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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100016 -8 CONFIDENTIAL 9110 s is Uruguay. March 1974 NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURV CONFIDENTIAL NO FOREIGN DISSEM APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100016 -8 I_1 �:160 :1 M161:411:01 File N s] 1111/1/1 LIf /:iIIYIZbIIZ[:3:3 0 WARNING The NIS is National intelligence and may not be re- leased or Aown to representatives of any foreign govern- ment or international body except by specific authorization of the Direct >rw of Central Intelligence in accordance with the provisions of National Security Council IntelligencS Di- restive No. 1. For NIS coniJining unclassified material, however, the pooions sQ marked may be made available for official pur- AV to foreign nationals and nongovernment personnel IV provided no attribution is made to National intelligence or the National Intelligence Survey. Subsections and graphics are individually classified according to content. Classification /control designo- Lions are: (U /OU) Unclassified/ For Official Use Only (r) Confidential (S) Secret t r. >5 mti ,...1."'.:::L a.' NreYas.�"'^ n' w' an' M1-: cv_� y. i. L' w": r� s: 'ef:C9194'.feM`iA'.x:wu'n r. a.eew..ya:.u�srtrR:v i.-. x.- :L.d d+s .n s'.:;n.'..a: r.:- APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100016 -8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP0l- 00707R000200100016 -8 14 celil 0 xy Page Page Page D. Living and working conditions 12 E. Relig;br, 26 1. Health and sanitation 14 F. Education 29 2. Diet and nutrition 17 V Fig, 17 3. Housing 18 G. Artistic aid cultural expression 33 4. Work opportunities end conditions 20 H. Public information 38 a. The people od work 20 14 Fig. 7 b. Labor legislation 22 1. Printed matter 38 c. Labor and management 23 2. Radio, television, and motion pictures 39 S. Social security 24 1. Selected bibliography 41 a. Social insurance 24 Fig. 12 Representative dwellings photos) b. Welfare services 26 Glossary 42 14 celil 0 xy ii APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP0l- 00707R000200100016 -8 Page Fig. 1 Representative Urugaayans (photos) 4 Fig. 2 Vital rates (chart) 8 Fig. 3 'rayJ- density (map) 10 Fig. 4 Population, area, and population V Fig, 17 density, by department table) 11 Fig. S Age-sex structure, Uruguay and the 31 Fig. 18 United States (chart) 12 Fig, 6 Monthly family income (chart) 14 Fig. 7 Cartoon criticizing inflation photo) 1.=) Fig. 8 Consumer price index (chart) 15 Fig. S' Rural health program worker (photo) 15 Fig. 10 Medical care facilities (phc ^os) 16 Fig. 11 Ouidoor market (photo) 18 Fig. 12 Representative dwellings photos) 19 Fig. 13 Women in the labor force photos) 22 Fig. 14 Girls making their first communion ,photo) 28 ii APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP0l- 00707R000200100016 -8 Page Fig, 15 Literacy of the population age 8 and over (table) 29 Fig. 16 Educational attainment sof the population age 8 and over chart) V Fig, 17 Enrollment in educational institutions (table) 31 Fig. 18 Cathedrdl of Montevideo (photo) 36 Fig. 19 Modern apartment in Montevideo (photo) 36 Fig, 20 Painting by Juan Manuel Blanes (photo) I 37 Fig. 21 Painting, by Joaquin Torres Garcia (photo) 37 Fig. 22 Carlos Paez '4ilaro with painting photo) 37 Fig. 23 principal dai ?y newspapers, Montevideo (table) 40 Fig. 24 Newsstand in Montevideo photo) 40 ii APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP0l- 00707R000200100016 -8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100016 -8 moo` Li A. Introduction (U /OU) The Republic of Uruguay, containing a horrtogene- ous, largely urban society with no unassimilated Indian minority and few class conflicts, has been outstanding among the countries of South America during most of the 20th century for its political stability, democratic institutions, and social progress. rarty in the century, President Jose Ratlle y Ordoncz (1003.07 and 191 1 -15) instituted ri(lical reforms in the Political, economic, and social life of the nation and established what has been described as the first welfare state in the Americas. Uruguay in fact preceded many European countries in the adoption of liberal measures, including religio :as toleration, universal suffrage, equality for women, free educe lion, and a camprelicnsive social security system covering most of the working population. Since the tr;3s1 195Ws, however, the society has been beset, by naiiiunti problems and has suffered from_ foeirsective government. Severe inflation, cconom1. ;nation, high unemployment, and a decline in levels of living have been accompanied by increasing.disillusionment among the geacral public and rising discontent evidenced by labor strikes and student agitation. Seeking to exploit the dissatisfaction, the Marxist oriented National Liberation Movement MLN) began to engage in dramatic acts of urban terrorism in the late 19W5. Since 1068 the government hp!; achieved some reduction in the rate of inflation through fiscal austerity measures and has inudc an effort, albeit largely unsuccessful, to streamline the bureaucracy, as positions and functions have multiplied out of control ;is a result of a long tradition of political patronage. But no regent administration has actively 1w.,sued tha basic tusks of stimulating the economy and reforming the social security and vublir welfare systems. which involve a multiplicity of :agencies and are subject to widespread abuses. resulting in a heavy financial burden. (u February 1970 it serious political crisis occurred when the commanders-in-chief of the armed forces refused to acrcpt President Juan 13ordabcrry s choice for the post of Minister of National Defense and proceeded to demand a larger role in government operations. Two years previously, the army had been given broad powers to deal with the leftist terrorists, popularly known as the Topatnams, and had succeeded in severely crippling their appart3tus. In cxplainirtg the basis for the new military posture, a spokesman declared that this achievement had given tine armed forces tic right to participate importantly in national affairs. President Bordaberry met privately with the commanders, and after a week of bargaining reached an :accord under which the country would preserve its democratic facade but the military would guide affairs of state through a National Security Council composed of the President as chairman, the Ministers of National Defense, Interior, Foreign Affairs, Economics and Finance, and leaders of the armed services. Ceti. Cregorio Alvarez. head of the joint Chiefs of Staff, serves as secretary of the council. In June 197$ President Bordaberry, with the support of the awned forces, di-,Lsolved the national legislature. Declaring that they want "clean, effective governmeni," the military leaders h-tvc elaborated a Program of National Reconstruction aimed at fighting :s. ^.Z i.iw .:.L Jw=:: 7'` rl. u+:. ti;.. 97. XaiPYd." Y.. dQxtlk: tY^.. R.. T:=!�. 4nC' AC-': 6YP' l"+' s' elk.. GLti:. rek. 4: R8ti0d. QT ):LGi�`i+".= .Ke'5`..lrAdi'F 4 i. +ta +.%'':l& APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100016 -8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100016 -8 .e corruptioll, iitflatioit, uru�rnpaloylIlent. laggiiIg agriculiuril proditetion. and �Imnerous oilier ills. It) a strongly worded statement to the nation dclivcrcd on radio and televi�.ion oil 23 March 1973, the cornrriander< -itt -chief reaffirmed their loya to the constitution and to Uruguay's institntioos and said that they had intervened in lire political proccs.�.es only because they nation had "reached the point of co �lapse. The statement went on to attack unniamed Inernbers of the legislature art(] jWliticians ill general, accusing there of obstructing; national rca}vr.ry .while enjoying, special privilege". By Nlay 1973, the lzrilitary leadership appeared to have eonsolidated its central ralt. ill Ole lion] aberry administration. Observers report that the prestige of civilian politicians has newer becii lower while that of the armed forces is comparatively high. strengthetied by some optimism that longs-landing problems will at last be :attacked. The balance is fragile. however, and is not likely to survive it rllajor confrontation between the military leadership and any of the comitry's n :airs political force's. In any such e^enifrontation, o servers believe that the military niig;lrt well enierg;e ill full contiol of tine government. B. Structure an c haract eri st ics of society U /OU) Although etlinically and culturally homogeneous. Uruguayan society is divided into two coutrasting sectors, one centered in Montevideo send adjaccut areas and the other in the rernainder of the cuuntry, conutionly referral to as the interior. Representing a large proportion of file total population and with unequaled stattis as the nation political, economic. and cultural Center, Monto�iden has au esuntially fluid society which reflects the reforms introduced in the early part of the 20th century by President jose Battle y Ordonez. The edilcational and welfare facilities available ill the capital have reduced social inequalities and created a milieu in which thrrc has been considerable upward mobility, attested to by the city's large and influential middle claws. Much less opportunity for socioeconomic advancement exists in the runt interior, where a 19th century mode of life generally prevails. lrl many areas, partic.riarly in the northern stockraising region, landowners with sernifeudal iluthurity rule over l arge landholdings, or estancfas, engaging dearly half of the country's agricultural workers as full or part time laborers or as tenant farmers. 1lere there are great disparities in wealth, and class lines tend to be rigid. The average rural worker artd his family have benefited little front 2 the social reforms that have so greatly improved the condition of the urb.ui population, and their level of living, c^tmsequently is rtutch lower. 1. Ethnic composition The population of Urtiguay is estimated to lu� betvt:ea 855f atald 92% 'hite, the IlWjbrity of 'its people being of rumpcatl hackggrotmd. Iletwecn 5' and 10% are mestizos of inked .white and Indian blood, and from 3% to 5`'L are Ngpoes or nutlatloes. Resident aliens consist Iuainlw of other Latin Americans itut also inel title some Europeans and U, S. nationals; most foreigners reside ill Montevidt-o. The hall; of the :while population is of Slianish or Italian ancestry, the fanner predominating;. As a v,snit. ipa nish surnames prevuil. Other UnIgtlayans are iminig;rarits or descendants of immigrants from Krauts., the United Kingdom. Gvnim aw, I'ortrtg.;al, Russia, autl Switzerland, as well as c ountries of Eastern Europe and the K1iddli� East. Incluewd are Jews from several nations, their rttunber estimated at about 50,000 in 1970. many of these Jews fleet persecution in Nazi Germany. Before [lie Vith century, most of the 1;tl ropeau iirtnrig; rants arrived via Argentina and Brazil, being; attracted by ill(- opportunities for stockraising; which UnAguay provided. Among; the early rural inhabitants were lite much romanticized gauchos, usually of mixed Spaidsh and Indian ancestry, who led independent, selninomadic lives centered on raarning; herds of cattle and horses. After I800, it majority of the settlers tarns direct[y from E5urove and settled in or near i4fontevideo or in neighboring farm are;is. The native Indian population consisted of nomadic Charrua ::ncl Chana tribes and a smaller number of Guarani. In 1700, the total Indian population in %vhat is now Uruguay is believed to have totaled between 10.000 and 13,000. but bV tits Illid -19111 ec�rttur (lie lndiarl cotnrnunity a.: such had virtually disappeared. largely its a result of interrnarriagte with whites. The ni", izo cl entenl de'r iv'ing,', front Ndiurt- white unions is concentrated primarily ill the northern part of the country. Completely assia:,ilated to the national culture, nicstizos retain aeirie of the cultural manifestaltions of the Indians. Negroes were first brought to Uruguay as slaves in the early colonial period, imported from Africa mainly through Portuguese slave t ra de rs in lif: A I. Thereafter during the colonial cra aunt white families owned slaves, employing thorn as dumvstic servants air field Itands. The proportion of Negroes grew steadily during the 18th century, and by ISM they constituted .,,y:" K:� L' ci= .?.';s :eaasi :ccs..v.,raks,. air,.. o..,...�. n. o... ,..o...�.�-..- ...e...... -.v. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100016 -8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100016 -8 J approximately onc of the entire population. This trend was reversed following prohibition of the inteniatiorlal slave trade in 1825 and the abalitiort of slavery in Uruguay in 1653, and also as a result of the increasing immigration of +vllile Europeans. Although they are found throughout the republic, Negroes and Mulattoes are most numerous in the nordi. Many northern blacks are descendants of slaves from Brazil who escaped across tiro border befci ce the abolition of slavery in that country in ISM. Most an: employed as laborers on the estandas. Racial tension is virtually nonexistent, although marry Uruguavans tend to look down on Negroes and practice some c iscrinii sin tion against them. Also, while the Jewish community as it whole engenders no animosity, there have been a few isolated anti Semitic incidents. Cencrally speaking, otheriminigrattt groups have been assimilated without difficulty. British and Russian settlers tend to hold, theinselves aloof, however, retaining their respective cultural traditions. Sonde Russian groups have formed agricultural colonies of their own. Alihoogli Mediterranean physical typep predomi- nale among the Urul;uavan population, other ty pes earl also be seen (Figure 1). ivtestizos have a darker ctinplexion than whites because of the admixture of Indian blood, but even arnotig the whites there is considerable vari atiou in skin: #attCS and hair color. The typical U ruguayan is short and stocky. Uruguayan Negroes display common Negroid physical characteristics; mulattoes vary from the norm ill accordance with the degree of mixed blood. Spanish, the official language, is spoken by almost all Uruguayans. Residents of the Monlevideo area and other parts of the south speak a dialect similar to than heard in Buenos Aires. This version of Spanish differs from Castilian in variaus ways. A slightly harsher sound is givers to some letters, a rtather "ltalianate" lilt marks tite pronunciation, and it mminber of words taken front the Italian language arc included in the vocabulary. fit the northern depar(Inents near the Brazilian border there is considerable Spanish- Portuguese bilingualism, and in a few localities of that region Portuguese is spoken almost exclusively. Among the tipper and middle classes a knowledge of English and Drench is common. French was favored by cultivated persons in the past, but English has became more popular since World War 11. A number of English words relating to technology, business, and sports have brim Hispanictzed and incorporated into the speech of the general population. Sonic words and phrases of Indian and Negro origin can also he heard among certain sectors of the population. 2. Social organization a. Social classes Extremes of weallh and poverty arc less apparent in Uruguay than in most other South American countries, and the class system is Ctmhparatvely opera. Moreover, the society is characterized by a sense of egalitarianism and a high regard for individual dignity, regardless of social standing. One factor contributing to this situati is the absence of a large ctlulic minority to serve its art inexpensive labor pool for the upper class, and the latter s consettuent lack of it tradition of aristocracy and exclusiveness. The division of society into urban and rural sectors affects the composition and chanacteristi" of the classes, but the urban rural differences do not constitute the basis for a dual class system. Cohesive and well organized, the upper class is estimated to comprise about 35, of tie total population. little changed in its proportional siresince the mid lyth century. Traditionally the great estancfus have been its tntatinstav, but today members of the elite derive their wealth froin other sources as well, and occupation has been added to Family background as a criterion of slants. In addition to wealthy estancleros, its numbers in cl u de industrialists, financier, some high -level government officials and inilitary officers, and important professional people. *['here is little distinction between the urban and rural sectors of (lie upper class, as almost all estanderosand their families Imiintaiii close contact with Mon- tevideo, where many reside fora large part of the year. Although somewhat less iit ternalionally oriented than their Limnterpatrts in neighWrilig Argentina and Brazil, upper class Uruguayans are nevertheless quite cosmopolitan, maintaining an interest in world affair and generally looking to Europe for cultural enrichment. IMany send their children abroad for schooling. A university educalion is in important clement of status for upper class nten, and additional prestige accrues to anyone who is able to teach a university course as a part-time avocation. While upper class families live comfortably and even luxuriously, they are less ostentatious is their lifestyle than those of similar background in inost other South American societies, and they are also less isolated from other classes. Finally, in Uruguay perhaps more than in any other South Arnerican nation, the power of the wealthy elite is limited by the politically dominant middle class. The middle class is diverse and extensive, comprising about one -third of the total population. its base is a large corps of government employees, but it 3 wna qrw.. r+ s;: nY: rx+ iKka Y, Rx uc :aar :vv'.`%:ay.asnsC: xezr::,. t:sl:.a7x.Y.nM.�:i;yr4]!' x. sL'.iA XL� APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100016 -8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100016 -8 a FIGURE 1. Representative Uruguayaiss IU/OU} T APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100016 -8 M:j :j:160 :1 I1101:a:1 4 Fi N 11111 [S1I1MIN:Z1I1I1Y41I1111I1I11 [:S:3 also enMrogiasscs small businessmen, military officers, teachers and other professionals, a art([ technicians and skilled vorkcm In rural areas it includes socces`ful independent farriers as well as Inanagcrs arid oyw:rsec.s oil the estaridus. Member of the Imiddde class, while eshihiting Wide variations in inccnnc, occupation, and lifestyle, nevertheless share certain characteristics. Like theelile, they value education, regarding it as like principal aventic of social Inability; ;it least some secrindary schooling is tow4de -A essential for middle class status. They also shoe a preference for acadende education rather thart vocational /technical training, with. a view to sum-e eding ill white-Lollar occupations. To the extent possible: they emulale the nlode of life of tike elite, and some lover middle class people indulge in C4311spicnous col Isil flip tioil, baying luxury itelllti which (lie) calk scarcely afford. [it orde to maintain a comfortable level of living in tilt face of the rinlpanl inflation, many rnen in like middle sector hold iuore than one joh and their wives often work. Since the early part of the 201h century, members Of the middle class have dominated life 1wlilical sphere and the labor movement and have made their owrl ideals and objectives the norms of society. It is noteworthy that middle class intellectuals have Ied the leftist guerrilla organivalion known as the Tupaknaros. Nlieving lhat ooh� armed revolution can arrest the political and cconoinic decline that lkas afflicted Uruguay since the mid- 1930's, the Tupauuaros brought the country close it) civil war throu armed clashes with polio and military ill the late 1960's and early 197(Ys. Aceounting for almost two thirds the total population. Lion. the Iowei class is identified with manual labor and characterimd by lin3itesd education and law levels e'tf living, nil relative terms, however, living conditions among this element of sovizty are better than those prevailing among lower class people elsewhere in South America, with the exception of Argentinu. 04), because the urban ceoters, and preeminently Montevideo, have benefited from social welfare legislation to a far greater extent [[fail (lie rural areas, the urban poor are better off than their counterparts in the interior. Included in the urban lower class are unskilled laborers, service workers, street vendors, alld the unemployed. Many of the latter are recent migrants froni th countryside who live in makeshift dwellings on the outskirts of the cities, The rural lower class consists of small farmers, sharecroppers, and agricultural luborers, including migrant farmworkers. The small independent farmers, who are identified mainly with the somithern, crop- raising part of tine country, are generally considered all upper sector of the rural lower class. ,Ivti)sl disadvantaged of all arc the faun laborers employed on the estanclas, who cnstoniatily live away faun the esluriefu in squalid shantytowns known as rancherius. These usually consist of primitive hills housing four to eight persons. Overcrowded intd lacking electricity. running water, allel sanitary facilities, the ra ncherl os are breeding groumis for disease as well as for various social problems, irlcltrding alcoholism auld scxoal promiscuity. With a population corilaining a large component of persons descended from middle class Eurol Uruginty has no strongly entutiched lrkdition of elitism, and is national tendency toward egalltarialll- isrn and self reliance has fostered substantial social mobility, Since like late 19th century, growing urbanization and widespread educalional opporlunity have emdributed toward a blurring of class lines. As a resell, during most of the 20th ceitttary there has begirt a g actual increase in the size of the middle class and a concurrent decline in that of life lower class. The extent of social Inability varies sigllifiCalldy acCOrding to region. In the northern, s(ockraising areas, upward movement is strictly limited by a rigid social order based on traditional relationships be[wi:cri landowners and workers. Oo the other hared, sonic downward mobility L�i been occlrriug in the 1101#11 in recent }'cars as middle class independent fanners of the region have been fcrced into wage labor becatisc of the increasing nlechaoizaetion of fatriming, and this in turn has led tc a growing acquisition of land by esta icivivs. Iit the rural areas of [lie south, class lines are less rigid and social mobility has [)evil favorably influenced by proximity to the capital, wlkere industrialization and educational opportunity are Most cxlcusivc and the possibilities for advancement are greatest. Since the 19Ws, the potential for upward mobility has been reduced by extended perio of econtailie stagnation and runaway inflation. Although upper class Uruguayatns have sustained only.tilinor financial losses, middle and lower class workers have experienced significant decreases iu real wages. Obser vers have noted a rise in class consciousness restilting from this situation, atigrnented by the efforts of labor leaders to increase public uwarcil(s?t of Ille social and ccinomie inequities in the society. b. Family and kinship groups Miring the colonial era and in the early postindependence period, large families were the norm in Uruguay and the family unit commonly was all exte one Beginning in the latter part of the 19111 century, however, rapid urbanization and [lie influx of fii. 1- i3. be' 6i..-'", r. �^Y:i?i7`Sfi:.i1K.R.'VylrtJmlw :nemPU&.S[^,notiii: rititRacT:.:s.': erxfa4a:- w! 1. Alaua^'+. a '4' 1eY+..rscw...r�+ti.r x.....-. x.......w.� APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 0070711000200100016 -8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100016 -8 e European inlmig;rtnts began to cl mige traditional 'aniily patterns. Today the typical Unig;uayaii fautily is nuclear. consisting only of parents fold lhcir urirnarried cltifdrrtl, acid as a res of cxtcnsivc family planning and large-scale abortion it is relatively small. averaging between three and four persons in arb.ul auras aid franc four to five in rural areas. The honsi rig problem involved in maintaining; a large henscholdd in a predominantly turban environment has 1wen the prirlcipatt factor ill the change. Of additional signifieancc is the government welfare system, which hats gradually replaced the cxtendcd family as the source of sectirity for the average individual in tinge [if need. The extended family nevertheless remains an important concept in most sectors of society in the sense that [here is a strong; feeling of family cohesiveness extending bey ond the ilmnediate family to the l=arger kinship group. This is particularly true among the Tepper social strata, where family hackground is stressed and relations hatyec 1 t he generitimis and between siblings arc often solidified through business comwctions. Among t}Ie farming population of the rued so uth the strrrugt of kinship tics, is manifested ill numerotis forms of lnutual ossist:ulce. Under the coustillltiorl, .1 civil cere is Lite otily legal means of cointracung iliarriage, but practicing Catholics and active weinbers of other faiths usually have a religious ee ernony performed in a ddition. Until age 25 ;I mail a mst obtain permis to marry from his P.ire.nts or g;uareliurls; tide corresponding age for women is 23. Same .xitiples inevitably establish consensual nlliois and others engage ill casual liaisons. lu the 1963 census, Urugnay,tns over age 15 were grouped according to marital status a, folioys: single, 32.8%; married, 31.51; living in consensual union, 4.6%; widowed. 6.6%. aril divorced, 1.55. Marri=age instability and illegitimacy are highest in tilt north, where the eslr;ncia system has an adverse effect on family life. Estande:us have traditionally discomag ed .workers from bringing their families to live with them on or near the estanda, providing few if any facilities for such arrangerncots. It has been estirnated that at least half of all married persons residing in the north do not live permanently with their spouscs. The ,double standard of sexual morality reportedly is not as prevalent in Uruguay as it is elsewhere hi Sottth An :erica. Nevertheless, a_, m:tn may pursue extr,,- marital liaisons with tacit acceptance as long as he does not neglect his family and maintains reasonable discre=tion. Unfaithfulness an tine part of the wife, on the other hatul. is generally unacceptable. Divorce has 6 been legal. since 1907, the gr wills traditionally including critelty by the hatsband. adultery, and voluntary desertion for over 3 years. It now is also possible to obtain It ciivorce by mutual consent of the parties, or a wife tray terminate trite marriage by her wish alone, a privilege not accorded the husband. According; to law, a wife who is not tile guilty party in a divorce roust he suptxarted by her ex- hushaid uuttil site remarries. Cmhxly of children Is determined by agreement of tite parties or by decision of the judge. Both parents are liable for child maintenance. Flunk roles are delineated but not inflexibiv adhcreU to. 'Crmlitionallr the male has hecn the breadwvintier for the f=amily while the female lilts devoled herself to dotnesttc duties. But 111arly Urugnityau lu:ddlc class worrun arc WIlUiring; higher education and enteriog professional fields, and others work it one job or snot }ter to augment the family income, In 1970 it was estitnated that nearly half of all wonion age 15 and over ill the dep artment of Monlevideo were either attending school or working outside the horn, relations between hush,ttld an wife. while affected by the tendency to"ard equality h etwecn the sexes within the 56160 Y ltd large, usual conform to a tradition of male d oinin nce. In the home tite father is Lite principal authority figure :old disciplinarian for the children. the mother is likely to be more indnlgent and sylnpat}tctic. It is generally :Iccepted that older children ciorninate� their younger brothers awl sisters, and boys dominate girls. 'I'veuagrrs are allowed to date freely, but snide conservative upper class parents still a to the custom of [raying their dat ghters chaperoned. 3. Values and attitudes Although Uruguay in many respects has de=parted fair from the Spanish COlonial heritage, the basic valtie systein re flects the old ltispanic tradition in that it includes all emphasis on individualism, loyalty to family. and a scnsc of fatalism. Other vaincs� egalitarianism, self- reliance, and a propetrAty to enjoy life --stem from the ideals of the independent minded g;;tttr;1105 Who W an ted the coktalry in file colonial era, while tendencies toward rationalism and secularism arc attributed to tie cultural background of middle class Ellroprans who settled in the country in modern times. Ethnic llontogencity and national ci,Itesivritess halve resulted in the widespread adoption of roost of these value, with certain regional and class variations. Sonic of the values have been modified as a result of urbanization, modernization, and other forces of change. r ear f:'- r. b3T�>*:i3.'rxcsy.e+w.svmw r. w �.w..v,- APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100016 -8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100016 -8 n ev S PersonalisFrio, the Ilispaide concept which emphasizes the distinctiveness and inherent worth of the individual. is fundatuental te: tilt U ruguaynn value system. The i,caporlance assigned to [lie individual is based un the belief that every hurllan being possessrs an inner dignity which nlerst l c re :.peeted by others. To protect this inner dignity, elaborate patterns of social courtesy are maintained iii interpersonal relationships, and even casual en- ctiaunlers are characterized by gestures and words of friendship designed to express the respect of one person toward another. The importance of the fancily derives froin the concept of persortalismo, iu that the fancily is viewed as arc extension of the individual and as a hasliou of moral oad material support for him. In upper class circles there is it definite tendency to prize ai person socially as a inernber of a particular family. A neg ative aspect of personafisrno is .ln midde emphasis pit individual opinion and a concomtlael tuiwill- inguess to acetrpt majority judgments. The independence and freedom historically priced by the gaucho were reintroduced as social values by the European itnnligTants, many of whom brought with them a dedication to ideologies centered oil democratic principles. Implicit in these principles was a belief that all citizens have the right to enjoy civil liberties, to participate in the political process, and to receive aid horn the state when they are in need. This cmtmcept provided the fr inework for tlae innovations of President Ballle y Ordouez, whose policies gradually becavic accepted throughout the country as the norm for an ideal social order. Allhough the cxlensive social welfare legislation which he introduced has not been c1mipletely implemented, this h. {s not diminished the iMpOrtance of the etutlerlying values in the ininds of politically conscious Uruguayans. tit fact, there is a preoccupation with security among much of the population, particularly inemhers of the middle class, who expect the state to provide sonic measure of security for everyone. '1,)is has led to it tendency in recent times to rely exclusively era the government to solve the country's social ills �the tradition of i tide pendence and self- rcliancv notwithstaliding. A mong the more disadvantaged e l ements of laic population, the Hispanic sense of fatalism pmades the individual's outlook oar his situation. Man is seen as unable to of feet the course of events or to control his physi:al onvinonment breause a Lcrtain unalterable outcome has been appointed for him. Poverty and other ills are rationalized as one's "Fate" or as "the will of Cod." In a more subtle form this attitude affects-alt levels of society, being manifested in the disinclination to unite for the purpose of seeking cmistructive solutions to problems. It is also reflected in .what leas been called the "cane buck tomorrow" philosophy of the govcrnment bureaucracy, and in the propensity of malty Urquayalls to %hull constructive effort in favor of long hours spent in such leisure activities is sunbathing on t beaches, socializing with one's friends in cafes and bars, and gainbling at racetracks and government owned casinos. [n personal Lontacts, Uruguayans arc friendly, humorous, and cx,urtCOUS. Forcigrcrs usually find them to be antojig the most tolerant of all South Americans. Some describe them as too tolerant and easygoing, 1minting out that these is much tacitly sanctioned corruption herie,ith the surface. Bribery of government officials is frequent, and feat herbedd i i;g is widespread in government enterprises. where the work is seldoin demanding of time or effort and the use of public facilities, equipment, and supplies for personal advantage is ccnunort. There has been little public disapproval of such prlcliCes. \lost Uruguayans have a strong sense of patriotism. Since the tleople recugnizc that their country is small and will never play a major role it international affairs, their nationalism Iris taken the fortn of pride in its social and intellectual achievements and in its democratic tradition, However, deteriorating economic and political conditions during tale past two decades have te to wea their filth in the social system. Public opinion surveys conducted bellween 1968 sad 1970 indicated that many citizens were skeptical concerning the capabilities of the government and pessitn6tie about the chances for intprovenlent in socioeconomic condilions; moreover, trust of those pulled were convinced that the government favored big business and the large landowners. But despite such dissatisfaction. the neajority rejected the idea of social revolution as all answer to the nation's problems. Popular discontent nevertheless has generated a rise in lawlessness and sporadic protest demonstrations. A more extreme tnanifestatios; was the terrorism practiced by the Tupamaros, but this now appears to have been virtually eliminated by the military. Lack of confidence i re the administration of President Bordaberry has been blamed for the general indifference to the, serious threat to democratic instituiions posed by the virtual coup d'etat carried oat by the military in Fehruary 1973, when it demanded and was given a central role in national affairs Opinion su rveys taken singe F eb rt:ary ind icate public support for military "guidance," although the idea of a complete military takeover is opposed. Much of the population appears to be more concerned with e :.;Y:: x ;+rk':''JM s sow' SG2: 7"; x: 4.? mLYT: ts:. :!xx:t APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100016 -8 the stresses of dail life than with (l ie la rger problems implicit in the question of military or civilian leadership. While Uruguayans have a generally open and friendiy attitude toward foreigners and foreign societie%, pu bl ic sentiment toward Argentina is somewhat aulbivaleut. Oil talc one hand, ethnic and cultural similarities create it feeling of kinship; on the other hand, this ilnnlensely larger, .wealthier, and Irlore ccnmopolitatl neighbor is the obiect of soury resell tuleni. A minority of Uruguayalts attempt to demoostrlte their detachment by rejecting Argentine cultural trcrat:ds in favor of those set by Brazil, Argentila's principal rival it) South America. Attitudes toward the 1..IklitCd Slater are largely favoral,le. M ost UruguayllllS admire the United States as a great democracy and consider its people it) he sympathetic to the aspirations of their cYluutry. Some, however, charge it with "financial imperial6ill and accuse it of equating anti- Cortlrrlunisrn wit f avid of supporting; dictatorial governments when it i advantageous to do so. C. Population (U /OU) Uruguay, stiucezed E +ctwecn Brazil and Argentina. is the smallest republic in South America. It also has a smaller population than any of the other South American repriblics except Paraguay and Guyana. With lilt CStirn 2,992,000 inhabitants at midyear 1973, Uruguay had only one- fortieth the population of Brazil and one-eighth that of Argentina. Moreover. Uruguay's rate of population growth has been declining throughout much of the 20111 CT.Iltnry; the average sulnual rare for [lit ycan 1061 -72 (1.2%0 was the lowest ill South Americ The low and declining rate of population growth has tended to discourage Ili:w investment and has been viewed by some as refleeti ig a lack of confidence in the nalion's future. Family allowances have been in effect since 1943, with lwnefits per chilli rising as the nurnher of children increases, but these subsidies appear to have been designed primarily is confer liberal social wvelfarc benefits rather than to raise birth rates. In any case, the welfare system has not functioned effectively, and inflation and deteriorating CconUmiC conditions have been acconiparlied by la lowert -A birth rate. As the birth rate has declined, the age of tine population has 'increased, creating further problems. The economically active sector of the population has been forcvd to hear It great biuden of dependents, and the increasing age of this sector has diminished its pnxluctive capacity an.. ,decreased its employment mobility. 8 Pet 1.000 inhabitants 40 30 20 10 NeWruf frcreole pencils 191 S -k9 1925 -29 193! -J9 1915-�19 1 195549 1910.14 1920 -24 1920 -34 1940 -44 19WS4 1%0 6$ 70 FIGURE 2. Vital rates, 1910 -70 (U /Ot1) Vital statistics, based on reasonably complete Wgistration of births and deaths, slow that the hirth rate declined steadily front 36.7 births per 1,000 population in talc period 1910.1.1 to 21.6 ill I940.44 and has straw remained fairly stable, fluctuating between 21 caul 2�1 (Figure 2). The rate of 72.4 births per 1,000 population wgisterrd in 1970 was still sorucvhat higher than rates in most of the developed countries, bill wwas alnang the lowest in South America. The death rate, which stood at 13.5 depths per 1,Otl0 population in 1910 -14, fell below 10 in i9-t0- 44 and has since been fairly constant. Although the rate for 1970 (9.2 deaths per 1,000 population) was higher than those in most ether South American :ountries, this was attributable to the age structure of the Uruguayan population if the other South American countries had all age structure comparable with that of Uruguay, their death rates would have been higher than Uruguay's. In fact, the death rate in Uruguay compares favorably with rates in many of the developed nations, despite the fact. that the infant mortality rate is still fairly high. In 1970 there were 42.6 deaths of infants under .i year of age per 1,000 live births. The I figure for IWO repres:!wed a significant improvement� over that in the: 1920'x, bal was substantially abuve the rules in the United States and the countries of Westem Eumpe. As a result of -the decline in the death rate since the Beginning of this eenttiri, life expectancy at birth has risen from 50.8 years in the first decade of the century to 69.2 years in 1965 -70. In the latter period life APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100016 -8 I_1�:160X11 3wo]F_ l N 11 111 1 11I lyflfl :11I1I1Y41I111111I11I-S:l H1- expectancy at birth for trales w as 66: t years and for females 72.3. Both values were among the highest in the Westero Ileinisphere. Several factors have contributed to the low and stable birth rate. Uruguay has long 4ecel an urbanized nation; today nearly one -half of [lie people live in ,Montevideo or its suburbs. The increased financial burden of raising a large family in urban surroundings has Ixen orte factor encouraging city dwellers to limit family size. Increased levels of educational attainment, especially among; urbanites, has been another. finally, the birth rate has been held clown by the widesplead practice of abortion. During the 1.960'x, for example, it was estimated that there were two to three abortions for every live birth. Concerned by the rising cumber of abortions, private interests founded :r family* Manning; o rganisation in 1962. This organization, the Assoc iation for Family Planning and Research ore Reproduction, has sought to promote birth exmlrol measures as u substitute fir ah,orlion, emphasizing the dangers to health fmm abortion. Since janu4ry 1960 the association and the Ministry of Public Health jointly have operated a family planning clinic in Montevideo; tore hospital of the University of the itepubnlic also spomar such a clinic. Because of financial limitations, lu.W,!Ver, these clinics are unable to plrblicive their activities widely, a nd as a result, few women benefit from their services. Until about IWO. Ur;:g:tay traditionally had been a land of immigrants, immigration having contributed substantially to population growth. As the result of mounting ecoraoniic problems, however, more persons have left [lie cjr.itttry than have entered is in the years a111cc [NO. The excess of emigrants over immigrants is not large and does not as yet have any significant impact on population growth. Of some concem to lice government, nonetheless, is :he loss of skilled manpower. Many of the emigrants are skilled wor unable to find suilable employment in Uruguay; schoolteachers and physicians also are included among those seeking opportunities elsewhere. Argentina, and particulat:ly Buenos Aires, consistently has attracted the most Uruguayan emigrants, with estimates of tine number of Uruguayans residing in the country ranging between 30 000 and 506.000. Brazil, Canada, the United Stacs, Venezuela, and Australia are other favored destinations. The government has taken no recent action to encourage immigration and, with the rise in mlernpl'oyment, appears unlikely to alter its views. Migration from rural areas, however, is causing concern. In its efforts to slow migration from the counl,yside, the government has initialed ueasures to increase agricultural proeluclion and to improve rural education and living conditions. To date such measures have had little success. 1. Density and distribution Unige :y has vo extensive uninhabited :areas. The (listribntion of the population is markedly uneven, however, resoling in extremes of impulation density. overall. Impidation density ;it rrriclyear 1973 was estimated at 41 persons per square mile, compared mith .58 persons per square mile in the United State In the greater Montevideo area, however, density approached 5,000 persons pe r square mile, whereas two departments of the interior hurl fewer than 10 residents per square mile in hW3, and stockraising regions in they northwest recarded a density of only 1.3. In general, till: Ixtpulatiott is concentrated around Montevideo; smaller concentrations are Found in and near other urban centirs and in crop growing regions along; tile Rio ae In Plata (Figure 3). Montevideo I3cpartnlcnt, including the city of Montevideo and suburbs, hat& a population in 19 &3 more than it? times greater than that of tiny other department. Its contained �166 of the total population at that lime, although encompassing in area only 0.31 of the national territory (Figure 4). All together, tine five southern departments of Canelones, Colouia, Maldonado, Montevideo, and Sari Jose,' collccllvely constituting; about 12% of the total area of the countr accounted for nearly two thirds of the population. None of the other 14 departments had as man;� as 100.004 inhabitants, At the lime of the 1963 census, 82 of the population was classified as urban, and the prolxuliau probably has risen slightly singe then, as there has been continuing movement to the city of Montevideo. Thus, Urag gay �ranks as the most urbanized country of floc Weslern,ticmisphere. All departments in 19631tad more urban than rural residents; in eight departments urban residents outnumbered their :itral counterparts by more than two to one. Urhanization in Uruguay has been virtually synamvmous with the growth of Montevideo and its suburbs. In 1908, 30% of the total population lived in the capital city by 1963, the proportion had risen to 4556. During the same period the aggregate population of the other 18 departmental capita }Is remained at as constant 19 of the total population 'For diacritics nn platy names, x-e 1140 tilt of uamm on the ;apron of like S,wantary Mvp in the t wattlr Profile chapter :and on the snap ilself. 9 -q-. ...3,: ;w�.zc.awa.� oa..:5sr.aa. vas_ a.; c� a. u. wn. c. w.� sc. zxs, a+ s.:: :,ifC:Sa.ars.3s:.K- �;.i3:t� .'?r?..+',s::,.Sa,.::E:: APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100016 -8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100016 -8 Penal PH iW src adr 0 13 6S r3� ]Sr J96a MsuR "Dex To PL-rAr'.rAl.SE1tp5 rgrpar�Am000 beindwy owana "to caaea i LOMI 1.74 while the rural population, as well as that living in towns now classific%) as urban, declined from 5154 to 36%. Thus, significant arbanizatior, has occurred only in Montevideo, which in i963 acC.- ranted for 55 of t13e total urban population. 'The remainder of the urban residents lived in 301 other comniunitieS classified as urban Iq the cvmstis: 5% in the two cities with 50,001) to 1.00,000 inhabitants. 11 a lit the seven cities with be tw een 25,000 and 51,000 residents, 4% in the five cities with 20,000 to 23,000 inhabitants, and 25% in (lie 287 smaii -towns and cities with between 2,000 and 20,1100 population.' The predominance of the capital is not u new phenomenon. Since rarly in the 19113 century, the cit has never contained less than o quarter of the nation's Inhabitants, and it grew at more than twice the rate of the country as a whole during the 190&63 intercensal period. The average anti: itl growth rate for 1963 -70 has been estimated at 2.91, resulting in a -1970 populution of slightly mgre than 1:4 million. Montevideo thus is almost 20 times larger tl;an Salto, 'A few communitses with few'cr than 233 residents were cl,wified as urban by the eensus, dainty these were suburban areas. 10 FIGURE 3. Population density, 1 (U /OU) the nation's seL d lar` cst city, which had about 72,Ot10 residents in 1970. The next largest at that time .very. Paysandu (64,000), Rivera (49.000), and Las Piedn (48,000). Clearly a magnet for rural msidencs, Montevideo has attracted sizable numitcrs of in- migrants, althoug' no precise measurements of the volume of into Department, wikere jobless :less appayrntly has beell less severe than elsewhe'ac f,I tale nation the F ollowing unemplo rates were reeimled in recrrit years: 198$ 8.S 1969 1 1970 7.3 1971 I.. 7.6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100016 -8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100016 -8 Had unlaid, marginally employed family workers been included anmlig; the Jobless, however, the rates would have increased by ul least 2 percentage points. Indeed, in May I973, the government placed the proportion of uneuiployed nationwide of 10.55f arld -ome larwffirial assessments were as high as 17%. Although Bala are inconclusive. it appears that a growing prclportioan of the uncmliloved are voting .workers. Nearly Half of those seeking employment during the early 1970 were tinder age 23, and approximately 70% were under age 35. Among the most frequently unemployed were workers in the textile construction, and food processing industries. and in commerce and banking. Survey findings also indicate a lengthening; in the period of ullemploy- ment, with more than 70 of jobless workers being i dle for nior; than 3 consecnlive niontlts and substantial rrninhrr fogy more than a year. Underennployment is also a severe problem, although marry worker: with needed skills, including govenlitiont employees, hold two or ttlore jobs sometimes with overlapping hours of employment, in order to make ends meet. In 19 1 ueariy a quarter of Tile economically active people in Montevideo Department were employed less than 30 hours per week, approximately half having worked liniked hours because of the scarcity of fulltime jobs, Outside Montevideo, particularly in rural areas, undcremploy- ment is believed to be even more pronounced. [n the northern stockragsing region, unskilled laborers customarily are hired to work on the eslcrneias during the roundup, branding;, and sheep- shearingseasons for a inaximnin of -45 hays. During the remainder of the year they work only intermittently. Despite high levels of unemployment and underemployment, skilled workers are in short supply. lu the slid- 1950's enrollment in the public atialtal schools. known collectively as the Libor University, was lees than one -third of conesgwncling enmllmentin academic secondary schools, pointing up the greater prestige traditionally attached to academic training; .olcl white collar employment. Skilled warkers have been needed pit a variety of industrial and agricultural occupations, especially engineering and agronomy. In its 1,965 -74 National Development Plan, tine government envisaged a 46% increase in per capita productivity as a result of creating 63,000 additional jolis in manufacturing, esLublishing op- the -job training programs, and improving techiloiogy. To date, however, workers appear to have benefited little from the program, either in increased employment opportunity or in higher levels of skill. Unlike the working population of many other South American Countries, tile Uruguayan labor' farce is predominantly urban. lu 1963 some four fifties of all workers were urban residents, neary half livings in Montevideo alone. Vane were recent arrivals from the countryside, which has correspondingly experienced a substantial diminution in the size of its work force. Factors causing onitinning m frorn rural to urban areas, cspeciuiip Montevideo, include t}ne limited expansion lot cotntnerciad livestock operations, mechanization of certain farming; lechniclucr. increased carneentration of land among l arge property holders. and the workers' hope, not alwa- realized. of finding regular and better paying employment in the city. Tlrie scarcity of joins notwithstanding, sex d iscr imination ill hirin is rtlillimal, and a fairly high proportion of workers are women (figure 13). Although most women are housewives. female workers comprise a growing prolxlrtion of the Latzer force. [it 1963 women accounted for one fourth of Ilse: economically active popular on, in 1971 in Montevideo Department they comprised nearly one third of the labor force. 10 the former year women outnumbered men in personal service occupations and in certain professional, technical, and related fields, includ teachings, nursing;, and medical technology. Additionally, women predominated anio see retaries, bookkeepers, cashiers, textile workers, and meatpackers. Legisia'tion has long; assured wo olen of special cons Since 1914 women have been prohibited from engaging; in haxari ous work, and they may not be employed in industrial jobs at flight. The chuir law" of 1918 requires that provision he made for female employees to sit whenever their work permits. The first law guaranteeing maternity benefits dales from 1909, and present provisions require the granting of �a total of 12 weeks of maternity leave at full pay. Futhermore, the constitution requires equal pay for equal work. Libor by minors is regulated by numerous laws, including the Children's Code and nearly two dozen other statutes, some of which evolved through the ratificalpun of ILO conventions, The legal mini age for wor'r, by minors varies from age 12 in small industries inhere olle of the child's parents is also employed to age 21 ill cafes, cabarets, and theaters. Work by minors under 18 is limited to 6 hours per day with a 2 -hour midday break and a 36 -hour week. while manual training of minors under 1.1 may not exceed 4 hours per day. Work by youngsters in the lower age groups is not widespread, but it is substantial among; older teenagers; in 1963 only about $Ye of the population age 10 to 14 but half of those age 15 to 19 were economically active, 21 �:r-`c;- :3',L:,;,:.,. T, ukk?"."- t':+ awxaf +esea.:e:arae-.::{.xsixc: rcn.r sFwbw.. m-+ rxvarwrwrewe :+...r.aa�..m+asaar..v.. +r ..w w. wxvsnm fnrawc..:aa, APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100016 -8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100016 -8 FIGURE 13. Women in the tabor force Operating a wd!oving machine In a Montevideo canon milt Women comprise opproxi'-wreiy 60% of the workers h the tensile Indvsiry, tUj4U) b. Labor legbilafion In addition is (lie existence of coinprellensive social insurance -,nd of special laws prescribing work standards and governing employrncnl terns, labor affairS are regill iced by certain cxmstitutiotlal articles. by provisions of 11ty coinraercial ::tid civil aisles. and by legislative endorsements of I LC agreeincots. t oulicmpontry legidation provides fora basic 8 -hour workduy and -Its -hour workweek. overtime pay. annual bonuses, paid holidays and vacations, acrd scvcraltce pay. Maxintum and minimurn wage rates also are controlled by lac_ l;xocpt for claTncstic servants, minirnurn wugc laws apply to most wage carriers, ineltiding agricultural workers. Laws regulating collective contracts, labor unions, strikes, and lockouts are limited in scope, resuNng in unclear proudures for the sett entent of Iuhor disputes. 22 Numerous hoards aTld pl:!y a conciliatory role during such disagrccrnents, but ctrntPtilsory arlfitra- lion is virtually unknoyn. Upon prior notice to the gvveninlent, :ill workers, wheilter orgaiiized or not. are guaranteed the right to strike. Although public employees are enjoined froTn striking, the prohibition has been L onsistently ignored by civil servants and only sporadically eafurced b tote government. for reasons of INditical expediene�. Responsibility far enforcing stattiton provisions roriverning conditions of ::ark rests with the Inspectorate Ceneral of Labor and Social Security. which has beets doable to ensure thorough cn)Tnplialwe with the regulations. in 196 #1 the Inspectorate, all entity of the Ministry r:f Libor and Social Welfare. had only 137 labor inspectors, most of whom reerived their appointments through political connections ;lid APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100016 -8 Shaping taro in a comad btier cannery oboes 20 miles wet' of Montevideo (C) Hand coming tomatoes is a factory neor Montevideo (CI APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100016 -8 lacked technical qualifications for Ibn work. Some inspectors. moreover, have been known to overlook violations in return for bribes from employers. Prior to 19611 minirtunn pay rates were set by wage boards operating within the various sectors of the economy. and wages higher than those presimbeJ by the boards could be obtained through collective bargaining. let December of that year. legislation established the Commission oil PrQdloctivlty, Pricos, and Wages (COPRIN), composed of representatives of government, lab and busiaess. T he cc�traliiution of authority to set minimum wages, coulAed with MPRIN's subseiluent iinposltiun of wage ceilings ovrr certain occupational groups, has :housed consider protest ;imong workers. Although COPRIN has raised The mininttun waive levels on numerous occasions, many workers believe that [lie revisions have been unduly late and the umounts too small; as of January 1973 the legal mininittm monthly wake was equivalent to USS39.7.5. Scime of the ct :nfusion to industrial relationsderives From the lack of clear statutory guidelineti concerning the jurisdiction and functioning of labor unions. Mechanisms For resolving conflicts between content- ing uriioris or 117-tween competing factions within unions are virtually noncr.istent. In the absence of these, govemsnental intcfVvntion in million matters hus tended to be erratic, leaving tratle unionists in doubt as to when they cair anticipate official aslstauce in time resolution of disputes. There repxortcolly exists a particular need for governmental supervision of union elections and for the use of the secret ballot in order to reduce campaign abuses, which have included coercion and intimidation. Desiring to safegt.urd their prerogatives, however, union leaden have been reluctant to enJorse the imposition of measures governing the internal affairs of their organizations. c. Labor and management Uruguay has developed a strong labor moven>_ent. The earliest ideological influence or: the nation's workers was anarcho- syndicalisni introduced by Spanish and Italian immigrants. Tile first labor orguni7ations, dating from the mid -191h century, were little more than mutual aid societies, but industrial expansion in the 19Ws fostered the growth of modern forms. Communism gradually gained strength in tlin labor movement, and in 1912 Communists established "lie General Union of Workers (UCT), the first national cc,ifedemtl ^.n. In 1951 non- Communists, primarily socialists, established the rival Trade Union Confederation of Uruguay (CSU). The rivalry between Communist and non Communist unions is a conliuuing factor if the labor inovertteut and leas coulributcd to almost kalt idoseopie shifts irl Hoioll orgauiration. lie 19.59 the UGT dissolved in favor of the Central of Uruguayan Workers (C'1'U). which was formally organizeti it, iwi. CTU President Jose &Elia, once considcied statlnchly coonrioitted to democratic unionism, helped to strengthen t M*U's image shod its relatiow; with anitonotnous unions. lit 1964 the Con:mtmist Parly of Uruguay (i'CU) orguoNed another labor front, using chi: old UCT Barrie, which attracted support from some unions that would not affiliate with the openly Cununnuisl- aufirolled C'1'U. So,me individual unions retained independent action, but .tire UC'r 1weame increasingly respouivc to PCU lalxir p o!icy. Meeting in a labor coongre%s in 1966. representatives of 3W. unions terininats1l tl:c UCT and formed a new confederation cared the Notional Convention of Yorkers (CN still Cr,Wrnnllist- oriented but [xompriscd of unions froin nearly every sector of Uruguayan labor. This organiz;tion also replaced the CTU. !luring the 1950's and IrN f% the butt >Conunuuist labor sector rcmaincd weak and divided. The CSU detcrinrated as tl result of internal strife and was dissolved in 1966. For about 3 years the Coniniirriisl CNT was the only national labor central. Then in Horeb 1969, delegates from forincrCSU affiliates awl independent locals representing M unions established life Urifgua}an Confederation of Workers (CUT). Although it has grown iii membership, tiie CUT rcmlfins weak as a result. of un.ouordinated police, decentnli coolml, and the autonomy of local unions. (n early 1973 dissidents front four influential affiliates, repiesenting appmAniatcly our -fifth of the confederation's members, left the organivai because of inept leadership. dishonest rnanllgcment of union funds, and rightrsing li olitfcal activities of the confederation's vouth section. Two of the dissident affiliates formed a new confederation, the National "bor Union of Workers (UGNT), in April 1913. The two major labor centrals have adopted new strategies in recent years. Until the-latter part of 1971 Ilse CUT attempted to incorporate only unaffiliated unions. After persuading two (turner CNT- affiliuted textile unions to join its ranks, however, the CUT gained the clnfidenci to approach other organizattiOtis under CN7' spurisorship. On the other !rand. the CNT decided at its national convention in )tote 1971, tr, group its affiliates into federations atrording to industry, apparently to better mobilize the various economic sectors forstrikes and other protest activities Additionally, by minimizing the connection of the 23 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 0070711000200100016 -8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100016 -8 new federations to the CNT, it hoped to increase its appeal to unions outside the Communist laborcentrd ire the panic of labor unity. The incidence cif strikes was lover in [lie early I970's than during then mid- I960, w hen industrial disputes esca.:ated into more than 700 stoppages am Bally. Nonetheless, strikes, which have tended increasingly to assu=ne political overtones, retnaiht the Preferred tactic for underscoring labjrs demands. CNT protests frequently have included denunciations of "repressive" measures by the govenment amd demands for the reestablishment of democratic liberties, frecdoin for persons detained without judicial pracess, and an cud to "lorture." In 1971 lfte CNT's economic and political power wer etas demonstratrd by its sponsorslhip of three geucrd strikes during the first 6 months of the Rordalberry administration, The 2r1 -hour gencril strikes called by [lira CNT on 9 Novenrber 1972 and 21 J u ne 1913 to protes', fa number of grievaim s :against tlr'e ;overontent bitbught the nation to a standstill. The CNT's sponsorship of a lw general strike: from 27 June to I I Judy 19143 ft) protest the closing of Congress, however, resulted in the strongest reaction ever by the Bordaberry administration against organNed labor. On 30 June 1973 the government decreed the dissolution of the CNT, charging it will, impeding vital services and supporting violence uguinst the well -being of the nation, -On 4 July the government banned all stri kes grader any cir- cumstanc::s- --anc! authorised the dismissal of worke,s engaged in work stoppages. 'rhe folltwing clay the President ordered the arrest of more than 50 leaders of the CN'T for having incited the genera) strike. In addition, he decreed that workers who participated in the stoppage were subject to loss of 3 days' pay for each day absent from work. Rccause of the large number of loosely affiliated organtcations, frequent shifting of members from one union to ari her, and the movement of unions from one federation 'to another, complete information is lacking on t ion strength and affiliation. Moreover, dares paying only a fraction of the total claimed membership. According to the best available estin:s Ws, union members numbered about 360,0110 early in 1973 perhaps 35% of the labor force. The CNT was by far the largest labor central, with uhout'70 affiliates and an estimated mediliership of 300,000. The remaining organ! iations were divided between the CUT, with six national federations and an estimated 17,000 members, and independent unioliz with illiproxims -dely 63,000. Union member- ship is col RiFated largely in Montevideo. Unions 24 and regional federations exit in the interior, but few arc strung. Except fnr suga( workers in the Departments of Artiga and Salto, almost no rural workers belong it) labor anions. Numerous labor organizations participate in intentational labor affairs. Prior to }being declarml illegal llte CNT inaintainecl uu Sorival internationa! affiliation; however, it has "fraternal" ties with the World Federation of 'Trade Unirmx (WFTU), witlb which four of its most itnportanr co bstititent imilins, representing about 17,000 workers, maintained formal links. Ufupaayan Corrtrnuriist ].ibor leader 1 Y:"c4.G....w. crew. mnn. easxalars:'. aw: wniFU: xsz%'& MSra> wr :rw'ap::'ce:.r.::aY(.^aRlALR 1:4x.'t61P71.ti.'wM ra 71Y� rBbaRK' Lf3:: 3.�.. aP.+l.:as:r::: APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100016 -8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100016 -8 4i Y -15E 36 f FIGURE 19. A modern apartment on Calles leyande P6tria and Ellanse in Montevideo. Contemporary archi- tectural design has predominated both in pub,' buildir:gs and in private residences since about 1950. The ornamentation shows a galloping horse ridderi by an Indian whose feathered headgear and bow and arrow can be seen to the left of the horse's head. (Cl APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA RDP01 00707R000200100016 8 FIGURE IS. Cathediai of Montevideo, b0it from 1790 to 1804. This structure is one of the country's few remaining mxomples of architecture from the colonial period. (C) APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100016 -8 FIGURE 20. Knucklebones (c. 1865) by Juan Monuel Blanes, The founder of Uruguayan painting, Blanes applied European techn'.ques to Creole themes and was a graphic chronicler of the history of the Rio de la Plota region. (UJOU) Interest inn the performing arts, parlicularly ntusie and dance, is widespread. Falk music is based primarily nn the improvised verse of the gauclio hill is also influelleed by various Nel;ro elements as well as 50119.9 ;11,11 d.11ILTs adapted from those of Argentina. The principal er;ealors (if Uruguayan fink music vere gaachco balladeers. known as payadores, who Wandered front place to place, ix-rforming wherever ix:ople gathered �in markets surrl squares aid at weddings and wakes. Accut:npanying !hmmselves on native guitars called charangos, [lie payadores sang; ballads inodelery on th e Spanish romance. Popular FIGURE 21, Constructive City with Uni'versai Mon (1942) by Joaquin Torres Garda. This influential painter abandoned studies of nature, perspective, and chiaro=ro in seeking$ the basic, pric.ciples of "constructure universalism." (UJOU] FIGURE 22. Carlos Poex Vilaro beside one of his paint- ings at his vocation house near Punto del Este. In addition to pointing, Poex works in ceramics, composes music, and writes poetry and prose. tU /OU) subjects front [Fie early colonial period are songs cif brrokelt hearts, passion, tragedy. personal exploits, and gallantry, white themes from a later period, after tilt g,ruclu :s became farnotis as soldiers and patriots, dwell on military prowess. love of c-01111try, and hatred of Spain. A cumber of folk ninsic and dance; forms, developed largely by urn evolutionary combination of Creole and Negro ntusie, are shared with Argentina. The traditional dative most closely identified with Uruguay is [lie pericon, a mound dare in 34 time created by tine gauchos. Since 1887, when an official urrrny;cnletit of the dance vas made for lnililan hands by Gerardo Grasso, lice pontoon has been reg;trdcc3 as tine national dance. nce. Although the origin of the latngo, a inelaticholy music and datxv form combinirig Frenels, Spanish, and African folk influences, is disputed by musicologists, ,floe of ille hest k nown e nrillxo silrott{ o talc tyir is 1.11 Cuniparsiia, the work of the Urnguayan composer Gerardo H. Matos Rodriguez. It the field of classical t:msic. Eduardo hahini (1883 -19-51) is considered the most outstanding composer. 'Grained in Belgitrn, Falbioi used folk theines in i -ic kru,ks and gained internationa recognition for his sympaome [xoenns, a;trluding Campo (Countryside) and La Isla do loo 0-ibos (The Island of the Cvilm Trees). Another prominent coniixfser, Vicente Ascene (1897- also ernploy :s folk themes. Suile Uniguaya for orchestra, his best .known work, is based largely art Charruu mot1h. Also notable 37 ae.n- �w... a, r..... c �...�.._a..a..- .:+a..rr.... -.s swTw.. v r.. x,,, a :crr+mLCaa`xa`l :s� x...c :ti8a'.J :Keiw :L.d- 1aYl.R:; :.7:. r. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100016 -8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100016 -8 :1 t i t antong Liniternponity composers are Leon Birotti rend I lector Tosar .Errecart. Birotti has composed chamber rtriisic arid works for orchestra, piano, and voice, whiiv Tosur s crest known cork is Vanza Cdolla (Creole Dante), a fiery piano composition based on gaucho themes. Other influential figures are musicologists Fr ancisco Cnrt Lange anu Latiro Ayestaran. Lange edited and published the Boletin Latin- Am'ericano do Musica, a five- volume archive of Latin American musicology, and founded the instituto Americuno fie MUVIc01091a in Montevideo, all official government institution since- 19 Aycstaran's career has bean devoted largely le the promotion of music in schools and universitieo. Orchestral groups include the National Symphony Orchestra, supported by SODRE, the Arcos Orchestra, founded by Birottl, and the Chamber Orchestra of Musical youth. For many year. Buenos Aires was the fecal poin! for Uruguayan actors and playwright who joined forces .vith Argentinian artists to present theutrical pre luctions in Troth countries. In 1947 the first pi�rmanent repertory company, the Comedia Vac[onal, w :15 established in M to present the classics as well as viorks by tlruguayuns. Underwritten by the municipal government and supervisC,d by the Ministry of Fducation anti Culture, the Comedia- aroused new interest in drama. Various professionl and amateur companies followed, including the Odeon Theater, specializing io Slvakespeare and modern drama, and the Verdi I'licater, emphasizing comedy. Other groups are lo,vated in various colleges of the 'U niversity of the lieptiblic and in the cities of Fray 3entos, Paysandu, and Salto. Until its destruction by fire in September 1971, the National Theater in Montevideo, built in 1889 and owned by SODEIE, was one of the cultural landmarks of the nation. A Stew theater is planned, but as of mid -1973 it had not been constructed. H. Public information (U /OU) Uruguay's public information media, which are concentrated in Montevideo, are largely the domain of private enterprise. Then: media, especially the press and, radio, are highly developed and reach virtually the entire population. Several Montevideo newspapers circulate nationwide on the day of their publicaiior, and these are supplemented by provincial newspapers which provide local coverage. Although radio claims a more extensive audience, the press is.generally credited with having a greater jmpa 't in molding opinion. Television, blarAeL th� country, but the high cost of receivers has limited its influence, 38 Traditionally, Uruguayans have taken pride in their constitutiotial guarantees of frr� speech and press and Irave shown tolerance toward iLc right to dissension, even toward terrorism. In juoc 1968, h owcver, the government f of complete disruption of normal life by terrorists, dcc :area! the under a limited stale of siege. Newspapers were prohibit -.d from reporting ibe activities of seditimis groups, particularl the Marxist Tupamarus. In August 1971 this censorship was broadened .through t implementa- tion of a presidential decree, promulgated in jone 1969, which prohibited all oral or wtittetc information regarding strikes, trade union resolutions, or other measures that would "directly or indirectly co ntribute to a state of unrest in the nation." Included in the dec�rec was a ban oil the importation of pri nted anatter which "originates in nondemocratic countries de; ;ling with subversive or totalitarian ideals." Censorship was expanded still further in April 1972 through a military document known as "Security Order Number I," by w hich the press and broadcast media were prohibited from reporting or commenting on' any military er police operations unless first announced in an official cornmunielur,. The expression of opinions regarding thz actions of the armed forces and the police which might be�dctrimental to their morafeorimputation w as also prohibitee'.. Continuation of terrorist activities through December 1912 brought Ceucral Assembly agreement to extend the suspension of certain constitutiottai rights, including those affecting the media. President Bordaberry extended this suspension by executive decree in May 1973. I. Printed matter Daily newspapers, the most hifleientirl of the information media, are mainly partisan journals representing the point of view of only one polit :ial party or faction. Thus, readers, especially those who are decisionmakers, such as government officials, trade union leaders, anri businessmen, neei :ioIluw several newspapers fora balanced view of the politicaj scene. Although most newspapers derive their revenues wholly from sales and advertising, a few papers receive financial, assistance from the partisan group whose viewpoints they :represent, and these dailies often provide employment to party stalwarts. In additia' to the cast of inflated staffs_publisi: r have experienced other financial difficulties in recent years, resulting from higher costs. for irripo ed ric,vsprint nd ether materials, losses in advertising. which ha's :shilted rto television and a general decre' ase in sales as the cost of living has soared. The estimated circulation of'daiy APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100016 -8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100016 -8 rtewspapicrs in Nloutevideo declined from approxi- mately 3(1{).0X)9 it, 1960 to 3000g) ill I967, but had risen to -17 50)0 by early 154 In spite of fin;uicial and technical prolslcu)s, jourtalistic slandards ill Uruguay Wnlain fairly high. '['he press is generally oh,:.wtive in its fi-aut page news, with editorlali %tng t- vifined to file edit pages and the bvline columns. Selection of news to he crwerecl, however, often shows dearly the poblisher's political viewpoint. Further proficiency and professionalism are impaired by low salaries. in 1969 the rrlonthly salaries of newspaper employees ranged from the erpuivalent of USM to US$2(X), with (lie .overage salary unusug professionals seldom more than US$129. The format of the daily publicutions is similar to that of Foropean a cid North American rtewspai -i Both regular and tabloid styles are published, usually ranging between eight and 16 pages in length. Some papers publish a Sunday supplement. Local and ir)lcrnuticnal ncWs, vital statistics, inarket reports, sp nrts rte letters to the editor. coolie strips, and lists of lottery wituters are the regular (tire. Many tlewspapxrs use stories supplied by the Natiunal Inform rrgcncy (AP I), vhpch alas appmxinmtely 7.5 correspoudents throughout the cootitry. The principal dailies in Montevideo also use information front one or more of [lie following Aire services and tic% agencies: Agence (AFP). Agernzin Nazionale Slarnpa Assocciafa (ANSA), Associated Press (AP), Deutsche Presse Agenlur (DPA). Agenda Larinoamericana de Information (LVIIN), Reuters, and TASS. The Cnban- based Preasa 1.01111a was banned from Uruguay in June 1971. lit early 1973 the Uruguayan press consisted of nine principal daily newspapers in Montevideo and 21 smaller dailies in Montevideo and elsewhere. Circulation figtrres stood at 37. 5.000 in Montevideo and 73,900 in the interior, bringing the combined circulation of daily newspapers to roughly Of the principal newspapers, the morning daily El Pals 11115 tide largest circulation (Figure 23). Attracting predominantly middle and upper class white collar readers, it is p ispula: among; Blanco Party supporters. Although credited with less lx)litict[ impact than other Montevideo papers, El Dfario' f urnis hes a ba l anced rouncdtip of economic and political news, sports, an([ hurnan interest fcatures, which accounts for its position as the nations second most widely read journal. 'Tile influcrltiul morning daily Fl Ala, founded in 18% by refnnAst Jose Battle y Orcdoner, reoresents the'011tical vpeis of. the dointinant wing of the Colorado Party. Recently, El Dia has safdencd its traditional anticlerical stand. Another prominent daily is Acrion. all afternoon paper ideologically oriented toward the Colorado Ndy. Among the ncwsp apers geneiraily critical of government polio% are l:l Popular, militant organ of the PCU, Ahora, supporter of tile PDC, and 011ma flora, with a Far -left orientation. El 1'elegrafei, published in Paysandu, is one of the best kuowit dailies outside o[ Montevideo. The Buenos Aires Herald, a tabloid of international t stock in arket quotations. sports, and c1111ties is the only E,1191611-language daily eircitlatiog in ivlcintevidco on the day of publication. Aniong tite �18 weekly newspapers published in Uruguay, the most prominent is the leftist Marcba, widely :cad by Latin American intellectuals. Ail estimated circulation of 22,000 in 1972, however, indicates that Marcha's sales extend beyond the academic :aid scientific communities to single purchases from news vcndnrs by average citizens. Other oondaily. newspapers include: El Orizimil, publication of the PSU; Azid y Blintco. a militaristic rightwing weekly; Semanarlo lfebreo, a weekly paper in Spanish for the Jewish community; and L'Ora d'ltalia, all Italian language fortnightly. Some 30 periodicals are published, many of thorn stressing cultural subjects rather than iiews. Popular foreign periodicals include ,Nanchele and 0 Cruzeirn from Brazil, and Analisis and Stele 131as from Argentina. Among regularly available U.S, inagazines are Tonic and Newsweek. Others, including Esquire and Ladies Home Journal, can be purchased on an irregular basis (usually at twicw the U.S, price) at many of Montevideo's numerous newstands (Figure 24). Dc�pite the high liteniey rate and wide support for newspapers, Uruguayan book production is low. The high 'list of lalmr, a relapively small inarket, and an i�neffieicut distribL6011 systcrn hinder the development of a viable book- publishing indusuv. Adverse exchange rates make some foreign boejls, especially those fronv Argerttint!, quite exjinmsiye. Among fil leading publishers are the University of the Republic: and the Ministry of Education and Culture. Iii 1967 nearly half the 341 books printed in the country were in the field of literature, and approximately 70 were in the social sciences. 2. Radio, television, and motion pictures Radio reucloes almost the entire population in virtually tall, atens of the country. HunMing sm)nd to newspaper:: in the distribution of news and commentaries, radio is most influential in rural areas where the delivery of printed matter is expensive. Since the develupment of low prided transistor radius, ,39 r� .5: 4�.': M?+ A''aK�.'. -..i .v.,� r.' YYL ?jNSi.'SS3:i'',...w+:4' iL ti .ec:"MXt- vyn.:.m-�n�.rhr ..r..... r.r i..... APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100016 -8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100016 -8 FIGURE 23. ?rincipol daily newspopers, M =Ievideo, 1972 (UJOU) 40 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100016 -8 FIGURE 24. One of the numerous newsstands In Montevldeo which p ovlde a large selection of Urugudya:[ and foreign periodicals (UfOU} Y.KT134AT0;n nAT[: KA +[f, C11MULATtu\ YOLN Dr. D 1'.I Paix.,. No. 0 I 1915 Manco Party Urivatation; conserc. 0ve ::t donLe-dic affairs; Lint i.COUIRMMA, pre-United Stated, I�:l Mario........ 60. ON 1923 lndapeadent; con"rvative; neutral toward the Unitrd Staten. 151 Dia. 50,00 1NSti Culuratio Party orientation; moderate. hnra �10.t100 1971 ChziRtittn Democratic MAY 0 11.1 Color....... �10.004 11165 Spiritcd tabloid; Catholic trientation, cowLereittive. Accinn....... 30,60D 1llili L70101L.a Party orientation; appra to middle lncorne groups. IA Mitnnna...... 25,000 1917 Colorado Party ortclltation; appeals to [niddie and upiwr Income group Iii Pop.ticr..... 17.(M 11ti57 Communist Party of Uruguay tP('U, nrtGar; e%- pounds party Iho. l'ltimn flora.... 10.tx1U 1073 Leftixt; edited 1, members of tlx' 1 a :td Soci:digt Party of [Uruguay (PSU). 40 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100016 -8 FIGURE 24. One of the numerous newsstands In Montevldeo which p ovlde a large selection of Urugudya:[ and foreign periodicals (UfOU} APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100016 -8 the number of receivers in use has risen steadily since 1960, anti now roughly cquals ,5w receivers per I,000 inhabitants �a ratio higher than that in most other countries in the %W'Sterih Hemisphere. Almost all radio stations are commercially operated; several are Owned by or affiliated with newspapers or television stations. Among the few ru 11LOMInercial stations are those 7perated by the government sponsored SOI which provide nevs, classical and Popular inmic, and cultural programs in a coniprrlioensive paltcru. The majority of the broadcasting stations arc located outside the Montevideo area; they are organized into two cooperative groups s haring news and rather services. Programing corisisls of news suinunaries, soak operas, sports featums, and music. The lango from the Rio de la Plata area and the hossa nova from Bra-AI arc heard on many stations, but modern rock front the United States and the United Kingdom is also popular. Same stations have late nlgilt shows featuring jazz and semiclassical music. Although local newscasts are Fetter c-dited and presented than tho-, iii marl}� other South American nations, few stations can afford large news staffs. Consequently, inaay stations use the services of al affiliate With a t printer for daily national and internatiorml news reports. 'rite leading supplier of national news and cominentaries is Radio Carte, owned and r>perated by Raul ):ontaina, former president of the Inter American Association of Broadcasters. '1'elevisinn has liceu growing rapidly in Uruguay, from all estimated 25,0W receivers in 196() to. in 1972. T he regular viewing audience is t ilelilatetl at over I million persons. Signals fmin the five television stations in Montevideo are receive# throughout the aountrr anon- stalitins also exist in Arligas, Giiouia, Fray Bentos, Maldonado, Melo Paysandu, Rivera, Rocha, Slllto, 'f vcuarembo, and Treinta y Tres. SODRE operates an two channels. Other stations are privately owned and commercially supported. Educational television, established in 196.1, telecasts throur tine facilities of channel 5 in Montevideo. Programs are prepared by tine National Council of Primary School Education: Progm -cs fins lcen slow, however, and Ptogriming has only begun in primary schools. Pattems of Programing for commercial television are similar to those in tine United States, as they include news summaries, soap, operas, siturtion comedies, drama, variety shows. and sports, The government and commercial. channels in Montevideo have presented documentaries on the dvitger to heal �h from poor dietary habits, inadeq personal hygiene, alcxbv!isni, and smoking, Docianentaries and television drarnas by the nation's leading writer. compare favorably wills similar efforts in the United Slates. A large part of television fare, however, consists of U.S. imports dihbbed ill Spanish; these include "Bonanza," "The Dean Martin Show," Dragnet," "Mission Impossible," and "Panorama U.S.A. Other video laps programs cone from Argentina, Brazil, and F uEopc. Modest admission prices make motion pictures it major forin of entertainment. With the exception of two or three feature fins caelh year, domcslic film Production it limited to newsreels and documentaries. lodes are imported from France, Italy, J apan, ,Mexico, tilt Soviet Ultioin, llhe United Kitlgdorn, and the United Statc .i. I. Selected bibliography (U /OU) Alisky, Marvin. Uruguay, a Cori it! mporanr Surtsey. New York: Praeger. 1969. The only recent general book on Uruguay iu English devoted to such broad topics as soda! structure, education, cultural expre."irm, ;e nd ccollolr ly. 'rhe sectimi oil nevspapers :lnd periodicals is particularly useful. Benedetti. Mario, eel. Literatura Uriguaya Siglo Xt. Montevideo: Editorial Alfa. 1%9. A collection of previously published articles on 20th century Uruguayan literature by different writets. Fitzgibil0n, Russel H. -Uruguay: Portrait of a Ueniocrccy. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1966. A classic, although somewhat tiated, study of polifits, o:cononlies. arld life. Canon, Isaac. Estruciura social del Uruguay. Montevideo: Editorial A S. 19fifi. An extensive stt:dy of Uruguayan society covering dentography, social organization, and social prolilt =ms. Metho! Ferre, Alberto. Las corrienies religiosas: N tiestra Tierra 25. Montevideo: Editorial, Nuestra Tierra, 1969. A brief awx -aunt of changing religious trends fain early colonial to Modern times. Pendlc, George. Uruguay, 1,ovdon: Oxford University Press. 1%3. A general study of demog- raphy, social struNnr4, living conditions, religion, anti cultural exp'rcssiorl. Bantu, Carlos M. !.a religion en el Umguoy. ,4lontevideo. Ediciones Nuestro Tiemtxt. I964, A sociological study of contemporary religious practices, mainly those of Homan Catholicism, by all Uruguayan writer sociologist. "Los problemas agrarios tin cl.'Uruguay," Anerica Latina, vol. 10, pp. v)46, Octrber- December 1967. General discussion of rural housing 41. E's''i :SiwK:.7.4d+k2YYi' :yA S s w u f s+ wnw ks,. rm.. e.. n... a.� x. rwa. ranor. 9eti wz+wsL's.:S.4s.SFr r i APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100016 -8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100016 -8 Co,F111M.- rtAt. an�l social problems pointing out different family %tructures in(] enipluynieut patterns ilk Uruguay's rural society. "The Passim; of tike Afro Uruguayans front Cade Societe into CIIJS% SaciCty.'' M.Lgilus Nlorne.r, cYl. Rance and Class in Latin America. New fork: Columbia University Press. 1970. A study of tike formation and developntvnt of soc cl:ksses in Uruguay. Sociologia del Uruguay. Buenos Aires: Editorial Urliversitaria tic iiucuos Aires. 1965. A concise explanation of coulempomiry social slrpetnre and mobility. Real do Aiva, Carlos. 1.ri clase dirigenl fNuestra Tierra 3.1. Moult-video; Editorial Nue,tra Tierra. 1969. A brief discumiou of agrictdlur.d, mercantile, industrial, military, and religiotis elites ill 1 �ttirt America, with specific nfcrcnccs to Uruguay. Shapiro, Samel. "Uruguays Lost Paridisv, Current INslornl, vol. 62, pp. 98 -104. February 197 Ali analysis of Uruguay's recent economic difficulties and social tttt rest, sketching e4t ono mic a nd political developments during the 20th mikitiry_ "Social ,tilobility Rates in Buenos Aires, Nlon- tevideo, and Sao Paulo," rlaterfca I- alfna, vol. 4, pp. 3 -20, October December 1962. A comparative description of factors affteting social mobility ill three urban settings. Sew y amor en el Uruguay. Montevideo: Editorial Alfa. 1970. C data on Sacitll snores. '1'rtibel. Jose M. %slteclos del Uruguay actual. Banco der la Republica Oriental del Uruguay. Montevideo. 1970. Contains economic artrl finaltcia] dank, vilb recent statistics on education and utf;ial security. UF119,311y, Comision de lovmsiones y Dcsarrollo Economicu. Publicaciones tC anos de la ley do educat7an contim, Montevideo. 1966. A comprehen- sive Stott) of the educational system, ioc]udhig its structure ufganiiation, Lo st, and recolumendat for reform. Uruguay, Mreccinni Genera! do Nstar.istiea v Censers. Buleffn esladfslico. aver 111, iim la, September 1971. Contains statistical data and analysis of wages Mid iticonic: am ong mont evideo are worker; from 1969 to 1971. Uful;uay, Direction Navional de Vivienda, lnstituto Nacional de Viviendas Economicas. J narianal fie viaienda 1971 72. Montevideo. 1971. A synopsis of housing coll litiolts, building Lonstriletiott mtc'. attd future steeds, including a critiq o the 1970 national housing plan. Urogimy. instituto de Economic, Univemidad de la Relm6lica. Uruguay, esfadisficas liasicas. llou- tevideo. impresora Cordon. 1969. Statistical data and anafysis of population, employment. and irimme based oil inforfmition front the 1963 population census, various agricultural crnsuscx. anti sample s"Mys. Glusily kf 42 A H nn ry iATsox S l'AH 1811 F N GLt alt AN] Agen lfereional d e i nf or ma iio ne s... Na t ion al lnformation Agen CNT......... CAmmntion National de Trabajodorra., Naiianal Contention -of Workers CUMIN...... Comiaion de Praduefiridad, Precios a CommMon on Productivity, Pricer, f nomads and Wages CSU.......... Confederation Siodiwl del Uruguay... Trade Union Co0ederatian of Uruguay C'f Cenfrol de Trabgjadmw del Uruguay... CentrAl,or Urugu %yan Workers CUT.......... Conjcderaciin Urugunya de Tmba;a- Uruguayan Confederation of Workers dope's ICFTU lnternaiiansl ConferrnM: of Free Trade Unions INI'C......... Inttrfufo National de Viriendap Econo- Natlunal Institute of low -Cost iiouAng :erica� ISAI.......... loiesM y Soe err America Latina.. Church and Society in Latin Atneri.ra it1LT......... ,tlafdmienfo des Liberation Naciafial... National Liberation Movement OR1T......... Urgani:acion Regional Inirranierieana Inter American Regional Organization de riabojadares of Work PCU.......... Portido Camunista. del Uruguay....... Communist of Uruguay I'M.......... Perdido Prmoeiola Crirtiana.......... Christian 1 >macmL Party PSU.......... Parfido Swiuliala del Uruguay....... oocitilis! Party of Urtiguay SODRE....... S"icio Ofitinl de Difusion Radio Official Radiobroadcaacing Service F- frrfrira UM Union General dr rmbajadares....... Cionera! Union of Workem WFTU ...............I.............:. World Fedrxatioa of Trade Unions. N O FORE.[G V INSSEM G yI F 1170 irXT..I AL [[[.':nanrr N.'.: K': ...n.T. .n -^rr. rt. 2009 /06/1 6 .rr.�.�� r...� APPROVED FOR RELEASE: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100016 -8