Figure 1). FIGURE 4. Broad, winding, sluggish streams cross the wet coastal plains of central Mozambique. In this area near Beira, watercourses are nu- merous and provide routes to the Interior through the extensive marshes and swamps that spread inland many miles along the streams. (U /OU) FIGURE 5. The major streams cross- ing the plains are broad and deep and present formidable barri&s to north- -south movement. This stretch of the Rlo Incomod near its mouth is more than 500 feet wide and too deep to ford throughout the year. Banks are low but steep and are fringed by marshes. (U /OU) FIGURE 6. The Zambezi, the longest stream in the country, ranges from 1 to 3.miles wide in this stretch at the western edge of the plains where the stream emerges from its tortuous course through the high- lands. The :*recur is more than 6 feet deep year round and o major obstacle to crossings. (U /OU) 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100014 -0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100014 -0 The ground is beneral,y dry except from mid- November to mid April, when it is chiefly moist. In the lower plains and valleys, it is chiefly wef from. mid- December to mid -May. The ground is generally firm when dry or moist and sgft when wet. Throughout most of the bighlarids there are only a few significant towns, mainly near the western border Of Mocambique; these have characteristics similar to the towns in the coastal plains. The settlement pattern FIGURE 7. Sisal Is one of the major crops on the coastal plain, particu- larly in the northeast. Plants have spine- pointed swordlike leaves to 5 feet high and are grown In rows about 5 feet apart. {UJOU) FIGURE 8. Coconut plantations are scattered along the coast, but the largest are near Quellmone. The trees, which provide some timber, are 20 to 80 feet high, have trunks about 1 foot in diameter, and are spaced up to 25 feet apart. The undergrowth Is low grass or is lacking. (UJOU) 0 consists mostly of seattcrcd native villages, isolated plantations, and smali mining communities. The transportation network is sparse. 2. Climate. Mo %asr'lbigne has a tropical climate, with a pronounced wet season, December through March. and a long dry season, gener,illy May throtigh October (Figure 14). April and November are transition periods 5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100014 -0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100014 -0 helwvvio tilt- %%M :ind dr% %vautos. 13c,it1c�, lilt� c�ountr', tropical location, the c�litttutiv ttirrilrols int'ludt� the nr:Irb% oveanic� %talern. tilt- iutt-drttpical coinergellee root�, ;111(1 tilt- varied terrlirt. The WV ,t-as) tt is opprt-�i%t4% hot and InitIkid ahunsl e v v r% %v here. Ott tilt- coast, afternoon tI are dight1% inndt-rdmi I the ,va breezes. ,o that nivait tl:til% ni ;t%iwunts ase held mostlh to Elie to 90�F. ring 'I'lie htittt-st uflt-rnoou lcn:peratures occur in the hn -Iiog of the interior, llt�re�, inosl dail nlclxitltunis are is the� W"F. to 10.i�i'. range. and IetnperaUirr, occnsioualh esceod I IM", al niam places. The unl% 'rill f i, at till. Itigher eleratitn,. ��here afternoon telllperature, rise vial to Ilit, 70's �I'. l. At night rttean daily IMM1tnln teniperrture, dccrea-w to the 60's in the interior but only to the 70's cirt the co:isl_ \lean mlalive 1lutriiclih is Itig!l tbroughoul this season in all sections of the rounlr% and. iu conihittatioei with the high tetripertlures, c�realt-s aleii(O stifling cuudilion, chtring {i I lie tl:n and crrntinued milt r\ condiliou al ttight. Masi Of the :inttnal rainfall is rt-cett-d chiriut tilt- at-t season Mid lilt- trntsition trnlnila, vht�it Z11" intertropical convergence itne tit ZI 1, cner or hear Mozantl� tpu�- I'lu ariut; iutensit of the IC%. ho n�,idl, iu icle flac�taatiorls of aluterll rainfall arttount at�ros tilt- c�ountr%. froni It-ss thou ?11 irtc�lie% in tittle -'stern part, to gn�alvr Elton till inches in sv%vral ttuutntaitlnit, welions. tl't-l ,cusou rainfall is frt-ctucul and Most!\ ill lilt- fnrtu uf,hoacr.: iliottlhl auiolults avvr.19e rtlaiul het�t-en :i anti 10 irteht-%. 'I'lu� Ilea it-,l ,hot r, ot-e�ur durhig lhauder%tontis, which norut:Ilh uulliber5to 1.5 per month throtighotd this period. Cloudint-� also i% .11 a otairtu tti at Ibis Nino, rotiging b aven 50tt and ti0 i in rtto,t nutnths. U�erca,t skies art Ireyt1v3A ;ind coniplt-lcl char Aivs ary rare. 1XIII nal a;trialiau of clotnlitiess are small in the interior but art- tttore I If It itr�ublo on the coast. share tilt-ft' is a It'Il(II'M1 toward clearitig ill the vvenhigs, 'I'll( clouds itre prt-iltien a tutu cuituiiu, tpe,: sonic dedop into APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100014 -0 FIGURE 9. These rugged highlands west of Vila Pery contain some of the highest elevations in the country. Numerous long, rounded, roughly parallel ridges separated by deep ravines and V- shaped valleys extend in waves from the almost vertical, rocky sides of the mountains. Grass covers the ridges and dense broadleaf evergreen forest the ravines and volleys. ICI APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100014 -0 large classes and extend �cynically to '30A0t) fret cur higher. Visibility is generally good except for all nc�casioual light fog or haze at slight or in the early tuarnilig. espetiail% ilk the interior. The greatest restrictions to visibility OCCLIF &uririg the hrief but hravy showers. The surface winds are strongly regtlhkted by meal influences, snanily because of like yeakuess of the Initle wituls. Either cairn or light. variable winds predominate in the interior. while laud attd sea breezes are %veil defined on the coast: only the sra lave a readies rnodernte six�rels. Strong lusts or of �siolial selualis usually accomparty for thunder- storms. The slnrngest winds. however, are associated With 11`04A al vvelorres which violt�r lire Muzainbieloc� Channel on an average of two per y-e�ar. rrlaitkl hi December through March. Widespread damage from Violent winds, some iii excess of 75 knots. and seven� flooding from tnrrrntial rains are roost likely in tlsr emista 1. lowlands. The dry season is somewhat cooler and dryer its list interior, i-ut nn much of the crust throulhoilt this periud the ;1Fternoems contiutie to Ex� worm and h tilt id, Mean daily waxirnurri tempemlures at tilt lower elrvati(ns are ill the ''0 �F. try 90 *F Gulge with mean &oily ntilriuninis in lilt- 50 �F. to ;0 �F. range. The coolest tvinperatures occur in tile snountaius. Where llighttlttle frosts acrasit)14:11% acti�err at the 1light,st eivvations. \�fears rehktivv humidit% is lowest in the interior. where afternoon readings art- in the 20`c to 55% r iigv Ill ntughoul me.stof the dry %easort. Because Of 111911 1leuniditie�s. tilt' etkast hits sullr weather the year ;round. Rahifall is light and colliparative1% infleque nt in nast mouths of the dr% seosoil- 'fhunderslornn .rot� rare. Cloudiut,ss. reaching culnual ttlininitluis. ranges normally between 2 0 1 ,r mid 60 (Dear skit's arc frmluetrl alnlost t�yer%-whert� hul aw especially prevalent ilk tike eveniligs (lit the� coast Visibilil% is poorest in this season but is seldom reduced below 2 miles. The principal restrictions arc i thick Itaxe (ktlnwn lnealb as ccecirtibo), stroke from brush fires. mid earl% rtlonriug fog. Meal effects r-oritiinie� to go�rrn the srlrf;lC'e 7lld regime- I aotd and yea bteY�%ey prevail tin the ctnisl, and calms or ,ight, variable winds are prominent in the interior. Strout; %rinds are infrequent evvey%vhere. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100014 -0 FIGURE 10. Deep, narrow valleys and ravines cave the highlands into numerous discontinuous random ridges. Here, east of Chicoa, the Zambezi cuts through the moun- tains in a restricted winding course. In this stretch, the river is 60 to 250 feet wide and more than 3 %x feet deep throughout the year. (C;) APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100014 -0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100014 -0 FIGURE 11. River gorges are common in the highlands; here, the Zambezi flows as much as 1,000 feet oelow the upland summits. Banks are rocky and steep, and the stream is wide and deep. (C) FIGURE 12. Dense broadleaf evergreen forest covers large areas of the hills and moun. tains. In this area near the Rhodesia border, trees are about 40 -lo 70 feet high, have J trunks 1 to 2 feet in diameter, and are closely spaced. They' provide moderate -size construction timber. Clearings are primarily covered by grass. (C) APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100014 -0 0 FIGURE 13. Open broadleaf forest, chiefly evergreen, with a commonly thin canopy, covers o large part of tfte nighlonds. This view is near Vila Paiva de Androda, and there is a dense undergrowth of gross arid other herbaceous plants as well as scattered shrubs and low palms. During the dry period, generally May through October, the grass and other herbaceous plants ore susceptible to fire. (C) B. Military geographic regions (C) I)iffere�ncr, in tvrrain arc� tilt- hasi for dividing Mortttihitptt� into four lelilitar% gcogripbic� regiopis II ikure 2.11. The- Northern I'laius tied 5ontbern Plain, 11( tvttlsrsl ttluilll% of wit�11- drained flat In robin.; plains: Ill( Wv%Ivrn 114thialikk Region vouePrkes :t comply\ of riim;ed bill and and rollinv la disu�c�ted upl:uul iriain,: anti the Cmdrai We�t Plain, Heviurl i, it et VM0 1ae lmMancls formed tnairli h the deltas O tilt' Zambezi And other major treartrs of t�e�rltral \1o7.,ttllhielne. �I'he eYtenhiuttinn ref enirorr uu�ntal e,tndiliorts ilhiu each wriolt ii tottld hae it rvl;ttirt�I tereiforrlt e�fft�t�t mi tnilitar% olh�rtlinns. hilt there woidd lie marked differeucc% hetec�n adjact�let revious. The \orlltrrn I'lairts and Southern 1'laios are sirnil,ir and are dist�assed togetlivr. I. \orlisem Plains and Sonlhenr Plain Condilions for iargv- scale� e�umeittiona) ground operations art favorthie dnrtu most of lh ear in 111 area,. \eitiettlar t�ro,,- ronntr% nure�tnc�nl uotdd be ate rnoderatt-l re� tire tilt- elelt flat ice rnliint;. chit�fl dr plaim vot-reel h opt-le lort� or aunno et;t-tatiorl Minetru�Itl onld lit- hindt�rud fue:Ill h [rearle,. ,t�atsered nmr,hr, and t-1 are�.I,. and palcilt� of dt`ll"v fore'l 5ru,00:d rr to mokettterlt art- fluodint; .dons; rrt:tjor team, during the high titer period :nid ,till t;rtrtrtttl for shor[ period, after Ilea rains On irk Oak I It toe-rtel-III ould Ile� (airl t:nN ,t�a,emalh. allpllm li Int �I road% arc oarrot..lnd [here art- ntatr Ioa- eapat�it uoode�t1 hridi;v- lord,. .tad fern. c�retssinls \10 road, are- light[ ,orlisced iIII Itrarel or ,Ire of earth_ .Ind Ihe� 1wcollte- irnpassahle at linivs dorinz the let e:t,nn l "onditiotl, for offroad disper,al are good ec�t�pt chtring Imriod, %thell tilt ground is ,oft Cou%trticlimt it] lee%% roads uutid euconntt�r G� rrtrie�tinn, ill most part of tht- region%, Aligutlaerlt, art gi-nortll ilrim,tricied. 1wittral fourtdalimt, are� fair let 10.4 Ioel. ,elect e�elll,irtx�II4III nr:Ilvriak it re aailahle. altllnat;h tiler rna ht* caree dormg the dr% sea,on. Cotitlitiml fur eouee:Ilnn�ul and e-o%vi are fitir to porer In the b roadival t-ergret-n APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100014 -0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100014 -0 r u s Y m O 7t Y m A A O 0 Q 0 L e a 0 e u a A 0. d 4 L V G V !tea a CC b .3 eM, ap aa C Q r m p y V. p a w u z a m 1C R p dy7 a w C .N- G A LO /rotl. o ski e C t b R 10 co q xi w G1 u d p 146 O 1Ip p ri C o O A io b U 'O O y N 04 w G C G t7 'D r O A u ho ri I ba a MI to _..,........;.n.,... r, --fir, -w-�,- APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100014 -0 t` p U 7 p .fir �y CC C Q r eM, r m p 01 b .e z- 0 a x u a 45 z a m 1C R p dy7 a w C .N- G A LO /rotl. o ski e C t b co _..,........;.n.,... r, --fir, -w-�,- APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100014 -0 C Q r eM, r m p v co q xi w G1 w Q y O a O O d _..,........;.n.,... r, --fir, -w-�,- APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100014 -0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100014 -0 Co x 11 D E %T l.U. lurid. especially over the nuunrlains. 'I'urluwlence is often w"ociated V.011 lhunderstori.. fire average height of the freezing level in all rtppnraches is close to 16,01X) Feet throughout the year except in approacltes from the south in winter, when else level drums to 10,000 feet at Bares. llowvver. airrrift icing is most likely to OCCUr in striitrncr. During !Iris tirite. icing is canfiued mostly to cumulus :urd cumul(lriirnbrrL- clouds. but icing inny occur arty tune clouds are present above the (rcezitig level. Upper minds are mostly light and variable below 200M) feet ill all apprnacltes throughout the year. Above 2009) feet. A& esterlies prevail all %ear in the� southern approac�ltes. hercas in the northern approaches the aiuds alleruale in prevalence bctTcen catc�rlies ill sununer (Mevitiber through hcbruar. I uncl vm4erlics in haler (Jute� through Augnstt. 'riiv Oranges! rods occur ill the suuthernr mst appro.tclres near MOM fort- %dwre niean %peeds ill the westerlies %art frurn -15 knots in Januar to 70 knots in Jul `E'ropic;tl cNclanes from the lrtclian OCCan occasional!% affect the air approaches From the cast, causing; period of cxteasive� cloudiness. heav% rairrs.:cnd trorig gust whicis_ An aver y of two trrrtyical cyclones occur curb Near 21 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100014 -0 FIGURE 23. The beach near Beira is fairly long and wide and backed by a sandy, brush- covered plain containing swampy and marshy areas. Nearshore approaches are partly obstructed by sheillow water. ICI APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100014 -0 z J s Places and features referred to In this Genera) Survey (u /ou) C o aR DI N ATLa s *S e rs a 1R. Alto Llgoahs 15 31 78 16 Mozambique Channel (siroii)............. 2(1 00 43 00 Angochc, I1ha (itf) 16 20 32 5I Mtwara, Tanzania....... 10 10 40 11 Aruaha, Tanzania 3 22 36 41 Mucanha, Rio (siren)..................... 15 39 31 35 >t Augu>ta Cardoso 12 43 34 49 Mueflo, Rio (am) 1" 38 37 02 Dagam oyo, Tansa,lla 0 26 38 54 Muda... 19 23 34 25 Bend' ulo 19 01 33 09 Mueds.. 11 39 39 33 T F Beim.......... 18 04 33 13 Mainga, Tanzania 6 53 37 37 Binga, Manta (mi) 11 52 35 02 Nacals................................. 14 33 40 40 Blantyre. Malawi 15 48 35 02 Nanahti, Porter de (bayJ................... 14 31 .d0 39 Doane...... 20 02 32 19 Naosla- Velha 14 33 40.36` Bons Sisals, Rio daa 18 03 M 50 Naahingwea, Tanzania................... 10 23 38 46 Border Siding, Malawi (rr siding) 17 09 35 12 Namaacha 25 58 32 01 19 52 34 40 Ne ma a I3 43 39 50 Uzi, Rio (strm) p Cabors Baas (gorge) 15 34 32 50 Nsmlafo. 14 55 30 59 Ctia (rr sla).. 17 50 35 20 Nampula.. 15 07 39 15 Combine mission) 23 36 36 M Namut range 10 32 40 2 Capoche 40YO 15 23 32 53 Nayucl, Malawi......... 14 56 35 52 Catem be..... 26 00 32 33 Nova Frelxo 14 49 30 33 Calur 13 45 35 37 Nova Sofa ia............................ 20 10 34 44 Changara..... i0 60 33 le Nyaeaa, Lake (lake)...................... 12 00 34 30 Cbleoa 15 38 32 21 Odzl,Southern Rhodesia................. 18 58 32 23 Chieomo ................I L. 24 SO 33 08 Odal, Southern Rhodesia (airm) 19 47 32 24 Chinde, Rio (afrm) 18 33 30 28 Ponta Dobela (point).................... 20 31 32 54 Cbirun, Lago (Take) 14 12 35 60 Porto Amb lia........................... 12 57 40 30 Chluin, Logo (lake) 14 55 35 50 Pdngob, Rio (afrm) 19 50 34 48 Chlvevc, Rio(sirm) L..... 19 50 34 50 Quellmaae........... 17 51 36 52 G. hemana le 67 32 51 Reaaaao Garcia 25 27 0 Bons Ans.. 17 25 35 04 Revub................................ 19 25 ;3 22 Espirito Santa, Listuirio do (csfuarp)....... 26 59 32 37 Rleatia, Lagos (lake) 25 48 32 37 Faruka, Southern RhodWA (rr siding)..... 19 SR 32 33 Rovumo, Rio (s(rm) 10 29 40 28 Fingeo 15 10 31 53 3alamanga 28 20 32 39 Fumneungo 14 54 33 37 Salisbury, Solfthera Rhodesia............ 17 50 31 03 Can 18 34 34 40 Save, Rio (rirm)......................... 21 00 35 02 Goba 26 12 32 08 Sena.... 17 28 35 02 G6ndola 19 05 33 39 Shire Bridge Siding, Malawi (rr sta) 1:: 1 35 04 C orongesa, Parqui Nacional ds (park)..... 18 45 34 20 Songes, Tanzania 10 41 35 39 In 19 12 33 58 Sunata 13 06 9.9 59 ,l Rio (siren) 25 46 32 43 Tembe, Rio (afrm) 26 00 32 29 inbambane 23 52 35 23 Tote............. 16 10 33 36 Inhamifsnga 1R 13 35 I1 Umbeluzl, Lilo (sirm) 28 al 32 28 Inhrrri me 24 28 35 01 Umpala........................ 26 03 32 19 Jeiio Bel o 25 04 33 39 Umtalt, Southern Rhodesia............... 18 58 32 40 Hasipmulden, South Africa 25 32 31 19 Vita Cabra l............................. 13 19 35 14 Kongwa, Tanzania 6 12 38 25 Vila Caldae Xavier...................... 14 24 33 01 Lebombo Mountains (hills) 26 15 32 00 Vila de A ntGnlo Fnes.................... 16 12 39 54 Licuare, Rio (sirm) 17 64 30 49 V14 der Mocfmboa da Praia............... 11 20 40 21 Limpopo River (sfrm).................... 25 12 33 32 Vila der Mocubs......................... 16 51 38 50 Lind], Tanzania 10 00 39 43 fSla de Sena I7 26 3S 02 Louronga Mrrquca... 28'58 32 34 Vila do Chinde 18 34 38 27 Luganda, IU D( SIM) 11 26 38 33 Vila do Dorado.......................... 19 36 34 44 L umber 15 00 40 44 Vi!s Pontee 4............ 17 49 35 23 Uri% We (strm) 13 31 40 32 'tits Franca do Save..................... 21 09 34 33 Maehipands (rr eta) 19 00 32 41 Vila Oouva la............................ 18 03 33 11 Macomis 12 18 40 08 Vita Lufaa 25 44 32 41 Maoondea, Pianalto doe (pletcau).......... 11 30 39 00 Vila Mar ee 16 10 33 46 Ma coaea it 54 43 n Vila Paiva de Andrada................... 18 41 34 04 Macuae, Rio (siren) 17 45 37 13 Vila Pnry 19 08 33 29 Ms fvernls 22 08 31 40 Xinavane............................... 25 32 32 47 ganp 19 47 34 53 Zambesi Fiver (siren).................... IS SO 36 17 XIarajacaza 24 43 33 50 Ubub... 15 38 34 20 Mantas 25 53 32 37 Mapm 22 51 31 58 Selected Airfields M eputu, Rio (efrm) 26 11 32 42 Mermen eu 18 17 85 89 Matola, Rio (afrm) 23 59 .32 27 B eim... 10 48 34 54 Matnla- Rio 25 49 32 27 Laurance Marquas....................... 25 55 32 34 Mau- b- a1 a 24 21 34 06 Lumbo.. 13 02 40 40 Mbeys, Tanzania 8 84 33 27 M% pups 13 14 37 33 M] leage 10 03 35 47 M oefmbaa der Praia...................... 11 21 40 21 loos mba 25 38 32 15 M 4a4' a.............................. 11 40 39 34 Magaribl qua............................ 15 39 39 51 Mutarms, 17 22 35 02 Mo.= blque,liha de 15 03 40 48 Ns