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CONFIDENTIAL 32A/GS/S Yemen April 1.973 NATIONAL IN CONFIDENTIAL APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDP01-00707R000200100028-5 NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY PUBLICATIONS The basic unit of the NIS is the General Survey, which is now published in a bound -by- chapter format so that topics of greater per- ishability can be updated on an individual basis. These chapters Country Profile, The Society, Government and Politics, The Economy, Military Geog- raphy, Transportation and Telecommunications, Armed Forces, Science, and Intelligence and Security, provide the primary NIS coverage. Some chapters, particularly Science and Intelligence and Security, that are not pertinent to all countries, are produced selectively. For small countries requiring only minimal NIS treatment, the General Survey coverage may be bound into one volume. Supplementing the General Survey is the NIS Basic Intelligence fact book, a ready reference publication that semiannually updates key sta- tistical data found in the Survey. An unclassified edition of the factbook omits some details on the economy, the defense forces, and the in'felligence and security organizations. Although detailed sections on many topics were part of the NIS Program, production of these sections has been phased out. Those pre- viously produced will continue to be available as long as the major portion of the study is considered valid. A quarterly listing of all active NIS units is published in the Inventory of Available NIS Publications, which is also bound into the concurrent classified Factbook. The Inventory lists all NIS units by area name and number and includes classification and date of issue; it thus facilitates the ordering of NIS units as well as their filing, cataloging, and utilization. Initial dissemination, additional copies of NIS units, or separate chapters of the General Surveys can be obtained directly or through liaison channels from the Central Intelligence Agency. The General Survey is prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency and the Defense Intelligence Agency under the general direction of the NIS Committee. It is coordinated, edited, published, and dissemi- nated by the Central Intelligence Agency. i WARNING This document contains Information affecting the national defense of the United States, within the meaning of title 18, sections 793 and 791 of the US code, as amended. Its transmission or revelation of its contents to or receipt by an unauthorized person is prohibited by law. i CLASSIFIED BY 019611. EXEMPT FROM GENERAL DECLASSIFI. CATION SCHEDULE OF E. O. 11652 EXEMPTION CATEGORIES SB (1), (2), (3). DECLASSIFIED ONLY ON APPROVAL OF THE DIRECTOR OF CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE. i a !r APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100028 -5 f WARNING F L, f. The NIS is National Intelligence and may not be r6- loosed or shown to representatives of any foreign govern- ment or international body except by specific authorization of the Director of Central Intelligence in accordance with the provisions of National Security Council Intelligence Di- rective No. 1. For NIS containing unclassified material, however, the portions so marked may be made available for official pur- poses to foreign nationals and nongovernment personnel provided no attribution is made to National Intelligence or the National Intelligence Survey. Subsections and graphics are individually classified according to content. Classification /control designa- tions are: (U /OU) Unclass;fied /For Official Use Only (C) Confidential (S) Secret APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100028 -5 This chapter was prepared for the NIS by the Bureau of Economic Analysis, Social and Economic Statistics Administration, Department of Commerce, under the general supervision of the Central Intelli- gence Agency. Research was substantially com- pleted by January 1973. YEMEN [SAWAY) C;ONTEN�TS This General Survvy suprrsedes the une dated June 1070, Copies of which should be destroyed. A. Historical background 1 Early cultures; introductiou of [~lain, division into soots; Turkish occupation; gover, nt after World War 1; overthrow of Imams; effects of 1962 revolution; royalist republican rapproche- ment. B. Structure and characteristics of society 4 Gradual changes; pcnsistence of old patterns. 1. L:thnic and culture groups 4 Arab groups; Qahtanis, Adunnis; descendn tits of Africans, Malays; 7.aydi, Shnfn sects; cmi- gration of Jews. C:ONYIDENTIAL APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100028 -5 Paige 2. Tribes 8 Political importance; definition; confedera- tions; leadership; role of sheikh, council, (ladi. 3. Family Importance of the extended family; status of women; rules governing marriage, divorce; expected effects of modernization. 4. Social classes Lack of uniform status symbols; sayyids; ularna; tribesmen, sheikhs; merchants; artisans; sharecroppers, farm laborers; dushans, ahadiru, akhdaaav; former slaves. 5. Community organization "Urban" settlements; San's'; villages; farm- land; nomads, serninomads. 6. Basic values and attitudes Conservative traditions of tribesmen; venera- tion of family and tribe, blood feuds, attach- ment to land; attempted reinterpretation of values by republican government; Zaydi- ShafN friction; urban -tribal differences; re- gionalism; Adnani- Qahtani animosity; strength of nationalism; xenophobia; attitude toward Arab nations, world developments. C. Population Estimated size, growth rate, effects of immigra- tion, emigration; increase in longevity. 1. Size and distribution 1972 estimate; growth of urban areas. 2. Age -sex structure D. Employment 1. The people and work High proportion of agrarian workers; employ- ment of women; underemployment and un- employment; poor work discipline; working conditions. 2. Labor organizations Development, cidtural impact of labor unions; leadership problems; accomplishments. E. Living conditions and social problems 1.. Levels of living I Obstacles to social development: unequal dis- tribution of wealth; low personal incomes; Increases in living costs; substandard housing. 2. Welfare services Traditional methods: mutual assistance within family and tribe, royal dole, zakah, karamah; republican government policy. 3. Social problems Low incidence of crime; incidence, effects of qat- chewing. F. Health Page 28 C. Religion 32 22 Importance of Islam, its place in the 1970 consti- 23 tution; major tenets of Islam; Yemeni conserva- tism; folk beliefs, superstitions; saints' cults; 23 Zaydi, Shafi% Ismaili sects; religious policy in the republic; Christians; Jews. 1. Endemic diseases 28 10 2. Nutrition and sanitation 28 24 a. Diet and food supply 28 ISffects of malnutrition; typical diet; neal- 11 nutrition in women; feeding of children; 24 1960 -70 food shortages; foreign aid; Min- 24 istry of Agriculture projects; distribution 40 problems. b. Environmental sanitation and hygiene 29 1,4 Problems in water supply, modernization 25 efforts; lack of sanitation control measures; Inadequate sewerage. 43 15 3. Medical care 30 27 Health care under the Imamate; republican health programs; role of superstition; Ministry 45 of Ilealth activities. a. Medical personnel 31. Statistics on Yemeni, foreign doctors; other medicul personnel. b. Medical facilities 31 1.9 Increase in hospitals, dispensaries; aid from international organizations; foreign aid; overcrowding of hospitals; poor sani- 20 tary conditions; availability of medicine. C. Religion 32 22 Importance of Islam, its place in the 1970 consti- 23 tution; major tenets of Islam; Yemeni conserva- tism; folk beliefs, superstitions; saints' cults; 23 Zaydi, Shafi% Ismaili sects; religious policy in the republic; Christians; Jews. t r i s Q'. c APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100028 -5 11. Education 36 EdLcation under the Imams; the kuitab; repub- 24 lican school program; curricula; Ministry of Edu- cation goals; statistics on literacy, school enroll rnent; education )f girls; study abroad poor ac- 24 ademic environment. 24 I. Artistic and cultural expression 40 Architectural forms; handicrafts; contributions to classical literature; importance of poetry, diwans theological literature; folktales; folk 25 music, dances. J. Public information 43 Development of television, radio, newspapers, 27 books, and periodicals, telecommunications. K. Selected bibliography 45 t r i s Q'. c APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100028 -5 FIGURES a 4 c iii APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100028 -5 Page Fig. 1 Bronze statue from Sabaean temple Fig, 2 (photo) Ruins of Sabaean temple photo) 2 2 Fig. 3 Representative Yemenis photos) 6 Fig. 4 Selected tribes and tribal confed- 26 Fig, 20 erations map) 9 Fig. 5 Yemeni couple marketing photo) 11 Fig. 6 Veiled townswoman photo) 11 Fig. 7 Tortured Yemeni woman photo) 12 Fig, 8 Mounted sayyid in ceremonial dress 33 Fig. 24 (photo) 13 Fig. 9 Yemeni tribesmen photo) 13 Fig. 10 Mud -brick "skyscrapers" photo) 15 Fig, 11 Wadi Dahr agricultural area (photo) 16 Fig. 12 Camel drivt r in Al Hudaydah 37 Fig. 13 (photo) Population density, by province 18 Fig. 28 (table) 20 Fig. 14 Density of population map) 21 Fig. 15 Distribution of population and 40 Fig. 30 area (map) 22 :gig, 16 Population, by age group and sex 41 Fig. 17 (table) 1.,,.. U.S. and Yemen age -sex structure 22 (Chart) 23 iii APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100028 -5 Page Fig. 18 Multistoried home of a wealthy tribesman photo) 26 Fig. 19 Village in the Tihamah, with con- ical thatched huts photo) 26 Fig, 20 Homes of wealthy merchants photo) 27 Fig. 21 Modern housing (photos) 27 Fig. 22 Facilities at the Al jumhuriyah Hospital (photos) 32 Fig. 23 Muslims kneeling for prayer (photo) 33 Fig. 24 Bedouin woman from eastern Yem- en (photo) 34 Fig. 25 Boys learning to write photo) 37 Fig. 26 Structure of the educational sy. tem (chart) 37 Fig, 27 Enrollment, by type of school table 39 Fig. 28 Enrollment, by type of school and province table) 39 Fig. 29 Classroom interior photo) 40 Fig. 30 Exterior of an ancient house in Dhktmar photo) 41 Fig, 31 Old silver bracelet and necklace fashioned by bedouins (photo). 42 Fig. 32 Minstrels using typical instruments (photo) 43 Fig. 33 Yemeni list wing to radio photo) 44 iii APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100028 -5 r r 9 a !A fffYYY i r APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100028 -5 The society A. Historical background (C.) I)vs lit c� ;I I III g IIist(I r as an ;uttollonulo, political ("'fit Yell 1t�n is only II(m c�\Iwric�tic�iIit; t tatIic,l (;tit( ()l lr:tn Irons a traditio lit I lriI)i �it�I\ I( nto H IV rII. III i I n:Itinu slide 1111t( iutll prt�donti- uanllN \I;cll. %IItJlIli, ;uld triI)aL the pc�oplt� ;iru (I i\idc�d In ancient rc�iii;ious. 114Wi;IL ;IIld (.111 Ilic (liffc�rc�nc�c�s. I'c rh;tp, its nt:un :t, I11', :trc� non,%rah in it racial if nos c�(tltnr:ll citw. c�11tc�tli \tu,litn, arc� ,plil lilt() 1m) major rk al sects and it nlinur ()uc�: prc�- Mantic� r�lit4iou, ht�lit�f,. Ili( lrc�oct�r. I ry 1 ill Irong. The triIit an� ;11,,1 c�harac�tt�ri /ed 11\ c�ontrasliIIg. lil ,I 1 ;111( I( itit;II lct\allic s. and rural trihc� n ll;i%c little in c�o1(1(1o) \title lomn,nu�n \do II lit rg �l fret of tribal a rl�, :tit II rcculttti)it :Ind cisil \car in IIic� 16160l r. tl,(� u( nttn nr�di(�\;11 oh,c�ur;utlist Ill( nucrc�h v, ;IN r�111:tced h it ((�public� I ,c Ic:ulc r, Ili t\t� t�d Io brim; the nation clot of tl,c� \1iddlc� :1gv% and inlo Ihc� 20t cenlur littt lift for must lc�t11rni Ila, not c-IIi(II;(.(I- In Iflt� (�()untr s dc \\l,(�rc ;Ilnrtl,l t ()1 tltt� pt�oplt� rt�sidc, subsistence farming and hc�rdi11>; rc�nuli11 the Mail "evm1nntic� pursuits, the trihc a lantil\ are the nr1,l i nip orlattl (wiiul mtits. and IsEunicc lundanr�ntalisnt c�oot ill ul�, to hind Set a\. 1, vii rl ;t, lltc� lint ntillenniltnt 13.(: ,the S;tha(;ut (-lilt iii-c. c�rtttured it Ili it and to Ilse ,(lull, c1f' II,(. pr�sviii republic�, a, tl,c� rids( acic:utcrcl in 1l,(- lrthi:ut I'euin,ul:I (I figure 1 i. (ate ,tall,. n()tabl Ma Saba. Qaluhan. and II I(IrantaitI, \\c�r� at the huh of it trading 11et\\ork \%hic�h Arc�tc�hc�d (runt Ilu� N,1al;t\ archipelago and the Indian pr- nins(tl,l t(t the Fertile (;rewc�ttt. Knossu a, S;tl )ae;uts. the irthabi fit 11t elf the cilx ,lad(�, built their c k ilizohon upon profits dcrked Irons trading. C tillural achievcntenls. although not ;I, impressive ;t, those of the Fvrtilc Cr�-weiit, included tht� opnu'nt I' it rt�f'iu(�d soutl,ern Scmitic languagc ar(1 of ad\ancecl buil(Iing tech Ili( Iucs. ewutphfied b,. thl� (arid(), dim :tt \l ;I*rib. For c11acrilw, Ult plact II:IIIIP, b4' die tot of IIaltIP at dw tilt of (tic halltrr and the mall, in lilt� t(r,t. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100028 -5 op FIGURE 1. Brorze statue discovered in the temple of 'llumguh, the Sobaeon ?ample dedicated to the moon god (U /OU) "flit� Yenienis' "anarchic disposition," evident throughout their IIisttlry, was l:Irgel responsible fur the decline of the Sabaean civilisation. I ?aelr city slate jealousl\ guarded its irtdepeudence. anal ssarlare was conatrtcnt. Although Saba -known also w,, Sheba- contluerecl much of southern Arabia in the third century, the region :vas never ;r Irtte lwlitica! unit. I finally, ha the sixth centatry, s\eakeued h\ constant strife and the loss of trade, the S;abaeans were conc{uered by invaders from I ?thiopi;a, and Yenaen entered inr:, att "t-pocli of front which it has yet to recover. Religion has :alwaa\s played an int;rortant role in sharing Yemen's Itislarry. The religion of the S bava its (Figure which provided the b;tsis for political order. was displaced, in tun, by judaaism. Cbristi;anity, and Islam, all introduced throaaglt invasions front the north. Although Islam quickly bec�aine the predoink nant religion, two major sects were introduced which continue to divide society. At tau early date. Yemenis ill the southern highlands and coastal plains bec�;atue Sunni Muslims of the Shafi'i school: hater, ill the ninth century, followers of the %aydi sect of Shia Islam settled in the northern highlands and established a a APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100028 -5 FIGURE 2. Ruins of Sabaeon moor, god temple, near Ma'rib, capital of ancient Sheba (U /OU) dw(wmtic� stile govc rned h a religious le:, I r or Inuun. Conflict developed. haled upon the poker ulai the %avdi Imam. and fur over 10 centnrics the more pu\cerful %:t\dis vwrciscd carving degrees of IwLenunty over the Sh:ih'is. I- 'oreign iutcrvention in Yenu�n was intermittent ;otd never al a level cchich affected irtdigennus political and sc,c�ial structures. Inc�ursiotts were Mode b\ the I�:g\pti;tns ill the 12th centnry ;md by the Ottoman iffks in the I (it It century. 'I'll( period of Ottonr:ut fit genrc,n\, \\IIich heg:ut in 151 ;ti id la until 1918, Icfl little Lost iiig imprint un Yenieni (wietx. In Bart )ec�atIse only it snutlI 1>urtiuu of the c�onutry \gas uccupiecl� ustutll\ the nutjor cities -and hcc�attsc Turkish trunks mid offic�iuls were only sporulicallc stationed in the couutrv. Thus. until 191 Ycir it'll 's political histc,ry c\as c�hnracterized by brief interlude" of strung rule, either %;tvdi or Ottonuot, separated by lung peri (if' near inarc�h\. Thrortghout this chaotic era. ho\ever. the ;,veraLe Yemeni was rarely distctrhed h\ political unrest: social order wits provided hs the family and the tribe %hich educated nee+ nu�mbc�rs abet conunandcd basic� emotional loyidtics. ;Attempts by the Turks to inyx it strong c�olnui;tf rule tended to unite the 'Lavdis and Shafi'is and to stinrrulate active resistance. lit the litter part of the Kith centrtrv. followiug the arris;d of it large 'Turkish expeditiollur\ force. the 'Lavdis uud ShidFis rallicrd hehiud (,)asini. it popular %a\cli Inruun later known as Q, tsint the Crectt, sshu forced the 'Turks to agree to it truce and to recognize the partial authority of the 'Laydi kingdom. I- rout thc� 1 th century to the ntid- 191h centnry the Ottoniuns showc(l little interest ill their southern ;lrabimi culunc. This period coincided \\ith it general decline in the importance of the ki di Intutnts and with the growth of it flourishing coffee trade with 1Vesteru I'ii ropc�an ,nereha.nt nations, particularly I�,ngaand. After the opening of the Suez (:anal in 1969, the Ottomans developed it rene\yed interest in Yemen and, in 187 I. rcoc�cupied the capil;tl of' S,ut';t'. Once again Ottonum imperialis: unified the Yenccuis. who, under the leadership of the kaydi lmwn. it pious and orthodox descendant of Qasint the Croat known us YaFtva al Miitit \yit kiI ala ;\Ilah (the Helier on God), onc�eagain limited Turkish hegemony. \Vid) the departure of the Turks after their defeat ill Vurld War I. Inuan Yahya becinne tl ruler of at independent `tetncn. At the srtggestion of his advisers, Yahva set up it Western style government including a APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100028 -5 Prime Minister and a cabinet but, in reality, only the imam had the power to govern. His regime, which continued until his death in 1948 by an assassin's mullet, was characterized by isolation and .n almost total rejection of 20th century technologies arid the amenities of Western civilization. Fearing that too many material benefits would undermine faith in Islam and that too many new ideas would compromise the Imamate, Yahya either banned or severeiv restricted the importation of radios, telephones, cinemas, printing presses, books, automobiles, and medicines, and opposed the construction of factories. Nevertheless, contact with the outside world was impossible to avoid, and some Yemenis were exposed to modernizing influences. As a result. discontent with the country's autocratic theocracy grew, particularly among Yemeni exiles. in the rnid- 1940's, a "Free Yemeni" organization was formed for the express purpose of overthrowing the Imam. Yahya was succeeded by his son Ahmad, who proved more reactionary and tyrannical than his father; he staved off numerous assassination attempts and fought a relatively successful rearguard action against the modern world. Ahmad's son, Muhammad al -Badr, was more liberal than either of his immediate foreb, and promised to institute wide ranging refom s upon assuming office. However, his reign, which lasted only l .week, was ended bv a coup on 26 September 1962. The 1962 republican revolution and the ensuing 8 years of civil war �which produced a great loss of human life and widespread devastation �ended Yemen's isolation From the modern world and destroyed the old patriarchal, theocratic framework of the state; political reform, however, did not lead automatically to economic development or to social change. some change has been effected, but the regime is still seeking new political and social directions. This search has been complicated by the civil war and by the fact that Yemen has virtually no modern tradition of its own; accordingly, the country's leaders are forced to rely on foreign concepts and institutions which often are unsuitable to Yemeni conditions. The end of the civil war and the royalist- republican rapprochement of 1970 may lead to greater stability and permit concentration on domestic development. The inclusion of former royalists of conservative persuasion in the government of the Yemen Arab Republic indicates that radical social experiment will riot be seriously pursued. In any case, there is little evidence to suggest a systematic attack on the essential 4 features of Yemeni society- -the relatively rigid class system, the subservient status of women, the abject poverty, and the entrenched tribalism. Although Westernization and increasing foreign contacts are slowly thrusting the nation into the modern world, Yemen for many years will be a primitive, fractured land, brutal in its physical aspect and torn between adherence to an ancient past and acceptance of a more dynamic future. B. Structure and characteris --s of society (C) After the overthrow in 1962 of Yemen's ancient Imamic government, .which had held the country together for centuries, civil war and revolution combined to disorient much of the population, alter traditional social institutions, and set in motion new forces capable of changing the conventional style of Yemeni life. Since the 1962 coup, the old ethnic, tribal, class, and family structures have been steadily if not systematically eroded, and new institutions, such as labor unions, have been created to fulfill new needs. In the context of Yemeni society, these are radical developments, but their effects should not be exaggerated. The weight of tradition is heavy, and it is doubtful that the cultural patterns of most of the population have yet been affected by the revolution. Most Yemenis retain a deep attachment to the land and to the social patterns which derive from a subsistence agricultural econorny. The tribe and the family continue to receive primary emotional loyalties, and ethnic, religious, and cultural rivalries remain strong. Furthermore, in the absence of effective central authority, evident throughout much of the republic's existence, the age -old patterns of life in large areas of the country have tended to persist, reflecting well- established, often imam- oriented habits and traditions. 1. Ethnic and culture groups Successive foreign conquests and migrations have markedly affected Yemen's population. In the highlands, the inhabitants are almost entirely a mixture of various Semitic peoples, .vhile the residents of the Tihamah, the hot, hurnid coastal strip along the Red Sea, are of diverse racial origin. As a result of this intermixture, physical types vary (Figure 3). 'Fite Arabs, most of whom live in the highlands, are divided into two fairly distinct groups �those of southern Arabian and those of northern Arabian origin �each with differing physical characteristics. The Yemenis of I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP0l- 00707R000200100028 -5 y d t. a i A i s southern extraction, known as Qahtanis (descendants mixed freely with the coastal Arabs and are of Qahtan or )octan in the Old Testament. are generally believed to he descended from the OCcasionally kn a% "Afro- Arabs.' ancient discernible s Himyaritie and Sabaean peoples who inhabited the A r the arger dto type is in c villa the pre Islamic empires of Yemen. In 2246 B.C., 'Tihamah. Traditionally according to legend, Qahtan migrated from assumed to he of Malay origin, Hadramawt to Yemen where lie introduced peons of this tyoc have been described as short in agriculture and architecture. Although intermarriage stature, with broad faces, wide noses, and dark between the Qahtanis and the northern Arabs 1w skin. A very old community of people known as the Hajur is found occurred, thus blurring considerably the physical and distinctions betw "pure" also in part of the Tihamah and the southern highlands. Although of indeterminate Q genealogical -2en them, Borne ahtanis are still found in a few remote southern origin, some arc probably descendants of black African mountain villages. The Qahtanis are generally darker slaves, while others may be related to an eic,n. the rtu�reh:u,ls represent the� 11p1erstnotnnr c,( urban sc,cich and perf()rru the major leadership role in the shah'i c�orutnunit'. The\ have assunn d inipurt:urc e cnl\ iuce the 19i0 s, bill A prescit %%ield eeusidcrll>le e�(ouc,nlic po\%vr. with the emphasis upon c�ortntc�rce and b:trikins; hicl', follostied in till' \rake of the revol ill iort. the status cf ll'nr< ni 1 )11siuessilleri has clonhtic ss iic�reascd. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA RDP01 00707R000200100028 5 ri"UKt U. Mounted sayyid in ceremonial dress (U /OU) FIGURE 9. Yemeni tribesmen wearing jambiyahs. The jambiyah, or dagger, is the symbol of manhood. (C) Artisans rarzk considerably lower than merchants. Their lesser status is caused in part by the belief that nonagricultural labor is demeaning. The small artisan class is stratified into various trades, each with recognized status and each headed by a sheikh. Carpenters, cohblers, dyers, weavers, goldsmiths, and silversmiths, among ot:iers, are most often tr ained by their fathers and pass skills on to their sons; it is thus exceptionally difficult to move from one trade to another. Often, in tae case of Yemeni Jewish society which once supplied many of the skilled craftsmen- and possibly that of Arab society as well, the name of a particular trade was associated with the whole family engaged in it, or every displaced the family name. A step below the artisans are the share.�roppers and paid farm laborers who till the fields for landowning tribesmen. Their number apparently increased during the latter years of the imamic regime because of stringent taxation and the need to forfeit land in payment of debt. Nearly comparable in status are the dushans and shadins �the eulogists and minstrels who attach themselves to particular tribes or wander from place to place singing of heroic deeds and satirizing enemies. At the bottom of the social ladder are the akhdams and the former s!aves, both predominantly non -Arab. The akhdarn, a despised class drawn primarily from Negroid and other non -Arab elements, are employed as farm helpers, domestic workers, stevedores, porters, water carriers, or in other menial tasks; some aklidam w omen are singers and dancers. Slaves, legally freed in IW2, were mostly Negroes or "Afro- Arabs." In many respects the small slave class fared better than the akhdarn. The term "slave" was not an epithet, and the institution was generally benign; in sonic cases the slaves were better fed and clothed than free men and were spared hard agricultural labor. Many slaves were held in high esteem by their owners, treated as members of the family, and placed in positions of trust. Upward mobility was possible, either through manumission or through appointment to a prestigio s position. In the republic, the generally impoverished condition of x- slaves, as well as their skin color, makes it difficult for them to move up the social ladder, and many probably continue in the service of former masters. 5. Community organization Most Yemenis are sedentary and live in settlements ranging in size and complexity from dispersed mud huts in remote mountain areas to sizable communities containing large villas, and even palaces. The physical layout of most Yemeni communities has not changed 14 in centuries but modification of community patterns may be extxcted as economic and political de- velopment proceeds, as tribesmen slowly gravitate toward the cities and towns, and as governme programs expand into the villages. Mast of the large communities are located in the southern half of the country among the detribalized Shafi'i. The numbe! of settlements qualifying as cities or towns is unknown; in tine late 1960's, however, it was estimated that only 1 I% of the population were "urban." A medieval atmosphere still surrounds many of Yemen's sizable communities. 'Cities are enclosed by wails built originally to protect the inhabitants from marauding tribesmen, and massive stone and mud brick houses (dars), rising six to seven stories, are often constructed on the fortress principle (Figure 10). These houses are frequently interspersed with whitewashed mosques and small walled gardens, 1 it virtually all towns it is customary for tribal and other groups, each with local officers, to live in separate quarters (harahss which not Infrequently mirror the tribal organiz of tLe countryside. In Al iludacdah, the Afro -Arab servant class liv in grass tins in its own residential area while. the Arabs live in masonry houses in another section. Artisans are also loosely organized into harahs, although with the creation of new industries occupational segregation may be expected to become less common. San'a' traditionally has peen divided into three major sections, which partially assume the character of separate towns: I Qa'ah al- Yahud, formerly in. habited solely by J ews; 2) Bi'r a!- 'Azab, the resi- dential quarter b uilt by the "Turks, inhabited mostly by members ol the royal farnily and other wealthy citizens; and 3:) San'a' proper, the commercial center of the town where the majority of the people live. The capital city is further subdivided into smaller quarters harahs) consisting of groups of 10 to 50 houses, each headed by :ur agil, an unpaid taut respected community leader who helps to manage neighborhood affairs. 19ost Yemenis live in small villages of 1.3 or more houses situated near arable land (Figure I I In the highlands, villages are 1-vrched upon hilltops or located in the valleys. T!ic inhabitants are most often herder cultivators; ho\cever. a few nonfarm villages, the residents of each specializing in it different craft or trade, arc: reported in southern Yemen The village, which has been described as the "geographical seat of a clan -like unit," may be composed of compact, tightly grouped clusters of houses or of scattered dwellings separated by farmland. Many larger villages APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100028 -5 contain from. 50 to 100 dwelling units. with duly three to four entrances for the entire group. 1t the Bani al I larith tribal area north of San'a', walled gardens are conlnlon; inside each wall is a house and sotnetitnes a tiny village. The gardens are usually irrigated, hilt nonirrigated fields also are fanned outside the walls. As in towns, class and tribal divisions affect the physical layout of the villages, with the ruling tribesmen often living in large, favorably situated houses which overlook the harmers' mild hats sprawled at their base. Most farmland is owned individually or by the tribe �one source reports that 9W(', of the farmers own their land. Although a few ahsetntee landowners, are said to nla,intatin substantial holdings and a few large tracts were reported near Al lludaydah in the 1960's, farms of ever 300 acres are rare and the average is said to he 2.6 acres. The larger plots are often worked by day laborers. A typical farmer in the Bani al !-larith area is limited to about 1 acre, while the paramount sheikh owns about 1,000 acres out of at total of .1,0()0 to 6,000 acres. Farmers in this area have heredRary land use rights but must of the crop to the tribe. Highland farms are e .'ensively terraced. The tern-ees, many of them constructed centuries ago, are often only it few feet in width and require considerable community cooperation for their upkeep. In the flat 'rihanlah, where terracing is unnecessary, a primitive but intricate system of dams, dikes, and levees is maintained for channeling the periodic flow of water from the mountain wadis onto the fields. The migratory habits and community structures of the nomadic and serninomadic population in Yemen have not been investigated. It ntav he assunned that their culttral patterns are closely related to, yet distinct from, the permanently settled agriculturalists. The semirlonads are sheep and goat herders whose large flocks require some seasonal migration. 'They usually occupy tnuv.h smaller territories than true nomads, as their wanderings are limited by attachment to perrrnanert settlements for most of the year. Genuine nomads, the becfouin, rarely engage in agriculture; they wander continuously through extensive although definite territories. 6. Basic values and attitudes The cornnon core values customarily designated as Yemeni are largely the traditional values of the' avdi tribesmen which reflect three plain forces Islamic tradition. tribal law and custom, and awareness of a Yemeni identity. Islamic tradition fosters a profoundly conservative spirit which infuses every aspect of society. It is grounded on tilt- morel and legal precepts of the Koran and the Sharia which, until 1962, served as Yemen's unwritten constitution. %aydi interpreta- tions of these works encourage belief in the innutability and virtue of traditional ways, foster reverence for the wisdmn of the past, and promote the pleasures of paradise over the struggles of earthly existence. Patterns of authority and community life sanctioned in the tribal ethic reinforce this conservative outlook. Mary of the most highly prized virtues are found in the urf, it collection of unwritten 15 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP0l- 00707R000200100028 -5 FIGURE 10. Mud -brick "skyscrapers" (dors) and a mosque rising above a narrow street in the capitol city of Son'a'. Note the inscription praising Allah high on the building at left. (U /OU) I,r usages, aid traditions pasucl (),.;III\ front genenttion to goner +tio \hove :Ill. the c\lended furaifr is senor; 11 .11,11 its honor and reputation :herished. "'itltiu the I, niik. interpersonal rel;ttion- ships corttiactc to he goverrtcd hs respect for age :curl authority. Be\oncl lhc� faatil\, the tribecornnutn(ls the loy.tlty of its nu�ndwrs and represents the largest soci;d unit to which trih,cl Yemenis feel a morul obligation. An indiVi(Inal's honor is closek ;tssoci;cted \cith th;tl of the c\lcnded fantil and the tribe, and if a Yenu�ni acts di.shonombly he disgnurs not )Il l s Itintself hctl also his kin. On the other h;utcl, il' the I'amik or the tribe consi(ler that the\ bare been crongecl b\ ;ur o(ttsidcr �and Yemeni tribesnteo are quick to lake offense ul real or imagined slights redress most be made. WV irfarc� has been pruc ticnll a of life anuntg tribesnua. ..'hose loge of fighting is s;tirtant traditional %elfare activit undertaken b% the government was the ro-al dole, which consisted of food and money for the aged and the infirm, for religious leaders, and for worthy individuals who had served the Imam. The sums dispersed were relatively large, paitiealarly in San�a'. The dole, however, rested entirely on the whim and generosity of the Imam, who personally directed payments to families and individuals. These grants usually erased with the recipients death. mother traditional program was institutionalized in the form of the zakah, one of the "five: pillars of Islam," which makes personal gifts to the needy incumbent upon the heiiever and includes a religious tax paid to the government for charitable works. A lesser Islamic injunction is karamah (generosity), an esteersied attribute of a Yemeni chief, who is expected to provide aid and assistance to the inembers of his tribe. The mpublican government, preoccupied with the aftermath of the civil war, has not vet entered the welfare field with a deliberate policy, although Article 35 of the 1970 Permanent Constitution guarantees FIGURE 18. Multistoried home of a wealthy tribesman, San'a' plateau. Lower floors are made of mud, upper floors of brick. Note drain spouts and urine troughs projecting from walls. (U /OU) APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100028 -5 i Yo FIGURE 20. Homes of wealthy merchants along the waterfront, Al Hudaydah. Balconies are common in coastal cities. (U /OU) that the state will "sponsor welfare for children, the disabled, and the aged." According to a U.N. study, any attenipt to develop a coniprehensive social security system will encounter "conceptual difficul- ties, inadequate ;administrative structures and personnel, poor coordination of policies and programs, and generally meager financial resources." 3. Social problems Crime is not considered a major problem. Within the traditional social carder, a family's honor is judged by the actions of its members, and inost Yemenis are loathe to disgrace their families by contmitting jmrnoral or acts. Them traditional inhibitions, however, do not apply to acts of violence committed as a result of a blood feud. juvenile delinquency is thought to be largely deterred by strict parental control. The few crime statistics compiled in Yemen are considered unreliable. Records kept by the Ministry of Interior for the period 1064 -70 indicate that rol)bery was the most common offense. These records, however, fail to include many offenses committed in the name of blood feuds, as well as crirries perpetrated during the civil war. Yemenis convicted of crimes face harsh sentences. Decapitation and the amputation of limbs have been conimon penalties for serious crimes, but the government is moving to introduce more humane forms of punishment. Prisons are medieval; only in 1971 did the government order that prisoners not be chained in their cells. The use of narcotics such as opium, morphine, and heroin is largely unknown, but qat is eliewed by an estimated 75% to 90^i of the male population and 25% of the female. It is obtained from catha edidis, a small nonflowering shrub whose leaves, when masticated, produce narcotic -like effects. The usual practice is to chew the leaves for hours, often in the conipany of a large group of friends, continually {racking sprigs into a ball inside the cheek, thereby producing it temporary feeling of well being and mental alertness. Little is known about the social effects of chewing qat, although a niental health adviser to the World Health Organization (WIIO) has concluded that "qat has contributed to the stability of the conununily by socializing leisure time and inhibiting aggressiveness. Nonetheless, from a medical and economic standpoint, (jai chewing is harniful. Whether or not the drug is addictive in the physiological sense is not FIGURE 21, Modern housing. Because of poor construction, most of the newer structures will soon become dilapidated. Apartment house, To'i:: (U /OU) Housing project, Al Hudayclah, built originally to house Soviet technical personnel (C) 2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100028 -5 known; however, its use has been linked to such disorders as headaches and constipation and to it getteral loss of resistance to various diseases. The long term chewer is marked by pale skin, protruding eves, and a general deterioration of bodily functiots. As a result of its popularity, the amount of acreage devoted to qat has increased at the expense of exportable crops, such as coffee. Furthermore, qat consumption deprives tits individual Yemeni of important earnings which could best be spent upon basic necessities. long qat sessions have severely restricted economic production, and one observer has estimated that for every potential worker, from 1,823 to 2,190 produvtive hours are lost each year. In May 1972 the government ordered all qat shrubs destroyed; it is doubtful, however, considering the economic and social inaportanc�e of qat, that such drastic action will he taken within the near future. F. Health (C) 1. Endemic diseases Although data on the incidence of disease ill Yeutctt are scarce, it is known that infectious ,and parasitic discuses are major causes of mortality and morbidity, Inadequate sanitation, substandard diets, insufficient potable water supplies, and faulty or nonexistent waste disposal systems contribute to high disease levels. Many women die in childbirth, and as mauay as mie -third of all children die before reaching their first birthday and one -half before reaching age 5, 'Those Yemenis who survive early childhood usually fall prey to a variety of illnesses during the rentairrder of their lives. Tuberculosis is considered by medical authorities to be the most parevaletat disease in Yemen and perhaps the most conttton cause of death. Pulmonary tuberculosis is xidespread among women wid young children, particularly those in urban areas confined to the crowded harems; tatbcreular meningitis occurs fmqucntly among iraf;uats rand young children. In 1970, the discoveries of a Finnish medical team in pits Tihanuah linked the incidence of tuberculosis to the malnourished ccntditiot of the inhabitants. 'I'hc occurrence of malaria is also high, This disease is found in all sections of Yvinvn, where 12 differrnl varieties of the anopheles mosquito, the malarial vector, have been discovered, but it is especially widespread in the Tiliamah mid in the foothill regions, Gastrointestinal discuses of all kinds are ;a nnajor cause of illness and death, and acute dysentery is said to be the tuost usual cause of death among infants and 28 young children. Cholera was reported in the Tihanrah ill the latter part of 1971 and later spread to tit(- city of Al Iludaydah; in early 1972, 55 cases of the diseas(* were reported. Schistosontiasis, affecting nten more than women, is said to he endemic in areas from 3,000 to 7,000 feet above sea level. Among Yemeni Jewish emigrants to Isra:cl, schistosontiasis affected 2Wi of all children aged 3 and 4, and 85% of those emigrants over age 30. I)ise:ases of the eye, primarily trachoma, afflict ;tt estimated 90% of the population. Venereal diseases are Aso common, regardless of class, and one observer has estitated that 804 of all adults suffer from sonic form Of these diseases. Scabies is reportedly prevalent among children and laborers, at least in the three major cities. The greatest incidence of leprosy is found in the mo mttain area bctwecn Ibb and 'Labid. 'Tetanus is said to be fairly frecpuent in 11ty Tiliantah but rare in the mountains, Relapsing fever is widespread, and smallpox epidemics were fairly c�ouunon until the� 1935 -.10 period, when Italian doctors initialed a vaccination campaign. More recently, Saudi Arabian hctalth regtdations have forced many 1�etnenis to obtain smallpox vaccinations before etnba rking of the pilgrimage to Mec(-a. In 1966, VIIO reported that the disease had been virtually eradicated ill Yenaeu, with It() new eases since 196.1. Au outbreak of measles reached near epidemic proportions in the major cities of Yemen in 1971 and was thought to be indirectly responsible fora number of deaths ;among small children. 2. Nutrition and sanitation a. Diet and fond supply N'lost Yemenis staffer front malnutritiota, I)iel;try deficiencies are directly responsible for the high incidence of a number of disorders, including, anemia, tuberculosis, and sleep skin lesions, as well as reducing resi sl;uace to other diseases aatd retarding develop- ment. 1 is particularly severe attong children, attd rickets is prevalent. In 1986, observers front div 1.00d and Agriculture Organization (FAO) reported that many 2 -year -old childreu in the 'I'llaanuah weighed only 6 to 9 pounds. I3tnring late 1969 tilt(] early 1970, as a result of nearly a decade of civil war ;aid drollt food shortages became ;acute and famine conditions were reported in some areas of the country. I lardest hit was the Tihanuah where as many as 5000K) people were sevemly afflielvd. Many persons were reported eating the twigs atul branches of cactus plants, normally used as ;animal fodder. At unknown number of Yeutenis APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100028 -5 died of starvation, and many others succumbed to disease because of their weakened condition. Food relief from a number of foreign governments and international organizations eased the threat of mass starvation hilt not before severe damage had been done to the social and economic order. The traditional staple food in Yemen has teen grain sorghum, barley, or millet. Townsmen are exPosed to a wider selection of food products than inhabitants of rural areas, bedouins subsist on a diet consisting Iargely of rnilk -std milk products. The h�pical Yemeni diet is deficient in vitamins, proteins, and other important nutrients, the insufficiency of animal protein being especiall marked. Only 10%' of the Tihamah households visited by a U.N. mission in 1966 reported eating meat even once a week. Average meat consumption for these households was 250 grants per week for a family of five. Although the U.N. team did not stake systematic: nutritional surveys, it estimated that per capita daily intake ranged from I.W) to l,ti(x) calories, while daily requirements were in the range of 2,00) to 2,5(x) calories. Consumption of fish is generally confined to the coastal areas, tut sntali quantities of canned fish are available inland. Fruits, particularly grapes and apples, and fresh vegetables, including potatoes, squash, eggplant, cabbage, radishes, and spinach, are apparently consutnecl much more regularly than in most other Arahian countries. Yemenis rarely drink milk, although milk front sheep, goats, and camels is used extensively in yogurt and cheeses. The diet of women and children appears to he a special problem. Women and girls usually cat less well than tnett, as they are generally scr "ed last and occasionally toilsome leftovers from the Wren's plates. For the first -10 days after childhirth, a acw mother typically cats onl WIleat and hurry and drinks cltsht, ;t popular drink made from the shell of lit( coffee bean and seasoned NvitIt black pepper. cinn;.ttnon. rdaMont, and ginger. A newborn infant is given a sntali un oust of honey and cooking fat to help strengthen the body. Although the mother's milk is often poor in quantity and quality, children arc usually nursed for about 2 years. If the mother is pregnant, however, the infant is given cow's milk sweetened with sugar, its many Yemenis believe that the milk of a pregnant woman causes siekness and death. During his second year, a child is gradually trained to eat bread and other solids. In most past years, sufficient food was produced in Yetnen to satisfy the demands of the population. Ilowcver, agricultural production began to dentine in the second half of the 1960's, and it plunged sharply at the end of the decade. Inadequate rainfall and the disruption of crop cultivation us a result of civil strife were mainly responsible for the decline, particularly that of staple grain crops. After the 1969 harvest, cereal production was conservatively estimated to have been 6555.� below normal, and the total cereal deficit during the 1969/70 crop year \%-its placed at 271,(XX) metric terns. '1'o meet this shortage about 1 15,(xx) tons of fond were imported during the period from October 1969 through May 1970. For the remainder of 1970 and through the spring of 1971, comntitmcuts totaling 95,(100 tons of cereals were financed through credits and donations front foreign countries, especially the United States, the U.S.S.11., Canada, and East Germany, and from the United Nations and various private charitable organizations. The Ministry of Agriculture has instituted a number of projects in an effort once again to reach self sufficiency in food production, Included are programs designed to expand cultivable land (estimates of the arable land under cultivation range front 25 to 40 through the construction of sntali dams, and to increase productivity by providing high qualit seeds, fertilizers, and pesticides. Yet to he faced arc the pre blctns created b shortage of facilities for transporting, storing, and distributing food products. b. Environmental sanitation and hygiene LOW levels of environmental sanitation are responsible for food contamination and the spread of disease. Although the total supply is sufficient in most areas of Yemen, water su })plies are often contarni- nated, either at the source or in storage. In the highlands, nv.mntain wells and rain catc!,ments usually provide adequate supplies of water; in the Tihamal, both shallow and deep wells are the major sources, Provision of adequate water for large towns is a serious problem. As late as 106.1, the San'a' water system was ulntust totally undeveloped. Ilowever, efforts to modernize water supply and distribution sysivitts in some cities have achieved significant results. A piped system in At Iluda which was built with Soviet aid in the 1960's and expanded curly in the 197Ws, is in operation, and the cities of Ar It;thidah, Dhanmr, and At Rayda' have expanded their capacities .utd improved delivery systems, The largest water project and one of the most advanced in the Middle East was undertaken in Ta'izz Iry the U.S, Agency for Intertutional Development, which completed a US$1 2 million system, called the John F, Kennedy Water Sys(em. it provided some 50,M) city residents with potahle water for the first little and ut least temporarily ended the tleed to truck in water 29 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100028 -5 from outside the city. By mid- 196-1,.100 Yemenis had been trained in the United States to operate the system, but breakage and a lack of spare parts have since hampered efficient operation. Moreover, substantial population growth has occurred, and the local water supply is no longer sufficient to meet increased demand. In july 1972, a technical adviser from the ILO was sent to Yemen omen to aid in the repair of the equipment and to develop plans for its improvement and expansion. The basic principles of hygiene and sanitation are virtually unknown. Newborn babies are not bathed for a long period and children are brought up almost totally unaware of the elementary concepts of personal cleanliness. Even children of fairly affluent families wear dirty clothes to ward off the evil eye, commonly thought to be attracted by neat attire. Government attempts to upgrade personal sanitation and hygiene through educational programs have been limited; 11'110, in support of local health programs, has provided sanitarians in the cities of San'a', Al I-ludaydah, and Ta'izz. Sanitation control nmasures are almost nonexistent. 'Picks abound because: of the large animal population; rats and mica are common in towns and villages; flies are dense in the lowlands; and lice are prevalent in rural areas. Milk pasteurization is limited, if available at all, and food is prepared without regard to cleanliness. Conditions are unsanitary in animal market- and slaughterhouses, although "nudern facilities are being built in the large cities. Sick animals, moreover, are rarely treated or inspected. Modern sewerage systems do not exist. In AI Iludavdah the beach is used as a toilet and refuse dump, and in San'a' sewage is discharged into pits 50 to l00 feet deep and C feet ill d;.netcr but with no provision to prevent leakage into the water table. 1 t many towns, including San a', trash anti garbage are thrown into the street, only occasionally collected, and clumped haphazardly outside the walls or even within a neglected corner of the cily. Dogs and vultures help to consume much edible refuse. (The only known law relating to public sanitation in San'a' forbids the killing of (logs, which serve as scavengers.) 'These urban arrangements for waste disposal have been described as modernity itself compared with those in the country villages," where waste disposal facilities are m m Bathrooms, if any, ill upper class dwellings our usually located on an upper Iloor and contain all area furnished with water pitchers mud small clippers for ritual ablutions; such rooms are also equipped with a hole in the fluor for the toilet. This hole is comtected 30 by a shaft to a chamber on the ground floor where fecal matter is collected; the chartber is reportedly cleaned about twice a year. In addition, bathrooms contain a urine trough or spout that protrudes through the exterior walls. 3. Medical care Prior to the 1962 revolution, organized medical services in Yemen did not exist. Doctors were virtually unknown until the arrival of a small Italian medical mission in the 1930's, and in i951 there ware only four doctors three in Tai izz and one in San'a' �in the entire country. Medical facilities were limited. Only three major hospitals �one each in San'a'. Ta'izz, and Al Hudaydah �were in operation during the last years of the Imamate, and these were dirty and vermin infested and lacked basic medicines and equipment. Puhlic health programs were restricted to malaria control, begun in the 1940's; a smallpox vaccination project, started in the late 1950's; and the services of the WHO I Icafth and 'Training Center, established in San'a' in 1957. The republican regime has attempted to improve health services by initiating additional public health programs, expanding facilities, and increasing medical personnel. In turban areas, access to health care has increased and medical facilities have improved, but general poverty and the lack of an adequate transportation system still operate to den\ health care to most of the rural population. Superstition is widespread. Most Yemenis behevc that illnesses are caused by hidden spirits called jiuts, of whom there are apparently four nruin kinds: earth jinns are thought to cause bowel and stomach complaints; sea jinns are responsible for headaches, insonnia, and eye trouble; air jinns provoke heart pains and loss of breathing; and sky jinns attack the nervous system, catering spasms and limb contractions. These spirits may be warded off by protective amulets or exorcised by folk practiticnters. 'Traditional nedical practices include bloodletting and cauterization for the treatment of fevers, rheumatism, or nervous disorders. Ixg ulcers are treated with a compress of grape leaves containing a mixture of dates and powdered clog brains. Medicinal herbs used especially for intestinal maladies are still grown in small garden plots and marketed throughout the country. In the mid- 1960's, Khawlan tribesmen claimed that manly of their war casualties were successfully treated by local "doctors" using trod' �.ional herbal remedies. Although a klinistry of Health was treat -ed in 1937, it remained a rudimentary organization until the revolution. In 196.1, acting under a government directive calling for the provision of needed health APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100028 -5 1 F services for all citizens, the ministry expanded to abort 15 sections, including Finance, Medical Supplies, Pharmacies, and Personnel. By 1967, the fol departments had been added: Health Quarantine; School Health; Birth, Death, and Age Registration; and Public Water Supply and Sanitation, along with a schciol for public health officers. In addition, it variety of programs have been undertaken. New health centers were opened under WI supervision in Tdizz, Al Hudaydah, and Bajil. Free hospital care for the indigent is supposedly available. Public health officers have been assigned to districts throughout the country to offer instruction in public health practices, and informational campaigns have been launched in an effort to raise: health standards and to alert the Population to the dangers of epidemic diseases. Malaria control activities have been intensified, and medical teams hare been sent to various areas to inoculate the population against smallpox and cholera. The ministry has also issued regulations concerning the control of restaurants and slaughter- houses. In 1969, the government arlrloutced that mobile medical units would be sent to the villages. During the F)'69, the regime spent 3.8 million rivals for health programs, roughly a.4!vu. of total expenditures. a. Medical personnel Although the republican regime has made considerable effort to expand the number of medic,,I personnel, the shortage remains acute. In the earl, 1970's, approximately 2(X) physicians were practicing in Yemen, or about one physician per 30,000 inhabitants. Furthermore, most physicians practice in tile: larger urban areas of the na;iior provinces, resulting in all even less favorable ratio in some ,areas. In 1970, according to official sources, 198 out of 220 doctors and pharmacists were located ill the provinces of San',', Ta'izz, and Al 1 -1 udaydah; thus, the �11 of the total population living outside these provinces had access to only I 1 of the doctors and pharmacists. In Sa'dah Province there was only one ph:tiician for the entire population, estit;lated at 477,(XX). Until 1965, all doctors were foreigners, those from Egypt, the U.S.S.R., Italy, and Hungary beinug most numerous. Some h:uropean physicians withdrew in the 1967 68 period, but the medical corps was augmented by Personnel arriving front the People's Republic of China. In 1970, 22 Chinese doctors were reporter! in Yennen and, in the next year, 24 Chinese "nuvdieal officers" arrived to work in Yenlcni hospitals; 1(i physicians from the U.S.S.R. were also practicing, The number of Y emeni physic grew from five in 1965 to over 75 in 1970. Yemen has no medical school, and most of the doctors studied medicine in Czechoslovakia, Egypt, the United Kingdom, or the U.S.S.R. Many are thought to he poorly trained; in fact, the Soviet educated doctors are said to have received only about one -half the training normally required in Western medical schools. Most auxiliary medical personnel are Yemeni: in 1970, 801 of the 837 individuals engaged in auxiliary occupations were Yenleaai. In 1968, indigenous auxiliary personnel included 92 nurses, 54 sanitarians, 35 laborator technicians, and 12 X -ray technicians. A group of 22 medical technicians, trained in San'a' by Soviet arlc] Yemeni p hysicians, completed all 11 -month training course in 1972 which covered such topics as the basic principles of medicine and first aid. Some assistant nurses, sanitarians, and "dressers" are trained at schools established by W110 in the cities of Sarn'a', Ta'izz, and Al 111daydah. Generally, the level of competence of Yerueni auxiliary medical personnel is low. b. Medical facilities In 1967, according to the Yemen Statistical Yearbook. 18 llospihnls and 57 dispensaries were operating in the country, and by 1970 the number had increase(] to 27 hospitals and IM dispensaries. Ilspitul beds numbered 4,573 in 1970, or approximately one bed for every 1,200 people. Sara'a', Ta'izz, and Al Iludaydah provinces collectively accounted for 20 hospitals and 4,100 beds in 1970, whereas Sa'dah Province had only one 20 -bed hospital. Several specialized hospitals have been established to treat tuberculosis, mental illnesses, and leprosy, and to offer gynecological and pediatric services. Additionally, the International Red Gross maintains a prosthetic center in San'a' for civil war amputees. "file Swedish Save the Children Foundation opened a child health clinic in Ta'izz in 1964 and later expanded it into a 30 -bed hospital. Initially staffed with two nurses, the clinic concentrated on tuberculin testing and irnnlunization; after expansion, 2,10) to 3,(XX) patients per month were treated. Other countries and organizations which have aided in the. construction and staffing of hospitals include Czechoslovakia, Egypt, Ilungary, Kuwait, and the U.S. Southern Baptist Convention, For the most part, the major hospitals continue to he overcrowded, unsanitary, and poorly supplied, with a conglomeration of equipment and personnel front many countries, The largest is the l,(XX) -bell AI 31 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100028 -5 M *dical ward FIGURE 22. Facilities at the Al Jumhuriyah Hospital in San'a'. Most hospitals are overcrowded and ill equipped. (C) Jumhuriyah 1 10spital in Sun'a' (Figure 22), described in 1967 as "a veritable 'Power of Babel" because of its Egyptian, Soviet, Yemeni, Italian, and C:hirlese physicians, In 1972, the Ministry of I lealth budgeted 1.1 million riyals for the hospital's rentwation. Formerly the largest facility in 1'ctacu, the Ta'izz I Iospital was once considered the ']lost modern. In 1964, however, it was described us llllclean and ill equipped; the windows had no .screens, flies were everywhere, and sheets were dirty, Although running eater was avuiluble, no sewerage system existed, and bathrooms were smelly and dirty: equipment w ;is primitive. In Al Iludaydah, hospital conditions wrrc described in 196.4 as "deplorable," ;uxl in I)hanrtr, the old army barracks serving i ts it hospital was characterized us poorly managed, with conditions approaching squalor. As of 1972, Yenu'n did not hnsve it phunnuceutical factory, but the Yemen I)nlg Manufacture and Sales C:omp;lny, it sluts -owned enterprise which imports drugs, has its a goal the production of lrndicinc's. Most drags and medical supplies are supplied by those countries with rnedicul teams is Ye']sca, particulurly the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of (:hinu. G. Religion (C.) Yemen is a Muslim country, and lslinl is the official religion. The importance of the faith is reflected in the 32 Preamble to the 1970 Pernuulent Constitltlioll which states: 1Ve [the Yemeni nation) shall have no life to live anwng nations and we can claim no pride or character except through our true Islamic religion which has been the religion of our nation through the last fourteen centuries, and through following its divine guidance, achieving its precepts, abiding by its directions and strictures, and by remaining within its bounds. More than it formal religion, Islam is it complex blend of religious, social, and political attitudvs which has been described u+ "an cell- pervasive wav of life, guiding thought and ;lotion to a degree without modern parallel in the Western world." The organizing principle of the Muslim conllllllnih ('t nmah) is the Sharia (the right path), i t legal a,lid moral sy:stcnt regulating, ill theory, every aspect of life, The Sharia, identified in Article'? of the Constitution us the source of all laws, still miderpins the foundations of Yemeni society. On the popular level, however, pre- Islamic� tribal law and religious practievs colitinue to exert it signific.lnt influence. \While the country is divided into several sects, all Muslims are basically agreed on the major tenets of their faith. 'i'hc central body of cloglllal inelndes belief in the following: the oneness of Cod, or Allah; the Prophets of Cod, the lust being Muhanitnad, who revealed Cod's design to lnan: the Koran, Islam's holy book containing the word of Col in eternal form: the Angels, headed by Cabriel, who transntittell the Koran APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100028 -5 Opwating room to \Itfta III nad: and the I ;ut _lrdg11te�nt. at \\hici tittle the righte(,11s rill he� r(�%%ardcd in ht,a\en and tilt, icked consigned to hell. The essential eludes required oi' \luslints, soinctinles kno\ \n as the '�pillars of Islam," are fkefold: 1 I to profess the creed. '"there is no god but (:od, and \luhanun;u: is his 1'roIAwt' 2 to pra. five tunes (Jail\. i.e., at d ;r\\11, midda\ afternoon, sunset, and t,arl\ evening, an(I to attend public prt\ ers in the Mosque on F rich\ t Figctry 2 to fast el;til\ during the hole mouth of Ranladatt: �1 to gi\l. alms to the pour: and 5) to undertake the pilgritat.,gl. (hajj) to Mecca ut least once in a lifetime. (.kccording to 1- <li :lrabian records, 601,35S Yvinenis !nude the hujj in 19 72.�tti Islam, esprciall\ thal (,I the %a\di sect, has al\%a\s bt,l.n c�o11sc�r\ :I ti\ e. "I'hr Yl.nuni is said to belong to "Ilse older species of horn() rcll(;lasu.e, boa mail concert is the sill\ ntiou of his soul and ht, souls of those for Front feels rl.sponsih(v.*' \fill,\ Yemenis consider ntan's role to be that of :11Lelt s st,r\artt, who ne\er (Iut,stions the di\ ite \\;II. It the 193(1 's, the sill rettac�\ of religious thought ;es nrac�hallenged. the tot;tlit\ of life being detert11ined h\ Islam do\\ n to the smallest detail ;old acti\ il\. :1s Irate� ;as 19(;(1. Islam \cas still collsidt,red the prit io deternlinutl of 1'enteni bell a\ ior. Despite Islam's per\;tsi\e inllut,uc'e, !11 lribesnu�n, particularly nomads, have beat largel\ 1111affected b\ formal Islamic teachings. According Ito IN oftv scholar, front the ]()lit to (it( 20th ct,ulurit,s oral\ uoluival obeisance has beers ttke: b\ tltc tribes to islanl. Some \luslints in sau'a', usoall\ c�omsidered it stronghold of religious cotser\;atisnt. \en� reported as long ago as 1910 to chafe under Sharia restrictions. partl\ because the\ inhibited trade. Durini, his reign, I uana Y ;dr\a et11derloe,k it \igor(,us (�ant pit igII to eliminate tribal Lt\\ and to establish till. Sltaria ;n the c�ou11tr\ *s (sill\ l(Tal code. In the laid- 19 :311*s, for ovi111ple. one� of his emissaries to the nominal!\ \lusliln Tiiant;tlt \sits described its using it huge (.Jill') in his efforts to teach ti tati\es Iho\\ to pray. lalr\a's atlt,tpts to assert tie prinru\ of \fanlint l ;t\\ \\cre not l.ntinl\ successful, l I\\e\er: tribal la\% is still practiced, and ignora11cc of ntue�h of \luslinl doctritr remains. Official lsl ;tn is contplt,nente d b\ it distinctive talk religion, consisting of \ariocts animistic sur\i\ids front pm Islamic times� superslitious practices, and )tier s\ ncretic additions, Mthough sonic of these beliefs and practices ha\c 1wen reportcd its laic as lit, 1950's, lie c\tent to hick till.\ eonliauc (o is not kno\\n. \unt�rous ltuntillg practices, agricultural le�sti\als, ate! lit(' E_ eat' ";an inll.nsc�I\ agricultural people conccrnir= IF .'Ita, for t,vanlplr. t livid ha its proper r =ar. I.:\( lvo �rat, obsl.r\er (o cbara( size *11 1I,un ,e� ,irtb cull coott,cled \\ills the� %111114 ill fe ltibt. notion. bu\\l.\l.r, disputed b\ 1 Semitic APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100028 -5 FIGURE 23. Muslims kneeling for prayer at AI -Kabir Mosque, San'a'. Note the stone kaoba at rear of courtyard, (C) rites abound, including invocations to celestial bodies and "tile black rock,' the secret worship of stones. 'I he widespread black heifer cult, in which cows decked kith flowers are led through the villages as part of seasonal fertility festiv,lls, is thought to be another ancient rite. Ixlssibly similar to the worship of the golden calf in Biblical times. Belief it, jinns� hidden spirits which live ;;a n,c�ks springs, and trees �is strong. One jinn belir"t %%'It it village spring is propitiated b the 1 r it black ox when the water supp particulariy tllalignatlt spirit is the tl -A the Tihanlah. The zar is said to j111\\rs. Iv t4- force theta to perform acts fo' 11IIt t[i, ti i responsible. t)escribed as "contf l such individuals are impelled to d;uL cat or drink and cannot sleep. An ct1ii,. k, .,on, moreover, is believed to be able to eat hot coals without being burned, '1'o exorcise the spirit, a shaykh al -war, in c�onlpany with former patients, performs it ritual, which inclucles burning incense, dancing, singing, and invoking tilt' sun, moon, stars, "tilt' black rock,� and the kings of the jinn. For his part, the patient drinks the blood of a young goat. In addition to jinns, various people, colors, words, and nttnlbers are believed to have evil influelces. '1'11t' nullifier five, for example, is considered evil and a ll insult if used in conversation. Both men and wonit'n reportedly specialize in averting the evil eye or casting it on other. 'I'o ward off these tnystelious forces, protective onntrnents are frequentl worn around the neck (Figure ?-1), in the hair, or on the clothing. Other aspects of folk religion include belief in astrology, in 'ilnt ai rarrtl (the science of reading the san(is), and in other forms of divination, On a somewhat different plane are the nlvstical orders of saints' cults. Although the %aydis discourage both, nuuly villages have shrines and saints tolllbs, which are the object of 11�4 /ij)it veneration and occasional pilgrirnagvs, at !east one "saint" earned his reputation as a suecessful brigand who brought prosperity to his tribe. Several religions brotherhoods specializing in curing snakebites and it dervish order Whose nunlhers mutilate themselves with axes alld iron maces have also been re porte d. Yelliellis pay their allegiance to one of three Islamic sects. The %aydis, Who belong to the heterodox Shia branch of Islam, have been dominanl politically for much of the cyntntry' Islamic history. 'I'ht'y derive their name front %ayd, the great grandson of 'Ali, the Prophets sou ill law, who was killed at Kufah (Ira(l) in 7.10, After his death, %ayd became revered by some Shias as it religious and political nwrtyr. By the end of S-1 tilt' ninth century. it nullifier of his followers had arrived in the Yemen highlands and had established the Inutnlate, which was to last until 1962. The 'laydi state was it claSsical Nluslinl theocracy ruled by (sod, who, in political terms, was represented by the Lorain and the hadith (traditions) as well as by Zayd; interpretations of the significance and contents of these two basic sources. The head of state was ti Imam. Unlike other Muslinn rulers, traditionalists considered him infallible, although his powers were limited by Islalllic� Ia\V and political reality. The I1 cotnhined tit(' office of tc�nlporal and spiritual ruler, his roles as king amt priest being inseparably. As king, the Inwnl was responsible for national defense and the conduct of foreign relations; as religions leader his Chief function, according to olle scholar, was "to Uphold the Shari; and impose the penaltivs, to watch over the performance of all zluties cortllnancled by (sod, to defend the 'utnnudt against its viwillies," The importance which was attached to the imam as tilt' defender of the faith canllot he overestinrtted, Ile w' as the indispensable instrument for the conduct of moral life, as expressed in the old saying, "I le who dies without an Intanl dies a pagan." Believing that prayers would he illegitimate before (sod if the !maul left the country for any reason, conservatives were critical of Imam Ahnlad's trill to Rollie for medical treatment il 195). 'I'htls, with the dissolution of tilt' APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100028 -5 FIGURE 24. Bedouin woman from eastern Yemen. The large beads around the neck are probably protective amulets. (U /OU) Imamate and the flight of the Imam in 1962, the entire religious foundation of the Zaydi conununity was undermined. The Shafi'is are adh -rents of the orthodox Sunni hr.Anch of Islam. Strictly speaking, they do not Lwastitute a sect but belong to a legal school founder( by Muhammad ibn -Idris al- Shafi'i (767 -820). In the early Muslim era, the Sunnis developed four schools, all equally orthodox, which differ on technical points of law, ritual, a;�'.d interpretation but not on major doctrinal questions. Like Sunnis in other cnnitries, the Shnfl'. Abu Bakr. Unnr, Uthnrin, and ill\ JN the first `slur sue� ssors to the i'rophet. irk ccwitrast to the 5hiats, tile do not believe that the� k'ahph or -ipreme relp�,,,s authotlt nne�' he descended fn,ul Mkll:knimad, beginning and they do not recognize the infallibility of the Imam, Thw .soallest of Yemen, Islamic sects, the Ismailis are Shia dissenters who seceded from the plain Shia body after the death of the sixth Imam. Iescribed as a quasi- masonic organization with an esoteric doctrine," they believe in a nrandi or hidden [mars( w ho will re turn one day to redeem the world. Their lives are regulated by definite ceremonial prescriptions arid rituals; for example, arms and feet arc: washed only'to it specific height, and beards have a distinctive cut. Ismailis are occasionally referred to in 1'cnken as the al- Makarinw, derived from the al- Makrami, i t 17th century family which established its leadership of the Ismaili community. Although the Ismailis governed Yetnen in the. I 1 tit and 12th centuries, their subsequent political and social impact has been negligible, and many were probably killed in the 1930's by the royal army, All republican governnkcnts from 1962 to 1968, however. have re portedly included at least one Ismaili of cabinet rank. Central to the development of modern Yemen is the persistence of the Zaydi- Shaffi conflict. It has contributed to the factionalism that characterizes 1'enleni history, \vas i t factor in the abortive revolts of 1948 arid 1935 and the revolution of 1962, and continues to inhibit the growth of secular nationalism. The Zaydi character may account in part for the continuing dispute, As long ago as the 13th century, the Muslim traveler Ibn ]ubayr described then( as "fanatics arid Snobs, who denounce everybody outside of their sect," while i t visitor in the 1920's declared that "they have not changed in 6x) years." Others have remarked upon their "extrauordinar\' exclusive- ness arid racial solidarity." Oil the other hand, several observers have notes) their reputation for religious tolerance. Although the Zavdis may believe that other Muslims have deviated from the correct path, it is nonetheless true that specific religious differences have played onl\ a secondary role in the controversy. Zavdi teachings are closer to Sunni dogma than those of any other Shia sect and, in any case, the average Yemeni does not understand the doctrinal differences between the two groups. Differences in triodes of living are also negligible. Some Zaydis, moreover, have converted to the Shalfri sect. arid it is not une�o1111loll for Zaydis arid Shaff is to intermarry or wo rship in each others mosques. The A Qaa la tribe, for example, like other, in south and southeastern Yenler, contains adherents of both sects, \who apparent(% 0 k(+ =Flative harmony. "rhe Shafris, are geik j.,, n-KIe sophisticated and worldly then the %;r ""d blue maintained stronger (Nin tectiom with t1w sr Islanli; world. 1kv.vrrdlnk In ow "the greatest distinctions I 1114 11 It+ald in their oral traditions, hisloc \,s, el \i Iles concerning themselves and others, \\u,4,4, I rt j has as a part of its culture." Although mane Zaydis view the Republic as a symbol of atheisrll. available evidence indicates that republican %kders have pu sued it basically conservative religious policy. Apart from the abolition of the Inlaunate and the confiscation of mosque properties, they have not undertaken radical reforms hut, on the contrary, hays deenled it necessary to maim� traditional religious structures. Immediately upon t, power. the republicans announced that cone of the revolution's purposes was to reestablish Sharia principles, which had been corrupted by the mean(. Article 3 of the 1963 Provisional Constitution declared that Islan \\'as the official state religion and that legislation would be bused on the "noble principles" of Islam. A t least in the early gars, the Ramadan fast as strictly observed under the republic, and ministers were reportedly forced to attend Friday prayers on pain of imprisonm ent� presuntably part of the price required by the tribes for continued allegiance to the republic. Nonetheless, the secular republic is different from the royalists' "free Islamic kingdom,' whose main function \vas the propagation of "God's religion." As early as 1963, the Ministry of Religious Endowments (Augap had drawn up plans for reforming the country's IQt)00 mosques by developing them into cultural centers which \would provide libraries of religious, social, and literary works, as well as lecture and seminar prograuns. Shortly after the revohtlion, about mullahs from Cain reportedly were sent to 1'enkeu to ittcnlpl to 35 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100028 -5 break down the religious "fanaticism" of the tribes and to disseminate modern concepts of Islam. With an obvious 1-enlitic�al implication, they preac�Ited that Zaydi lav did not legitimize rule I >y an Imam. Along similar lines, an official of the Yemeni ;Ministry of information in 1964 attacked "so- called" religious leaders who exph)ited their position, charging them with mental stagnation and failure to adopt progressive ideas. ]'Ile intP:act of such Propaganda, however, is difficult to assess. Religiotis leaders are said to have lost prestige, curiously without nnuch resistance or protest. "Choir silence has led some to conclude that in Yemen religion is not a decisive factor in the degree and rate of smial change, Few Christians other than foreign diplomats and businessmen live in Yemen, although a small number of Palestinian. Syrian, and Lebanese Christians are known to have held official positions under the Imams and to have acquired Yemeni citizenship. 'Three Christian groups maintain missionary activities in Yemen �the Baptist Mid Missions, the Red Sea Missions, and the Southern Baptist Convention. In 1970, the Baptist Mid Missions maintained tym missionaries in 1'emen; the Red Sea Missions operated tw�m clinics, each staffed Ihy a missionary worker, and the Southern Baptist Convention sponsored a mission station it, Ta'izz and ran a hospital i nearby jiblah. The Jewish cottumunity in Yemen, mice estimated its consisting of about 50,000 persons, has declined to fever than l,W0. As of 1963, the remaining jews in the cotmtry reportedly earned it modest incmme as farmers and artisans, Although officially excluded from political and civic life and ineligible for government jobs, the jews have not heeln actively harassed. H. Education (C) The creation of it modern cduc�atiomd system is a major objective of the republican regime. lfowryer, because of the Primitive nature of the traditimnal educational system, the upheaval caused b\ 13 years of civil strife, and the shortage of available funds, the government has been largely (enable to move be the plarnning stage. As a result, the system retrains o poorly developed; nly a small Propmrtiun of school- age children attend classes and, of these, few advance beyond the beginning primary grades, facilities are atntigtlated, classes are overcrowded, atnd teachers are inadequately trained. Iligher education must be Pursued mutsidc the country, at man of those who obtain advanced degrees, ()ftk�n at government expense, fail to return to Yennen. 36 Until 1962, formal education was essentially a religious func�ticn, and public schools in the \Vestertn sense hardly existed. The fmamate was concerned principally with the training of future officials who were expected to he better educated than the persmns titey governed. [ante in the� 19 01 century, the Turks established a fe" tiecon(lary schools which offered clines in popular science and geography. Imann Yahya i1mvever, abolished these sehmols it, 1919 and reestal dished the Doran as the basis for all learning. Thus, the distinction between education and religious instruction was eliminated, and fora generation after the Ottoman withdraval only the Koran and the Zaydi texts were taught. Although a few government supported primary schools existed, the backbone mf the educational system was the kuttab, or Islamic primary sci (Figure 25). Even today. although rtow kinder the purview of gowernment officials, the kuttab serves to impart schooling in reading and writing. along with religious instruction, to a significant segment of those children attending school. As in the past, however, most children receive no formal instruction, rather, they are trained ill time honored fashion by their parents. Bcc�ause the leaders of the imamic theocracy required little modern knowledg the sons mf important families were relatively well served by akmsque schools or by private tutors, who taught them language, law. religion, archery, and horsemanship. Furthermore, the education Which these bows received by listening to their elders covered a wide range of subjects and prepared them to participate in the essential aspects of their society, These arrangements, although olnyiously inadequate tit meet the needs of a modern state, provided sufficient education for the limited purposes of the traditional society, and the continuity of Yemeni Islamic c�iyilizatimn vas successfully maintained. 'I'll( republican government assunied cmutrekl mf all schools in 1963. Subsequently, it announced that the right to 6 gars of free primary schooling was guaranteed to all children!, and it established a 12-year pmgrann composed of a 6 -year primary cycle; i t 3 -year preparatory, or lower secondary cycle; and it 3 -year upper secondary cycle Willpmsed of either general secondary, technical secondary, or teacher training courses, all designed to irad to further technical, vocational, or profcssimnal training (Figure ?G), A national e.nniyersity was proposed, but as of mid -197'. it was still ill the Planning stagc,:i Information "Authorities vo nsider the Shari,( and Lamy college, wdeieln hmvides tr;eilling in Islamic and secular lase, as the nucleus for the national mMmily. I l m in 1970 the college suffered from ;e shorti;t;e of both faculty and students. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100028 -5 FIGURE 25. Boys learning to write at religious school (U /OU) UNIVERSITY OF YEMEN Gru,�ro! I Tncl Ica! 1 Tradror 1117] 111 Srtt,ndary se �cia,y I Twining I 161 l 1 0 Schxh Sdaol Intli,;.h� 9 I 14 f P- paralory Schoa! j 1 7 ,I I 6 I I II I to Prinxny Sc4aali I I 1 I I� FIGURE 26. Structure of the educational system, 1972 (U /OU) tu�rtainiti; to the c�urriuolur11 at tilt- Y:trious Ic\cls is gcnrrallr unaV;lilal>Ic. In 1972, the Mi11istcr of I ?ducution stated that "ccrtai11 curricldu [ollotcd h our schools in all stages are in confornlih Stith the� coriit�ttla of :un other \;dY .�tats cccllt for tlti11gs such IN tilt' stud; of 1'rnu�11i history and geog apk and religions sulliccts Technical :uu1 \ocatio11al courses arc� oflctc(I A tilt- Itrinl:tr\ ;lud po�vim:1lom IrVs'I. Instruction is giveu in \tapir. If' front the 1111au1ic era continue, tilt' sr1x11astic r;tr rlends front October to Jul kith classes 11eeling :i hours llcr cfaN, tiaturd;t Through 1 atd 2 hours oil 'Chusda. Ilt-T nsihilitl for the 111ar1ni11g, derclulmu'tl, and rrtairltcrlarlct' of the educrltio11al syshit11 is dclepted to the Minislr\ of I;ducatiun. although other govern- 111c11t entities luive responsihilil\ for sllcciali ed ;lslaects of the mstettl. In 1965, the t11i11istry lau11ched a ,i year edocalionid promotion llrogra111 ulldor official h:g llti;ul allspice(. 'file IYrogr,un's "Iiectives \\tire to hnild Iti second;lr\ schools Its 1968, to provide tcachcr training for '300 students annu; lk, to open conlmcrria) itrstitutt's in tia11'a' and :\I iluda\dah;nd agricultural schools in Ilajjal, 111(1 I1)11, and to M APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100028 -5 F x f. s construct primary -level vocationai schaxols in each province. Only a few of these projects, however, have been undertaken. In 1970, under the aegis of the ministry, a six member Higher Advisory Council was appointed to formulate a 5 -year plan covering school construction, technical ec':ucution, and scholarships. To reduce the almost total reliance on foreign textbooks, the Ministry of Education has established a printing house. In this project, support has derived from UNESCO and the United Nations Children's Fund. Centuries of neglect in the field of education are reflected in low levels of educational attainment and literacy. In 1962, there were fewer than i00 university graduates in all of Yemen, and formal sch000ling ryas largely restricted to a small circle of urban men. Literacy, considered the ability to read and write one's name and to read simple, passages from the Koran, was estimated in 1972 to be 15% for men and 10% for women; probably no more than half of these were functionally literate. Almost without exception, the rural Door are illiterate. Recognizing the importance of education us a prerequisite for future economic and social development, the leaders (of the republican regime nave endeavored to expand the educational system to provide more children with at least a primary education. Efforts have in large part been thwarted by preoccupation, until 1970, with the civil war, and by limited funds, a shortage (1 facilities, and a dearth of instructors. Moreover, some Yemeni parents have been reluctant to send their c hildren to school. This is especially true for girls; a large number of parents continue to believe that fornnal schooling, acconm- panied by unveiling in the classroom, will lead to their daughters' moral ruin. Data on the number of students attending schools are fragmentary; nonetheless, as indicated in the following tabulation, total enrollment (repor(ed by the Yemeni Government or estimated by UNESCO) has apparently increased substantially since the 1958/59 school year: 1958/59 41,256 1962/63 64,322 1963/64 59,100 1965/66 77,079 1966 /67 66,070 1969/70 78,114 1970/71 93,817 Enrollment in each school year, however, represented only a fraction of time eligihle youth, at hest tat) more than 100 and probably closer to 599! of all children aged 6 -If'. The bulk of the enrollment, h oth during 38 the latter years of the Imamate and since the establishment of the republic, has been at the primary level (Figure 27). In 1970%71, for examnle, 94`i of all students attended primary schools, �.rile roughly 5 attended preparatory and secondary schools. Of total primary school enrollment in 1969/40, over 6(19* weer enrolled in the first 2 rears and only 4i, were in the sixth year; this imbalance is due, in part, to the fact that many schools c offer only 1 or 2 years of the 6 -year primary cycle, The Yemeni school system is most extensively developed in the provinces of san'a' and Ta'izz; in consequence, children in these two areas have a greater opportunity to attend school. it, 19701`71, with less than half of the total population, these provinces accounted for almost two thirds of primary school enrollment and three fourths of preparatory and secxondary school enrollment (Figure 2ti). An increasing number of girls are receiving a primary education, although their contribution to total enrollment remains small. In 19651 3.536 girls attended primary schools, and by 1970/71 the number had risen to ;3,2(44, or roughly 9% of the total primary enrolinment. Primary schools are not coedocational separate schools for girls exist in Al Bayda', Al Hudaydah, Ibb, San'a% and '1'a'izz --and prictic:illy the entire enrollment of girls is confined to urban urea schools. Fey girls advance beyond (he primary level; in 1970/71, 12Z girls attended preparatory schools and 180 were enrolled in secondary or teacher training schools, In the absence of a university and of adequute secondary institutions, the republican gow::nmemt, continuing a practice begun by Imunm )'ahya in 1036, sends students abroad for advanced study. In 1963, some 1,55 Yemenis were said to be enrolled at secondary and university levels in Cairo, host with financial suppoort from the Egyptian Covernmeut. After 1967, Egyptians scholarship assist ainc.xc declined markedly; by 1969 /70, ucciording to an official Yenmciii scoune, only 292 Yemenis were studying in Egypt. During tl l same: year, 137 Yemeni sehohirship students were studying in Iraq, 93 in Syria, and 37 in other Arah countries. In 1971, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Libya, Lebanon, Syria, and Kuwait offered it total of 137 scholarships to Yemeni for professional and technical education. The number of Yemeni students in Communist countries increased sharply after 1962, rising to an estinuattKl 908 in 1966, of whom about 75'% were in the U.S.S.R., including 2W in military institutes. About 325 students were in the U.S.S.R. and Eastern Europe in 1967 and 644 in 1970. Reportedly, APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100028 -5 FIGURE 27. Enrollment, by type of school (U /OU) TYPR (IF NCnntlt, 111551;11) 141(12183 141(131(1 1110fillili 11171)171 Primary,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ;3:,05;3 81.3:3;1.. 17,814._ f 74,900 88,217 Secondtu'y 6ae,, 1,097 1,11(1 0 2,0119 +;1,11111 Sectmeatry vocational.. I 937 1, 04, 311 +45 Tea her training, 50 172 55 125 412 '1`otul 11,25(1 (14,322 "w 77,079 93,81" "Includes prepilratory and general ,weondary schools, Nitinher The sharp decline in sreundary vneutional enrol(ineiii is prnllalely clue it) the eliinination of religious schools Iroin this category. ^Rmlier Ptimil- PROVINeR Of selttlt)l8 FIGURE 28. Enrollment, by type of school and grovince, 1970/7) R i c, 1.1 Yelllt,ilis "'en sllldying ill IIIv hill1`d ill 197 I, chiefly mider iirivltte linsllives, Although It lurgv nonitwr of the fort,ig,I- educltlell Yvilit`tlis ltre poorly trltioed, dwy rt,prt,svol it vadre of lcrhniritilts oltd 11"MIrllliv s1wei -dists whow skills art` in short sopply, Nonoli `iess, Ilvellllw stutirllis t111road ilre ilwi)ri lhitt lillle or no effort will he nllttie It) rt llivir studies ti) Yvim -lt's Iltlllll)owilr !It`eds or to ltlilim their knowledge, ninny do not relorn to Yelreo; vollselilletllly. dw droill of lillelil is it soriolis probkl Ill, Other fltwtors illeluth, the low Silhlry scldes pr(`vi will ill 'icnlen and disillusioilmelit with politiviI cl millions, Sint, oft those who do return runnot Pint) work, `f'lle fallow of the Yemeni (loverltmelll to meet most of its etha`itionitl golds is lurgt clue to it shorlitgt of funds, As t by the Uniwd Nittions Evotwiniv mid Sochi) Of five 111 Ileiru'., public ('XI)ell()ltilty (111 rtlitoatioli i n I96'r) rvpreseiltet otlly :Z!'r" of loth) governitivul t The hulk of Iht, rtltiva(lim hudgm is llllovilted to sillories wid imthilviiwlee Costs, lellvilig little revt,l)ue for new 3',- ljects, N11101 it( whill is 11(`8' hiss bvvn filiilltet,d by foreign g1vvninivitis or intl`rwitiolltll orliuli?.ittiolts, Tht` 11!1111` prospi'I'Ils Arab countries have provided solsliullitd ilssisttlnce; thus, Kllwltit huilt itlld e(pilplwd tl girls prvpiirutory sl` llool mid it institute itild, ;ilollg with Ilse shvikdonis of i alirltin, `ati)r, lint) Ahll Muthi, griullt'd tilt vtiuivi It'll I of US$r)1)t 0x) for tilt` eslublisl)Iliellt of tilt nlltiolllil Iilllvvrsity Flgypt has provided tetlt`I vrsi and edlleiltiolitil mivisvi's Its well Its Ivythooks, iind titllldi ArilhIit. it� ,r its i9 rt,eoncil ill lit'll evill) (ht, wpithlieltn govvnitti `nt, tillIloillleed illiltis to guild three lendwr- IrltinhiiR ilstilliles, Tho Soviet Union lilts eonstr(t"ted it iwhlie lltimilistril0on lnslitllte, severltl nilititry sehools, ltnd threl` voolitiollill scllllols; the I'vopit` IZeplihliv o f Chinn Iris ilrovided it wcolilhlry voeltlioilid school, The IAAO ltidell in the huildilt9 of lilt uRrieolturall s(volldury school ill 'I WIAZ, inlide(Iltltte school favililies Illld it Sev ern shorio)tt of il`tlChl`rs Ii1Vt) I1ClI)l`tl to nrodut`t` till llemitilllie rnvirolitlivilt jildgt,d olio of tilt poorest ill dw Arlth ;34) r. 1` APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100028 -5 PRIMARY N PtINPAWR TOIIV TKAVIiklt THA1NINti 1:11r011nlOttl NC11001. t: 11NI)AR1' Nt'11o00 INNm11`UTR Nitinher I3Utl1 Nunihdr vairnll Ntl lit ber Enroll. ^Rmlier Ptimil- PROVINeR Of selttlt)l8 Mitie 1`e11`itIP S0S014 tit sellonls 111011 tit 8Ci1t1t1I8 111110111 nr mell(wk M0111 At I 'lllydit',,.,,, 20 1 98 1,3118 1 5 0 0 Il 0 ltajjiih.. :12 2 1 A 2,151 1' .'S 0 0 0 0 Al 1111duydith. ISO 12,070 I,Otls 1:1, 138 5 7.12 1 218 1) 0 1111), Of) 5, 1 10 730 8,846 3 2;35 1 58 0 0 111dil 77 5,038 1811 5,525 2 94 0 0 it 0 8 755 ti 7111 it tl 111 0 0 0 an'tt 298 :7 2,57:3 211,9;311 5 1,111111 3 d5: 181 1115 22,71N :1,1.1:3 21!,181 5 I,74�1 1 1111 `3 MA All Yenlcn..,. N:'I 711,954 8,'203 88,21i 22 3 851 li I R 112 +111eltldts fn11r general secondary srllotI6 and ttt'e) tce11111vid sceolldltry sellools, 1.1 Yelllt,ilis "'en sllldying ill IIIv hill1`d ill 197 I, chiefly mider iirivltte linsllives, Although It lurgv nonitwr of the fort,ig,I- educltlell Yvilit`tlis ltre poorly trltioed, dwy rt,prt,svol it vadre of lcrhniritilts oltd 11"MIrllliv s1wei -dists whow skills art` in short sopply, Nonoli `iess, Ilvellllw stutirllis t111road ilre ilwi)ri lhitt lillle or no effort will he nllttie It) rt llivir studies ti) Yvim -lt's Iltlllll)owilr !It`eds or to ltlilim their knowledge, ninny do not relorn to Yelreo; vollselilletllly. dw droill of lillelil is it soriolis probkl Ill, Other fltwtors illeluth, the low Silhlry scldes pr(`vi will ill 'icnlen and disillusioilmelit with politiviI cl millions, Sint, oft those who do return runnot Pint) work, `f'lle fallow of the Yemeni (loverltmelll to meet most of its etha`itionitl golds is lurgt clue to it shorlitgt of funds, As t by the Uniwd Nittions Evotwiniv mid Sochi) Of five 111 Ileiru'., public ('XI)ell()ltilty (111 rtlitoatioli i n I96'r) rvpreseiltet otlly :Z!'r" of loth) governitivul t The hulk of Iht, rtltiva(lim hudgm is llllovilted to sillories wid imthilviiwlee Costs, lellvilig little revt,l)ue for new 3',- ljects, N11101 it( whill is 11(`8' hiss bvvn filiilltet,d by foreign g1vvninivitis or intl`rwitiolltll orliuli?.ittiolts, Tht` 11!1111` prospi'I'Ils Arab countries have provided solsliullitd ilssisttlnce; thus, Kllwltit huilt itlld e(pilplwd tl girls prvpiirutory sl` llool mid it institute itild, ;ilollg with Ilse shvikdonis of i alirltin, `ati)r, lint) Ahll Muthi, griullt'd tilt vtiuivi It'll I of US$r)1)t 0x) for tilt` eslublisl)Iliellt of tilt nlltiolllil Iilllvvrsity Flgypt has provided tetlt`I vrsi and edlleiltiolitil mivisvi's Its well Its Ivythooks, iind titllldi ArilhIit. it� ,r its i9 rt,eoncil ill lit'll evill) (ht, wpithlieltn govvnitti `nt, tillIloillleed illiltis to guild three lendwr- IrltinhiiR ilstilliles, Tho Soviet Union lilts eonstr(t"ted it iwhlie lltimilistril0on lnslitllte, severltl nilititry sehools, ltnd threl` voolitiollill scllllols; the I'vopit` IZeplihliv o f Chinn Iris ilrovided it wcolilhlry voeltlioilid school, The IAAO ltidell in the huildilt9 of lilt uRrieolturall s(volldury school ill 'I WIAZ, inlide(Iltltte school favililies Illld it Sev ern shorio)tt of il`tlChl`rs Ii1Vt) I1ClI)l`tl to nrodut`t` till llemitilllie rnvirolitlivilt jildgt,d olio of tilt poorest ill dw Arlth ;34) r. 1` APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100028 -5 FIGURE 29. Classroom interior, Most schools are crowded and have limited equipment. Students are forced to sit wherever space is available, (C) \r0rld. The 854 schools ;It all lv\els r1�10111rd by the \l ill istry of 1 ?dnoalitln Iu 1r tll t`r;tlilk9 ill 197W'7 I aril ill;ldt`tiu;ll(` for (lit` sllulrnts nu\\ hying vdile ltrd. (:I lssru( ms arr 1.11M ilt`d and possoss litilr ill ihr \\av ill otluipillrllt or Wat�llillg lids (I igul t 29), 1 rn lhr no\vor ,vhiiok lend to hr soillowhaI slimhIlt. F(I o\amlllr. Ilit` \r tiallidah I I ri I I I I rk st`h(;oI, hsilt ill I964 Ilk nst`s iII)Ilru\imaI(AN 300 slutivills in Ni dassrutt111s: hrosusr ill' it shurlagr ill' drsks. 111a11v s016`111s al" 1 to sit t11 Illo flool, H r11110;1st. howt a Ito srh00) in san'a', huill 1w suviot Irrhtlici;Im, is rrliortrdl \\I'll rtltlilpvdt Will has IahonItoI irs. \\orkshtIIIs, ;I gylun ;Is ill In, ;Intl rrololltit,11 r0I111s, I.ow Iris� scales dml 1( it) I� working (v it I IiI it III ha\(` ntatlo tit` Yachting Irol(`ssion 1111400r.10ke ;Intl, it, ;i eta \r(luruor, ft`\\ (plohlit`d 1'r11a`llis h ;tvv l)iut`d Ilhr lrarhing furry, 1'11.1.11) Ioaohrr 1 s art` high; dw 1lliliullal a\t`1�:lgt` fta IIrinlllr\ srhtitON llllriIIg Ihi (964 /70srhiml \r;u \as 1;; I, \\!lilt` in '1'tt'ivr 1 it tip); I. In (lu rffurl 10 irlrrt`asv Ill(` it 11n11wr u!' Iralurd It`(IagOgut`s, Ow rrlul)Ilk' h;ls vsl;lllishrd Ivilelivi training i1whillrs 111 \;Itl'tl 1 Mid ;\I Iludodah ;Intl has lrovidrd s0mr in strvirr Inliuing, In addition, tniiurt`s are firing stilt alruad; ill 1111111, 11 Irarhrr Indilors \t,111�11 rrlmrlyd Ilk ht` I1l(l\ illg ill 18 villinttirs, 1114m thol1 I\\(1-111ink ill h:g\ 111, Since Iho nid. II),ill's, 1'rinrll Ills dept'llh`d till tilht`r It I'll stitlt`s it) slllIIonit`nt its Irarllilig furor� lit 196-1/65., sulnt` I,ti;a I`:g ltillns \\t`rr rrl mrh`d In ho sor\ing ill 38 sr110OIs, and Ihr 1111111h1`r hicrrasrd it) 00 is 1965/66, \lust 011 Hirst trat`hrl's \\ore lid ril \II ;1hor 1967, hill lllan rrtur11t`(I ;Illy\ Ill,, fighting sulsid"(1, lit 1971, I`:g11, sutli \ralIa, I,ih\' l,rh ;111011, S\l'ia, and KIt\\sil 1 Irtlgt`tl a lul ill*r3ti�I lraohrrs for Ihr 1971/712 .schiml \rill I. Anklie ur:j cultural expression (t /OL1) 1'rinrn's rullurill livrilago 11;Itos hack h thr lrr Ishllllir Sobilvalk and Milk val kingdoms� (;0nlrnl 114%nir villttiral v\prrssi0n, Ilowevrr, is lilnilod to Uadiliumll ill rllitrt`lur;ll forms, limidirr;ll't'., I�t,lk lileraluro, ;Ind 11111sir and (hln(`t`, \1'rili11g ilr 111\ nlid- I9-11)`s, tmt` uhser\�I`; dull"tdorilyd 1'r11u`n's rulhlr ;i! Ir\ o1., Irrhals tint ;lirl as "(unllllolrl lnodit`v ;I1.,' Until tht` rrvululiun, 41\di 1h(`t, log ;011(1 lhr hisl0r\ 01 1'r11u`n \\roc` \�irluull\ tht 01111\ suI (`unsitlrrrd \\urth 0f siudh ;Intl, \\!lift` Ihr Il11iuis \\rot` 11 111\ tlislinguishrd rrligitius scholars, n10dc`rn (yarning \\as viltil'ok disoturagvd. 1'111 `rinnrt`, Yrmrti rillrrs rllfurcod slringrilt lsianlir I;I\\s against tho 1 't`IrUllnclit 11 of IlUlllall tll` ;IIIIIIISI ftll'ms ill scillptilrr, 1 ilinlint. ur ulhrr ;01 tills sorluusk iuhihiliug ildislir r\llrssiu11� t onsrllurnll ill Yvillrll as ill lnu(`h ul� Middlo h :asl, ;Ili is rtll filled lit alslraO, gvolnrlriral, ;Intl I'lon) tivsigtls. In grm`ral it is (1l' I11i`di01orr tlu ;llil, ;dllr(11lgh Yvillt`111 I1.` \1.`1'!` Itl;lstt`P sll \clslilltlls, \rohilrrinrt` is lrrlaps, Ihr Imisl dislillolivt` t` \prt`ssi1111 of YvIllt`lli vllllllrvt Ofit`ll highl\ omit(`, ill ;ln ui its hasio fur11s have willilinrd vssrlllisll\ 1111t`11;111grtl 11'11111 (rrlsl11t11h` Illllrs, I ;ll�l\ 1whiblr aro the hall llnusrs, nut fulled ill tIhrr parts ttl' 1111 \rah world, hull arc skl111 hnih \\ilhoul iron tlr t`t Ilrrt`It` slllllltirls, r\rdilit`om lint's ilro golit`nill\ silnlllr ind 1 rollotding Ihr Yollir11is' 111 +lie Ill' o, hnl Ow hr11t`r hutlsr`s Imo Ill 0rmllta`nit'd wlih rlaho';llr g1101110rit` designs, \vuttl rarvilgs, irld rA111 1 011 r \11`riur \rolls, dutir\wNs, amt wintilms 1111), 'SoW I hilihlrl's o\rr) ill llrour(llivr Nilldil mill h'ir1.4's, itlld ary Illilswr designers of lu\111 gardon rn11rls, miilly wlih I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100028 -5 The MOM IIles of IIiglllluill Yt,nlen art, hasieaII sit kIilur ill ttl't�iIilrt�IM'td SIvly to 1110se tlf Ill rtherlI :\rabia, althuragh several in TIC ii.i. IIIld tiara';' rel1eel i'urco- li\i;11rlinr i ill htrnc�rs. \lust liltlstlut,s eottai11 a ernI1'.k clu -it ra11galar eourt\ ;lyd sllrnitIIt lrtI h\ ;oeadc s mid slt�lid(�r, uel;lgon shalx d nlin;lrets, oI to\\t,rs. In sotne of tluv older %.10i tnostlues in sall'a Iliv luinarrl is relined b\ a Small raetal tiurr, rt,Int'seutativv of lht, duet, which \\arm d tilt, Pmllhrl in lil11t, of Ila17gor, Ruth rxtrlior ;old inlrrior o1�11aust,ntaIio11 is gt,raerall\ ronhilt -d to ralli4rulI1 and geunu felt, drsiglls. Ill the poul'Xr illages, nuls(lurs ufirn h ;\r no Minarets mid litho, if ;In\, clrror;ttiou, Yetlit�n hits Iulig brt,11 kno\\ 11 fur the eset,ll('lket, ill its (1;Ild it r;ll'ls, including j(raelry, Ival it r \\ork, V 111 lroi( lcr\ Migrate ,iI car11c1itItIkiIIgI tlnd gold and sil\III \\tlrk; tut lo\\ of Xabid and \o. Za\di\till ltrr noted fur th +it, \\c11\iug, {lundiel;tll traditions, ho\\r\(v, ;1rt d illg in lhr filer of foreign eunllwlitioll ;1nd the rnligialion of skilict jt ish ;Irlisaits to Isracl. aassieal lill'I'Ai1re, om of Ihr great nluMl lilt-lit s of :\1'ab ei\ili /ation, eontaitl, signifivalit eullirihnliuns front 1'rint,ni \\rilrrs, both {Ire- Islaillieand Islanie. Of prv- Iaar1ie \\orks, poet(\ willaills the must crnhuing form, 1'cl11t,ni llrhlty. InlrMl al \\fill li\cd in the skill ce11lur\, \\as ulster of elassical \ersr and produet,d our of !ht, most I'aualus Ile(�- Islallir uties, a \\ol'k \\hieh e41111innes to hr ricilcd lhroaghu0l tilt \rab \\odd, \1tich of tilt grral \rab Islatllie liter t1111rc \\hieh dt olllsidt of :\rahia, 11410it�n1;111\ in FIGURE 30. Exterior of an ancient house In Dhamar, displaying geo� metric designs on friezes and window arches. Now the fortress- like construction of the ground floor, WOU) Baghdad and Dalll,�INells, as iuflaeneed b\ these ri(rl \erne for111s, In 111odt�rll 1'rin(�n, pot -1r\ ztppv;tls lu ;dl It,\vk of soeietj ;ud is all illipoll ;1111 osllrel (It soeia) lift and errt,nUMy, YvIlirll is rich ill unl)uhlishrd alllhollail'N ((fill'(111s) 111 e41110(lnitd ;Intl l'l;ls >il`al \'el'se; bash� thollivs runrt�111 lo\r, ht,douill illid \inapt, life. and Murals. ;11u111, \\ilh formal prose ;knit speech {nlrtI'\ is ir\\ed Il .-\runs getivniIIy ;t, Ihr highest Itnill of all. 'I'ht, ullilil\ to list highly sllizvd ;krabiv is eonsidrrt,d It M1ljur sori'd asset, hilt, 1111� skilll11) lase of lalguagt is a \,Ilrat, in itself. lul;tir hods' of indig(�uous IIMSt, \\u1k e\isls, of which 1111111\ \'(lllnlles \\ere llrodlteed before Ills 13111 et,rlt11r ;Intl dealt \\ith (slanlir fhrolog\ ;nd lht histor\ of 1'rinr;l. eousiderlhlr anluult of 111rological liti \vas \\ritwil ill tilt 10111 1M1 I Itit (�rnlurirs by Ihr ki(Ii,, nalell of it just tlo\\ beginning Itl be sl till it'd "it It It( lugh Milne IuiIniIk(I )it it :111hiraI \\urks \\r1'r lu� ill 11wed ;dolig \\it11 Yviliv i 11istories, Ihr\ ;Ile of (it JUhtfill li lent l\ 111 reee11I erll(II t wrc has IwulI trot( err ;(Ikv Irosr lAllrrssion, tiled of i1 (mini; eu111r1t,11(ur ell tII(II r Iheult)girul ;11uf Iisttlrit'.I \11n'ks. In i9'Z), II11 ;1111 l 11 1 ftlllllde(1 the lihrar\ of Ihr Great \lustlnc ill ti;lll' ;1 but its rrllorlrd \,Ihl11l(IN ;or IinlitI large!\ to II wit II 11lurausrl�illls, \s in luau\ rolintrics \\itll a high late of iIhlrl ;c(�\ ;Ind 11 Ilaueit\ 411' rrcordrd li1rn11Mr, )mice has -I rich 01111 Irmlitioll, stur\trllrrs, rnlllhasiring pious, kol,d\, o!� Irroie tllrnles, err popillal throughout the cocnllr\. In some arras of solllh(�rll 1't,l111 for t,\anlple� lhcsr APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100028 -5 FIGURE 31. Silver jewelry worn by bodouins (U /OU) \tntit', inellnl I,lil\ I :III ,'lllttllit I". ;,ntl Ilml.11 ;IIIIIil11ll\, ;1 \IIl 1 (1111;111 \III itII%1' 1 tell ItIt`,11 I' IIsIIltII", ,11111 ntI1III' 1'1111, \trill,', 11{ \111 \1111; tlit t' \1 ill IIIII11;1\tI 111 1 1 \.1111 \1h` \111(1,1` ll \IIIti1U1;\ ;11111 111( li`IIt11ldi'd, ;Ill' 1 ,11111 ,tn' (11111 11111"11\ II\ IelilI i1t' I4.1\ 1(`I lt'1, \Ilt11l1r'1 1,1 \11111 i' Illlli'II IIlitit IC, II\ t'1111t�rlll. 1111' r \I III it I ul ti;l 11111 IJ11 l,lr;lln, Jill t1t111`dell 1' 111 \;file 111 (111` 11II I 1'1,1 \It r` \11`11 lit oil\ Ill Ilitt\1`Ill, it it It lltl\ Ilui Ilot`ll \I`lI 111 \I IYlll,lII" 1111(' (lliltl A IIII lilt i\ kill I \11 it ('t111111, ;Ili` 1 '(Illlnlull t1ilUIIt;Jltllli 1111 .1,111 \lrllltl \IIItItI1111; Ill I111/,Illul;lt, Ilit IIIi1,I 11 (1111111, 1It'I'I,IIII lu ItI 11111111/ 111(1 Ii11'�II1;1, It`1111111I1t111, 1I; IIIIIII1` ,11111 .ell 11 \11;11111, Mid (III IIIII\ t f IIIIIIII "'NoII\ I:11it11 \1(l,l 11`ulrni 111 \(`111,, Ill, 'I1 Iunl,n11 it \\aIIIIII 1,u tll Iit'tllIII \l lit) ,11111t`,II Itl III II'IllltI I)I;i111,i11I ;111 I IIIit11' \ilk 11 lilt I, Ills` 1 Ili I"I Icillll11oll (111111 I, ;I Itintl 111 I'lltlt'll ,Intl Jlitl\ ,lIII I;IIIIt1 4(11a!;() (11I;1i`k t' \i',!, t` \I111`n1I\ II1I111t11iccd II\ IIit 111111 I tit` \1'1111 tII11II, II III tI (11,11 1111111111 \I I11,1 \III` 1:11"111 (1110111; tilt' Illl,llll;lli` Jill (111` 11t`llt'lit III Ills' Im'd 1;111111\ \1'1111 1111 ;1 1;11.1 1 IJII,1 \1'11` lllll,lll'l1ll\ i'(tllllt' Illl,iull, Ill \IIIIJI ;11'1111\ IIi111111I IJIt'll' 11111`., 1 U`IIi111111tI ;Illlli ;Illllr',, ;11111 Illlllllt`It111 lIt11Jl 1111111`1 ;11111 Ili \11`1 II,1 �I, I it lit` 1 1,111) 11 ;tlltllll II111`111 n111 1 lit` (I \1 JIt Jim I Illtlied II n'lltll1 ;1 1111111111`1 Ill 111 \II'\I lilt ill, 1IIIUIII; 1111' 1`11111111\ III;IIt\ IIIIIt \Illlll,lIiI\ I ,till III 1' \1 \I Iwt\\I`rll Ilse ll,lllntill\ I11 111111` \t lilt It \1:1111 ;111 11111;, otill (111' h i'l1111 IIII1 \11;1`li;i (\,111 \It 11'1;1(111. \111,11' 11i 111 11111,111 mew" htmc\ t`1 11Mel\ little III till that Ill \1';1111;111 Ili\\its III 1;IIIII;iI. \111,11 111111 It\ illtllt`C> I istl,ill\ t'IIAlat'It'1'IN'lJ 11\ ,1 l\ 1111' 1 t1I Illt`Illilli`\, 1\111111 1111 I IIt` ;rI1Nr1, 111111 Jllll;lli`nlI\ I, ,I Li lit I Ill IIItl11i111111t11i\ l`li;lltl l 1111;111\ Illllllil\ I,Id ll\ lilt` 111`Iltlllllt`l, Illli (lilt", II111 1ullu 111\ III,11 1111 (livill\ ill I(i11111(I,Itlow \I hlJlllll 111111 I I' 1,1; 1111 i 1 midt`I tI\ el (;111;1` I I I I, 1 (el !11111 lh`Ililf 1111111 lilt IJJ;14;t` ,IIItllenli`, 11111;, APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100028 -5 Wit 11(1Nk w Im tIvnis ;Inc) intricate I'vel and hiil tllt\'t`IM4,Is. N1vII ;Ire nut itIlt\t`cl to walcll, I list niine is used (or aru llip;tilinlrnt of 1)utll so,Igs and dmices urt` usuuli\ sintpit� 1l111es, drutus, ;and talli ourinl's, Ilse Ivarlied 1\ cur, the\ are usually short, \\ill Simple ellythnue Illr;tses, (,ove sons;s, t,speciilll utnortuls folk tours, ;Ire popular; forhiciden Burins; the (ulilltiatt`, 1111`\' held to h' Sans; ill striet st I3eli;iolls sillgins; (china diiti l it)\\ t,\ rl, ;ts rticour;l} rcl, I'hr inr;nalutit11 of Ihr Korml (NJI1 itiokes speei;tl stnd' Itild is importlult tit frs6vills okid c'rrnionirs, 11111 Yvili `ilk art` Sllid lit)( it t`xeC`) ill this, Other 11111\ietll forms i1witide lhr eiu�a\;til sonar (Motu) ;tiid lilt c'hantilig of I,orlr\� (inAtith, (:loser� asstchiletl \011 folk imsic is elunrinst, hieh ;Ilsll ilki`Ilrretl tilt' (111 ;im CliStlppltW;k Stlt,ill) ti1111ei111r IRI 111, \\estt'1'll sells, is not ut'eeptlihle, and Illt`II 111111 \\'0111( tit) not thilive 111geIiat'1�, ('talk daliv `s \'al� \\illt Irihe tltid villiigv, 'I'rihul s\\�otti dllncr\ ;tie ct)nutioll. II1111Y t`t111IlasiV1119 Irrt'Itl Spl'Vd Mill lclioti, ;1t`eortlitig it) kill ohsrrver, Ihr t.latiec�r "spins roust) 1141 rotilld beating it furious mt,usm'e with his feet, lil'tilll; his km`c's almost lu Ihr It'vvi of his chest, and twit -ling his dagger ill his lultieL" "ll simple (tulle' ilnititivs vilritns mo\rlti'nls of the hors', W 11111vil ill gnillps of folal' vighl often dkitier during orditikiri sildill urrlsirnl\; Illest` d'ttiet'S rlllploy rh\Ihmie, ildvaner-lln.11- J. Public informutimi (U /0U) I'he developul" "1 ol coilll till it,atiills Illedia in 1'elnrn lits let` I, slow, \\'idesprvad illiteracy has Irrn ;1 factor retarding the growth (if' a nt`\\ and puhli1-hitt9 indtistr\, atitl relit low, otinsvrvatisin p4renit`(I iht iIItrod let ititI of radios ;old ulutiutt pielures, ;t( lead for Hills( cI' Ill(. Iopul;Ni.m, utltil Ilse` rt`\�ulntit'll, Most info mititm is still tl ilafornutllr I, \\urd of nultilh, usuall\ ;It nustlue\, euffr't,llouses, or nl:trkt`Is. Printed India rt`ln;till prinlit' 'Mid 11a\�e inclined lo\ranl 'nnlliou;11, ;ulli \\'rslrril pt)lemic S, p;lrlicu1,11-k dt,Hlli the period of I`g pliuti inlervviaion, Yemen's first indoor rlaulion picture theater \\,is opened it, itlli�1; ;I( I1'esrnt, ;t Ir\\ Illt`litt`ts� till )stI\ opell� ;Iil' t;11therilig places 1�01 ill the plain citit's, ;Intl ntltile film linita are living seal to lilt, \ill;tttes, \el�011fiil9 1t) file Vnited Naliotts, l,ti itiillirni 1'rnarni\ utletitlt,d these fueilities ill 1965, htll this fis,lue, hiell na ;I) ilu`!ud' those ho viewed short film rlilS, upp' ;Irs to h' high, Y'lneu h;l\ tit) teic`viLion; in Fehrltur\- 1972, ho \\r\er, an jIgreenletil \\';IS sighed \011 ki rt'neh c(lnlp;ln to NO ill) 1 station in tian';1' ;nul, ill \11401 1972, grouitd broken I'm lilt hilildint;, O((ers to collstruc�t ;additional tele\ isioll fleilitieS h ;t\r been ulad' h\ the ao\rrnnu'nts ul'; \hit IAhahi and Wv%t (wrimiit Iladiu is the likost i ill poll ;tilt of Ihr fonnul t'1IllllllltlieatioRls lllelfi ;l, V111il ;Iht)tit 1940, ho \'evvr, o\rm'rShip of' .1 radio is foriidclrn, and reeei\ors \\ere 1`1"`1 from ptillie pliers until the 1462 rovolution. Dilrilig tilt` 1950'x, 1111 \t 1� ;Itlio st`ls \t`I�t' t) \1'Itt`d h Iht` Inlaln, his f;ltnik, nild it fvwdistriet offieills, lid 19ti.1, aceortlilig to eslimltles of the (',S, IIkI lit Ii Ill \};em's Ihr nlmah'r of radio sets had reached 8,1NN) or IlppitW11141tel, pet I,t I0 population, Since that Iim', Irllnsislor radius imported frttil .1lin"tt) (I;igIIre ,313) IIZI\r }w e att\� \ptmded the rkidio;tittliellct`, lull the numlr1 of sets 1\;til;llilt is rotlghl\ esIimaird tit Most recehrrs ;n loc;tted in urkml iti pllrlienlarl inti ul' il' aluf' 1' 1 'iv,x,11u1 11'tlllsisIorst, Isilrt` ItIltll) t` \'t'll 111 1't`tllllll` '111;1sr1`S, IIrs1 1'1ltlio St;ltillll, limlio SiI11'a It`Irltll It itldellsl11Ig ill 141.111, 1isiIIg ;1 \111 1 all\ IIIIIv1� dtu1111ed by Ills` I'IIiImI SI "IIts, OIleralitIll\ \1`It` e\pandetI in the 1950 S, in pit II to cotmtel'tO proll"Igmida frolll Ihr rt,\t)lutiomtr\ \rah Stales, hul I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100028 -5 FIGURE 32. Minstrels using typical instruments, Songs usually are short and the rhythmic accompaniment Improvised, (U /OU) traslstnission \\as kdvetivIv affected qty ivade(111mv tv(luipnu'rll, nlilUnlal soundpnofing in lilt studios, anti an irregular po\\er \appfly, linlzah�asting tvtntelll wws limited by the small, ill- tr;lilre'd program staff b\ the lack of It fixed amlaal budget, After the rt''olulioa, ilil fortes of public media \'en' ialacrd under forimil govvninient contni Rurlio Suu'u', officially klltrvn as lilt Yotti id Arab Republic Broadcilsl staliou, \vas iMilelled to lilt Millistry of Information, Ii' 1)(iE, Ihr'ni Br(zulcastilg Authority, la'ilded b\' it director general, lrld heel( eslablisheti, but little hilpn'ralent in ti stzllioll st.enls to slave been iu-Illeved, lit the words of ;,ill observer, "clutter, det'a', and t'hao\" \'err its "domimalt chararterislics.' AIthougl ihr stzlff ItuillIw1't'tI zkbotlt till, most \'err \\itltollt forma) training ill broudcztsting operaliolls, To treet lilt acrd for skilicd personnvi, it radio trilinirlg institute as e\tablished ill smi ;tlld I'.g'ptimI v \pt'1'Is \'t,n' re\- ruitecl a\ histrac'lors, Nonetheless, prograrr renlithwd na'dioclr, and tilt deficient po\rrr supple colllinard to resIII( ill fretl it III disl,aption lit' br\adcasls, Tht volldiliotls cur' Ielitwt -d still to pn''ililt its it IvstllL ;111(1 bvelillsv liveplita ill v4lriolls ilarls of the cemalry is poor, many 1'ent'nis reportedly listeli n'gularly to fomigli broadcasts., iltclittllrlg those of the British BromIt'llstilig Corponitioll, lintho 1SIVIel, ladle Cailr, otld liurlir Atoxctt', As oC MTN, N(4(lir sun',' blradcastillg Croat \lalions located in `ilrl'il lald 'I`a'izz, In No'elliber 1972 the `+ol'a' Dolrlestit service, operating \\lilt thret' trzulsulittel,\ \\its oil the all thlily (null M to M05 and flul 1 IUII to 2',00, ll cal lime, All pniq am\, inc'ladiag nr\vs reports offers'd st'vell liners a da\, \\err illuldczkst iu Arabic, Prior to the \vilh(bil\\;11 of its fon't's ill 196 Itigyptiau infiut'mv over 11otho `ut'a' wits pervasive, \lost ne\ \s originated in the Middle Ew.4 News :Agency (?III' :NA) in Cain), and other pngraming lwavily dependent ou it I,(NX) t1IIw library supplied to the station, primarily h\ 1 ':gyp tian authorities. Newspaper, have experienved zln v\trvmel' limited cin-ulati(m, possibly reaviling less than IM of the population, The fir\t poblit-Miorl a go\ernmt.nt edited ae\vsslleel th ;It appeuretl in 18 6. hilt it probably \\t'IIt out of existent.e after the 'Turkish aitlall,arval A svvontl nt.\vssht.t't, :11- 1rartl (1 ;kith), begun in i926 appearing sporadically ill its e;krly years, By 10.18, it had developed into it four pa g e Monthly pzsper t- emtaining, in ;uidilioll to occilsiolatl articles I y tilt. Ilnarll, information ou the Imatll's uudieatY's, ;11111Illlt.elnenl\ t11 govvnittiellt apleUlll- nit.nls and transfeiN, the wiltvr;ahouls of ,I notables, ;kild other (oezll new" It ;lino published the t(-\t\ of tre4ities, its well a\ tn Islamic' anti literary topics, In 19.11, vircul;tion \\-,Is estim;ted ill about 3 0NI, mainly mvitil ers of the lnlilnl f ;lrllil' and govenanent ofllviikk� lu Ihr ni(1 il)�Il)'\, (till' lwo pthiling passes, both in S-kWi', wt re reported ill flit vimlilr\, one for the publication of Al horn, the other for use by the Ministry of I'Ativatioll for printlikg rerlifiratrs, diplomas, and, hater, ho\%vvel, t\'o Impt'ls -�.the official Illlafllie shut :11 Nosr \'ictor') and Saba, which colfillcd itself to povtr\ glad e'lllogiesM- vry prillit'd ill '1`;1'iz7, indit ntiill, additional presst's, Folr'igil paper., magazines, anti hooks wryly vitivred the coutllr, rxrrpl on a clzlIIdt'sline basis, In 19 the Aden based A I- ,1a1itlynI AI- Ya mall iyut A/ -KOwn ((;raid Yt \\\teiallon) t stnblislit'd all illlt0'illl'il lit' \sp. Sato :11- Yutri i \voice of Yvlllvl \\hicll llul\ have bud solar virctllilliou illsitlr Yemru, After tilt revolution, the rt'pnbliczln goverrinlerll contilued to publish ;m official gazelle, illimilured se'e'r,) dztily will \\eekly ae\v\popvrs, zind c're;ltccl the Saba Nt'\\s Agency in 1!)711, A(v'ortiing to tilt Miuistl\ of Information, the following d;lilit's \\err pliblishiag in 1)17(1; Al- Thalr' 'ul (The Ilevolutiotl). it `mi Ill` \1ImI1t'r, and ,11 lunliu Yttul (Tilt lieplsbliv), a Tii'izz. ,iollnull, both wlilt estimkllcd rilrul;llfou\ ill :11- S110611) ('i'hr i'roplrl, Al- s tibalt 0 Morldlg), and ;11-liimlah t'i'ke Nlvssage), all ril,caiatillg rtnlgll!> 'I vopies; :aid Al- 'I'll ltul rth (The I "ors), \rills it cin'ulalioll of ?,U 4 lit 197'- the kiln'' most imporliu1 dililit.\, as mprnrled b\ it go'rl,nmi'nl s1tlkrsulan, \'err Al.Thalcl(dl, :11- ,11#11 ull-ittuh, and Ab'11110p z +1, Une \tall AI- N'ahthih (The 1'niou), cil,culatillg 10N) i\\uc's, \\as APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100028 -5 FIGURE 33. Yemoni listens to news from San'a' on Japanese -made transistor radio (U /OU) publishitl); ill 1970, and ill mid -1972 aulother weekly, AI- Milfld (The COkInlr�) was appearing in Saai u'. In alddition, it military magazille castled Majollfal AI- jaysh (Arm\ Magazine), has reeenily bt 1111blicaltion. Likewise, no information is available on other perlotheah that acre possibly beirl); published. All uewspapen art Controlled by the Ministry of Information, and fon`igtt ,fourths must be licensed. Follow�itl); the Inlamit, praetive, netts i ".lPis were, at least initially, written aand published'N' i,i republivaul govertum`nt. For it while. Cohltx., wars strongly influenced by Akh bar AI Yuman (News of Yemen), a San'a' dally published ill tilt' mitt 1460's auld written Fgyptia n advisers ill the` Ministry of Information, Ntattly mews articles a n` simply it whatsh of Radio Sfln'd nut's programs, In addition, the S'ehlt`h press has used reports from MENA, PASS, the Novosti Press A ener, and the New Chinas Netts Ageney, all of w'hlCh have representatives In tilt` eltltltry. Befo the enrta ilment o U,S, atrtivities ill 1't,roetl ill 14x47, tale Ta'ize. rlewspapen, oCCasiemullly carried items produced b\ the U8 Information Service-, Although govern- nlent restrictions oil publicatiols nuty havedeer`ased, under a I$HiS press law editors may be Convicted and jailt,d for "itflanling tribalism or sectarianism." In addition, Imbliviltion of at newspaper or periodical n1ay be baumed, as wars the case with AI iiuyyal Ail ,laaliduh (Thl` New i.ife), which was orfemd to tease publieation becaluse of pro-Commumist views allt,gedly e\pressed in its editorials. Rook publishii; has Inativ little if ant� progwss. I)tlrilig the 19 12 4.1 period, reportedly' mo mow than 30 books" vver` published err Yehlem, Ill 1966, there wen� apt ar�mlly o nly font prinlitkg presses in the evulnlry, two (it tilt g from lnulmic tithes, one of \'rsl Cwrttl m malllllfilettlr� ill lived of 1t`liilir, atilti title, it gift from the People's llepublic of Chinal, \%hiell was still vraited, The govermmemt itplroved the eslablishmemt of the Yvnit`hi 1'rimtin; will 1'ublishind Company in 1970( but this step is tmlikely to have arm immediate impact. Ill the 11141-1940"", lilt\ one bookshop was reported ill lilt` entire vo mltry, l,ocatted ill \I lludalydah mid owlled by lilt 111diatm Ntlhll111, the stun� imported a fete hooks printed In h:);s'pt anti Indit, TelepholIP servive, although extremely limited, has be);tml to provide imlportartl vommumleallfoms links w'ithill Ye`1 vii, AN late its 1948, toll\' Ulm` Idephom, lime` e\Wvd, which wits sulplied by the for the vwltisive nit` of lilt Ilmaml. In 1951, Til,11,z had it stmaU system with IS numbers, Ilmd the Inlamm was evulsideritig tilt lllstalllalioll of a dial systeml. Chlly tllr`e vities Ilml lelepholm` swrvive in 1961 `+am'1k' with a 5(H)�mmmlber ewhatigv, hid At Ilmdaydalh aid Ta'ivz, vaeh with it 21N)- number tie(work. 1n 1970, I,l)t)U- number ewhan vs wen beilig installed ill both Tal'izz and Al Iludaydah, and a 2AW- uumbersystem in San'a'. Eight other Cities also had telephone eVchanges which wen- in opertliom or were being installed. The� first domestic votineetion betweell c�ilit-s w�as opt,nrd in 1970 between Ta'izz and At Ilutiaydaah, followed b\- a telephone` and telex link between Salrn'a' and At Iluda\'dah. Long distanct, service was initiated in Itki�1 helwet,n Sall'at ahel pair, and in 14)41) plains were under way to lie Yemmen ihtl It world cvnumunirations systrnl. In januur} 14)71, lilt number of telephones ill the oomitry was vstiuuated at 3.550, or about 11.14 sets per 1,(XX) people. K. Selected bibliography (U /OU) Noah, Kathryn Dohert.v, "Yemen: Modernixallion and Intervention." A paper presemled to tilt Seemed Auntial Convention of tilt Middle 1 ?ass Stmtl+ps welatioti, held in Austin, 'I'evls, kilt 15. 16 November 19(K Ili pp, A somewhat tlleorelivaal pmst,ntact its voliverldlig the r`lattionship betw'eell tutldt`rlllJalt,ull, civil war, and Egyptian intervention. Itrtt il, William It. "The Yemeni t)ilt The .fiddly Fast IfDfllYtf1, von. 17, pp, 414)- :iti;, \ulunu 1963, A thorough exanlimation kit' tilt prI )Iehls ccafrnthig mpnblicaul Yemen. C:oolt, C itrfeton S, "Southern ;\rabic; A Problem for tilt' 1' liture, Nludin tit tilt- AnlllfYgw1ogy nl Q)etwwa unfl Asin, rapers of the 1eabotly Ntuseklm ofArmeriean Awlie(,logy ;ind Ethmolotty, lltlrvaill University, vol, 2 0. pp, i ti7 -21 14)�6 Ill hides it provocative t`\almillalliltll of Yenlelli vultural patlerlts, t` uplulsiAlig lilt` volitimuity betwet`m modern `etm`m told the im Islaumic elllpict's, C aorta tlal, i dles N. The Yo nelli ('dais, Laos Atigvles; Institute of Inlrrnatiolud aid Fowiglk Affairs, t'ldvel :sit of l.,aliforlifa, 14)(4;4. Alt im t of the civil wtuv, with special referetlt`e to U.S, itivolvt`Imt`tit, l\ a former U,S, Clamgv d'Affaires to Yemeni. Fo Clatldie Frenrlt Donor in dw Yenfwt, Traulsinted Its Douglas Nlcwer, I,omdola Robert liatle, 195 All eweptimially inter`stilkg, almec`dltall aveoout elf tilt author t`xpe`I'It`llt`t's its a (lootor in Ywlletl from 1951 to tmid-1952, Cohltlirls hlalky ob servations kill social lift Imltl eustohs, C;erlikell, ltivilaml I talks, f'if�111n s title Yenll -n, (,oil zig, 14161. The lest pivtoriai stttd\' oll Yemeni, wail it short teal, Ilelfritz, Hams, Tht- Yotimv A See�wt jouYtf`y. Trahslalted bN N1, liertl, Lomlow,, Cworgv Allem'kill IS t r� Y^ i +.M:ti,HyA1Gi'+ >YWIth�i�Nf:iro, nl.. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100028 -5 1111win, 19i8, Cood description of Yemen's trudiliotmal soeietY, based on a journey in wax), I1eywtarth 1)tinnr, Jaelnes, ;.timd A/- Yellien: ;1 C:rnrrccl Scx iul, Pulitiewl a Finamnic� Stimey, Catint; Rettaissaumcr &)okshop. 111,13, A hrtual, witle- ninging discussion of Yetnrni life. 111grams, 1141r1l(C The Yenien: lnicins, lildera and 11"alatiuls, London: john \lurrar. I1)ti.i. 1 disew.siotl of the recent ptclitivid siluatior, Al Irani, Karim, "l.ltl '1'enitligntege stir le Yemen: Scici"It' de ht Trilm des Ilashitl," Ettxle des Olkers de Mrit -al C.untrrtlpurriin, pp. 3 -8, April 11M, A short, interesting Illonogr iph on the social orl,ani..atiou of the 1 iashid tribes, Mar�c, Eric, Y011en and the Westem il'urdd Situ r 1577 New fork: Frederick A, I'meger, 1968, A good discussion of )'mien's relations with 1� urlpe, Satid El Altar, Mohaune�d. I.c Staus 1)re r�luplc rn of Emnuniclae rf Scx�ial cdti Yeira, Alger: Tier` xlloudr, Il)(i�t, (:untaiins useful iulor!m)ulit +n eo tiring patterns prior to t11e mroltltion atlltl civil %ear. Schilki(it, I)aula Adams, 1'etirr, The Unknown War, New fork: llolt, Rinehart ant! \'ill, INtiti. Au acvoulmt of the eiril \ith rui)hatsis on tribal Walrfare, from a t prlroi�atlist Ixlint of rie\r, Sona�rville- Large, Peter, I'dhr�s aild I'liblilations:.1 ,/)r in Rep ublirYin )'rmt�ti, hoodoo: Robert Ilatlr. 11167, Inter�ating imprt�ssions of au) Irish jotirnalist shortly after tilt, rt�rolution, \\'ellner, Manfred W. ,1ladt Yrnirn liltl- Itlf Baltimore The J01211s Ilopkins Press, 1116;, 'I'ht best scholarly ac�eotirlt of 1'enit4t's rMT111 political history, With some r�fer to social pr!)leius, :daces and features referred to in the General Survey (U/ 0U) rtlunlal,rFZa hirsll, 1'rnu n ;.Wok) l I ;t7 Alwc% na au`(tti, II llti I.' 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