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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDPOl-00707R000200110004-9 NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY PUBLICATIONS The 1 3asic un;t of the NIS is the 'Genorai Survey, which is now publisheA in a bound-by-chapter format so that topics of greater per- ishability can be updated on an individual basis. These chapters�Countri Profile, The Society, Government and Politics, The Economy, Military Geog- raphy, Transportation and Telecommunications, Armed For-es, Science, and Intelligence and Security, provide the primary NIS coverage. Some chapters, particularly Science and Intelligence and Security, that are not pertinent to all countries, are produced selectively. For small cotntries requiring only minimal NIS treatment, the General Survey coverage may be bound into one volume. Supplemokiting the General Survey is the NIS Basic Intelligence Fact- book, a ready reference publication that semiannually updates key sta- tistical data found in the Survey. An unclassified edition of the factbook omits some details on the economy, the defense fames, and the intelligence and security organizations. Although detailed sections on many topics were part of the NIS Program, production of these sections has been phased out. Those pre- viously produced will cont1rue to be available as long as the major portion of the study is considered valid. A quarterly listing of ill active NIS units is published in the Inventory of Available NIS Publicatk)ns, which is also bound into the concurrent classified Factbook. The Inventory lists all NIS units by area name and number and includes classification and date of issue; it thus facilitates the ordering of NiS units as well a& their filing, cataloging, and utilization. Initial dissemination, additional copies of NIS units, or separate chapters of the General Surveys can be obtained directly or through liaison channels from the Central Intelligence Agency. The General Survey is prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency and the Defense Intelligence Agency under the general direction of the NIS Committee. It is coordinated, edited, published, and dissemi- nated by the Central Intelligence Agency. WARNINC This document contains information affecting the nat;o-iol defen a meaning of title f the United States, within th of 18 settions 793 and 794 of the US code, as amended. Its transmission or rovoiallon Its contents In or receipt by an unauthorized Person Is prohibited by low. CLASSIFIED BY 019641. EXEMPT FROM 3ENERAL DECLASSIFI. CATION SCHEDULE OF E. 0. 11652 EXEMPTION CATEGORIES 511 (1), W), (3). DECLASSIFIED ONLY ON APPROVAL OF THE DIIIECTO OF CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE, Awake APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDPOl-00707R000200110004-9 WARNING The NIS is National Intelligence and may not be re- leased or shown to representatives of any foreign govern- ment or international body except by specific authorization of the Dire--for of Central Intelligence iti accordance with the provisions of N*tional Security Council Intelligence Di- rective No. 1. For NIS containing u,iclassified material, however, the portions so marked may be made available for official pur- poses to foreign nationals and nongovernmont personnel provided no attribution is made to National Intelligence or the National Intelligence Survey. Subsections and graphics are individually classified according to contW. Classification /control designa- tiok-.s are: (U/OU) Unclassified/ For Official Use Only (C) Confidential (S) Secret APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDPOl-00707R000200110004-9 Thf8 chapter um prcpared for the NIS by the Defew Zateftence Agency. Research um sub- stantially completed by January 1973. Ail APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDPOl-00707R000200110004-9 coNrENTS This Generil Survey supersedes the one d4ted Sep- tember 1970, copies of whic.h should be destroyed. A. Location and description 1 1. Topography I Overview of landforms, vegeta' Non, drainage, pattern find physical characteristics of settle- ments, and network. 2. Climate 4 Summary of climatic elements.�locational and seasonal variations, temperi.ture, relative hu- midity, precipitation, cloudiness, and winds. B. Military geographic regi%;rs 7 Effect of terrain on operatfins by cunventional gxound forces, airmobile I qirborne fcrces, am- phibious forces, and irregular fo for the fol- lowing regions: t. Central Forested Plains 7 2. Northern "Ilavanna Plains 7 CONMEN APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDPOl-00707R000200110004-9 H I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDPOl-00707R000200110004-9 piwe page 3. Southern Savanna Plai 8 E. Approaches 12 t Eastern Highlands 9 Data on lengths and leg&[ status of Wd bound- 5. Westeru Highlands 9 arfes and on offshore terTitorial w C, Strategic areas 10 1. Land 12 Significance. population. PrImary activities, na- tionally signiftmt industries, important military Conditions for movement in the bwder xxAm and descripdons of terrain, roads, railwads, installations, key airfields, and petroleum storaige offroad dispersal, and emu-country movement in the best land approaches. for the Wowing areas: 1. Bas-Zake 10 2. Sea 12 2. Shaba Jo Conditions for amphibious approach t th coast and data on those amphibious landing D. Internal routes 12 amas that provide the best access to the stm- DescrfP140n of terrain, mad and milmad char- tegic are". acteristics, and conditions for offroad dispersal 3. Air 15 aid crow-country movement along routes to an d Approach routes to Zaire and weather and between strategic areas. critical terrain conditions en route. FICURES Page Page Fig. I Military geographic regions and ter- Fig. 9 Open-pit copper mine (photo) 5 rain ("WO 2 Fig. 10 Climatic elements (chart) 6 Fig. 2 Broadleaf evergreen forest (photo) 3 Fig. 11 Strategic areas, internal routes, and Fig. 3 Dense igle undergrowth (photo) 3 approaches (map) Fig. 4 Typical tall-grass savanna during Fig. 12 Bas-Zaire strategl.c area (map) 12 rainy season (photo) 4 Fig. 13 Shaba strategic area (nwp) 12 Fig. 5 Brush forest (photo) 4 Fig. 1 .4 lntirnal Youtes (table) 13 Fig. 6 Typical hills in west (photo) 4 Fig. 15 Boundaries (table) Fig. 16 Land approaches (table) 15 16 Fig. 7 Snow-capped mountains (photo) 4 Fig. 17 Terrain and transportatior Fig. 8 Kinshasa (photo) 5 ("IaP) follows j.7 H I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDPOl-00707R000200110004-9 Military Gveograpl A. Location and description (U/OU) The Republic (;f ktire is located oil the Ftlitator and extends vast-west aci )ss about two-third% of central Africa. sharing borden vith nine other countries. The nunerai-rich Shaba Region in tit(- sontheast is adjacent to the important copivr-producing areas in Zambia. I'll(- eountr%, comprising 905,M) square miles, is AX)Ilt tilt ,iZ(l of the United States vast of tit( Mississippi Rivvr maxinmin distances art- abotit 1,2M miles' east-west and north-sotith. I ll(- po)ptilation, 23,918,M) (jannary 1973 estimate). is about tit(. saint. as that of N,( York State. 1. Topography 'I'll( tt consists mainly of high plains between I JXX) and 3,CXX) fivt above sea It-vel Fignres I and 17) bordered by belt of ragged hills ill tit(. wvSt. The central part, the Congo River Basin. Is characterized b% flat plains 1,(XX) to 1,5(X) feet above sea level and dense broadleaf evergreen forest (Figure 2) containng immerous species of Liege and small trees )nd thick Secondary growth (if btishes, Saplings. vines, and hvi platill: (Figure 3). In tilt- western lower Congo River area, it narrow flat coastal plain ra ng::Ig from wa level to about 150 feet is covered b\ (1v se broad!vaf evergreen forest (or by marshes and sWallips. Elsewhere, the plains in the north and South art predornina tit I y rolling or dissected, Jopes are from 2% to 10ri. and interstreani art-its IM to 500 feet abow the adjoinivg strearns. Locally there ary termite tII0IIIIds 10 to 20 feet high awl 5 to 10 feet wide. Part of the northern an(] unicli of tit( southern 1) lains ary covered by savanna, which consists of dense grass `igure 4) -1 to 15 feet high and scattered clunips of trves and shrnbs-, dense broadleaf evergreen forest is extensive in tit(- aort' plains lit the southeast, thcre art open to dense st nds of dveiduous tall briish (Figtire 5), shrubs, avd interspersed grassy areas Widespread marsh of dense papyrus. reeds, and floating grass, oectirs along the lower Ulhangi river, Ustances are in staoite infles tin1m, iiawical miles are slic,cifically stated. along most of the Congo River betwevii linmbit in(] tit(- cimfluence with tit(- K%%a river. ;lit(] along Some lakes and Streams in tilt- sontheast. Numerous streams over 5W feet wide and 3,5 to more than 6 fect deep %%ind across lbe plains lit(] in mail\ plao overflow their low. gently sloping earth ling art hanks and inundate extensive low -as and SWallip', (Itiring high water (gvnerafly September through M-evinber north of the Eltjtjatto; aad March to inid-jnne and mid-September through January sonth of tit(- E(piator). 'I'll(- Cougo ffiver, whose watershed (111COmpassit-s nearly till of (lie conntry. is mostly 2 to 8 miles wide and Illore than 6 feet deep: in places dtiring high water, it is nearl\ TX) feet deep. Sonth of Kisatigani. where the Congo River is ktiown as the Lualaba, it is nearl\ I mile wide in plaves. Other large rivers ineltide tit(- Ubangi, Kwa, Kasai, and IA)nlaltii. which are I JXX) feet to miles widh- in man% places III the rolling or dissected plains, tit(- upper vatirsses of some stnains are incisvo between high, steep. rock banks. lit most places. tilt plains ha\v coarse- and fine- grained soils 20 feet or inore thick, ho\%ever, in many part of the south, hard laterite and rocks are near the stirfave. 'I'll( grotind is firin ewept afte- heavy raills for periods of gunerall\ less than I day about 4 to 8 tillies per month from vark October through April South of about 4 and varly April throngh 0(:t,.)I)( north of 2 lit the inarshes ;lit(] swanips of the central plains Mid along the coast, the ground is al\\ miry. Ilills and rugged mountains are along lit(- eastern periphery of the emAntry, in(] low, rolling hills are in tit( west. I it tit(- vast. the hills have Sharp crests. which are .3,M) to 50X) feet above sea level and 1,M) to 20X) feet above the adjoining valley floors; in western Zaire, hill sunitnits are rounded (Figure 6) and range front about 7M to 2,0(X) foet above the adjacent Stream valleys and plains. Thiotighoot the hills, slopes are commonly Mi to Wil, althongh along Some streams titer( are short escarpments that have slopes ill excess of IMI,' III the eastern mountains. summits are jagged and risv 5,(XX) '.o 10,000 feet above sea level and more than 2,(XX) feet above valley floors. A small area of snow-covered peaks is more than 16,M) feet I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDPOl-00707R000200110004-9 flat plains CEN'tRAL AFRICAN REPtIBLIC Rolling or 0 to 100 feet SUDAN dissected Plains 100 to 500 feet sit e 011 SAV i Hill 500 to 1000 feet PIAINS Mountains Over 2000 feet .4 J(4 Differences in elevation bet*een toos and V. ;Aoms 0 ad topogrsph4c teatuies 4A t Dense forest 80 A, J Swamp 1050 Spot hei :n feet ITGANDA Military Geogaphic Re boundary -.J 101 Statute 0 100 200 300mile I I I 0 loO 200 300 Kilometers ".4 07 KIGALI A N WANIM, CONGO (13RAZZAVILLE) *BUJ BURA U EASI HURI NDI BRAZZAVILLE I 0.31NDA ba k_Kigcirhp SOUT"M t r5 TAkANIA Konang A 0 SAVANNA Ankorc 4150 1 3363 376P. /Av NX RuAwa LUANDA PLAI ANGOLA ZAMBIA (PORT.) Kolwaz mb V111 ZAMBIA P RO FILE WESTERN HIGHLANDS SOUTHERN SAVANNA CENTRAL FORESTED PLAINS EASTERN HIGHLANDS PLAINS Meters Feet 4000 12000- 3300 8000- 2000 4000 1000 A 01 0 B 0 too 200 360 400 1 5) 0 0 600 100 8060 goo i000 1100 1200 Sta*ute miles Approximate vertical exaggeration 30:1 FIGURE 1. Military geographic regions and terrain (C) 2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDPOl-00707R000200110004-9 "Vil It cI Fl-,i I ry T ri rii.i ri I t, ra ntv If i )it I W" to) 60' 'I'llc If( )rt ll-cciit rill it fill cvIII r pit rt, ()I I lit. %I" t cr 11 11 i $411 if I I( I i I rc I% en d I. I r 1 I)\ (11 )r( iidIc,! I I-% vrirvci I borc i.I"c\%IIvr(" 11 Ic Ili"111,111d, I rt I I\ i rt d I)\ it I I I I it 1 -\t -I t I or ,(-it H i r( I I rf i of (It I vw I )rw, I I i I I I I to I I it l I ;I I I s Ili I I I I I I f I I I q I )it 1111) I ;I old idpitic hrij,h if I if I wri I I; I )I I I I I I I I I( r 1 1 of 'I'll" hill ill the lll\%(-r Zii i rt I rq lll'ilfll 1)\ I I I( I So -,I I I I r( d .1 -,1 f )i om I It it I I A rLjf -4 -11 It on �I \I(iO ,trvitm, if! Ilw I Ild 1114 IIIIIIii 1w, i If- les" 111.1 it :')i A I If'cI ido. Alld '1114. k miall,, I I t i, i I I I I it I,., I )I r w k iiII( I i I of I I of I N 1 cl )1 11 Iv I I I( I ri if *I, oil lim ijorcs tcncr,oll\ orc spilrw alid cI 111kl pri iii;i ri I of I it ci I it -N it I d I I j- it I i ro d I I I r.i I I I I 'ri, lit r I I ii I it t it it r, I of i 1 1 i off if M I I I rritc( I I If. I fit and rk r\ )I or, I I I I lit No lift licast mid 'Ilmlt III, pcliltllvl\ .1 f0iid fold l,ii1roml iwh%(,rk. -ind minicroij airlicl(IN cilic" illid lilf-iti'l hilt, I ni(iffer cciiiiii, -t1nt,Jtiiiw Impad illid 'III(.- it old t\%(w-st i)r\ miomir\ triictmt-,. a 1 11 Ill �likii I I i I I t I I I r r( I I rl I I I r( I i I old i I I I I to I I I I I I I r I I I I J( I I I ri c k I I I I I I I I I I I e I ii I I 1 .1 of I r, -,t if K I I I I I I I I Al I Ili Idi 111 I-( )II"t I fict I If 0 1 -1 -1 Ili I( I c( )I wrt 4 c Fi t I I n N 1. It I I ra I I tt( \1 I 1( -1 1 I t I I I lit I I I I I I I I I I I a 14 it li 1( if I H I r I I I( I I I I H sotitherii ind 1 1 I if I lit- (-I imit r% -i It oiji, ii\ ur, I if(] ri im! If :4 11111d at t Iv .111d d.f it! If lit it If I Ii'llulled r( of i miiw arc i!(,tittd i mili Is I l i ill( l K( 'I A III I I I 11 i 1 fit; fit- I ri I i I f- 4 I 11 I )I t I; I I i I I I I or, I I I I I I it -1 1 1 q )I If r or( I v\tr,jrtt-d I( i rri g. I I I rc I I iiiiii ill\ ri(-: I icld' I 'llal't I )it '111d I 1111.11111 rl tlf Mod I I I I r E APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDPOl-00707R000200110004-9 FIGURE 2. The dense broadlecif evergreen forest that blankets most of the central Congo River Rasin con- tains many kinds of trees 20 to 80 feet high, in one or more stories; trunk diameters are I to 2 feet (C) FIGURE 3. Dense jungle undergrowth, such as this near Kiscingani, is rampant along roads and other types of openings in the dense forests. The undergrowth is a wild impenetrable tangle of bushes, saplings, vines, palms, and herbaceous plants. (U/OU) FIGURE 4. Tall-gross savanna, such as shown here dur- ing the rainy season near Kong& in southwestern Zaire, consists of dense gross, 4 to 15 feet high, commonly in tussocks (C) 11iiinba -ilmi the Cmiiiw. ciil1i%.itvtl terraces are (III hill lild Illmlillaill sklpc- ill HIC. (%AS1 lii% cr, A4,)rd fliv primar% niv;iw, ill trawI)i0ation, ilthmigh 1(,%% %%atcr ()Ill% sluillm% drifi craft vai: mt%i most ri%( 11w ri%ei .rc ,ipplemcnied 1)% a ,parst iwt%%()rk 4 tracks mid rmid mid riii1roiit1%. rii.ids iry v;irth. onc to t%% i I Line mid ill condition, f milro;k&, ory ,ingiv triick. 3'6" izigc. mid ill fidr cmiditimi. 'I'liere irc iminermis airlield, itli litrd S I I I Lict d nin%%a%s (w-,( 60M) 1 loiiiz thr largest. stmtlivtst (4 Kin-Aiiiqi, haN it cmicretc rmi%%;t% o% er 120X) I'vet ill length. FIGURE 5. Deciduous tall brush, with many grassy openings, is common in the southeastern part of the country. The grass between the trees may be burned annually. (U/OU) -1 FIGURE 6. The" deeply dissected hills extend north south ocross the narrow panhancite of western Zaire. Summits are rounded and in some places are more than 3,000 feet above sea leyel. (C) 2. Climate 11W Vliindv III Zairr is t-sm-titi.ilk twpicil (-%crpt ill the va%tcrii inoiintaiw tht- ;immid wirlb- ,tmtli migration 4-1 the interin)pical cmicrvciwv /MW 0CZ! acrt) thu cmnitr\ covwN prmwinwed climitic d iffi I I( h t, cen regii nN III ;i iiirrii\% zmw alimg I Fqiiahir I I I c ch inale slif littic ;I ri,it it ill FIGURE 7. The mountains along the dostern boundaries of Zaire primarily are 3.teep and many ore rugged, sharp crested, and snow capped. These, north of Lake Edward, have local relief of more than 2,000 feet. Slopes are more than 30%. (U/OU) APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDPOl-00707R000200110004-9 throughout tlie year, whereas north and soittli of t1 zone definite WVt and dry seasons J'igury 10) are regul I tile length of tiulV tile ICZ is present over each region 'I'll (I n a r ro eq [fit toria I zone v x pe ri e it ces a nionotollou and enervating tvpe of weather in all Months. Tempewtures a nd relative bumiditN are FIGURE 9. Almost all the copper mines are the open-pit type, and ore is excavated along benches by power shovels to depths of 100 to 130 feet (U/OU) persistently Iligi cloudiness is abundant. a,id rainfa", although [lot excessi%re. is plentiful. 'ill( greatest changes in tile weather, it, fact, are tile diurnal variations. Temperatures uorniallv rise to afternoon maxilillulls it', the 80's (T.) and lo\ 90's Litt(] decrease to early morning millinj ill the tipper 60 1 s and low 70's. Tbe only relief front the I,(... is at tile bigher elevations in tile east, where the daily rriaxiniums and tuillillituns are 10 to 20 I'ahrenheit de colder and freezing temperatures occur at the lligilest e relative 111111lidity varies bct%\evn morning maximums in the go' alid afternoon minimums in the 60's and low �do's; tile hot and humid condition are most oppressive to bunians. Skies are cloudiest near dawn and least cloudy near sunset. Showers are frequent, Mostly during tile afternoon, producing average monthly amounk mainly between 4 and 9 inches. The most intense fait's are during thun- derstorms, which nortualIN Occur oil 5 to 10 d 111011 tbl' The heaviest precipitation in tile countr falls over tile eastern highlands, wbery orographic rains produce annual totals approaciiing go inclies. X'isibilitY is good throughout the day except during morning fogs, %vhich rapidly dissipate after sunrise, in(] during the brief showers. Strong surface winds occur only during thunderstorm activity. The remaining regions north art(] south of ti equatorial zone experience a similar uniform 5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDPOl-00707R000200110004-9 FIGURE 8. Kinshasa, the largest. and most important city in Zaire, has many broad avenues lined with tall buildings constructed of steel and concrete. Although densely built up, the city has many trees. (U/OU) 0 BOENDE JFMAMJJA 0 MEAN ANNUAL PRECIPITATION (INCHES) KANANGA LUBUMUSHI IIOOT�MM-T7�r-r 1100 BAMBESA ,;ANDAJIKA 10 TT T 'T OR JFMAMJJASON L1.5 4DAY MEAN MONTHLY PRECIPITATIOI BUKAVU 10 JFMAMJJA LUBUMBASHI to 5 OL JFMAMJLASON 0,5 AY 4 (INCHES) KANANGA Tfm IIMAMJJA= I JFMAM;JASCNj PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF SPECIFIED CLOUD COVER AT 0600 (LST) 0 THROUGH 3/10 CLOUD COVER 4/10 THROUGH 7 10 CLOUD .OVER 8/10 THROUGH 10/10 CLOU) COVER XANANGA* 40. PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF SPECIFIED CLOUD COVER AT 1800 (LST) GEMENA 100 60 40 20 0 J FMAAkJ JASONDJ WAM.A 100 7 00 60 AO 20 0 JFMAMJJASONDJ LUKOLELA 100 so 60 ;5 A0 20 0 JFMAMJJ WJ JFMAMJJA MEAN THUNDERSTORM DAYS LUBUTU 100 80 60 40 20 1 0 IFA %JJASi I ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM MEAN DAILY MAXIMUM MEAN DAILY MINIMUM ABSOLUTE MINIMUM TEMPERATURES LUSAMP:) 100 T so 604- lo AO 20 I I I L 0 Lq JFMAMJJ MEAN RELATIVE HUMIDITY AT SPECIFIED HOURS (LST) MItWABA 100 FP 90 5W 60 40 20 JFMAMJ JASON OJ 6 FIGURE 10. Pracipitation, cloud cover, thunderstorm days, temperatures, and relative humidity (U/OU) APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDPOl-00707R000200110004-9 temperature regime, with seasonal changes averaging less than 10 degrees even over the sections farthest from the equator. However, other climatic element undergo marked seasimal chan '-es. During the w season, April through October north of the equatorial zone and November 'through March south of this zone, mean monthly rainfall ranges mostiv front 5 10 inches and thunderstorms o generaliv on .5 to 15 days per month. Cloudiness in this 'season is extensive, with frequent overcasts, and visibilit i generally good except during sho%vers and morning fogs. Relative humidity, however, is Persistently high and, with the high temperatures, creates an enervating condition. DuAng the drN season, December through February in the north but as long as April through October in the far south, monthly rainfall norrnallv is less than 3 inches at most locations. Skies 'are frequently clear or partly cloudy, visibility is uslialiv excellent, and winds are light, often calm. Afternoon relative humidity is lower at this time, especially in the southern regions, where afternoon humiditie's often drop below 40%. B. Military geographic regions (C) Zaire has five military geographic regions, the Central Forested Plains, Northern Savanna Plains, Southern Savanna Plains, Eastern Highlands and Western Highlands (Figure I The cOmbination of environmental conditions within each region would have a relatively uniform effcTt on military oper but there would be marked differences 'between ti regions. I. Central Forested Plains This region is unsuited for large-scale conventional ground operations. Cross-country moveme o f tracked and wheeled vehicles would be precluded by dense forest and large ratirshy areas, and the numerous wide and deep rivei:: and periodic flooding would require extensive river-crossing operations. Movement on the widely spaced, earth roads and tracks would be hindered much of the time by washouts, soft surfaces, and flooding. Numerous fords and ferry crossings are potential bottlenecks. Offroad dispersal would be precluJed. Construction of new roads would require extensive clearing and building many bridges and culverts with raised approaches. Rocks suitable for crushing are lacking. In addition, work frequently wculd be stopped by miry ground, and the rapid growth of vegetation along the roadways necessitates periodic cutting of bushes and vines. The dense forest of large tr,-,s, however, affords excellent concealment from air and ground observation and soine cover from flat-trajectory fire. The dissected te!rain in the north and east provides additional concealment from grouiA observation cover from flat-trajectory fire. Construction of bunker-type installations would be. extremely difficult because of a high wat-r table, and flat terrain and th ick, unstable soils over 6e bedrock preclude tunnel-type installations. Airborne and airmobile operations would also he difficult. Tht- few sites suitable for parachute drops and helicopter landinps tire small scattered clearings and grassy areas in dense forests and marsh. Assault- type aircraft could land at airfields near Mbandaka, Kisangani. Libenge, and Port de Kindu. Construction of additional airfields would necessitate extensive clearing an(] much grading and filling to provide adequate drainage and firm foundations. I rocks suitable for crushing art- lacking. Conditions are good for irregular forces operations. Excellent concealment from air observation would be provided by the dense broadleaf evergreen forests. and good concealment from ,round observation would be provided by the (I rise undergrowth along streams. Movement on fo" is feasible, although along streams it would be slowed by trees, bushes, and vines and at tirnes, 1)) miry ground and flooding. Fording is hazardous because the streams are infested with crocodiles. Wild berries. fruits, and cultivated crops of bananas, cassava, rice, and sweet potatoes afford abundant food supplies a lso, fish tire plentiful in tile streams. Water is abundant, although the taste and odor may be objectionable because of the high organic content and aciditv; near towns and larger villages streams are sometimes bacterially contaminated. Shelter and fuel materials are readily avaiiable from the dense forests. Cultivated clearings are the only sites suitable for the airdrop of supplies. 2. Northern Savanna Plains Seasonally, the rolling or dissected surfaces are suitable tor large-scale conventional ground operations. Cross-country moven"ient of tracked and wheeled vehicles would be easy in the interstream areas, but direction of movement would be restricted locally by steep streambanks Lind streams too deep to ford. During April through October, the rainy season, movement would be hindered frequently for short periods by miry ground. Much maintenance of the widely spaced roads would be required to support sustained military traffic. During the rain- season, traffic would be indered frequently by mirv' 4round, washouts, and, in places, by flooding. Many unbridged streams, ferry crossings, and low-capacit' Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDPOl-00707R000200110004-9 bridges are potential bottlenecks. Offroad dispersal would be easy in tuost places. New roads could be constructed in most areas on firtit foundations alignments arid clearing would be easv, and onh. moderate amounts of grading would be required. Blasting, however. would be needed in scattered areas where laterite an(: har(i to 'Is are n. the surface. Sand arid gra.v-1 suitable for base and surface coirrsys and aggregate are available in many %%at(.-rcoUrSes* it oddition, the laterite arid hard rock are. suitable for crushing. Most roads would require numerous bridges arid culverts, and during the rain% season. construction would often be hampered by mir% ground. Scattered clumps of trees and narro%v bands of thick vegetation along streambanks afford conoealment front air observation, and the dense tall grass provides concealment from ground observation. Some cover from flat-trajectory fire would be afforded b% streambanks arid, in the more dissected parts of the region in tire cast, by surface irregularities. Tunnel- type installations having short entries and unsup- ported spans could be built v!ong scattered stream valleys in the cast, but the less dissected western parts of tire region are generaliN, unsuited because of insufficient slope. Bunker-type installations having stable walls could be constructed in man% places, although power equipment would be needed the laterite is near the surface. In most places, airborne and airmobile operations are possible. Numerous sites are suitable for parachute drops arid landings of helicopters. ASSaUlt-tVpe aircraft could land at in airfield near Libenge. New airfields could be constructed in many places with unrestricted approaches, little clearing, arid small amounts of grading. but blasting would be required at some sites where laterite and hard rock are treat the surface. Irregular forces would encounter some difficulties within the region. Concealment from air observation would be limited to scattered clumps of dense trees and to narrow belts of thick vegetation along strearns, but good concealment from ground observation would be afforded by tall grass, especially during the rainy season, when tire grass is very dense. 'rhere are few obstructions 'to movement on foot except locally by streams too deep to ford. Wild berries arid fruit, are generally scarce, but fish are abundant in most streams. Limited amounts of corn art(] other cereals, cassava, peanuts, and bananas would be available in scattered villages. Water is generally plentiful except during the dry season, November through March, when sources are as much as 15 miles apart; bacterial contamination of water sources is common. Shelter 8 air(] fuel materials are available onl frorn scattered stands of trees in(] riverine thickets. Suppl-es could be aiedropped easily in most of the region. 3. Southem Savanna Plains Conditions for large-scale conveiitional el operations are unfavorable in most of the region. Cross movement would be hindered in inany places by steepsided valleys, by numerous brcad arid deep rivers, by scattered stands of dense brush in the southeast, arid during the rainy seziso;,, November th70Ugb March, by frequent short periods of mir% ground und extensive flooding, Onroad movement woul be feasible on the widely spaced earth roads during the dry season, but consi maintenance would be needed for sustained military traffic. During the rainy season, movement %voidd be halted frequently by miry surfaces, "'ooding, arid man% unbridged streams too (feel) to ford. Lo"-capacily. sing!e-lane bridges along most roads are potential bottlenecks. Movement would be casy. however, oil a few, hard-surfaced roads iwar sortie of the larger towns. Offroad dispersal would be easy except at times during the rainy season, when the ground is miry. New roads could b2 constructed with few alignment problems, easy clearing, arid moderate to small amounts of grading, although numerous br;dges with raised approaches would be needed. Concealment front air observation would be provided by scattered stands of dense brush in the southeast arid narrow bands of thick forests along man% streams. Cood concealment from ground observation would he provided by tire tall grass. Cover from flat-trajectorN fire would be afforded by streambanks arid, in places, by surface irregularities. 'rhere are few sites suitable for tunnel-type installations because of inadequate overhead rock cover, low relief, arid unstable and deeply buried rocks. Bunker-type installations could be constructed in many places in thick, stable soils, although excavations would be hindered locally by laterite and hard rock. Conditions are favorable in most places for uirborne and airmobile operations. There are maio. sites suitable for panachute drops an(] helicopter landings except in parts of the southeast, where stands of dense brush, some marshes, arid small hills limit potential sites. Assault-type aircraft could land at airfields near Kinshasa, Likasi, Karnina, and Kanariga. Additional airfields, having unrestricted approaches and runway orientations and requiring only small amounts of clearing and grading, could be constructed in most places on firm foundations. In places, grading would APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDPOl-00707R000200110004-9 i be difficult and blasting necessary because of laterite and rock at or near the surface. Sand and gravel suitable for construction are available in many places, and 11ard rock suitable for aggregate and laterite suitable for crushing are available in some areas. rhe lack or scarcity of water at some sites during the dn- season, May through Sept,-mber, would hinder construction. Irregular forces %vould encounter approximately the same difficulties iii this region as in ih- Northern Savanna Plains. In addition, movement on foot could be hampered by seft ground and flooding, streams infested with ero'codiles would be hazardous to ford, and retrieval of air-dropped supplies could be hindered locally within the region by deep streams ond densp brush. 4. Eastem Highiands High hills and rugge6 mountains hamper lar e- 9 scale conventional ground operations in this region. Cross-country movement of tracked and wheeled vehicles would be precluded by steep slopes; onroad movement would be limited to widely spaced earth roads and tracks, which would deteriorate rapidly under sustained military traffic, and would he hindered by steep grades, sharp curves, and occasional landslides. Ferry crossings and fords are potentiai bottlenecks. Construction of additional roads would be difficult becaUSL ,f severely restricted alignments and the need for nu- sharp curves, steep grades, and much grading, bridging, and blasting. in addition, extensive clearing of dense forests in the central part ot the region and of scattered areas of brush in the south would be necessary. Coneealm(At from air observation Would be afforded bv dense broadleaf evergreen forest, brush, and patches thick bamboo. Conecalment from ground observation would be provided in places by tall grass. especially during the rainy seasons, April through October north of the Equator and November through Mirch south of the Equatcr. Cover from flat- -'rajectory Ere would be afforded in many places by high streambanks and surface irregularities. In most places, unstable rock and the need for long adits would limit construction of tunnel-type installations. Soils are too thin for the construction of bunker-type installation. The region is predominantly unsuited for airborne and airmobile operations. Sites suitable for parachute drops and helicopter landings are restricted to the lower grass-covered hill slopes and a small area of plains ir the south. Assault-type aircraft could land at a few airfields, but utilization of these fields would be hampered by restricted approaches. Construction of additional airfields would be difficult in raost places because of restricted approaches and runway orientaiions, the need fz:r extensive grading, excavating, and filling, extensive clearing of dense forest in some areas, and poor drainage where surfaces itre relatively gentle. Sand, gravel. water, and hard rocks suitable for crushing are generally available within short distances. Terrain conditions are predominantly good for irregular force operations. Good concealment would be afforded in the central part of the region by dense forcsts, in the south by szauered stands of bush. and by small areas of bamboo. Tall grass also would provide good concealment from ground observation, especially during the rainy seasons. Extensive areas of steep slopes provide cover from flat-trajcctory fire. Movvment on foot would be possible everywbere, but gencrally would be slow and difficult. Wi!d berries, tropical fruits, fish, and scattered fields )f grain crops would be the major source of food supplies; in general, plentiful supplies of water are available, but most are bacterially contaminated. Materials for fuel and shelter are available in the forested areas. Supplies could be airdropped only at scattered sites in the valleys. 5. Western Highlands The low hills and rolling or dissected plains do not favor large-scale conventional ground operations. Cross-country movement of tracked and wheeled vehicles would be restrictA and in places precluded by steep-sided valleys and by scattered areas of dense forest. Onroad movement would be limited to a two- lane, bituminous-surfaced road paralleling the Congo River and a few unsurfaced roads and tracks, which are impassable in places after heavy rains. A ferry at Matadi could be a serious bottleneck. Construction of new roads would be difficult because alignments would be restricted by steep slopes; and numerous sharp curves, steep grades, mucF grading, and many bridges and culverts would be needed. In addition, in the plains roads must be built on high embankments because of flooding. The Congo River is navigable bN oceangoing vessels as far as Matadi. Concealment from air observation would be afforded by scattered dense broadleaf evergreen forests, mainly in the plains near the co and along streams in the hills. Elsewhere, tall grass would afford concealment from ground observation, but during the dry season the danger of conflagration is great. Construction of tunnel-type installations would be difficult because of poor rock stability and the need for long adits and 41 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDPOl-00707R000200110004-9 shafts. Bunker-type installations could he built in places neir the coast, Init snoring would he required. Conditions are predominantly unsuited for airborne and airmohile operations. There are few sites suitable for parachute drops and helicopter landings because of steep slopes, areas of dense forest, and marsh and swamp near the coast. A few sites are available on the lower hill slopes and on a few interstrean, areas in tile rolling or dissected plains. Assault-type aircraft could land at an airfield near Banana. Construction of airfields would be generally difficult because of the need for much grading, excavating, and fill material, and in die plains near the coast, poor foundations would hinder construction; also, approaches %vould be restricted. In much (of the region, conditions are poor for irregular 'lorce operations because of limit(.(] concealment from air and ground obsen and poor cover. Only in the north%vest, vdicre there are dense forests and steep slopes, are conditions excellent for concealment from air and ground observation and good for cover. Food supplies are limited to corn and other cereals and cassava, which are grown near Olages. Water supplies a-e plentiful but bacterially contaminated. Ahnndant shelter materials are available only in the dense forests. which primarily are in the northwest. Siipplics could be airdroppeil on scattered small, predominantiv grass-covered plains arid rollinp hills. The coast of the region is unsuited for 'karge-scale amphibious operatiovs because of encumbered approaches, poor exits, arid unfavorable coastal teriain. Offshore approaches are mostly cleaf, t nearshore approaches are partly obstructed by sho,:;s and reefs and by floating debris near the Congo River mouth; the flat nearshore bottom gradients would also hinder most operations. The coastal terrain consists of a low swampy plain extending up to 6 miles inland, after which appear low hills and plains dissected by numerous marsh-fringed streams. Most coastal areas are fringed by sandy shores interrupted by scattered rocky outcrops and several stream rnouths; bluffs closely back shores along the central and southern parts of the coast. Except in the south, exits are generally poor; movement farther inland would be restricted to a few roads and tracks across swampy terrain. C. Strategic areas (C) Zaire has two strategic areas, Bas-Zaire and Shaba (Figure 11). These contain the largest cities and are the key industrial, mining, communication, arid political centers. 10 1. Bas-?.aire This strategic area Figure 12 contaitis the countrv's onlv ports for oceangoing ships, most of the light industr%" arid the largest concentration of storage facilities for refined petroleum products, the oidy crude oil storage facilities. and the only long-distancf. petroleum pipelines. Kinshasa (population about 1.3 millioti in 1970 the capital ar.,I largest cit%. is tliv main river port and transshipment Point on tile Congo Rive and the cbief commercial, telecommunication, and military center in the country. Important -installations in(lude railroad repair shops, machinery reppir shops, 4 bree small shipyards, and faetorics produc,ng steel drnms and tin cans, textiles, shoes. tile, ,)aim oil, arid plywood. There are storag g e facilities for over 6(X).O(H) barrels of refined petroleum pr,dacts an(] large covered storage facilities. Two refined petroleum products pipelines from Matadi (on(- from Ango Ango and one from Matadi proper) terminate at Kinshasa. Southeast of Kinshasa is one of the largest civil airfields in Africa. Matadi (population I 10,0(X) in 1970), located at the head of navigation for oceangoing ships on tbe Congo River, is the principal port for the coinitry. and at nearby Ango Ango there are storage facilities for .303,(X)O I)arr(-I.s of refined petroleurn products. Boma (population 6.3,000 in 1970). downstream from Matadi, is the second largest maritime port and has ship repair facilities. At Muanda there are facilities for 4350)0 barrels of crude oil and 2180M barrels of refined petroletun products an(] an oil refinery that has a throughput capacity of 13.8(X) barrels a day. About 6 miles east of the town there is a military airfield. In addition, Lukala has one of the largest cenlent plants in the country. 2. Shaba This strategic area, adjoining the copperbelt of northern Zambia. contains one of the largest copper reserves in the world (Figure 13). Numerous mines, most]%- open pit, are located in a narrow belt extending from near Kol%% to the vicinity of Lubumbashi. These mines produce about 4000)() tons of copper ore a year, and the country is the fifth largest producer in tile world. In addition, generaliv more than half of the world production of cobalt, most of the germanium, arid important quantities of zinc and lead ore are produce(] as byproducts of copper mining. Near Likasi arid Kolwezi are large electrolytic refineries. Luburnbashi (population 318,000 in 1970), is the second largest city in the country an(] has a copper APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDPOl-00707R000200110004-9 16 CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC 2 4 SANGU! SUDAIJ __Imdlo EROON kCA te '_keti Lisale ungbere Ouesso 13 GABON Mbandake 4angan. 4 tilbundi Ed., GAN Go i 'AIGALI Mbin f Bukb-- N swa Port do Kindu C NGO andundu Livir RUND ZAVILLE sankum BUJIUMB 0 00 Idu f Lusambo )I Kik i I ma 010 Kanan TA ANIA ji-mayl 'P Is Tshikepa Xabalo Kai N L A Atlantic Mpanda Ocean ambi L. tkir TANGANYIKA ED S'rategic area amina lak, mpulungu Approach Internal rou!e z AMBIA udl Landing beach A G 0 L A Vila Tei it Lake RailroaG lie So it to liter kasi Road 0 Wes 0 100 200 KNo�ters Chilliabombwe CONFIDENTIAL U ZAMBIA Ndola 2-73 SO NDARY REPRESENTATION is 500986 CIA N OT NECESSARILY AUTHORITATIVE FIGURE 11. Strategic areas, internal routes, and approacheg (C) smelter, railroad repair shop. and storage faciliti for area has a half of the total electric power in the .380X) barrels of refined petroletim products. Three cotintrv. civil airfields are near the city. An important town outside the strategic area is Lil'asi (population' 146,M) in 1970) an(] Kolwezi Kis aigani (poptilation 230,(X)o in 1970). This city, (population 58.000 in 1970) are also important mining located at the head of navigation oil the Congo Rive r. and transportaticm centers. At Kolwezi there is storage is the fowth largest citN, the third largest port in the for 60,0W barrels of refined petrolviini products. At countrv, and an imporiant transshipment point and Likasi are it lead and copper sinelter, an oxygen pl. railroa('1 termirms. Important industrial establishments and machinery repair shops, and nvar' I)v are -in illchide it railroad repair shop, ship repair vard, Hour explosives factory and a cement plant. The strategic mill, soal) factory. sawmill, brickworks' and an 11 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDPOl-00707R000200110004-9 FIGURE 14. Wenwa rout" (C) (Cmifirmed) OrIPROAD DIRPZRBAL AND CROSS-COVWTRY ROVTZ ROAD RAILROAD MOVEMENT Leadsi from landing beach near Banana to From beach to Roma, one to two Ian". pre- None Hindered in places by steep-banked streams, Ma". Near coast, crosses low plains with dominantly earth, in Poor to fair condition; 1y miry ground in marshes swamps. marsh and swamp areas; from near Boma to remainder mostly two lanes with bituminous and by stands of dense broadleaf MLtadi, across low hills an4 rolling and surface in good condition except for soinestretches evergreen forest. dissected plains covered by gram and patcheb of where grAvel and single lane. in fair condition. dense forest. After heavy rains movement slowed or halted for short periods by flooding in some areas and by miry ground in the earth sections. Ferry at Matadi potential bottleueek. Links Kinshas4 and Lubumbashi. Traverses Betwcen Kinshasa and Kenge and between Lubudi Single track, WWO gage, in some are" where surfams rolling predominantly grass.-covered, rolling or dissected and Lublimbashi, two lane*, bituminous surface, in good condition; and grass cov however, in places plains. in good condition. Elsewhere, mainly earth and between Ilebo and hindered by dissected surfaces, by broad in poor condition; some stretches of laterite and Lubumbashi. and deep streams, and frequently during gravel. la places, traffic slowed by sharp curves rainy season by miry ground and and steep grades. Movement slowed at times flooding along streams. during rainy season, November through March, by miry surfam-a and during dry season, May through September, by loose sand between Idiofa and Kenge. Fords, ferries, and several narrow bridges potential bottlenecks. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDPOl-00707R000200110004-9