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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16 SECRET 71GS /GP J 9 Denmark March 7974 201161m�lulm SECRET NO rOREIGN OISSEM APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110016 -6 we] File 11:111 11111YI l :11I1I11pilill 111I11 Us APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110016 -6 a'F.srL -,i.. i -c4. L a ^bai.SS-vX'.... 'T 3.. w 1 c NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY PUBLICATIONS The basic unit of the NIS is the General Survey, which is now published in a bound -by- chapter format so that topics of greater per- ishability can be updated on an individual basis. These chapters Country Profile, The Society, Government and Politics, The Economy, Military Geog- raphy, Transportation and Telecommunications, Armed Forces, Science, and Intelligence and Security, provide the primary NIS coverage. Some chapters, particularly Science a(.d Intelligence and Security, that are not pertinent to all countries, are produced selectively. For small countries requiring only minimal NIS treatment, the General Survey coverage may be bound into one volume. Supplementing the General Survey is the NIS Basic Intelligence Fact- book, a recdy reference publication thr semiannually updates key sta- tistical data found in the Survey. An unclassified edition of the factbook omits some details on the economy, the defense farces, and the intelligence and security organizations. Although detailed sections on many topics were part of the NIS Program, production of these sections has been phased out. Those pre- viously produced will continue to be available as long as the major portion of the study is considered valid. A quarterly listing of all active NIS units is published in the Inventory of Avid -ble NIS Publications, which is also bound into the concurrent classified Fartbook. The Inventory lists all NIS units by area name and number and includes classification and date of issue; it thus facilitates the ordering of NIS units as well as their filing, cataloging, and utilization. Initial dissemination, additional copies of NIS units, or separate chapters of the General Surveys can be obtained di -octly or through liaison charnels from the Central Intelligence Agency. The General Survey is prepared for the N!S by the Central Intelligence Agency and the Defense Intelligence Agency under the general direction of the NIS Committee. It is coordinated, edited, published, and dissemi- nated by the Central Intelligence Agency. WARNING This doc-nceat canloins information olfsetinp h'1 notional defenme of the Llnitvd slates. -Rhl" Ms msaair, of Vila 1B, soclions 793 and 194 of the US cads, as nrnrnd.d. Its tronsmlasfon or rwvlption of its cwents to or recripf by an unaulhorited person Is piohib0od by law CLASSIFIED BY 019641. EXEMF" FROKr GENERA' DECLALSIFI- CATI SC HEDULE OF E O. 1163: EXEMPTION CATEGORfES SE (1). (7). 131 RECLASSIFIED ONLY ON APFROVAt OF THE DIRECTOR OF CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE, N APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110016 -6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110016 -6 a WARNING The NIS is National Intelligence and may not be re- laased or shown to representatives of any foreign govern- ment or international body except by specific authorization of the Director of Central Intelligence in accordance with the provisions of National Security Council Intelligence Di- rective No. 1. For NIS cotitaining unclassified material, however, the portions so marked may be made available for official pur- poses to foreign nationals and nongovernment personnel provided no attribution is made to National Intelligence or the National Intelligence Survey. Subs -tions and graphics are individually classified according to content. Classification /control designa- tions are. (U /OU) Unclassified /For Official Use Only (C) Confidential (S) Secret ME APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110016 -6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110016 -6 2 This chapter teas prgwred for the NIS by the Ceruml Intelligence Agency, Rescatch was sub- stantially completed by November 197'3_ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110016 -6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110016 -6 NO CONTENTS This rhapter viperscdc5 the pohlical cover age in flu� General Sufrrg dared ,lfarr 1,91i s. A. lntrodUC6011 13. Structure and functioning of the government 2 1. hoots of the :system 2 2, Coi stitutiol] 2 3. Exvcutive 4. 1,CgiSlatore r 5. Ci iI service G. Judiciary 5 7, llegional and local government C. Political dynanlies 11 I. The Danish political :ururn 11 2. Parliamentary political] parties 12 a. Social Democratic Part 14 b. Moderate Liberal Party 17 c. Radical T ibmal Party 18 d- Catlservative Pall t 20 a Parties of the far left 21 Suns: r No 1 om. m, 11%sv APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01-- 00707R000200110016 -6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP0l- 00707R000200110016 -6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP0l- 00707R000200110016 -6 Page Page 3. Splinter parties 23 c. Communist nations 33 a. justice Party 23 d. The United States 34 b. Schleswig Party 23 E. 'Threats to government stability 34 c. Independent Party 23 d. Liberal Center Party 24 1. Discontent and dissidence 34 e. Nascent Progressive Party 24 2. Subversion 35 4. Pressiure groups 24 a. Communist Party of Denmark: 35 S. Electoral practices 25 b. Communist splinter organizations 35 F. Maintenance of lntennpl security 36 D. National policies 27 1. Police 36 1. Domestic 27 2. Correctional prisons 37 2. Defense 28 G. Selected bibliography 37 3. Foreign 30 Chronology 39 a. The United Nations 30 b. Europe 30 Glossary 41 FIGURES Page Page Fig. i Stnicture of government (chart) 3 Fig. 5 Popular participation in Folketing Fig. 2 Chn:tiansborg Palace, Copenlingen elections (chart) 26 (Photos) Fig. 3 Governments, 1945 -73 (chart) 6 11 Fig. 6 Old and new campaigning methods Fig. 4 Results of parliamentary elections (photos) 26 (table) 14 rig. 7 Prison facilities (photos) 37 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP0l- 00707R000200110016 -6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110016 -6 Government and Politics A. Introduction (U/OV) The Darlisil Government is a eorlstitutional monarcliv and a parliamentary democracy that scrtlpilloodl respects the citizen's perso rights and liberties. The Kingdom of Denmark is in fact g svrn led b it Prink N4inister and his Cabinet. who are rc %Ixinsible to ;1 oni *lrra] Ila rliatrite11t, the I'r lk cfirr. lieeatese� of the Small size of the country. the Ilolnoge of the popiliation, the effectivcrtess of loc:ll elective hoklies, and the efficiency of the civil service, few local or regional problems exist that are� not considered with utn- by file si atiortal goveriltnent. The efslcierle% of governitivi tai processes is re iuforerel by a JW( S -11 I a lrr0aldC SVI 'ViCe which disc lllinatl� a broad Spcctnim of information a opinion to :a Politically e1149111CIMI :11111 rcslxlnsibie pliblic. Au independent judicia disprnsing equal and btirllallic Justice .Serves as all effective guardian of individual rig The Danish cilizen displays an tulcollirnonly Iligh inlerrcl in the coll(1110 of tilt affairs of Iris eotenim. by nature, lie expresses Ili% cYln(erns peaeef illy through normal political channels. Although voting is lint coitlpulsory by law, an avertge cif 8O% of the adtill popillattioll has Ixtrticip;ltad in the I t national elections since World War [I. Approri- niately 785 to 80 Cll%torlla 0% parlicipate ill local elcctiulls. Political life is chartelerized by stability and comprnlnkv. As its tilt olbrr Scandinavian comitries, a rnultilxirty syslem hinctiorls with relative efficiency because of the essential pragmatkin of Danish Politicians and a lack of divisive issues among the populatioll. Tile Social Delnocriltic Party. vllile carrying oil its prr-11'orld War ll rule as tilt- leading 1olitical force, has -cell its strength eroded, first b y tilt- rising appeal of parties to its IV. 1`1 .tied then, singe IWis. by [lie enhanced popltiarity of lire partim- to its right. In IV)$ the Social Dentocretic Party yielded tin- reins of government for the first tinlr in 13 years Io a (-e right votifilion of the lt;((lic.11 f.ihrrasl, Moderate Liberal, altld Conservative Parties. iteturtiirig to power in 1971, [he Soci :kl Dcnlocr,lts were ritprndcnl for their phlrallity of one 'kite on file 5111311 'Socialist People's Party and on the consistent support of one (nett of two) Creenland and clue (out of two) F;teroese deputies. A liberal proportional representation system cnalurages the existence of minor parties. Danish goverriruc11ts have Imen gcncrally stable and effective, despite the fact that 9 of tilt' 11 Ixl_5t- World War 11 governments have n ot held it padiaruen ilTy majority. With the exception of the A pril 1953 Cabinet. which was dissolml to allow dections mider [ht,� new CoTistitution, tilt- life of the average government has Heel, nearly 3 y'eari. National dections nuist he held at least e -I y I'he ntaejor donicstiv issue that fornierh troubled Danish Imlitical life have geo emilly been resolved. Palrliamrntary govrrnrnent, free enterprise, and like welfare system are accepted by all %ignifi(mnt txslitical p a rties. Differv cente ab elklt the r;Ite of exlxk llSioll of the state welfare %v%teni, the extent of government controls Oil busillvss, and, most recently, title desirability of alntioucd %ocializaltiort in the labor force �the iollx%ition of "a- Lonoinic democrat Yar {ie's tend to represent parlictliar t,aulonlie� interests, which tile) hope to advance through mane�tiver and ermiprunlise in tier delicately bahiticed mullilxtri% parli ament. Although po %(A% War it goyeniment% have taken .ill 111 intcre5{ in intCrn;itional political affairs, they -Fill devote tilt greater measure of their energit-s to the regulation of the d onlesli c eckmotily and insprovelnents in the (piality of Danish life. its isolationist tradition shattered by the Certnan wartime occupation. Dentmlrk has chosen it) look to regional and ,world organimilions for its national security and veonotnic well- uerrig. Denmark has lien a nlernber of the North Atlantic Treaty Organivaition (NAT01 since 1949, although its Lonlntilrttent to [lie g(;lis of lilt Wmtern Alliance has at tinsty bccil less than wholelleartcd. The Danes took their most drak kmtwa lotAing stela by aix to the Ellropeall Conl:llunitiv% (EQ dimugh the ncloher 1972 iational refercrtdtlm. Denmark participates "vtive�l)- ill the Unittxl Nations arid, like other Scandinavian t,n111itries. reg ards it as a fo r o lll from APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110016 -6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110016 -6 I which a more effective international security system may eventually emerge. 'rhe Nordic Uttnlcil provides the mechanism through which Denmark may coordinate its activities with its northern neighbors. The centrally controlled police system is folly adccpuate to the needs of the small cammtry aid enjoys the respect and confidence of the generally well- ordered and law- abiding population. A special section of the pxoliee, the State Police Intelligence Service. maintains intenial scettrity. Careful not to infringe on (lie liberties of the sensitive Duties, it keeps close watch oil the very few ptAcmtial 5ubvemive'S, B. Structure and functioning of the government (UJOU) 1. Roots of the System 'rhe Union of the Danish Viking tribes into tilt! semblance of a nation state may lot traced to the loth century---the reign of the elected King Corm the Old. As national tattity was consolidated iro the suceecYiing reigils, Ilre kh1gship became hereditary-. it siin il- tancousiy evolved in irregular fashion front a limited motl:archy, to art absolute monarchy that endured anachroltistically mail mid -lf)th cetailry, to tore colaslitulional monarchy of the present era. The continued acceptance of of least nuntiial hereditary princely rule stems in important measure Fr0111 the ability of the monarchy la conform wills the aspirations of the rapidly rvolving; society. From the 15th to Ilse 171h centuries Danish Kings were subjected to much the same pressures as Monarchs elsewhere io Europe. Efforts of the nobhN to establish felidalisln as it existed in Euntpe to the south were resisted and finally crushed by King Frederick Ili its IWYO, after mismanagement and it military dcfe;at lsad brought Ilie country to the ildA of collapse. 'rhe ]loyal Act of 1665, declarieig the monarchy a )soleltc, endured for nearly 18:3 yeats. Supreme lmlitical power now rested with life King, who recstabi i sited most of the old Norse privileges aid brueg ht the peasants and burghers tinder royal protection. Duriig; this pxriod the Kings were gertenolly energetic and Fair- rrtioide�d riders, alld justice. on the whole, was cblsplCIISM equally through tlsc courts. BCCiatlSe Denmark was somewhat alt of the mainstream of European polilical development, influences of the 181h century Eoilightcnmeut and French Hevollllitlll felt ill Copenhagen wen largel confined to the social and cullnrll. As long; as an adequate and growing Measure of social justice was assured, by standards that prevaiiiug, snarly thoughtful Danes as late as the Napoleonic era still believed in benevolent despaitisrn. B% the mid -19th century, however. Dea nark became cittlght top in the general European quest for democratic political reform. in 1848 King Frederick I'll sensed a groundswell of opinion against (lie absolutist system and on the request of a delegation of leading citizens quickly granted his people the right to have a collstilution. The document was promulgated in June 18-19, and the modern era in Danish political life begirt. Since then Denmark has been ruled by a governmental assembly, originally consisthig of two charnbers known as the Polkeling (lower 11011se) and Larulsling (topper ho(ise). The Kings position was defined coastitutionally. and most Danish men were gr,auted the right to vote. Although the Forins of Danish democracy had been established, the reality was slov. to come. The last three decades of the 19th ceotiry were given over to a struggle for supremacy between the parliament and the King. The Agrarian left (Veirsfre), the larger political grouping in the Folkethig and the forerunner of the Moderate Liberal Party, oplxtsed [lie practice of personal royal selection of (lie Cabinet, which normally meant that govenlrnent ministers were members of tine minority right. Finally, in 151(11 the� King; was obligeti to concede, and in that year lie selected a Vcnsfre Cabinet, like first havil!g the cnfidenm of a majority of the lower house. A factor in that result had been the introdiicVon of [lie secret ballot, also in IM. A new Constitution in 15117 further liberalized the system by granting the ballot ill Folkcling elections to all persons over 25 years of age. including omcra and servants. Thus. parliamentary democracy developed Ito Deninark iillich as its the other Scandinavian countries-- thrnug;h esseiWaally peaceful cvoli11011. 2. Constitution Since 1849 Derunurk has had seven Constitutions. Fivo fell within the period 1849.66, and tilt, major number of these served principally to adjust Ilse stormy relations between Denmark proper turd its Crowd 1.:1ndx, tilt f)ichies of SchlCSwig :n d holstein. The Constitution of 5 June 19.53. which is still in effect, lxorrows lill, rally fn>rn 11ty CAmstittllion of 1915, which provided Denmark with a centraiired liberal democratic goverttmeM under it conslitutiomal Monarch. The 1953 CAmstilution, stemming; from pre- -World Nkar 11 demands for further drenocratizatinit and intensive postwar sludy of those donlands- l,mtight 2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110016 -6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110016 -6 major changes in the structure and function of Danish national politics. The upper chamber of parliament, the Landsting, was abolished, as *vas the overall parliament name, Rigsdag. The new unicameral parliament is called the Folkcting. The voting age was reduced from 25 to 23 years, and subs in 1961. by amendinent, to 21. The popular referentlulli was introduced, thereby enabling minc:rities of out.� third or more of the parliamentary membership to transfer the final decision on most categories of national legislation to the electorate. Requirements for amending the Constitution were eased. and in a highly controversial move provision was made for the nllimate delegation of powers, normally the prerogative of national aisthorities. to stiprariatioual authorities established is the furtherance of international lase and cooperition. Parliamentary rule, as upposed to executive fiat, was guaranteed by a prov;sion that no minister may remain in office after a vote of no confidenec. If a vote of ecusure is passed against the Prilne Minister, the government m ust resign. Parlian w given (lie atri::ority to apl)(iirlt out or two public affair% Commi.C5i011erS (orrlbudsnian), whose function is to investigate cxmiplaints by citizens against the tuanner in which state and local officials observe and apply the nation's laws. By a separate Act of Snccession of 1933, the line of sue-tessiort to the throne was broadened to include females, though with niale heirs still receiving precedence. Constitution Day, celebrated annually on 5 Jllne, commemorates collstililtiollal evolution ill Denmark. 3. Executive The Danes. while explicitly spelling out several innovations ill the 19,.53 Constitution, left intact such pnrtions of their basic law as seemingly provide for the dominance of the King loon� Queen) in the entire scllenit of government. 'Thus, the Constitution iu theory gives the Crown wide powers and broad discretion in their lose. It states th the Monarc holds legislative Ixwer jointly with the Folk a n d that lie ju)ktiesscs the supreme executive authority in all national affairs and expresses it through his roillistem. Figure l broadly outlines government organivation in Denmark. The CAMStitrltiall merely JX!rpetuatcs the polite fiction that the Crown rules, as well as reigns. In fact, the Qoc^erl, although not quite ImWerlcss. is very 'Fur u currrnl litlint o! key powenmtrnt officitth plea.- tonwh Chieli or Sl and Ca binrt Members of Foreign r:m pubbstird numthly by the DIrrrtortte of int-ltikritce, (:ellfrtt 1nte11igrnsr Agency. LEGISLATIVE EXaCUTME 3. CMPaM L OF. STATE QUEEN fetkctin CABINET (179) Prime Minrs-er Ministrim Agriculture Foreign Affairs Budget and F-eign Economic Economics Affairs and Commerce Europe Market Cultural Affairs, Relations Disarmament, and Greenland Underdeveloped Housins Countries Interior oefense justice Ecclesiastical Labor Affairs social Affairs Education Traffic and Finance Environment Fisheries Provincial Governor l�VEL seam. autonomous asnetss tiltKhed to rarlous ministries KWIQNAL -AND LOCAL L LEVEL Governor of Copenhlsen Provincial Council Rural Municipal Fawn Council Council City Council Executive Council Control T" fkcgsr s AesMnrNllfry ,llnrarirnt FIGURE 1. Stnrcture of governlrlerlt {U /0U) nearly so. it is Ilse Pritnc Minister and the Cabinet, tiding in the Quecu's name, which exercise the bulk of the executive power. Probably the Queen's most significant indety" dent power lies ill her right to apivint the Prime Minister anti the Cabinet ministers. But here, the Queen must consult with parli,amentiry leaders to determine the public swill, since the Cabirlet may be dismissed by a vote of no confidcncv in the 3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110016 -6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110016 -6 Fclkctitig; (;lily when the political balatiev is obscure dot-% she tentatively act with indelmitierice. Again, the Comstilution gives to the ;Monarch file cletermirvilion of the member of government ;ministers and the (list riblllion of responsibilities armotv them;. Ilowevvr, the fiscal powers of patdiament are such as to preclude the Crown from exercising these prerogatives, ever; if the "iortarch were of a mind to do so. The Queen presides over the Cabinet. which W h en ilteetilig �it}i her is ca l led llte D of St ale. This highest executive bod (may also include the royal h eir ap ill its deliberltions �hell lie of she is of age. The Ceonslitulion regtlims deal all Bills and important governtucut measures lie discussed ill the Coluicil of Stale, exccpl when the \lomarch is prev from bolding such a ineeling. In prictiev, the exception has generally proven the mole will( the King, or Queen "emtrustili the discussions to the Cabinet presided over by the Prime Nfinisler. It is here. that [lie serious deliberations of (lie day iaake pl,icc. and a d ecision, once retielered. is (lien transmitted to thr, Queen. To lam ome effective. all government decrees and legislation require the Quees'x signature, but this endomineni has become a itiere, formality. Powers granted to the Crown b y ;lie Constilution and exercised ill its behalf by the I'riuttl \1isistcr: and tha C.�ibiltet include the aniduct of foreign affair~. tiles supreme anlliorily in the direction of military action, acrd the exercise of emergency txiswers. l it each instance, }l(ow(!Vcr, the Polkeling has it check ot exec.nlive action. The govertiment is mitstilutionally witstraiiied from slaking any (major foreign policy decisrol witholrl first conslillimg the Foreign Affair�: 0o mimittee of parliamleml. EAcept to repel armed alltack, military force itlaly Prot by lined al ally foreign comilry without tho cortsent of llic Folkclirlg. Provisitoual laws issued dnriug the ,lbscme of parliainew iw.o later be approved by it. The Cabinet may propose legislatirm. It appoints civil and wililary officials, grants pardons and muriestics, a ild through 1 I use c oll ive org altis it enforces llte laws of the land. 'The C711)illvt may be supporard directly by only a 7mirt(arily of the parliatm� ilary mcsibcrsllip. lit such a ciremnstamee. it th on the occasional support or at lean neutrality of one or a mither party all grotip of depltlivs mot represGptt'd in the Cabisrt. Oilly Ilya formal vole of noconfidenee is the Cabinet obliged Io resign. With [lie pro formal approval of tfie Queen, llte inslallluil Prime N mister may dissolve [lie parliatlient lit arty lime quid call for tlew cieclionx. C.ibinet imriubers Illaty lit: reemitcd from outside the ranks of the Fotkoing, Imit this 1s d olt cltstomary. Prewincls parliame'1ltur' experience, or high position within a political party, or technical ex1wrtise helps qualify a perom for;; Cahiuvt jiusition. Ad m in is trative ability and persoaablene%ss are mattlnal talents Saud to b e l o o ked for in dxatemtiad ministers. The Prime i\litlistcr i% llte political head of the government and oversees political affairs generally. Ile stay also choose to take personal charge of certain areas of national policy. Though subject to the pleasure of the Prime Nfirtisler, the ot her ministers still cmjoy some degree of aulonotmy. The implcnienlalion of a law normally falls toll one msixmsible minisler; ate has llte right to issue rules ailed reguht ions a f fecting tbo.e agCtkViVS Imder his jtlrimlic'tiona and his decisions ill adinhkkimlive tnaltters carlmol be appeallcd. Ile is tadministralively :sid legally resimnsible not only for his own acts list ulscl for tlu;se of his subordiitales. The number of ministers and their deputies are solijccls not treaded by any cwnstilulional or statutory provision. The I97S Cabinet of 1'6 tile 4 \1inister Anker Jorgensen enamil ssed the ustiall range of respon- sibilitim associated with a 11'asteril style democralle govertmacut. 'There h as been a gradual proliferation of ministries over the years. first emablished were the A�linistries of Foteign Affairs, War, Navy, Finance, and Justice, all of which elate from the advent of the miodem democratic move.tmcni im 18 -18. The ((limber of ministries has varied nec'ccortling to the imporlatacr atlached to the various sectors 4 the natinmal life at various times. I'oreigil Affairs, jiisticu, Finance. tile mtilil'.ary de palrtlnmils (ainalga imbied into 0efNINC ill 1950}, I-xvIesiustical Affairs. and Ediieatiou have beerl firmly established. Other ministries have often been subdivided or merged, not infrcqucntly to med certain exigencies, such as (lie balaaciug of pally or personal ambitions within a coalition goverunlcml. The m Illei liational administrative scene and imiotrol lm my of the large public srryice organizations. .which ill other countries enjny an aiulonotmmis publie or private Talus, 'The Director ;ales Central of Post and Telegraph is a Major cramponcut of the Ministry of 'Traffic and l:uvironuuut, Tlic Millisler of Budget acid ELotiomius presides over the hoard of directors of the National Mink mid the Wiiislry of Fivance. cxerls influence through its a1ccoilnt art the jlallk, Lackilig a health ministry, Duimiatrk hats instead a \'attiortal Board of Wall], (Stjadhedmlyrelccrt) ,lot directly incrorpomIC(I lit any ministry bud closely nloniloted by the Nfinistry of Interior, to whiell it is ldttmiately responsible. fladio and television broadeasls are lllc rntomopoly of F;atlin Dcnrn;irk, a tislilie iuslitulimi direcled by a council respossil.oIV la the MitliStcr of Cultural Affairs, I Nsarmarsenl, and Undertlevelopetl Counlrie s. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110016 -6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110016 -6 DcspitC the lilllitalions placed tipon the Queen's read power. tier ro le as the personification of -Danisli nationhoo=d accords her cYlnsidcralilc prestige. 'I'Ilc vinbodinient of a millenniilm of 1)anislh history, the C:rc slit k to t1e twill elf lite storm reprt:uitt:ttive- jxtlinlarly edcetcd.lower'lempse (Folkcling) dltring the Formative years of parliatnentary. democracy. In its later years the !.atrlifirig fell to the po li tical Co ntrol of l ira m a j or parties, whereafter it rattle to 1.-v. regarded as an art :ic tie holdover from ea rlier c'ok pts of political ur;unii itiun. Ili the intemst of n+ meratic efficiency,' t }it. Etplwr lionise was finally discarded, alit# will it another elr ne=st o the checks and balances milcomitant institution of (lie impular refcrendiitlE .iti'.19;xl (see below),limughl parlianientary drrrtoeiacy hi Den FI to its. jiurest state,.. licgros over the derilise of ate Lelrldslirig, eWelit 0111mig a handful of snitch. a nsen�atie.r�, ltsivc l:tr};E 1� cli+.ip,tt "re, The Folkefing bas 179 mouser [iy vonstitutional p two n{e,rnbers Te :epmstitiicric .ill Cre enl :r1-ld and two in 11 vacr oc. 1slatlds Wli lc the nvvrseas representatives have not n orma lly vb te(l oil inamland issues, there has Iicelt nu 'Lonstitittional restriction preventing them from doing so. As t he legislative majorities needed to si�at goyerntnelhts o ld (o effect legislation becarne ilureasingl (liffictil.t tit command, these governments in the. closc'fy divid(ld Folketing, particularly in the 1976 tended to press the l:ue"Nse and Greenland representatives into participating in decisions oil all issues. Every metuber of the Folkaiiig no us[% lie at least 21 years of age. He is clectctl for 4 -year terra Irul tnav serve for a lesser period. delxnc#ing on this life olf tic Fi)lkef ng. 'rlic emphasis iti the elective process is.lnore ofterl ors .party ,than on the ability or charin of the iti(livicival candidate, who, as in the British system. is frequently not a resident of the (Ytmtit.ueney iit which Ike runs. The resulting concentration on uatieinal rather than on local l;: rty platforrits tends to devinpliasize ]rarely local cirnsideratimis and to uncotlrage a stmliger vviolral autborih�. It also rm(Iedines the essential similarity of probtenEs �lbc lack of marked sectional differences throughout this small 114mogerleoas kingdom. A tiewly elected Folkelting is required to c runic within 12 days after election clay and May sit contilmously for year. The parli;: nentary year lasts from the fits( Tucsday in October until ,tile same Tuesday of tits foliowilig your. During this spall. meetings are called at tilt ithitiativc of the presiding officer, the Speaker. and may nlso be coiled by the Prime Xliuister or Iiy ruilptcst of two fifths cif the parliamen me nibersbip. A majority of the total ineillbership conslinites a gtiorutn. I1ec lings are usually public. 'I'll( Cmistitution inquires the Prime ;vliniste'r to deliver a state of the llatiort nits >ager.aE the attuual eip wing session or parliaiuenta 'ri, ngolar parliamentary !w%sions are held at C: 1lalaix in Copenbagv'ii (Figure 2), The lidketirs; has a strung scrise of its own sovemignt; it �j, self governiog.and acts as judge,of its owls behaviof is member may be pr(ue('nted or iriipriumed without the cYiri,;ent of t lie Folkeling unless he is catiglht in the act cif �crimmittilig the crime. ruled over [IV a steering crinirnittee the 1' residijllil, file clarrlillalil f igu re of vll is t }le! Speaker, tisually a member of 010 leading lxiliticul party. Four Steptity spcakerti and .fitter parliamenlun seer( +t.t;icK, t}ie ddlter 1lavirig linniur}' nslxihsibiiity tit cotnit l#ic votes round mit lht lr;islative lhicrarrhw. ,Lluclt (117 of parlian. Bill i.r earded tin in conmtitim', whow resixiEisiliilitics have grciwn hv avy APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110016 -6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110016 -6 since the inauguration of the unicameral system. The constitution stiplilates that there shail be al 'Porcigil Affairs Committee and reyui?es that the executive branch L n stilt it "prior ten the malting of any decision of major importance to f treign ixolicy." The I rilkefirtg decades `14mm tenn to tcmi what ollicr regularly established committees it Shall have lddilionally, ad hex committees may he forrtlec[ to study particular bills, "T e stablished L'IimmiItees, of which there were some 20 �odd in the i 972 -73 session, av erage arutlod 17 members each. Mint of the important bills submilled for Polkeiing Consideration arc presented by the government, but private ineinber !ills are also allowed. After the first reaedingof it draft bill, a ditarmigh.studyof the measure is norma m idertaken by the appropriate regularly constituted Folkviring Co m mittee, a specially appointed art oleic legislative commission, or in mmic irlslatues, both. To lac emlctrd a1 Bill roust survive c6lical exarnirlatiorl ill committee, tangle deliale ilia the floor, and three parliamentary readings. 1-xce +ptions: to this rule are resolutions and tre�aly ratifications, whieb normally require of t.% two) readings. Final decisions on hills are elude by the vole of at singge majority of the palrliamciltary e111orurn ainstitutionit4 defill(xl ,'s "mores thin one lialf the members." (bleu passed by the Fvlkeriing. the bill is autornalivalliy signed 4)v the Monarch and [lie resixsu m inister, ufivr whiell it b ec t nllo w lase. Control over taxation, toe noising of public loans, natteralirltion of aliens, mud the v%leat to ��hied adieus Ima1y own real procxrrty a1re the v- selusive voticen; of tile 6 Folke ling. In order to pn -clude hasty considcration, the Coustillltion prescribes that it finance brill for the coming fiscal year he laid before the Folkethig by the goveroment not later tha ii 4 mont before the begilining of the ne15 fiscal year. to the event th it spilt' it-,' that the finauice hill will not be passed lw.forc the cnnimerlcemew of the new fiscal wear. a provisional appropriations hill must Ile introduced by the government for interim authorization by the Folkeling. T h e Constitution pnihihits ttie passage or new tax laws before: the Folkctbig has classed a firlatit-v or provisional appropriation bill for the fiscal year affected by the finance. measure. 'file Danish political system is weighted ill favor of p ar liament. rile Fulketing la x ill har,cl the destiny of ally Cabinet or illcmbe..r thereof by its power to brim; a rate� of mlr volifideiiee. Parliamentary members, with majority approval, may direct it formal interpellaltionl Eo a minister. A reply is normally retil6m] within 10 days, r1 member mlav also seek inforination from a minister with the passible imlent of harassment or ernbammsttlent, by diredi it question to him dmriug zinc .weekly parliamentary gileslion hour. The Falkcfirig mall' alppaillt S c elrllillitle`V.S to investigate ministerial activiticx tenth also may impe tell a minister and cauu him lu be tried by the Court of the 11valm. 'These Iwo pnxvdores, investigation ;Inc[ illilvae'hlme'llt, alTe rarely IISe:d. Another hasic sourm of control over the ext- crotiye is the Folkehrig's ixnwcr of tiler parse. 'Through its prc�mgiltive ter ;oaks on firt.111M bills and the-ri to vole appropriations and taxation invalsures, parlialmcnl r�. YOOiihlY .99ffYlR6aAP^u',`... r r APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110016 -6 FIGURE 2. Owistionsborg Palace, Copenhagen. The royal residence, the seat of the Supreme Court, the Ministry .of' Foreign Affairs, and the Chamber of the Folkefing. (aboveY{UjGUi APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110016 -6 f..n....i .....w zd..: n...W.. -h .s "iti.:..: v... ......i. iaa......r:.'...i r.. a -n a r., b. a. sr '..:...r -A-,. .4.y.- :^:.tS. "tiw. r] r LJ ON dire,-!IV influences lxilicy. Further safeguarding its dorninvurt jlosition in money runt: cis, the Folkeling appoints auditors, whose jail it is to check thefirauncial accounts of li te ministries. As Mentione earlier, t he parliumentary Foreign Affairs Committee intist be consulted before the government` tinclertakes a major -let of forcigp policy. Dcmnark, along with Sweden, Norway, and Piuland, has adopted the institution of the onibudsmmn, or public affairs commissioner. The l)anCS sLetcptcd tIlis uovcl institution i 1953, just 13.1 years after its creation by the Swedes. The 1953 Constitiltiiin provided ,for tike upimintntent br pa7liament of one or t%y(j persons to protect the rights of the individual Dune against official abuse. Since the inception of- the office lit 1955, Deriniarkrhas had only one ombudsman, although two arc aulhorized l,y the Constitution. The first person appr�ntcd. to the office, 5lerphen llurviti, 1, l,1)., a Hig rcrjxctcd professor of eritn.irial law, was sncceetled in 1971 by Lars'N'ordskiw Nie i. 1.. 6., the former Director of Prisons Administrations. The ombudsrrian may investigate national g"we"Imcut officials of all grades, i teluding those- on [lie ministerial level. Certain Ioval officials. are included iii his purvicx, but not lite judiciary. The ombudsman may l ook ililo cases. make eriticisms of official conduct, "110 turn tile public spotlight o inji,sticei bill he may itot carry out justice b y 41ims.A Inst ead. lie may snake -Leomr nendatio ns to p a r liament or the c arts. fie renders tie, annual nrport' to the Frolkeling, tit whose pleasure isc serves. (lie most be- reappointed after each general election.) lie receives alxlul 1 ctiomplaints a year, up 32So over the period of the latter 1956's: -nd early 19CM. of these, about 7.3% ate, rejected as invalid. 'rhe ,'emaiuing 25% are then investor ulcd.and thkint one fifth of these culotiriale in ecnstore from the orribodsrnan, sir hi referral by hinf of the cases to: the Public 1 or late courts. The critical attitude toward the offidolls official. Cot1111lon to the ega mile, puovidcs a symtxltltietiu climate within which the ottibudsman may operate. An Ills nearly tw'a d ecades of service, the umb6dsinan has hewme one of Denniurk s mo=st influential figures. While tale Danish legislators niny feel confident of their ability to keep the'cxerutive hrarteli'in line, they also the aware that they and their work, sire stilled io the judgment of. the elector ate, whiell at bast once every v1 years has the right to deprive them their hig prized po p osillon and pnw'cr. B means of the jX)IMl :ir referendum, another innovation of the 19TA Cionstilution, Trost categories of the national legislation may be subjected to [lie review of [lie electorate and may on occasion be defeated, as the goverrimcnt land lwvs in June 1963. One -third of late nteinbers of the Folkrllitg inay deriand a referendum, and if 601 It a majority of those voting in the referenduin and not less than 30% of all eligible voters sty "Ito," thin the bill is defeated. Thus the mfereeidurn inav take the initiative fmrn the representatives of the people squarely to the p:mplc, providing a .further popular check on governine pmee s%cs. Perhaps only among the Danes, and lileir similarly pragmatic, homogeneous Scandinavian neighbors. can so popularly responsive a political system continue to stork LIffectivcly. Exe.nrpt from the rcferendum are gills relating to government finance. treaty obligations, and certain other special categories. 5. Civil service Public servants in Denmark, like those Tit other Teulo.niet anal some -Latin Fumpeaii countries, enjoy a certain prst`igc in the society. Partly this stems fiuln their relative probity asid effectiveness. Following a probationary period. tenurei in the service is assured up to t #le rank's dirt -ctl_� below that of ln'nister. Thus, the Civil servant tends to share Milt the Mouueih the continuous and permanent political tradition and proOdes a steady hand for the exercise of lo:ig- establislicrl policy, a condition highly agreeable to the relatively smooith ru.siniug Danish welfare state bill one occasionally disagreeable to a Cabinet minister with new ideas. The higher echelons of (lie civil service are occupied almost invairiabl� by those with a niliversily edtrcatiian. The prestige -that comes with an appofi linent te public o ff ice, however, is not yet mutchcrl by the pay scales which have laligitished behind those prevalent in private industry acid have caused the di4vctign of some hig #ier. exper!s friini the pilb]ie: se wits". Decility iisiially lakes preoedence over w:ariderlwQ In the Danish:charactcr, however. and talc promise of a siMble licrlsion 1`1145 helped 'overcrime such restive as ntav'exist. A civ il`servanl nitly #v, discharged if the di- vision has the concurrence of the appropriate boards and llie elrnlxrte�.ot minister, but by tradition the' employee enjn }'s :a high degree of'job.sccurily Ai id by regulation is' protected against arbilniq r or dismissal. Quuli:calio:is for rmpleiyment lend to he less explicitly set down 1111111 in the U:S. system, altitougb a ctlmpOitive merit tv. 'eal is generally'. ill effect. While l#tc 'eivi servant is exlicetcd to be neutrat lit the exercise of his duties. he is gunlinteed exemplar. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110016 -6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/1 CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110016 6 freedom of expremivn in lm liti rs and is even permitted to }role! elective Office fell the national or local level without aacrifiev' of }iis }ecrree:tnc nl jeep slatus< 6. Judiciary Danish law initially mved litllc to Romaii or clminmi hov antcYceletils but, rather, had a history of ils own. stretching.1xick at least eight crnluries. In Tile year 1210 there were three sepa -atc geographic areas of jurisrlietloll. caell with its own system of lac.. Jullanci, 'Lcahutcl, and,Sc;tura in ihr prescu# southern Swedvu- The Jutland Code gradually eatile lit supplant the others throughout the kiilgdorn. bul,was them supplemmited�iu different regions Nvith diflerent local vilactritcnts of Significance. fit MA a LYllnp relic iisiye atn.11gatlll:ltiol1 to impose ultifortnity was mithmakcrt, uml the C.mle of King Christialrl V arts set down in the sum eding twsl t�cnturies. however; rusk} additiosiA legal legid,alion, reflcelitig Itn11; Iiultian and a.rtueirilt 1:11 infltirnocs, was promulgatrd, .witholit bring incorporated into the code ploper. Effor lit a, renmm altnaEl!ittitittlll!!, begun in the mid -140i ceututy, culminated in the passilge ill 14116 rif the Admiltistraliou of Justify Act (Arts >>l.14oven). wh ich cellt into force in 1910. Willi "Lehr: `th:ttl a thouwtncJ scc11011s, this ctiltttprchettziyc stalile it a basic Civil C:ettle and sets forth legal fxuccdelrr 'I 'll 1104111 civil and criminal c: ies A conniireliansive Criminal C:ndc (straffelov) eras collatcei .tktrrrngh a series of studies mt- 110ttlly lermivatcd in 1923, and was firtaify appro atd enarte(! in lt3:3U. i'llc.l)arrish Criminal Corte is primari,'y concerned ivil}i o f fenxis` c 4 crreril ?ti'estern usuge as critncx against -,(Gust Ilk the Danish milld t }le wilabilitaliliu`of the criminal takes preiAlvace hoth morally and legally over retributive. justice. Sentences genemily, are lerticnt,'aitd orison i lvimlinlent;; re flect .111r .rnlighfcttccI penlre16 y frig which Scandinavia has pitted iorld renei m' Deprivatimi of liltcrty rema t primary penal felt It ,c &tkillat ad.'Itti specia ccnsi(Jc.ratiorl. is rcrt:iin cases: the llwlltiilly distlir�kit-fl, yolititfell offenders, atlt!' Act iholkcs..`C:1lrilaI ponislime- t,0 and 19 64. Since is o rld War 11 the Strcial. Drinacruts have experienced a leadership pnblem,. its a sucressioll 0f Socialist Pritne Ministers. inisters failed to ,Copal prewar ,rtrongmap Scanning in leadership tlmllities or en( 1urince. Halts Hunt rfl died in AIM ill 1445: having: sery d Its Prime Minister for a I'A )-curs. I I. C. I hinsen died i1t. 19 after heading tw governments, luslillg 11 total o .5 Wean. Viggo Kaltlprtlanli retit"I from the Prime Wilislry.itl 1962 fnrreltsons of lleullh of let 211 )'CLIa 'servicle. jens.01 to,Krlg, tIli) at.agr47 hecume .1)cuntnrk's ymingest Prime Minister, Proved himself 4 pnselliable and generally effective leader. though not sei dvilamic aplxuling, or clever a titles INS to ntaitttain ,fur the "�iri:il Dealovals their lxak electoral strcngth'of the ea rly and ill let- l9[itl's: Ills last politicid. struggle. was ill the out0mic a res(elridiiig Siiecr.SS =i: notional referelltlim in which .111 ulprcctAented turnout elf ulnlosl W% of lltc elctitonite allpmved entry of i}enm ;irk' into the 1 by a iititjoritj of 63.5% 1'lic resulting internal divisiafis within the SIM. h owever, alld e relatiltrish J4 anti -E _MI1' ,;illy may }i:ive ,bumf actors in his decision t(i reMgfi, 'Knig's iiiitiidly l ccontntyersiul Sum mor. labor leuder An ker Jorgenson, seemixi dvillonstnite the .�lexibilit }y' "Ild overall leadership Ciip,diililicS, .tti retnlltc (lie party fully nd elicit c'iifisisient SFI'snl3Extrt in pilrlianteill. 14 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110016 -6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110016 -6 Krug and his several Socialist predecessors tredltlefnally looked right, to the lefhving of the Danish libaal movernent. as represented by the Radical ,1.ilieral Party, for the support ncxdcd to form a1 vialdc g lve nunent. Followving khe 19W election. in -which the S46al Democrats lost 7 seats avid the leftist Socialist People's Party gained [U, Krug tume:i instead to the SFP and struck an infomial alliance social Democratic spollsored domestic legislation would first be coordinated with the SFP. Kral s seeming shift to the left represented a bow to political pragmatism rather than an%� evident effort on his part to radicalize Danish social dernocracy. Krag's shaky rpoasi- coalition with the SFP lasted only 13 months. In December 1967 six of the fornter foliclwers of Akseel Larsen broke ranks over the continued collaboration, of the SFP with the Social Democrats and- fornied the left Socialist Party. Nonetheless, when the SDP again as_surned the reigns of power in October 1971. it was With the rlcr..&A parliarltclitary suPperrt of the rump SFP, granted on rsscntially the s.tme amditions as in 1966. Within the SDP the debate contintws rx- gurditig the appropriateness of the allialtty. in view of SFP opposition to such' fundaniental Social Demcvratic external policies as actessiotl to the E! and contin( led adherence to NATO. Even the pragmatism that first prompted the allia lICC is rlowy ellicstiortcd in tltie light of an apparent shift to the right lay the Danish electorate. The moderate political prlgnritism that enabled the Party to accomplish vi rntich scents pitted against the ideological commitmeiet of those who sec in thr. aetivist Swedish social deinocrao. an orthodoxy they wweitild wish it) Ilat restored to (lie Danish SDP. Such durnestic .Imlicies as Minotnlic democracy� income leveling, pnfifit.shariug,.alnd the participating of labor if) management planning �coidd best he pursmrxl, their feel, by looking to the left for support, Rm-ognivillg tiler velfarisrn in Denmark approalchcs sat,iratti6wand"thirl further ISIXaltielrl for its ext> finsion would be intolerable. the new idwiogues sire urging instead reforms lit the allocation of Ienefits that wvotlld hilsten ibii leveling of inctmtes. As cif. mid -19 3, however, despite the SFP alliatrace and coiltintied internal] bickering, the SDP mmaius Iltlached tar' relatively ntexlerate, fonvard Irtokirig Ftimpican selcial democnicy. The party advoca les state regillatieill ilk iridtlstn'.,agrielrlteln:, and 6)nlnlercc fear the purjxi cif achieving maximum prpditcUon acid the'reliy the.fiigliest Ixicsiblil standards. of living. The SOciid Democrat 11* that 'proper holdings aEld irireitnes lie sn 'ml;ulated through {trite anal sallan ccmlmis, taxation, and. instal mei11611re.5 a to bring obsM a Anow nearly eye�n distributions of etaltnlnal wealth, F1111 employment, Lonsu protection. fi iidcyuate .housing. and eximmitxl social Ncrvi(s an. seine of the ohjectivcw of their d0inestic pnigrain_ No longer the partimits of econarnic nationalization, they advocate the harmovliowi e-exxistemcc of private enterprise, [lie coi)perative movement. and slate c otegirise. In foreign lxrlicy and defense matters the Si iatl Democratic Party has altered its Imsition considerably since World War 11, abandoning its old platforvn of neutrality. pacifism, and disatrmantemt in favor of enhanced cooperation aniong the Scandinaviatl countries in all fields, economic integration with Western lsnrope. and stanch supixitt for the United Nations, as well as adherence to regional security Imcts until such tune as ititernatiotial cvmdilions permit eiisaritiameent w'iIh adr(Ittate controls. The� partystands by its 1949 decision to enter NATO. despite the continuing dissent of Socialist It-ft wirigors, The latter eleincnt had 1wen partkdly aplaeased by the linil;iteral hall on the preselicr of fowigli troops or nuclear weapons on Dollish soif in little of ileace. But the SDP's Inngstanding agreement with its political ally to the left, the SFP, to press for ;k natiom:11 piebiscite oil the�.gw,stion of NATO nirrtibership, was no;' how)red. Instead. ill Felireaary 197:3 the SDP entered into a four parly agreement with the Consenaitiyeeti, the Hastiest Liberals, and the NUAvrate Libera N ;Io maintain Denvnark's NATO force .levels niore or less at their prrteent low state tllrou,,If 1977. E?or more than a decade, largely hecause of lukew'artn Social Derttocratic support. Danish troop and ntatcrici contributions to NATO have fallen well short of e'etmnittn:ent. Asa fitrther evide nkr of its outwaid- looking stalrtty. the Imity is pledgmi to a prograin of aid to lesser developed wmi^trim'. As%befils Desk rmark's largest early, [lie SDP is closely knit, well riltt. and largely Externally, it eooix�rule% individually with other. 1XIrticill,trly ElttntPean, Socialist parties, and Collectively wvith the Socialisl Internatirinal_ internally, it 11.1.1I& se: ties to, and to some e0vitl even sharrs its identity with, thr Dainish.Federation of Trade Unions (1.0)arid with the Urban Consumer CrNtlx:ratti.c �gssoe7ati;tin. The SDP sprtnsors evoiiing classes in civic affairs. Ixil�_lics, acid practictil and ac;ldentic stillit,vts. According to tile? SDI' constitution, till? 'national party congress is the most powerful organ. Mvetitlg at least otice. every -i years, this body of about ,i0[1 voting acid sornte 2M isoi voting delegates reline ents At c�lettrritts ill the pairty orFallizatimi. One delegate� pef 1,(1[1{) ntiembcrs is'e leYitcd 7rorrl the 120 -mid dtstrld orl;anii.ttiritt., .trill delegates with a u,nlew halt smaller constituency repo -seat the provincial units, trade unions, ctiopterattivos, and p6rty youth. The tx1rlgri'm APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110016 -6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110016 -6 theormicully determines basic party p olicy and elects the" national officiwls. lit practice, however, Ihr corgress tends to Indorse the recommends -flons of (lie nodolull committee, although not without oc- casionally lively debale. The nulionul commilice or main board (hoved bestyreLse) meets quarterly: it bandies party affairs belweerl congreswes :grid largely determines programs gild. the nontinaiiian of candidates to high party positioo. The eoinrliiW,%c' also approves the nontina- tians of all candid to tllc 1'o1ke,10 Two third% of its �15 members are elected b y (lie I_Yl on, a geographical. basis; (lie remaioder arc the nlenalx rs of the e xe cut ive, colnrIlitlee, all o f whom are ex off do The executive c6mini:lce (formtldrlgsudl;alget) ha :is its: muiii funtlimis [lie direction of the party fit latices, control elf expenditures, and the dutermirm- tion of the budget. It is comprised of the chairmim, vice. chairman, treasurer, abort four clecled smielari the chairman of the party group. in -tile Folkeling, two rcprrsentadves (:neluding its chairman) from' (he LU a 0d clue from thy 6xiper4lives, a representative frt)m the SDP Yotith UrganivAtion, the e ditor ill chief of lite Social P erlkleratic newspalwr; Aklueh, the head of the party's provincial pres`,,and a represertiaativta farm the cabiltel if Ihr, burly is i11 Ikiwer. b. Moderate Ubemf early Unlike the enfeebled lilmraal movcrtient in other western Eurojwaii comitries, i)anish l0wrallisnl. is an active and thriving force, nodouhtedly- the secmd siritrty organiiaitions. fart}' discipline is considerably less strict than ill social I)cmncratte ranks, and the party hierarchy is,-nmch rnorr! lexlscly corp;unizrd. In keepilig with its,,entphasis on self- reliunce,. the !vt 1 has Ix-en h istorically' based on stomp, lo ciil units. T national organiirtion was not even established until 1929, and in 1973it remained m3ativel;: the weakest arming the Significant 1xiolie's vis -a -vis the l .oall (irg:lt117alik)tls: All tile local party organi�railions Mthin all doctoral district .are gathered into it mnstiluency org:inizartion. Next co rues the pr o vincial orp ariiYation, and theci tire, regional arguni7action, of which there are. three. on the I ational level the iuuluu) ctinp;ress is theorclically the highest tuilhtirity and decides all cpuestilms exinceminp [lie M LP program, It elects tite .chairman and .vice c h a {rin;trl, its well sis three nienlbers of the national ctirnmittee. Delititrs scd of.. the party chainnan, the- chairinert of the duce regional on anivatiuns; and three`oth er c cmix rs o f t he ft:It1u11:11 C1111t1111ttCe, :lillnlitlJtl p:lrtY,'a from Aity to iA the sotChli i)emetc Mid the Moderate l iberals the C"nservltiivi- spOlIsur eve .IMi -classes thmuglithe Pop ithlr.Educalion ll Assetciation: lircausv of its large ant) istflilclici -11 press; the C:nn crvatic Party: rna still curry its .titessiige cffeclivciy: Altli(itigl the luity enjoyed ottly' 1 -Y voler support acs mling lu r eys i11 earl 4 1073, the Couni-ative :prms circul ;Mon ren a I neirrls� on third of: the' lriial ltild i r1clildO t he la rgest.41I.T' circulati(in' 211 0 and 'second largest (Herlengskc T(dencic circulation (50,(11x1) d1:liew. 1Vtlli :tlte extTplioli,of the exlkinding H. T, there dries appear t:I be an influellee of the quality Conservative newspapers, e. Parfie i of hff fir 141, Tile' stntnghuld or. the Social Drrnrienitic. fatty eril the icfrirmist sector :of the D1111i5h'P!PC has.lefl lltc: lNarzitit .irvolnli(iiinrio re*lal.ivch little 1,reuthing.. niei in. .orgaltirel iii 11119 from :ir wing 'of tilt SUP, tllc Comrtiunist V;uiy. if 1) cnlnark (60j made it t'l'Spl'ctiihlC show lfl islative_ an(! erceulive 1) nelies of gover mmit and sitli{rlification :ci goveM lenlal administration. It 23 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110016 -6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110016 -6 k 3 world t-liminatc s:i nie ministries and reduce t he simm of atlncrs. The ludellelide rils push a "sound" rnuinetary pi >licy: liheraliwA bade, restraint oil taxatio and cxpen tures, and a "Christian wav of life." Although willit% to abide an "economically sound" social uelfam prograru,.lhe Indeiwiedents would prefer thal'primary emp si,s b e plac on in surance system. 'I'll( party sujoixorts NATO and rec iticreased cxlvrndi- tilmn. to me the n ation's military requirements'. Afti r bring s!iut out in HKA and 1957, its first two elm -lord tries,. thepart w on six and five sca respectively. in the 14fi0 and M4 elections but fell ctmsiderably short Of rook ting represcnlutimi in IV-Ai and 1968� d. Liberal Center Party The mtniber of liheral mavements fminded in Denmark during the last IM years exemplifies lih ubidin}; filillr ill indMdaalism. TIM latest, the Libcrat Center Party, is the frail creation iif two furkner, menthcrs r plaMd. ott the thr :inliinilrtarist trrntl of several cicc:ules. This ch loge, e[mtin(iirtg ext enslim 0 ..Cos Nrlfum lx:nefits tind tier 'of semi" ter t hr[iught:surim.slig4it "impmvcnirnt iri tile' ecr nuiuntint{ t trxms`: nee ded it) sustai �i them: phv+iril! dcfenSCs' I)(: wiiniark. k", the luthroak f World.:.'Var::I1 to 'W A Rcc[,gnirir,g that thrit t:lxcti arm tits sM-.o 1d highrxt in pt( miter .1939 Apturcntl} the lrcc :wiirld: aftrt ihtise iinlx>retl. slit �lieir:Sacdislt ".however, thcre. was little, if any, tmprovemrnl in the LYlil \I nc, tit! i t(1 14trir111S lit lil!`ti iiri prlr.ltverl to go'rucy +will k1) reskst aggrrsinta. l]ai,iti }r mllitam Fora\, still on fnrtlter srici ;iliritiiin and wiclfiitis rit':'C4r rethri: wen inucle(liratc. ,ffnwd virttiei nii`rexi stance kl icri tiyntrtnic eretrs�i,renrltss, whose itna- i'tlatiott, eg: Ilrc C:crman'i w Mgn`.foree,irrivcd on 9,April 1910 in' APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110016 -6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110016 -6 v olation (if the German-Danish mutu ntmaggression part signed in ma 1939, Supporters iif dis.lrmumeril.and nonalignment were generall discredited as a re sult o f Da Kish expenernces during World :War: Il The invasion :nerd occnpatime crcated,' %Vldespread resolve that s[iclt' a national disaster should hie er -I)c rcpi -W M. In the earl po, %var Eicritx} ser was. sharp divider!: nonetheless; as to what goal ao pursue: the Western Alliance a Sendinivian drfense.ulliance. ar, f orm of neutrality. 1t was scion evident tliut militarv.. nonalignment, and reliance oil ihe ncholiils security guarantees of fil United N utinrmwas air unre elloiec in.a old thell diAdIng into wo.hntagnnistic hliirs: A Scandinat.�ian defense systo appealed, cniotionallv.. z tic the Dances bu e t appeared .unftlsiblc lieltbl in the f;ttc of groving Soviet puw*cr and iri light o conflicting defense.: policies, intcreMs, unit Inlditions :srtliing lllc ileticntiul nlcinlicrs"of sorb all alliance:. After,vinsldera debate,' Ucntmtrk..rejeetcd bxitlt a Sw'celltilt style nentrulity a nd:a Sc tndinaviarl defer alliuncc`arid in _April M91 entered Nrl'I'O aliing uitle N("iiv, -The` motion tea join: NATO carried. by an overwhelming 1141 to 23 vote. 'with the. Sue al Deinmrais, %Mcl(lernte Libe.rais, and Conwcrvulives in so"I"part. the Justice P arty. split," and i he Gifninnunisis an Radical: IJ ctt ilS :ill: sapp[)sltll l: ve n tuu ly tls: O'N Itadicul t.ilrcrils softened their anti -NATO stated. IWA tlsir. Immediate 'defection frorn the :traiditiollal governing aIliancc,wilh 1146 Social Dcritncraiic.l'urly c nst the latier c enrol) of file gnvcrtlmciil fmni':1915i}.t(i Even ilfter;their: entry into NATO� thc. peones ctintinued: 1) he stn w irlgly- inflow, by tleeir earlier tniditions, an(l.. lllei }lave :rentaincd less" chain: fully. riimnliltel ref lane i, }!tone- eit }ter in attittide,or in tent' "of finandal slipilint and towi co mmit ments,' A s lies. of .1mlilical cYtritpr(Intiscs over,the )rats, purticulurly hetwern`tile SiTi d Democrats and thew r IririFist,ll }ices. ern file left pr6v011W the military establishment from wacbing talc. status 0! 1111. adega:nte national defense. felrcv Not'anlv:did the'miltion; vrrvici fait ll ulcer. the NATO f( tree. "gals;`bnl tile}' even fell sliiirl oaf floc nuii (na! goals cC clown .iii flee hi+fcnsc Act of I91t Wiled! io.Juru had been reduced I'min "the gcual+ set f[arth in defense lcy;ixliitieiri of IA3[1 =$1 [)vcr t }ee yciirc; tile.. Icrms nF ary service wen: punixi a AlIv rc'clilcecb su't mt ill 19}+3 cYtisuriptl(sin'`firilc was Set at ill] 9 months; As im ieuircl h 114c thinness cif the.inilitinr Fiim(ti set Mind. the Dunes leave' lucked .t lie 'txililiraI will to fin[IrtC'e an adc(tllate defense CSt [llli511111�nt.`,,xpCll( t: I tires feir th( ntilit:iry zrclor have triditiomilly lxWll U1111421 e� ;s ilimplar. ih.ut. ttutbleis for tlia, sector.. and as file threat of attack fr(>m the East has seemingly waned, so has' the inclination of political leaders to risk, public disfavor by bolstering.,the defense budget. Nevertheless, the. agreeincilt ,reached in February 197M among the flier slmng.^sl lxililiral lartirs, the. SDI the Coi servativcs. -ihe M 1.1'; and the 111 fngeth(:r. conl 9U;` of the Fo lkrllag s eats. re[lms[ttts. sginc Enikirig �F -flee: davina'ard slide: in NATO alnlmilinient. It provides over a -1 -year period fo r:a 61 increase in. real lorries far, the defense budget. Although;ctinseription time vas reduckt, overall forme levels were.. cut far.less.�thare had been feawd falling just sh I tly short of Danish 7 Defense .C'.umrnand ;3rnpnsuls �in all thine services. And.lhe agreement Contains, tlimugh tite ii'eivly rrratrtl' Defcnsc ficview Committee. a guarantee against furlher.cutc fortbc.a ycar period. This cnritmittce, atnpnsecl''of twii represcrltatives: each from the' four p[slitical partics effecting the. 'Compromise must give unanimous vollselit to any ciiariges in' tile; :defense.. budget; cni slim the slrnitgly pot -NATQ C.tinscivutives and 41(x }enitc l. to exercise a clo: Perhaps in( 15l 'Slb*113fii7llltlV. the 197,3 ;defense agree.mcnt, fallowing as i t does nanish the'. FC, .lcaders evidence a: sense of mission in their snpprort of internatnmal peacekeeping` and least- West. "1ridgehnildinR efforts:: w.' T Urdtew Notions Denmark was an ortginul ;member :of the United Nations, has taken ai positive :role "in' U inner councili acid out side ;activities rzd haWJustified its own vctivlty in o her, international orgimizatirms on the basis` of the` lsrinriples rif:: the VIN. Charter. De.nutark's ro'W in dtn' Unitcd Nations is,Ivascd on a strong iefenlrstC uttrae iron to the rancept of international crxiperatieiit and is generally supportcel try Ua :zrs cif all pnlitfr. {l hues :Tn the extent.. that the Uviitccl Nation% failed tci live up to its original pmmisc I s the guanrntor of inteniation:il sectjrilv,`the Danes have been disappointed, ..but: tliev. have .shown :i'.: reudinfisti to work fora stm- ngthening it its;prnctical .prngrumz rind for itn cnliancrrticnt of its prcslige. within the franvw(nk Detimark seek. the "Ile 3) APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: of a. conciliator, thotgh not at the expciue of principle. Denmark supported the Security Council action against the military aggression of North Korea in 1950 and hacked U.N. ffarts to "restrain the U.h.S:1i. during its suppression of both tlie.11 unguriari Revolt in the .full of .1956 and' the Cnmho Slovak bid for Stwialisni %with- a.humun face in the late summer of 1968. Denmark has continued to play an active part ire seeking a icsolution to the Arab Israeli conflict. .Danish troops have served as u putt .of peacektyeping farces in the Congo, Cyprus, and the Gaza strip. CAipenhagen has occasionally expressed unhappiness over the latenes. and paucity of U.N. fina� sing of such operations. Together vith Nonvai S%,vedca. and Finland, Denmark has moved to "talilish a .permanent standby force of About 3,000 men, which Can he placed .at the disposal of.the. United Nationsat short notice if needed to meet an emergency. Denmark_, through its membership con. the U.N. C`.ommittee. ort' Decahoniraticon, has assisted at the Birth of several new nations and has sotight to tm diate in a rea s of friction betw Alm-Asian members and the European powers. .A Danish tendency to sympathi-,w with emergent nutions.has led to.friction loctwcert Copcnhngzn und. other E:urnpean capitals, particularly [.islxin. Danis,S etmtriloutitins to the U.N. technical assistance programs ute among the world's. largest whc :i tYtnsidered in lerma esf size of ilic Cottntn�. The Dunes have followed closer- the U.N. sponsored efforts. to reach .agreement Seri disarmarnen and have regretted the lack Of progtMS in this area. lit find wwith its fro gr>rntlr� cnunihatcd gcia] of genera) und complete disarmament under international co:rtrol,` Denmark has hailm' the Nuclear. Test Bare Treaiv of 1963 and the' Nuclear Nonpro liferation` Treaty if 1969: It liar. ctintintzed; to support the efforts of the C`.nifcmitec of khc'.(:cnnrriittcc not .Dkarmanient at Tito Qane�s,.: however, have taken 'the: NATG line three disarmament accords mist lie hacked by effective inspection prtrvisisins Jk.= Frrrnpc In the post War 11 pen6d the Danes have showil somr1 eivalencein their relatianship tco their.' .:`fellow F.urnpea,ns: A :pulil:call� arid'ccbnorrttetllv,`' unified Europe an rntiein pms ecr, and vet for small, prcttd, pnosperttts Denmark the" practical.: consecluencc% pf.heing a part of such a`g" iath'are it ca Use fnr' scinu;:vloubt: 1For: ilte bones': EUrnpean economic:lntegration is more, attractive dwit:political nnian, for Dcnmitrk must tra e. to llve.:De tin ark i_s.:. ulmost bereft: of new; materials and must, in .older to tin it its imwwts, and m its� high eeonumic X01- 00707R000200110016 -t3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110016 -6 standing, export one -third of its gross national product. In the latter 1.960's nearly half of Danish exports went to the UX -led European Free Trade Association (EFTA), which Denmark joined in 1960; 2841: went to the European Econo�lie Gcltnmunity (EEC). .Although:comfortable and at home with the United Kingdom and the other Scandinavian countries in EF'T'A; economic necessity dictated that Denmark Seek u close relationship with the EEC. Thou, in 1961 Denmark followed the U.K. example, in applying for C:ommou. Market rncrnllership, The breakdowrr of negotiations on the U.K. app!,ic -atiou in 1963 was a hard blow to Denmark, for the Danes had foreseen the acccplanCe of the United Kingdom as leading to the entry- of Denmark. At one juncture, fonner Prince ,Minister Krag, reflecting Danish alexiety, :suggested that the Scandinavian countries not await another U.K. try, but .make a joint application by themselves, a move vetoed by Norway and Swederi. The reapplicalion by the United Kingdom in 1967 was swiftly followed by Denrnurk.'s reapplication. In the wrid round it was dearly understood in Copenhagen that Danish entry into the EEC was no longer con- tingent ter., British entry and that Denmark might choose to proceed on its own. By mitt -1971 the Danish bid to enter the EEC, now called the European Communities, hail' not only the strong backing of the Liberal-Conservative governing coalition, but of the lurgc majority of the Social Democrats as well. Orlly file far left, including the Social Democrats' SFP ally, remained clearly opjxiwI_an opIx.ition apparently reflecting the wishes of slightly more than on -third of tlse population. It wads. a facial Democratic gavcmrnent that ultim,11cly led Denenark'into the EC on 1 January IW3, foliiwing the natiimal refcretedatn of October 1972, in which 63.5% (if those participating (aihnnst 9 of the electorate) voted yes and 36.5% vole d "INC Denmark has been art active member of the Organization (or E conomic C and Develilpment (OECD), fornwily_ OEE since its inception and helongs to suckother regionO cc -ofiO nit; orgurtizAdions anel internaitionarl trade' conventions as the Eurpr :lot MUnetuty Agrcentrnt ated the Genera t Agreement con Taeriffs and 'I'radc; (GA'I" ry Growhig Da nish erii `iofe>trutiori :III the et4ntliml&are'a hiss notllxtCneli to Idle pellmtieal sphere. This rccervc has: ste met III' Iarxe tncasurre from` the }rrtslxtit that a -1Vest I?urope to sets ties wouki lie dominatecl'hy, lVe'st E:entriity still are irhjrrt ef Danish di3lrust;aiO 11" Y Gaullist rrance ,with`its ctintinentalist 'almpm,tih upilnila Gum U S. lit I. enee 1'he'`reservi stem5'iilsn fnnin cdisincliniition. to:omerge s. from the insular Nordic regionalism, where for two decades the ethnically similar Nordic countries coordinated their social .1mlicies with marked suctvss, unfettered by any eortlplicating outside commitments. The Nonlic Council was founded in 1952 to bring together `annually the government minister: and legislators of Norway, Sweden. Ireland, Finland, and Denmark with its Faeroese self- govenling depend- ency. The Ministers and foreign ministers of the member countries usually meet twice a year, and expects in various fie are in frequent contact throughout the year. But the Council itself has no power other ILL to recommend that member countries act pursuant to its upproved resolutions. Nevertheless, the Centncil has achieved considerable ,progress lot nonpolitical mutters, such as the eslablishment of a common Nbor market, lire elimination of passpoitts for travel within lite Nordic area, passage of joint or reciprocal laws relating to social welfare, taxation and the regulations of private business, 'and coo ill llte communications and transport fields. By provision of the Helsinki Agreement of 19M, the Nordic countries '`ought" to hold cimsultations before they take a stand on power- political questions- in'intemational otganir lions. The reasoning was that by reaching prior �agrceinent' in their attitudes on major queslions in world polities which did not affect their awn security interests,, the Nordic states would he able to win far greater understanding for their views as a united groan.. than they would be able to do individually., Such pri'mncultalimi has leemenc cuMnmary, although Copenhagen was embarrassed! in 1965 when it introdieeedi without prior consultation a resolution its the D.N. Geuertl Assembly concernil* Ixwil>le sanctions against South Africa: Nevertheless, a proposal. made at a Nordic C'Amnd[ session in 19; to make precumesullatiou muodatolry Was rejected as superflumous.. With EC accession lit January 1973. Denmark will inevilubly be drawn into the West Euitipean orbit With as yet, indeterminate effect opt Nordic cooperation: The commt,sr. Nordie'laixr market, for ezatuple, tritest now stake alirowamlcrs for Danish commiln`ents and respF no mare. tllari l n :[IItQ, Furh`ls h adet! !ii 'u 'chief cx1ristahlr %his has are itF. -m ore aiYiclant: d elirneling'ati the sixG o Ilir district: .Appiiinlyd ia the Mnnarclt on !hr nVollirnriiif.itiou." leer Minister. elf. jnstive tlre eisn.t :blc h.t elcreet rr5 onslltility f