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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100017 -7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100017 -7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100017 -7 NATIONAL INTEI SURVEY PUBLICATIONS The basic unit of the NIS is the General Survey, which is now published in a bound -by- chapter format so that topics of greater per- ishability can be updated on an individual bmis. These chapters Country Profile, The Sociefy, Government vnd'Politics, The Economy, Military Geog- raphy, Transportation and Telecommunications, Armed Forces, Science, and Intelligence and Security, provide the primary NIS coverage. Some chapters, particularly Science and Intelligence and Security, that are not pertinent to all countries, are produced selectively. For small countries requiring only minimal NIS treatment, the General Survey coverage may be bound into one volume. Supplementing the General Survey is the NIS Basic Intelligence Fact book, a ready reference publication that semiannually updates key, sta- tistical data found in the Survey. An unclassified edition of the factbook omits some details on the economy, the defense forces, and the intelligence and security organizations. Although detailed sections on many topics were part of the NIS Program, production of these sections has been phased out. Those pre- viously produced will ccntinue to be available as long as the major portion of !he study is considered valid. A quarterly listing of all active NIS units is published in the Inventory of Av.:ilable NIS Publications, which is also bound into the concurrent classified Factbook. The Inventory lists all NIS units by area name and number and includes classification and date of issue; it thus facilitates the ordering of NIS units cis well as their filing, cataloging, and utilization. Initial dissemination, additional copies of NIS units, or separate chapters of the General Surveys can be obtained directly or through liaison channels from the Central Intelligence Agency. The General Survey is prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency and the Defense Intelligence Agency under the general direction of the NIS Committee. It is coordinated, edited, published, and dissemi- nated by the Central Intelligence Agency. M ARNI \G document contains info affecting the notional defense of the United States. within the meoning of title TS. sections 743 and 794 of the US code, as amended. Its rronsmitsion ar cevelotion of its contents to or receipt by an wnowthoriied person is prohibited by taw. CLASSIFIED BY 019641. EXEMPT FROM GENERAL DECIASSIFI. CATION SCHEDULE OF E. O. 11652 EXEMPTION CATEGORIES 39 11). (2), 131. DECLASSIr �ED ONLY ON APPROVAL OF THE DIRECTOR OF CENTRAL INIEILIGENCE. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100017 -7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100017 -7 WARNING The NIS is National Intelligence and may not be re- leased or shown to representatives of any foreign govern- ment or international body except by specific authorization of the Director of Central Intelligence in accordance with the provisions of i::';onal Security Council Intelligence Di- rective No. 1. For NIS containing unclassified material, however, the portions so marked may be made available for official pur- poses to foreign nationals and nongovernment personnel provided no attribution is made to National Intelligence or the Notional Intelligence Survey. Subsections and graphics are individually classified according to content. Classification /control designa- tions are: (U /OU) Unclassified /For Official Use Only (C) Confidential (S) Secret APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100017 -7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100017 -7 For centuries the remote lrication of Y emen (Aden) I on the southw-estern fringe Elf, the Arabian Peninsula kept it apart frorn'the mainstrearn of deverltaprnents in the Arah world. Toclav`lts isolalitn stems from the es- ixllesal shy its, governing `utinnul Front of a shrill,. leftist Political extremism that' it is :rtternptin to ex- txirt to tile other Arah states: (U /OU) Yemen (Adent exist.. in a harsh and iffstile' tiient: rlltlioogh the colmtry 6 slighti'y larger than th e State (if Oregon, only about I of its land is arable. Cultivation if crops is linlited ill oases, scattered area. in n}cl` riverbeds, splits whe water can he drawn front wells or cistvr=ts, and in the valley area knowri as the iludhranlaut. vegetaiiim generally is. sparse, will) shine scrub and dwarf trees growing at higher elevations, (U I O U) Ccographicalk the c'(unitr� can he divided into four region.: the cousial` plain, tile: southwestern highlands, the ea,teric plateau, and th e northern desert: The-IA-I'M stretches alone; the court forsook+ M) miles. varying in width from l mile to almost 30' Its length is hrokeil alluvial fall,, deposits of dry riverbeds or'wadics; [n II,e eastern portirni there art: lava flouts from extinct volcanoes. Farther inland in the *cstern part'. of the country there is a inountairious region, which reaches elevations of 13;(XX) f etal, cut by devil valleys affil wadies, Fast (If the dissected inountains is a high plat: a div1dvd by a great valley known sieve anti(ltli- tv as th IIadhraniaut. The broud, tipper and middle parts of this valley contain relative fettile z.Jlu viurrr deposited by floixl aters, making the area one of the fea Yel liell (:Bien) capable of supporting agriculture, 'l he Driver part of the valley, whi& wriK south to t1w (Yeast and the Indian Ocean, is barren and 1111ii0labitable. North of the Iladhr.imaut is ill( desert region, air extension. (if the treat Rub 'al Kllali Isiriph� Quarter') of Saudi Arabia: (U /OU "Thriniglioul this Genera[ Snrvey the 1Y4sp1t s Donoxrutic llepniilir elf 1'riat +11 tE'.I).ft.l'. }is hnexeIt ai 1'tuicu tAdt di�. tint tii.le like- trnigtrt' [14111( its n11r1liero neightaer. Ill- 1 :Irate Rirp ildicr (Y,A.R;) e1r 1'emer1 f5uii a 'E'lie yter'virlilwi t elf Yenum (Advil) ill till- Sufwv i calhsl the I' DAIN'. arld the 11m1ple are kwowso Ye111011k, f1i >lurieglll Ilee NAM101 11 edit elf till- Arabian Penin +ula, uow divith-ti iutu Ile� Pr ply s pelnacratic Iit�pulolic u[ 1'eine11 will the Yq -eueo Aral) Rep ildie, wa, lsrtlkcn ititt, lrihal %takh. 'i'Irc prt�xml dici %ion of the area efale freent.l 3') islii a the Admi, >uh.egtieritly ehhttl Wit-d trraly .n latiuil�liiiiv w'4111 neadiv Irilial A.Iltw, and in 1963 furnievf tile A-dcraliun cif Smith Arabia. At the lino� elf iudip-nde-mv ire teevr:n 196 the emoutr ce:i% c illeti the tti.iple'c I;rpulilic� of Srintlieru 1'en1(-11. loaf lilt nuuir W;0 charilte -11 lu flit. 1 Utnitrerrnlic� IirFwhlie elf 1'enle11 :vchett.lhr ce11rv1i1Vtinn wa% prFetaulgateel ill \uveeul>,�r 16470: APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100017 -7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16 the Long CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100017 -7 In ancient dines, the ,nlitholl portion of the Ara Iliall I'olil sllla; a Svtltc of highly prized fn l nk inc cm e, IIlly and t r a d ed 'ith tilt' Centers of ciriliw- tioii scattered aroulid `tile eivot littoral of t Med itoratuvan. As Fppt. Gree Bubv and Persia sought ,these slakes, a rnun}mr of king0onts arose i e the area that is tiow occupied by Aemen (Ade1) ana Yemen tSan'a':) The earliest such state� elating. From t he lath btur B.C. --%vac the Minaean hirlplot11 whidi eXtelldNI a- .far north as. the�' preseiit' boTEler betwevit Jiiidart and cmudi Arahia and as far cast as tile. lra(ti�!Saudi Arabian liiln }cr. The Nfinaeans were overtheoirn about IM B;C.. 1)\.: Senitir people., the Sahaeaus, lios�e �lt;ingdom of siiba reac�hcd even greater heights 6f p&l yr f6ii ilia the'Minaeart empire.. r1 li(xlple iritli a hii;ll level of culture, the sail carlslrft numcmus moninnents and inscriptions scattered thilul;hmt 1'encew the .wealth :of the rumarchv is il- lilstrated by the (iliac tities of ;nl(l, spices, precious xtune.N, to(I' .a(li,(i "`that S }ielia one of the Sa ba( -all gllrclls gave to Solomon, awarding, tie flit First Bikik of itiill ill tilt Bible: I.ikr tlicir prec}e ssor.. 'the� For il'eacriti- am nilmn we flit- li"t of ImuteN 4 +11 (lie apron ..f 11141 tiuniiaar Map and f6r map ihrlf. 111101!01 IW the signing of supinemcntai treaties gran ting.thern informal administrative powers. After Work] War IL as 'aria w', national iib erntiolr movements led their contltries to) indrilentience from the United Kingd(im, l.,ondom uw, facet} with irtereascd'_pressure fro i the Arab world to turn liver politiw1power titi in- digellous clemelits, H N'. i�e I nane� (if the �mall principalitivs in thv sout }lilt-! }).et'tl lnd pelf ent sillve the Ist evilturv, tilt Britis Gorertiawnt rejected div stand of, the Y(Inelt (Sail a') Co h at Advit an(Fthe sue ,!ounding ,rrea �:lr� 'o0 cupira 1'eitlrni tcrritin" :and ,helllld.lx returncxl to its "cwelit roil Thi B ritish i}rcidecl,ilvteJ to treat a unitary state to rc�itlac(� tlle.cxktill 11atC'11wo of lIc Cron n cc It of `Aden anti file �'ariolls tipes Ihl'rseritori t ii(� or ac olloit for Ilt'ali l hrt'a��fuuith% of thl. Cafill� of dw' 11.ident, dt fl1'tl! tltcir h (�liluaotl f;a,rn ,t f i('t'? 1 11A. iltalli\lrla! IrllllllF Twa Differ ek M Olds 6, e Ee fi Tr u'�.' -'C i �i. '.M 1 77 R' t .E, "yam in` ildew kortiw �rduxra! riltrayr i !1( c(Y)iioii diffit 'llhit' I,t lial !'fl i;[i \1`r11711t'rlt :tiff iTl :Irl tha',h li y tl f: E ht S[iC ".11 afrt;ii111 /:lti(itl of thi' it i(e.'tinI ItrcaIf ufftct(�ii tilt� (nuittr iis a whol(. ft,r ie,uiitrr; lmoril-'i% It. Iitlun:lil+ iirt'!t !o tht i iI vrv 7sul''1drn auid`iltr It 1 's:fcw "i,tllEr(ttu� Itu't if to tlIV (lu:iaizr of oIi'ii r, rat>pirit s i)f a "iltu (IV ni (i'orinriiic >\aciu I h( Ciit111ft1 Ovi o Ih[ -.1; l)ralcI` t,' o irl }):lliai rt�itifor(l d" k ilf r.:ril ir(�:1s''cori,ltits lart;cl of arli i,tciic r farriiiit>~ lht ph tit( ll ihar.lct 071 Ittisre iietive CAIII paig II rtes suh�ert t I Coenuncilt, Iiilt otht rS +ou}il )refer lit gotlating tlic differences lit'to, welt tlic two 6m titries. 'I ierr.has.alsi 4m tt .t'�trits;} lc for power }nt`ce tlt6sv �Ito advocate cven,rnore rcitiiciil tloteirsti Iinli6v% than itxii l)ecm. y;irrieMl ,iitE utttl tht t};m Iti-NtS who a go-' .itti' �,c The F as :i remilt line l)eete torit l a serics `..trclparty conflicts, ;last leacher h:i 'e� maintained sam b ase o,f power diti�ii lhv4: se�esk st n gg Ies� gild it thert tllut alle I' will continue to hi,, I iii ihsarmy' for the foreseeable fntitre: MIllottgll tits P.D.R.Y. blis }hedged itself to ur -,iott w t the :Eieit;lthcritlg 1't nen ;1ral) Rrptshlic !)y C)c ti,ber `I 9; this seeins W be ;kit illusE)ry.:nld'largOv mt- attuiria}yk gyal.: miinbriilt;cable ideolss:icul gap c ,tiists hi'twee n the cenlll' r ':tlive >;overnillelit ill S jt :ind Adcii's Marxist r.t;inte, and even within the NF there is carasiderable clivergenct .es to htii merger shmild he A ill plcitiented. l:t:orunnically tlx're is little to he [Iv%pite tht lrasicalls tmtsrn�ati'c- ti:ttilTe of YCI)lcni n ine�,ol the tm,(I gailiki by itriificutioll. since the t-c m 11 sucieh�, -the \1�' has. itn�li able to snake some -oci:d enlzntriis arc rnrt coitttilegielliarr_ `I he principal changes. The class strurturi' of the voilntry -has been eciinottlic lief �antat;c. of tlee mergcr would appear to substantially tmodified'in the past 6 cigars- `�7'hi ali+ii)m }rc the sa�ing of fntlds:ricn spent om border e:trf:uc fetidal S"fenl.of stiliatis, emirs, and sbeikhs'vho ruled and the improved prospects for increa.e 1 furcigm its the briistis' petty statt's hat's: been Imiken dnwti b aAstance if pt ace prevzils. tic ri:etion of kind. amd the policy cif distributing land toLAIte lellslints.11i s lt:ici. an iampor- �00 tint li�clinl� effect: [:Itan;es in iitrsoriai fymiily' n iuttl'r; I di.�.)rcc and th status of ncniu m..i'ill.: r61tlirlg becatise pen ac c,inflencc iF I I v slow ill of the lslanlic rcliiorl.:lticrmpts,tr +f;runt tcntuie`equalit bare hVell oplx)secl: lit' ill Wg,o` enttlierit groups. fritrrnai dissidence i mot (ikely,to be a real threat to< the t�ciltral isat rt)utent:' :lthougb'` there e rc' a nal ttivr of ill) risitlg% iii rural ;areas iii the late' lll(i0's (hiring the };in�ernme,lit s land reftrin tile P. R A maintiii gc) cri ncttt wilt rol tlt rtit1 9 t o ill(, country. The for risureci inui -ency cam paigit liar Hitt tltreatericd the NF regimc either. 1' le anti \F forces are`liclt�cl al=tl'ail! rrobabh rtitttintic. tu he for ottie tune iii canic'herattse of thedcsirc of ea e'I: 1;rtlell) tit t11Un"I'Mo IZe J)o idea'' l acer fqr itself, if V nd �lii'm the \F "is'.o%ert}iririrn. "1 hat chattgc`: of gin'c earns nt tlta, do,ocretr, thcreforc;'art lilki�ly tco come from ti itlun thi' N 'itself ,ltm s from the.!clti tht Ur v, to "power in J9 rii, its leade h as been the o o k6rdrlg flit tuns: "C)ne I)iine,iif ciintcntitin Itas lkeel ,w ltithcr party slit lw)k to }'eking or. ioscc) feir icieolflt;ical l APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100017 -7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100017 -7 De cember N I:I' name it to National front (N' V), on the tit 4a1y that tits ".liberation" had already hevil ueeotap6bwl. 1970 Not�rmber f'untitntinq i protttsdgated. xtnl tln' country's name i- cleuts;c(j to tlir 1'41ople'a I)1�a1Nlt'rtlti[' Hepoblie of Y4-meu 1971 Pre4dent _11i bey;inr isapleuaetstiBig pulieie and begin, fur slit first tithe tt, aKyert hi u11010tity ill, art ultinsxtrly SIRTe 4111 power struggle aitlr N1' reietary GVIA'rsl.l-ru;a'il. August i':sisinet .Autkrup revolt, iu the rrpiacenaent Of 1'rirre %Ijt&tur N1101 Mnmit41 'Ali flstYtls:wi by 'Ali Nasir Mulumsraad llu ani. 197_' \Fred Fifth NF :,park rangrers fimber the aeciidmrwe of I'residesit. Al'.z NF faction aver the fae.tion led by Imli:j1I. (larlabcr .After yetinc of q)ONLd �e border N:irfatre. with Elie 1'emett ;Crab Itelrnhliv (Y.4%.It.l, ;oils inluiedigte �y following ;t tnajur Mireiili in September atill Oetolwr,, th( 1'.l) :It :1. anti the :11p) hil :Es mvinew providing for imitieiiiioo within I roar. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100017 -7 s l:.1 r Area Brief LAND: (UIOU) Size: I 11.4101) sq. uti, UNC: (btl. about Ina arable (sit wliiclt less thus half cultivated) PEOPLE: (UIOU) Population: 1,555.000 Elknic compoa.hion: Mostly Arab with prrdorrainantly patri- arehal tribal orgaoixnuion; in the trxamnl :area also Indiatlr., Africans, Nliduy's, 3ornali+ Religion: Islutn; prc(1001inaritly 4u1111i Health and :sanitation: I'Etur send rudimentary Literacy: Probably no higher than 10`x:,; Mica 3:7' ieet.t Language: Arnhic GO EWCMENT: MOU) Legal name: People's Democratic ]tepohlic of Yetuen Type: Republic Cipital: Aden Political subdivisions: 0 province Legal system: 1970 con uhition provides for supreme i :.mll s Court as highest juelichil organ; no constitutional provision for Shtria cxpurt tetra hilt still functioning branches: headed by Preshlential (7ouncil, elected by People's Snpretue Council (1 1970 Can*titutiun pro vides for elected 1'z(', but electlitas not yet Iteld; t'rvAdantiatl Council, INC, and Council od 'Ministers controlled by single tegaal political party, N F Government k%dew Chairtaan of i'residantial Council, Sxlint Itulwyi 'Ali: frame Minister 'Ali Nasir Mohammed rl ilusaul; N F Secre[arr C:onvial eANI Al- Fatt;th Istna'il Political parties and leaders: Nutioual Front (`F). only Ivgal party; C'onttnuniA P.IrtV :utd lia'th Party aliowed to operate and given rcpreaentalion in government, but both of ralnor Agnificant-v Member of: L =:N. ECONOMY: (S) GNP: $1611 ntiltion (1972); ;about 3K10 ls�r spits Agriculture: (:ill out.Siile of Aden) cotton is 11min Bash crop; vi-rinds, dates, itat, tubarco, mid livrstoek: growing; fishing industry; large arnounts of food trlltst br import A 49: OS Oman. GUU of {gn1n......... 4......... I)u iR lm Al to 6idi (Iriflllf drfR; 14 20: 4i W. 1't'Cinl (t xflUtd) I 1'2 To i:3 :!5 At0iih... 14: 31 1!i 3Q. 1'cr filln,t:Ulf (gnlfl....................... l l0 .11 00 Ambian *ea (xca) 1 U[! 71 13(1 Qa' laliuh 113 51 41 42 Axh. tihihr 14, 44 49 351 Radfgiit 13-30 �13 ii .1d it'id l4 :'h ag :i_' 11a's al' larih:.......... 1.2 .1S 1Fi (11 ',1iiFq 11 33 111 38 Ra'1: 1larF/dh (painO..................... 1'2 {ti 41 :i41 AthT hunittyr 1:3 31 4.1 42 w Ra':: burtak (t1Prn3) I5i ;t 5 15 1t 'Pawahi....... t'2 47 14 511: Ra's Wiliuff (point) I.4 15 (141 At T urbah 4.... 12, �141. �13 :30 Z ia'ss'imrntt (heer,flun,t) 1_ 1.1 14 13 Audhuli S61titnute (irrrridcperrd1'r1l sultonuic): 14 20 46 '12 L R" Seu: (s (l) 2 (I(1 :35 00 ixlanja heir. I :i (17 4S :3 �dub. Hl XNAL l {udi Arabia (dcxFrt)....... '20 00 8l OG ltah e!`N1inde!} fAfrnil)............... 12:3{1 13 2(i Ilal lh: Oman... 17. IJn 54 (ill 13ltliiq, 15 i9 45 '':3 yan' A it 15 2 44 1 Ht Ta..ahl ho liaridil, r p) 1 '2 �113 44 5i 1 �tl{iFI: 11' 13 1 l'3H)'llan al_.Q]oat)......... 34, 13. 45.41 `ahaykh' L thntan !Y 5'2L 1 G ratF!r. 4t1 45 !!2 *h1i}$inl. i'r 511 1 3K I) thinit, titn {r -.of.( emidc odrnf rtorc)..... f1` 13.,ifh Iti [131 hu'ttyli '�f 5:3 :r .,7 13hafar, Ulnan'.(region 17 t1j) 54 lh 4 ni �tra(txf fiJ). iLF a(} '11.11(1 FH1hli.Sul:atinte (r