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NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY PUBLICATIONS The basic unit of the NIS is the General Survey, which is now published in a bound -by- chapter format so Mat topics of greater per ishability can be updated on an individual bosis. These chapters� Country Profile, The Society, Government and Politics, The Economy, Military Geog- raphy, Transportation and Telecommunications, Armed Forces, Science, and Intelligence and Security, provide the primary NIS coverage. Some chapters, particularly Science and Intelligence and Security, that are not pertinent to all countries, ara produced selectively. For small countries requiring only minimal NIS treatment, the General Survey coverage may be bound into one volume. Supplementing the General Survey is the NIS Basic Intelligence Fact book, a read reference publication that semiannual) updates ke Y P Y P Y sta- tistical data found in the Survey. An unclassified edition of the factbook omits some details on the economy, the defense forces, and the intelligence and security organizations. Although detailed sections on many topics were part of the NIS Program, production of these sections has been phased out. Those pre- viously produced will continue to be available as long as the major portion of the study is considered valid. A quarterly listing of all active NIS units is published in the Inventory of Available NIS Publications, which is also bound into the concurrent classified Factbook. The Inventory lists all NIS units by area name and number and includes classification and date of issue; it thus facilitates the ordering of NIS units as well as their filing, cataloging, and utilization. Initial dissemination, additional copies of NIS units, or separate chapters of the General Surve; s can be obtained directly or through liaison channels from the Central Intelligence Agency. I i The General Survey is prepared for the NIS by the Centro! Intelligence Agency and the Defense Intelligence Agency under the general direction of the NIS Committee. It is coordinated, edited, published, and dissemi- nated by the Central Intelligence Agency. i F. `i j WARNINC This document contains information affecting the national defense of the United States, within the meaning of title 18, sections 793 and 794 of the US code, as amended, Its transmission or revelation of Its contents to or receipt by an unauthorized person is prohibited by law. CLASSIFIED BY 019641. EXEMPT FROM GENERAL DECLASSIFI� CATION SCHEDULE OF E. O. 11632 EXEMPTION CATEGORIES SB (1), (2), (3). DECLASSIFIED ONLY ON APPROVAL OF THE DIRECTOR OF CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE. i f f f i'..u.+ew...wnw.r r.. uu,+. nva.... n,....... �.,.........r......- APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100030 -2 WARNING i The NIS is National Intelligence and may not be re- leased or shown to representatives of any foreign govern- ment or international body except by specific authorization of the Director of Central Intelligence in accordance with the provisions of National Security Council Intelligence Di- rective No. 1. For NIS containing unclassified material, however, the portions so marked may be made available for official pur- ports to foreign nationals and nongovernment personnel provided no attribution is made to National Intelligence or the National Intelligence Survey. Subsections and graphics are individually classified according to content. Classification /control designa- tions are: (U /OU) Unclassified /For Official Use Only (C) Confidential (S) Secret APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100030 -2 This chapter was prepared for the NIS by the Defense Intelligence Agency and includes a con- tribution on airfields from the Defense Mapping Agency, Aerospace Center. Research was substan- tially completed by January 1973. 4 YEMEN (SAWAY) CONTENTS This General Survey supersedes the one dated June 1970, copies of which should be destroyed. A. Summary 1 1. Systems 1 Transportation and telecommunication sys- tems inadequate to serve requirements of the country; administrative agencies and develop- ment projects. 2. Strategic mobility 1 Limitations of highways for military use; no railroads or merchant marine; few harbors; significance of air facilities; poor telecommu- nications. B. Highways 3 Extent and salient features of the sparse highway network; international connections; administra- tion; development and maintenance; future plans; freight transport and vehicle inventory. CONFIDENTIAL APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100030 -2 Page P age C. ports 4 E. Airfields 9 Three major ports and two minor; tabulation of Air facilities and adequacy; characteristics of the characteristics of major ports. eight selected airfields. ID. Civil air F. Telecommunications 10 9 Meager system based on old wire lines built by Significance of civil air service; the national air- the Turks; principal center, San'a'; adminisSra- line, Yemen Airways Corporation; aircraft; per- tion; radio telecommunication; telephone; 'AM sonnel; administration. station; equipment all imported; future aid. FIGURES Fig. 1 Mountainous portion of San'a Al Page Fig. 7 Port of Al Hudaydah photo) Page 7 Hudaydah road photo) 2 Fig. 2 Bituminous highway west of San'a' Fig. 8 Cargo loading facilities, Al Huday- (photo) 2 don (photo) 7 Fig. 3 Gravel segment, Ta'izz to San'a' Fig. 9 Major ports table) 8 Fig. 4 road photo) Desert track north of Al Hudaydah 3 Fig. 10 Selected airfields table) 10 photo) 3 Fig. 11 General telecommunications pat Fig. S Selected highways table) 5 tern map) 11 Fig. 6 Port and airfield, Al Hudaydah Fig. 12 Terrain and transportation photo) 8 map) follows 11 ii tt i i' E f f s I T ;potation A. Summary (C) 1. Systems Transporfation a l(I telec�onuntmic'atiom (teleCOnI) if' the Yemen Arab Republic� (Y.A.R.) are minimal and are ii)tdCCpuate to serve the country *s requirements. TIf(! roads are the sole "cans of surface transport: there are no railroads, pipelines, or navigable. inland waterways (Figure 12, the Inap at the end of the chapter). Al Iluclavdxh, the 1Cacling port, is the only mariti facility that has alongside acccomm odatioll s for oceangoing vessels, lCnu n has no merchant marine and only lilnitcd civil aviation facilities. Beasts of burden, especially Camels, provide transport in neatly areas served only by trails and tracks. The lack of roads Icas IIiif clered the dcvClopnu'nt of agricultural areas, impeded trade, and nladC the distribution of commodities to isolated towns and villages difficult. 'Transportation is the responsibilih of the Ministry of Works. Projects for improving transportation include con Ruction of nc w Telec c a o 4 .a roads from %uhran (Saudi At;Ibia) to Sa'duh; and bilnminous snrfac�ing of the S ;ul'a' to Ta'ii�r. road. The 1)1(1agr,r lelecomlnunication, system consists of intercity service proyicicd mainly Icy all anticpuated open wire telegraph network supplenentCd by higil- f point to -point radiotelegraph stations. A new high- frcapuenc' transmitter at Satt'a' t carries telephone alld teleprinter messag('s into the worldwide C lbIC and \Fireless, IAd, net via Aden and the satellite ground station al Bahrain. T11C Ministry of Commnnicatiolls controls tcleconucuniactions radiobroadcasting is operated by the Yemeni Broadcasting Authorih- 2. Strategic mobility 'I'lle supply and movement of military forces in Yellivil wc.;tld be greatly impeded by the, poor land transportation system. 'There an. no railroads, and the 'For diacritics on place names see the NO of names nn the apnar of the 'Terrain and 'Transportation map, the neap itself, and the uml, in the le.el. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP0l- 00707R000200100030 -2 highway nehyork could not support sustained military ttovetnenl. A severe lack of surfaced highways and suitable alt�rt:ate routes and the extreme!% rugged terrain make land novetnent very difficult. Lacking a merchant marine, Yetnerl would have to rely on the leasing of slips or other assistance� to provide for any seaborne supply oimrations. The coastline has few harbors, and onlc the port of Al INdaydah has alongside acc'otmtuodalions for oceangoing vessels; these modern facilities have bevii used by 1':gypt and the U.S.S.R. to land military stores. The rernainittg port facilities are worked nwinly by lighterage and have limited military port capacity. All civil aircraft and indigenous personad would be available to the military in case of war or national emergency; however, the withdrawal of foreign pilots and technical personael would severely limit operational capability. The only significant interna- tional atirfield, Ilawdah, is capable of supporting C -130 type aircraft and has !united maintenance and conitnunic�utions facilities. Sadah New can also support -13O aircraft. Al Hudaydah New and Sana South, both military fields, can support -131 type aircr while Al, Ilarad, and Qitflat Udhrcan support �17's. All have limited to poor auxiliary facilities. Only the runways at Al 11 udaydah New, flawdah, Sadah New, Sana South, and "tarsi New have permanent surf aces. Telecornrnindcations facilities, among the worst in the 1iddlc halt, consist of rncagcr c,pcm -wire lines and lo\y -power radio cornmtlnieations stations. Vulnerabil- ity is high because of the isolation of rnally installations, the tenuous nature of the wire lines, and the absence of alternative routes. Conditions impeding Y. te r_ N i I. FIGURE 2. The San'a'� Al Hudaydah road a few miles west of San'a' (U /OU) APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100030 -2 FIGURE 1. The mountainous portion of the Chinese -built San'a' to Al Hudaydah road has been reinforced to prevent collapse during periods of heavy rainfall (U /OU) s construction and nainte tit ncc� includr the rnounlain- oos terrain and sand and dust storns. B. Highways (C 7'lu� ligh %%a, s%stcm of Yenwn is sparse and confined rnainly to the- southwest quarter of the country. The basic system consists of three routes: 11 :11 1 f udavdah to Sawa (I' igores I and 2) Mocha to San'u via 'I'a'izz (I -fig(ire 3). and 3) Al Iludavdal soutlwast to the Modm 'I'a'izz road. 'These roads link the major population ceutcrs and Dort areas. Access roads art planned or tinder constnction to connect the basic sy stem to nearby towns and villages. The remaining three quarters of the cortintry is served by onsurfaced roads and motorable descrt tracks (I igure -1). 'I'tte roads are comparable to those of neighboring countries. International connections wi!h Satidi ,krabia are by nu,torable track or unstirfaced earth roads; connection with Ycmcn (Aden), it traditional trading area, is vio it single );rave surfaced road and several tracks and earth roads. 'fhc highway network totals about 2, 160 miles consisting of approxinrtlely 290 niles of bituminous and bituminous surfaced highwa%s, 270 miles of gravel, and 1.11110 niles of earth roads and nutorable tracks. Surface N%idths on the bituminoi ;s surfaced highN%a%s range front 20 to 26 feet: shoulders are 3 to ll fret wide. These roads are in fair to good condition. Gravel surfaced roads are 24 feet .vide a nd have 3 to 6 -foot shoulders: condition of these routes is 1) robabIx fair to good. Unsurfaced roads and nntorable tracks are 6 feet or more aide; the width is dependent on restrictions of the adjoining terrain. Dry FIGURE 4. Typical desert track, located north of Al Hudaydah (U /OU) 3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100030 -2 FIGURE 3. Steep gravel segment about SO miles north of Ta'izz on the Ta'izz to Son'a' road (U /OU) wadi beds often oe:ve as roads. Condition of unsurfaced roads and tracks varies from poor to fair. The only two major structures or, the network arc on the Al Hudaydah to San'a' route. The longest is a 157 foot reinforced- concrete deck bridge located about 30 miles east of Al Hudaydah. Another large reinforced concrete structure is located just west of San'a'. Many smaller bridges and culverts are located on the main routes. Because of the lack of perennial streams, many wadies are crossed by paved fords. The network has no tunnels, galleries, or ferries. Th e Ministry of Works is nominally responsible for road construction and maintenance. All of the major surfaced roads, however, have been designed and constructed by engineers from the United States, the Soviet Union, and the People's Republic of China, using their own trained personnel to supervise local unskilled or semiskilled labor. Chinese and Soviet contractors have left small maintenance teams to help administer those roads built by them. Most construction and maintenance problems stem from the rugged terrain and the climate. In highland areas, where much of the population is concentrated, considerable excavation, blasting embankments, and retaining walls are required. Maintenance problems in highland areas include clearing rock slides and removing debris from paved fords. In desert areas, sand dunes, drifting sand, intense summer heat, sand and dust storms, and lack of water present construction and maintenance problems. Road construction,and maintenance require special efforts along the Red Sea coast, because occasional thunderstorms result in flash floods that overflow wadi beds and undermine paved fords and culverts. In irrigated areas numerous ditches and culverts are required. There is an abundant supply of sand and gravel and of stone suitable for crushing. Bituminous .materials, lumber and timber, and reinforcing and structural steel must be imported. The t I.S. contractors left behind an assortment of roadbuilding equipment. Highway development in Yemen continues to be largely performed by foreign contractors. A West German firm is currently applying a bituminous surface and realigning the San'a'� Ta'izz highway. Chinese contractors are applying a Bituminous surface to the road from San'a' to Sa'dah, and may be involved in improving a spur from this road west to Hajjah. Tha U.S.S.R. has been surveying potential road links from Al Hudaydah to Maydi and Maydi to Sa'dah. All of these projects will provide the northern part of Yemen with its first bituminous highways. The government of Saudi Arabia has recently :.warded contracts to a U.S. company for the construction of 4 roads from Qi7an, Saudi Arabia, to Al Hudavdah and lahran. Saudi Arabia, to Sa'dah. In addition to thew projects, the International Development Association (iI)A) has granted Yemen US$7.7 million for a number of highway projects to include the Instruction of a 42 -mile road from Ta izz to At Turbah including sutwmision of construction by consultants; feasibility studies of three secondary roads of about 290 miles, and detailed engineering of about 160 miles of these roads determined to be of itigh economic priority; purchase of equipment for feeder road construction, highway maintenance, and engineering; technical assistance to help establish an(] operate a highway authority; and overseas staff training. The estimated completion elate for these projects -s late 191 The greatest seasonal traffic harard results from the intense heat and accomp dust and haze. infrequent rains occur in sudden cloudbursts and wash out sections of roads. Usually no road drainage is provided, because i' s less expensive to repair occasional washouts �tan tit provide adequate drainage facilities. Other restrictions include narrow, poor road surfaces, sharp curves and steep grades in the mountains, and sand drifts in the deserts. Some government control over highway transporta- tion exists, but the development of the industry is at a low level. Most trucks are owner oper:_:ed, and the number of firms having more than a few vehicles is probably small. Operations are mainly limited to local short distance hauling and the transport of fain -to- market commodities. There is some long- distance hauling between the Red Sea ports and the highland consumer areas, and between Yemen Min'a') and Yemen (Aden), partictilarly on the route from Ta'izz southeast to Aden. Camels and donkeys are still used for local traffic and afford access to many populated areas not serve by roads. Buses offer service on the Mocha- Ta'izz- San'a' Hudaydah route. In January 1971, there were 12,596 vehicles registered in Yemen of which 19,294 wee passenger cars and 2,392 were trucks attd buses. Figure 5 lists characteristics of the most important roads. C. Ports (C) Use- of the coastline is limited by the scarcity of harbors, foul nearshore approaches (paiticularly in the north), and difficulty of access to the interior. The country has three major ports: Al Hudaydah (Figures 6, 7, and 8), As Salif, and Mocha; and tw minor ports: Al Luhayyah and Maydi. AI Hudaydah waF APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100030 -2 FIGURE 5. Selected highways (C) vuIo/n AND nEST/N^r/vm T^ux to Yemen (Aden) border A\Boduxd^hm8on'a'. onvr^on vnowLnxn ouST^Nxn SURFACE TYPE w/"rx W,orx ^xm^num Miles F"a 225 Om,d...................... m u-o Built major bridges. Flat m moun- tainous alignmmt. 7hesegmmt from Mocha u/Tv'iphas many culverts and is subject to flooding (Apr.-Sept.). From ra'/xxmSan^u' the road has numerous curves and mrud,o, but is being mvUnned, vidoned, and 'bituminous surfaced. 40 Gravel; some improved earth 24 8-6 Built by U.B. in ,wwo. 8iUr to movutxinou alignment. Subject to Ovvdi^n. /�u Bituminous zo-oo o 8oUt by People's 8vpuh\io of China, 1863'*7. %Y^n/ ohu,n our,"v and steep grades; ax hddmm/xu\v,,m. Cvo,m" v^umwuy. 5+0 ft, over wadi, 14 miles cast of Al Rudoxd^b. Flat to mountainous alignment. Suu'a'm Saudi Arabia border via Sa'duk..... *uuo Mile Vm�u........................... *�o Bituminous treatment 18-20 no Built by China. Undulating to mountainous alignment. Mile �0m \0o......................... *120 Improved earth no no Bmwo o",favod with bituminous materials by Chinese. Un- dulating to mountainous alignment. Mile 100m20o........................ *40 Unimproved earth no no Hilly m mountainous alignment. Road connects with Nuj,^o oasis. AlBudurdabm vicinity 7^'i^x,-1aZubid... Ito Bituminous treatment 20 a BuUxhy U.S.S.R. 1960-*9 Flat u` hilly alignment. no Data not available. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-R0PD1-00707R0D0200100030-2 in center, and urban area at bottom (U /OU) APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100030 -2 FIGURE 6. Port facilities of Al liudoydch at top center, airfield FIGURE 7. Port cf Al Hudaydah (C) a1"pk FIGURE 8. Cargo loading facilities at Al Hudaydah (C) hnill Im the l�. S. S.IJ. :orcl i, l I onl\ hurt it 11 alon, ,idt ac c onunodation, for oft ;tligm m4 c,' I, :ard modern fac�ilitit�,. 'I'll( rt�nr,tining Kurt, :ur ,nntll :un1 art� \mrktd nurinl% k liihtrrmt v. :11 Ilrrda\dah i, under nriIititrk c�ontrul: tht otII r 1>crrt, art� aclntini,tered h\ Inc�;rl anthoriIit-, act orr ht�hall of t1w s;mernment. ll Iludacl:rh ha, important ntilit:tr% si,t;nific:uut. and tlrrriut; dw c�i%it \gar if ;t, n,td h I;t;Irl for landing nrililun t�tl Ili lrnu�rIt. and 1>t11,ount�!. I is,. I,o nlilixt d a, ;t n:nal h:ut� Inr light draft. kn t Ott n,it dt t Iolrnrt of IIrOgranr rurcir�r,\;t\ at .1, S:dif inc�II des c�on,lrI wt ion ul ;i ,all loading fac�iIiI fur (I t 1t clr:ro>;IIt c I "Vi1 ,luclit�, fur fII dt�\t�Inlriuc nt n1' \lncha art� Iwinti t�ond� t�lt cI 'I'll( tmrt, art ads tluatt� nun,. I,ul Iurthrr tlt t Iulrnu�nl I ht� IIC('dr�tl iI lt�rru�n \\t�re to hu dellicd u,t� of dt u. \khic�h at ltrt�,t�nt h:urcllt�, nh tanlial hnl cl\\indlirtg Iwrtitm of lt�nu�ni receipt, APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100030 -2 FIGURE 9. Major ports (C) NAME; LOCATION; MILITARY PORT CAPACITY ACTIVITIES HARBOR BERTHA Al Hudaydah Principal port of entry; naval base for light Open roadstead; improved basin; well protected Alongside--2 standard ocean -type, one 14'48'N., 42�57 SW. coast. of craft. Receipts- -rice, cereals, flour, sugar, quays and offshore pipeline berths in Khawr standard coaster -type cargo vessels; Arabian Peninsula, 200 miles NW. cement, petroleum products, cotton Kathib, shallow and shoal- encumbered bay of 20 2 standard coaster -t,pe tankers (off of Aden. goods, machinery, manufactured goods. sq. miles; depths 6 to 26 ft. shore pipeline). 1,600 Shipments coffee, cotton, hides. Minor Fairway limitations -5- mile -long approach channel Anchorage Several berths for all classes ship repairs for harbor craft. dredged to depth of 24 ft. with width of 196 ft.. off the entrance to Khawr Kathib. leads to uasin dredged to depth of 24 ft. Largest vessel accommodated- -Would occupy along- side general cargo berth having depth of 26 ft., length not limiting; tanker berth with least depth of 22 ft., length 320 ft. As Salif Salt shipping center; base for petroleum Roadstead in Madiq Kamaran; protected by Alongside -3 lighters. 15 �18 42 �40 35 miles NW. explorations. Receipts� machinery, Kamaran Island; depths 3 to IS ft. A:chorage� Numerous berths for all of Al Hudaydah. manufactured goods. Shipments �salt. Fairway limitations Berthing capability limited by classes 1 /4 to I mile offshore. 150 berths rather than fairways. Largest vessel accommodated--Would occupy along- side berth having least dept:. of 7 ft. Mocha Coffee shipment port. Receipts �rice, ce- Roadstead; quav on inner side of breakwater extend- Alongside �One small coaster -type 13 �19'N., 4:3 �15'E.; 40 ntfles N. of reals, cotton goods, petroleum products, ing from S. shore of bay; depths 5 to 13 ft. cargo vessel; 2 lighters. Perim Island. machinery, manufactured goods. Ship- Fairway limitations �Clear and deep to roadstead; Anchorage Numerous berths fir all 400 ments coffee. Minor repairs for local depths 5 to 13 ft. in bay restrict vessel size. classes 2 to 3 miles offshore. wooden- hulled craft. Largest vessel accommodated -Would occupy along- side general cargo berth having least depth of 13 ft., length 200 ft. 'The estimated military port capacity i.: the maximum amount of general cargo expressed in long tons--that can be unloaded onto the wharves and cleared from the wharf aprons during a period of one 24 -hour day (20 effective cargo working hours). The estimate is base/: on the static cargo- transfer facilities of the port existing at the time the estimate is prepared and is designed for comparison rather than for operational purposes; it cannot be projected beyond a single day by straight multiplication. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100030 -2 Significant details of major ports are tabulated in Figure 9. D. Civil air (C) Civil air transport is important chiefly because of the sparseness of surface transportation facilities. Activities of the nation's flagcarrier, Yemen Airways Corporation (YAC), consist mainly of domestic operations. The YAC was created in Ma 1967 from Yemen Arab Airlines (YAAL), a privately o company which had provided scheduled air services since 1961. Under the terms of au agreement with Lufthansa, the West German airline, YAC receives technical and financial assistance including scholarships. Saudi Arabian Airlines also has provided assistance in the form of aircraft and scholarships and is likely to continue its assistance. YAC is a member of the Arab Air Carriers Organization, which is patterned upon the International Air Transport Association (IATA assuming a regional role similar to that of IATA. YAC operates three Douglas DC -:3 aircraft on scheduled domestic routes between Barat, Al Hudaydah, Sadah, San'a', and Ta'izz, and to the neighboring countries of Ethiopia, the French Territory of Afars and Issas, and the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, The carrier also operates five Douglas DC -613's (one in cargo configuration) providing international air service between Yemen and Kuwait, Qatar, and Saudi A YAC employs about 160 persons. All of the DC -3 crews and the DC -6 first officers are Yemeni nationals. !n the past, many Yemeni flight and technical personnel received training in Yugoslavia or the U.S.S.R. Currently, selected personnel are sent to the Civil Aviation Directorate School in Syria for specialized technical training. In addition, 26 students are receiving, instructions at the Ltfthansa training centers in Germany under scholarships provided by the West German Government. Duration of the Lufthansa training which is for pilots, air traffic controllers, and mechanics is from 2 to 3 years. YAC's aircraft maintenance capability has been limited to routine repairs, and most of the major maintenance and overhaul requirements have been handled by airlines in Ethiopia, Jordan, and Lebanon. Administrative functions relating to civil aviation activities are directed by the Civil Aviation Department of the Ministry of Communications. The Y.A.R. has been a member of the International Civil Aviation Organization since 1964. Yemen, has civil aviation agreements or provisional arrangements with eight countries including the U.S.S.R. Yemen is served by five foreign airlines which conduct scheduled flights to six regional countries and tree U.S.S.R. E. Airfield S2 (C) Yemen has 24 airfields and 10 former airfield sites; there are no seaplane stations. Eighteen airfields are civil landing grounds, five are military airfields, and two are joint military /civil facilities. Airfields are distributed almost eve;ly across central and western Yemen with the largest concentration along the southwestern coast. The airfield system is barely adequate, riot nearly as well developed as those of other Arab countries such as Egypt. The only significant international airfield, Rawdah, has a 10,650 -foot asphalt runway capable of supporting C -130 -type aircraft. This airfield has taxiways and aprons plus limited maintenance and communications facilities. Sadah New, a recentiv completed civil /military airfield is capable of supporting C -130 type aircraft. Taizz New, also a joint civil /military airfield, handles civil airlines as well as medium -size military transports. As Salif East. Harib, Marib, and Wadi Jauf are civil airfields capable of handling light civil or military aircraft, but all have extremely limited auxiliary facilities. Al Hudaydah New, the best military base in Yemen, and Sana South are the two largest military airfields. Each is able to support up through C -131 -type aircraft. The smaller military landing strips such as Al Bayda, Harad, and Qaflat Udhr can support C-47's, but have poor auxiliary facilities, Al Hudaydah New, Rawdah, Sadah New, Sana South, and Taizz New have permanent surfaced runways. Al Hudaydah New and Rawdah have taxiways and aprons capable of handling operational military aircraft or supporting cargo and airline schedules. Yemen has 14 airfields with temporary surfaces and six with natural surfaces. Very few have taxiways, lighting, communications, or maintenance facilities. Airfield maintenance practices and support and service facilities are believed to be inadequate. There is no new airfield construction underway. Figure 10 lists characteristics of the most important airfields. Tor detailed information on individual air facilities in Yemen (San'a'), consult Volume 16, Airfields and Seaplane Stations of the World, published by the Defense Mapping Agency, Aerospace Center for the Defense Intelligence Agency. 9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100030 -2 FIGURE 10. Selected airfields (C) LONGEST RUNWAY: SURFACE DIMENSIONS: LARGEST AIRCRArr ELEVATION ABOVE SEA NORMALLY NAME AND LOCATION LEVEL ESWL SUPPORTED REMARKS Fret Po *ands Al Bayda............ Gravel 14,200 C-47 Military. !Military staging field. 14 45 6,000 x 175 6,000 Al Hudaydah New.... �45'N., �59'E. Asphalt 60,160 C 1:31............. Military. Aviation and jet fuels, 1.1 42 9,845 x 1:30 oxygen, lighting, Tube, and maintenance available. 39 As Salif East......... �18'N., �52'E. Graded earih.......... 14,200 DC- 3 Private. Oil company field. 15 42 6,000 x 150 100 Qalat Nlarinaf Graded earth.......... 28,160 C- 34 Military. Auxiliary field. I6 �13 8,202 x 098 1,500 Rawdah 15 �28'N., 44 �13'E. Asphalt............... 10,650 150 3:1,500 C 130... ,loins. Fuel, oil. lighting, oxygen, navaids x and servicing available. 7,218 Sadah New.......... 16 58'N.,43 �44'E. Asphalt :35,5100 C- 1:30............. Joint. Newly completed airfield. 9,550 x 115 5,940 Sana South.......... 15 44 Asphalt 7,800 x 165 17,03.1 C- 131............. Military. Aviation fuel, oil, lighting and 7,800 minor maintenance available. Sukhne Gravel................ 14,200 DC-- 3............. Civil. 14 43 �26'E, �1,500 x 200 1,160 Taizz New........... 13 41'N., 44 �08 Asphalt 35,500 C- 130............. Joint.. Aviation and jet fuel available. 9,130 x 170 5,840 *Equivalent Single -Wheel Loading: Capacity of an airfield run Way to sustain the weight of any multiple -wheel landing aircraft in terms of the single -wheel equivalent. -gear F. Telecommunications (C) The telecommunications system is a meager one that dates from the early 1900's and the "Turkish occupation, but it has been somewhat improved under the republican government. The original skeletal network of open -wire lines only carrying telegraph was one of the most primitive in the world. The principal `owns in the central, coastal, and southern regions are connected by low capacity facilities supplemented by radio at towns not on the wire lines; improvements over the past decade have been made with a greater reliance on radio equipment. The principal telecommunication center is San'a'; other towns with sizable facilities are Al Hudaydah and Ta'izz. Although somewhat improved over the obsolete and deteriorated system, facilities are still inadequate to support desired administrative and economic advances. Such progress as has been made would have been impossible without outside aid, and Yemen still 10 ranks among the lowest Middle Eastern countries in telecommunication developractit. The total of 3,550 telephones is less than any other Middle Eastern country except Oman. Telecommunications are administered by the Ministry of Comniunications. International telecom raunications are under the control of Cable and Wireless Ltd., a British firm, since an agreement sighed in August 1970 with the Ministry of Communications. Radiobroadcasting is managed b the Yemeni Broadcasting Authority with programing under the Ministry of Information. Under a telecommunication aid program from East Germany, open -wire lines between Al Hudaydah, San'a', and Taizz have been improved and are now capable of handling 12 telephone and teleprinter channels. Supplementing the wire lines are about 20 low -power radiocommunication telegraph stations, the more important of which are shown on the map (Figure 1.1). Under the aid program, the automatic APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100030 -2 CONFIDENTIAL s t T i` r SAUDI ARABIA $a'dah l HaraQ v. maw I as �i c I Hajjah 'Umr2n, I %3" $an'a Ma'rib --5` a c1�O Asa /Al Hanb ydah t RED I SEA jbah AI Ba, 45' O Qa'(a aiz Mocha 1 Ar Ra YEMEN (AIDEN) Sl_'LF OF ADEN ETHIOPIA i-- der. y r Open wire 0 AM broadcast F. T. A. 1. Q Domestic -adio communlcat,,ns International rasio communications FIGURE 11. General telecommunications pattern (C) telephone exchanges at San'a', Al lludaydah, and Ta'izz have had new 1,000 -line switchboards installed. In addition, 200 -line exchanges have been installed at several smaller towns. CONFIDENTIAL (:able� and Wireless Ltd. completed augmentation of the San'a' radio station wi2'1 a 1 -k%i-. ,sigh- frequency transmitter early in 1971. 1'h� i,ew station is designed to transmit telephone and teleprinter messages into the worldwide C& %V net via Aden and the satellite ground station at Bahrain. Yemen, its dues paid by Kuwait, is a mev 'ner of the International Telecommunic'Ition Satellite Consortium (INTELSAT); however, it has no earth st ation or definite plans to build one. Special purpose telecommunication facilities are as meager as the general civil facilities. 'There is one ship to- shore coastal radiocommunication statirtn at Al Hudaydah built in 1961 with U.S.S.R. aid. A few Yemeni airports have radio navigation equipment. AM radiobroa(least programs are transmitted from a station at San'a' utilizing several transmitters. A 5- kw. and a 60 k%%-. transmitter broadcast on medium frequency for local coverage, and 5- and 25 -kw. transmitters on high frequency provide national and international coverage. A 60 -k%v. mediuni wave AM transmitter is in operation in Ta'i !z. Yemen is estimated to have 25,000 radio receivers. There is no electronic equipment r capability; imports have come from the U.S.S.R., East Germany, I` ranuc, the United Kingdom, and West Germany. Technical personne are few despite Yerneni efforts to have them traincA at home anti abroad by foreign contractors. Government efforts to develop telecornniunications face great cbstacles because of these: shortages. 'There is some prospect of Sat-di Arabian aid for a communications satellite station, and for United Arab Ernirates' assistance in the form of a radiobroadcast transmitter. Disappointnient with Arab -world response to appeals for aid were a factor in the renewal of relations with the United States, from which Yom en expects help in the telec�oinnumiications field. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100030 -2 Pla,-es and features referred t COORDINATES 0 f 0 fEl AbR as Su'ad, Saudi Arabia 1' 28 44 06 A4 Pali 13 42 44 43 Aden, Yemen (Aden) 19 46 45 01 Abmadi. 14 48 42 57 Al Bay4i 13 58 45 36 Bayt al Faqih 14 31 43 17 AltjULaydah 14 48 42 57 Al Lubayyah 15 43 42 42 Al Luhayyah (port) 15 42 42 42 Ar Riihidah............................. 13 20 44 17 Asir, Saudia Arabia (rt.gion) 19 00 42 00 As Salif 15 IS 42 41 At Ta'if, Saudi Arabia 21 16 40 24 At Turbah 13 02 43 54 Az Zaydiyah 15 18 43 04 Bab el Mandeb (strait). 12 30 43 20 Bahrain (island) 26 00 50 30 Biijil i5 04 43 17 Balaq 15 19 45 23 Bani al Harith 15 38 4.1 10 Bani al Harith (tribal area) 15 38 44 10 Bi..-P,t 13 35 44 39 Da'da 16 ol 43 50 Dhamir 14 46 44 23 Dhofar, Saudi Arabia (region) 17 00 54 10 Hadhramaut (region) 15 00 50 00 1jajjah 15 42 43 34 Ijarao 16 28 43 04 fjarib 14 57 45 30 Ibb 13 58 44 12 Jiblah 13 56 44 10 Jidda (Juddah), Saudi Arabia 21 30 39 12 Ji�aYn 16 59 44 11 Kamarftn, Yemen (Aden) (island). 15 21 42 34 Khawr Kathib (bay) 14 52 42 57 D in the General Survey (U/OU) COORnl1K RTES Kirsh, Yemen (Aden) 14 37 46 45 Madiq Kamariin (channel) 15 20 42 38 Mafbaq 15 07 43 54 Manhkhah 15 07 43 44 Ma'rib 15 30 45 21 Maydi 16 18 42 48 Mocha 13 19 43 15 Najran, Saudi Arabia (oasis) 17 30 44 10 Perim, Yemen (Aden) (iAland).......... 12 39 43 25 Qa'tabah 13 51 44 42 Qizftn, Saudi Arabia 16 54 42 32 Ramlat as Sab'atayn (dunee) 15 30 46 00 Rid� I I 14 28 44 53 Riyadh, Saudi Arabia 24 38 46 43 Rub' al Khali ;desert) 20 00 51 00 sa 16 57 43 44 Salif. Ra's as (point) 15 19 42 40 So Wa 15 23 44 12 Ta'izz... 13 38 44 02 TihRmah (area) 14 03 47 55 Uqdah, Saudi Arabia 14 07 43 05 WAd! Zabid (wadi) 14 09 43 18 Zabid 14 12 43 18 7,ahriin, Saudi Arabia 17 40 43 30 Selected Airfields Al Bayda 14 06 45 26 Al Hudaydah Naw 14 45 42 59 As Salif East 1 5 IS 42 fit Qalat &*arinaf 16 GO 43 11 Rowdah 15 28 44 13 Sadah New 16 58 43 44 Sana South 15 19 44 12 Sukhne 14 48 43 26 Taizz New 13 41 44 08 1 0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDP01 -00707R000200100030-2 J fU.., f. j n rte Ab p r *Ae s 8 i �6070 f Qizar t v r n Wa yi Ou 9 j o er I. Ilaraq Huth Matammah ,it-'1i:F+ww w rd+ 4 i yj Vi i, aj j.ab C AI Hazm Az Zuhrah ai i1, N;,Ihe IJ r Luhayyah .v n1 �Ha )ah ;A Umran w. {1aCY, W., Mfr:: .10499 r. ?As Sirf Ar Rawgah t Ma'rib a g. "'W3 AN Nti s! SHLI AYE 1 z 6 12336 Sal Kh31ij`IS r Manakhah 'MaSlj b',. i �7874 i SA NA I r 1 pX-1 ij,Jin9nah lr Rahah r I AI Ma'bar gawr5n. Al lludaydah ;-zirat a!, r3rf6 f 1 pharnbr Ba t al Fa rh r5 if Rida AI NusaYniyah talk *Yarim Rehab .'r- i .9842 ,Zabid 'r r. e An Nadirah Z'Juar jazira i J r: As Saddah f 1 Ibb l Y(., fHays d Jibjeh rabrah W ly APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100030 -2 S, ''Huth Matammah Dhj$inr 3zat Al Hazm AhayoA SAND i f b t,tl i r .10199 1 a As Sirr Ar Rawoah Ma'riby RAMLAT AS 5A8.4 TA, Y N $an`a' dN NABI SNU'AYR i bah L M 7874 r, An Nugdti z Ruhah Harib 9 i awrar u .9842 A 6 7..e/ 8 d i s NaOn Sama'eh 8366 a An Nadirah Dhi Na'im A. Saddah 1 Ibb l Al 6aya �abrah x. xM.�uka''ris+ y x _F'w Ba- ^a4 V APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100030 -2 W v. %F w w I -WAV %ru w I Iwvvr. I wwwww-aw ,At H.azm ZurA At Luh Az h ayyah ajjah ALn 01, 4- iV '.7 .10499 PAS Siff Kamaran 4Af R..I&h ,o n1a, 7 sydly I NC I )-Sltl '~L ANNAS? SMUAIR 12336 du I kkha 0 irf -7874 he "M K h I ij'iS J f In 0 Rahah .00* MR' ba !:At Markwi'ah 4 Al ljudayd4a d X I C11\v, 1V V -Vhamar Jazirat at Tarf6r�, fBayl at Faqih d ,7 At fi,wsayniyah Xj- Yarim A, .Ridb q, Jabid tr 9842 Ar Nadiran ;!Uq. 'k, As Saddah bO .Rabrah ty Y, jf J' Oa'tabai, At Khaw-hahal, V As Sa Ar ;A1 Hanish 9842- Tariz f..42 n R d o EW., Baral `%;p AI Habilayn Z Z -A MUSSY" T 7 et. 4 e a 40 *Xr RAhi h d ai G/7ayk"- a *At Turbah ri C: Ghurik r La i w Umrn P0, 4.: J b Sham U tj -Smyn 'Uthmil i' E t h i o p i a Territory of the Afars and Issas At Tur b Rk cl 4a Names and boundary representation are not necessar0y Authorflarive 2. 73 Centic-1 Intelligence Agency For official Use Only A GbRdTr '4Wen G u If o f Ad e n APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDP01-00707R000200100030-2 R i d J' 9842 Ar Nadiran ;!Uq. 'k, As Saddah bO .Rabrah ty Y, jf J' Oa'tabai, At Khaw-hahal, V As Sa Ar ;A1 Hanish 9842- Tariz f..42 n R d o EW., Baral `%;p AI Habilayn Z Z -A MUSSY" T 7 et. 4 e a 40 *Xr RAhi h d ai G/7ayk"- a *At Turbah ri C: Ghurik r La i w Umrn P0, 4.: J b Sham U tj -Smyn 'Uthmil i' E t h i o p i a Territory of the Afars and Issas At Tur b Rk cl 4a Names and boundary representation are not necessar0y Authorflarive 2. 73 Centic-1 Intelligence Agency For official Use Only A GbRdTr '4Wen G u If o f Ad e n APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDP01-00707R000200100030-2 7291 p eX liazm 1 s ri'Jrr`X