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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA� RDP01- 00707R000200110017 -5 SECRET &S /SCI 0 R s r 1 J Denmark March 3974 NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY t ,-SSECRET NO FOREIGN DISSEY I -.a; .4 ;.n:�h: "�'.'.!'i ::'51' 9: v. i43" IC, h. aitrD 'za,rarwe...e.w.,ne�.an .awerww�cr. �w APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA� RDP01- 00707R000200110017 -5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110017 -5 WARNING The NIS is National Intelligence and may not be re- leased or shown to representatives of any foreign govern- ment or international body except by specific authorization of the Director of Central Intelligence in accordance with the provisions of National Security Council Intelligence Di- rect';: a No. 1. For NIS containing unclassified material, however, the portions so marked may be made available for oti 15cial pur- poses to foreign nationals and nongovernment personnel provided no attribution is made to National Intelligence or the National .ntelligence Survey. Subsections and graphics are individually classified according to content. Classification /control designa- tions arer (U /OU) Unclassified/ For Official Use Only (C) ConfidenticA (S) Secret Y ry LS APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110017 -5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110017 -5 CONTENTS Tpiis chapler mpersedes fhe scientific cover- age in ilie General Surveil dated March I4G8. A. General 1 B. Organization, planning, and financing of research C. Scientific education, manpow.r, and facilities 4 D. Muior research fields 5 1. Air, growid, and naval weapons 5 2. Biological and chemical warfare 6 3. Nuclear energy 6 4. Electronics 7 Si CnEr NO r0RLIG,. DissF:Ni APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110017 -5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110017 -5 Page Page 5. Medical sciences 7 b. Physics and mathematic, 9 8. Other sciences 8 c. Astrogeophysical sciences 10 a. Chemistry and metallurgy 8 Glossary 12 iZON Page Fig. 1 Organizations for scientific and technical research, 1973 (chart) 2 ii APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110017 -5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110017 -5 r r Science A. General (S) I)ctnnark has a Moderate capability for scienlifie and technical research. 'I'lic overalt effort is rest ricled by limited financial resource* but there are many competent scientists, trod the epuality of rrsC.lrell is goad. 'I'hc volume of researell is less than. in such neighboring countries. as Sweden and the Netherlands, hot greater than in NOrw;ey. Prior t about 19.10 the ii)an researc h'offort was slanted toward agriculture, bnt especially since World War 11, With the rapid e:xpansion.of the industrial sector, industrial scielltifk: research has increased. Dentnark is cor:siderably stronger in basic research than in applied rewarell, however. B; Loncentrathig on fundamental research. and by emphasizing those aspects of sciences that der not require large investments in expensive equipment. Denmark is able to make important conlribuWais to scientific ho%% Jge in several fields, including physics; chenlistiv, and medicine. of Danish scientific research preclude-ca great contribution toward industri or military capabilities. During recent years several institutes for industrial research have been established with government and private funds. Ole >st industrial organizations are ton little to support extensive research and development facilities.: Because tits: poinrlatiou is small, there are few problems of (ximmunication `between scientific and engiucering munteToarts. Scientific effort is seldom dilplltated, because specialists in most reseurch fields +vprk together in groups, or they conmdt With: another when they pursue research. independe'illy at different labnr;ltriries; .Denmark does not have a science policy as do more scientific }ill) ii6aneLd Countries, but Inah govenl- lent arid..nrivate industry are aware of tlw need for encouraging scientific edltc ation urid research. Since t)emnark has few nutural remote -s and must import large arnounts of fuel and raw' materials, the government 'rca im% the .imp(mance :Of ..'providing:. industry with the technology necessary to cl successfully in world m:rrkels. Most of the technology is acquired from other col intH Scientific progress has beelr favored by the high level of literacy acrd by the, strong scientific tradit :ou in universities. The Darlcs take pride in the past scientific acco mplislltnct'lts, such as the contributions by flans Oersted, who discovered electromagnetism, and Nick Bohr. it imclear physicist and -the recipient of a Nobel prize i 1922. Denmark participates actively in international scientific affairs and is it inemher Of numcroo international scientific organizatiolis,,.including tilt Unitcd Nations Educational, Scientific. and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the Wor tie:rlth Orgartiiation (W110 the Food and Agriculture Organizatiort. the Iviternationa) Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and tither U.N. spcciAi7,cd agencies. DellTnark lakes part in the scientific activities of the Orgar117.ation for Economic Cooperation and Developnleut (Orel))., European Space Research Organization (MO), Eurolwan Atomic E:uergy Community (WRAWM), and the European Organization for Nuclear Research. Dellrnark isactive in the Nordic Council f or A research, which was established in 1947 to facilitate Scandinavian e(Kiper:ttionin scientific and technical research and in [lie utilization of research resmIts, Another inter Strindinavian organization, the Nordic tnstilnic fi r 'l'heoreticrtage of research assistants and Technicians. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110017 -5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110017 -5 11 J, The programs of rm.areli conducted ill the inane ;,vial! l.I1errtt0liC5 rccluire few but wall etaaiifkr l IwFu nnel. A typical exattihle is tike internationally known Nicls Bohr Institute For 'l'vorMicul lehysics, which liar a staff cif 70. The ATV employs slightly more than o persons, of which IRU have academic qualifications. The Danish Central Welding lnstitette, which recently Sias become associated closely with the growing shilohuildhig industry, has a Will staff of 138, The technical instituted of Cciperkhagen and Arhus, which carr out research, developmental work. and testing for individual firsts, employabout bat} Ircrsons, including about 250 migineers. About 750 perseoris were employed at the ll iso Itesearch Estalllishment iti 1067, of wholn 190 livid acad ende d egrees. Research and development facilities are generally adequate in tike high .e institutions mud research institutes, lint some very expensive pieces of equipmctit fouml its Susie more advanced countries ar lacking. Ilesearelt programs are structured so that tike cetuipment a v ailahle call he u se s!_ The Riso Research C. stablishirrtent is w+!ll equipped with facilities, including three reactors. 1t has departments for pliysics, ciectmnics, reactor chemistry', heahl pll 'sics, litetallurgy, and agricultural research. Formerh the equipment it the Niels Ilwhr Institute vas modest compared with tie facilities of the larger countries: however, during the past 10 years the addition of a 12 WV tandem Van do Craaff accelerator improved tike situation. The institute recently acquired an t5 tide\' accelerttor, a new isotope eliarator, awl several particle spectnimeters fl llh lSl7tUI?L�S Willi the add ition of a computer, tl ic institute has b een able to wor closely with S- wedish histittiti in scanning d ata obtained frorn photographie enitilsians tised in bubble chatiihrrs of these institutions. rhe.Dankh public regards scientists favorably and with considerable respect. Persons holding the position of professor are socially proniinent and surpassed m& by royalty and Cabinet ininister:s. I'hysicians and grad uates(if the Technical University of Denmarkalso enjoy high lmhlic esteem. Outstanding scientific achievements arc recognized by palfi-ssionah societies, tjttNersities; private enterprises, :aid the Academy of mid Letters, D. Major research fields 1. Air, ground, and naval weapons (S) Denniark has it limited rapubilily fair the dcyrlcipnietit cf air, .y;niulid .tired naval veaperos. Although the Ditties rmaintaiit a Imodern air farm as hart of their cxntttlittrrent ter the i'ortli ;1ltantic "l'reaty Organization (NATO), the government has .con tinually pursued a lxrlie of procuring aircraft and M1.04 equiprreent from abroad. No ellonge in dais policy can be foreseen in the 1970's, especially in view of recent deiiveri.s of Swedish -built supersonic f ighter aircraft to the Da nish Air Fo rce. liccausc of lack of funds for the military there is little Ixrssil�lity for Denmark to improve its capability in wealxiit r"Carch and development. The munitions industry has degraded to one governuterit -owned shell loading plant and two privately owried munitiiuks contpaiiic,'. Denmark dcp6lds tipon itrrports of explosives, propellants, and mechanical components. Ill the missile field Denmark is one of six countries involved in the development of the NATO Sea Sporrow, a sliort- range, ship -to -air missile. DCnneark is cnommitted to the development and production cif the radar and ground equ ipment. coin pone Pits. its tither missile scstcams arc the air tn air Sidewinder, the sterface to surfaces Ilonesk John, 4nd the surface to air Hawk and Nike systeins. The Sidea;nder missiles are used to arm the two squadrons of F-104C fighters, and the Iiawk and Nike systems are deployed lei a ring around Copenhagen for the defense of that area :done. In tike sixim field the Danes rely on foreign rockets. satelli(es, aud launch facilities to carry snit their scientific experiments, while they supply the pay1mids. Since 196 Da n ish scien have develojl ed sounding rocket payloads to measure electron density and imilision f requ ency very low frequency (V1..F') profile, rudiofrequency (11) impedence and conductivity, high energy partic ,'e density. and the monitoring of Lymarialplia radiution. They have develolmsi a racket p,eylnad which uses three orthogonal inagnetnnm:ters and two electric field wtisors to ineasure the elect rornagi let ic wave field from 0.5 to 8I klla. Balloon instrument packages have been Teed to determine the c lIUTgC and m asks of galactic high energy comme particles. The Danes have provided the equipment nemled on l SRO 1 and ESR0 11 in the performance of high- energy prolon research. S�- iCiitists have also developed the digital rcado,mt systein used in a low -energy elect ron- protcrp experiment and another experiment concerning the measure o angular distribution of total particle flux. The equipment 41i IIEAOS42 and 11EAOS -13 heeded i'n meastiritigSe! ar radiation .noise at very low frccltiencres s lid the isotropic cx)ivgx)sitim o va cleinents i the magnelospherc have also been provide4 l they Danes. F roni September 14171- to M4 1 1972 the Soviets negotiated t he purchase o f Danish etpipment'for their spuex rcdrarch program, and at the same time Danish businerrsmen were in the U.S.S.R; ,'discussing the 5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 0070711000200110017 -5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110017 -5 possiliility of entering inlo a joinl space research effort. lieportedly the Wiles would provide the test stations, telecommaeiel systems. and biomedical e4peiprnent, while the Soviets would provide the lautich systems and conduct the actual experintenis. No information is available indicating the ontaime of these oegotia- Lions. Denmark is not engaged in significant research oil ground weapons; 1111)st o Stich materiel is purchased abroad. Although research oil small arms has heen underway for the past two decades, the army has adopted only otie locally dcvelotxd vcapon, a submachine goo. Research has evased iu this field, as well as on engineering, transportation, and ctuarterinastcr equipment Although Denmark has a potential capability to develop small naval vessels and ltlarinc engines. it has riot chosen to CIO So. 3. Biological and chemical warfare (S) Denmark has no offensive biological warfare (B%V) research and development prograin, although wile research related to defensive BW is conducted, Laboratories engaged in defense related research, through the development of vaccines and biologicais for public health needs, are located at the State Serum Institute, Copenhagen, and the National Veterinary institute for Virus Research on the island of Lindholm. Research applicable to BW agent detection also has been carried on, e.g., development of interference filters for improved inununonuorescenee inicniscoiiy, The chemical warfare research and development program is directed primarily toward [lie improvement of defensive materiel. Research on the offensive aspect is conducted on a limited scale. The Royal Danish School of Pharmacy and the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural College. Will in Copenhagen, may produce small e�ianlitics of G -type nerve agents developed during World War 11; this work is in support of the chemical agent detection and antidote program. Toxicological studies have Veen conducted ou organophosphomus- related compounds. These airnpounds seem to be more potent when oxygen is substitated,for sulphur in the thiocholine moiety of the V -type molecule. [(?search has been conducted to develop a nipid colori inetdc process for field detection of nerve agents. Work also is underway toward the development of a chemical agent identification set that utilizes silica gel iinprcgnatcd sampling tubes, Tile Danes also plan to improve U.S. kits, including the MIS, by expanding the nerve agent detection capability to include V- agents through thevic of an enzyme ticket. Tile Daries consider the disposable protective clothing designed to 6 niect NA'T'O requirements too expensive to produce. As an alternate approveli, a project is un d erway to test the resistance of many commercial iaterials to penctnition by innstard and to wisite it) art effort to develop ao inexpensive, disposable clicrnical- biological- radiological cape. Numerous (oxide, Stutl'fS, which would lead to a butter antidote for nerve agent poisoning and improved propllylac6c lnethods have been undertaken. Other research oil nerve agent antidotes for Fidel usC includes studies oil the effectiveness of a variety of oxime Loulpotnlds ill Lilnjunction with atropine, the standard antidole. 3. Nuclear energy (S) Derltuark has a sicall nuclear energy program consisting l rrituarily of research activities with nuclear power development as the ultimate objective. It leas no military potential in nuclear weapons and `tas tit) plans for efforts in this field. The Atomic Energy Commission was established ill 1956 to promote the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. The AEK is cxiinposed of representatives of scientific and technical resewch organizakions, as well as Others interested in t exploitation of nuclear energy. 'riw Riso Research Establishment was begun in 1958 and is equipped With three reSCarch reactors and a number of laboratories. The DII -I (Danish reactor -1) is a 2- kilowatt thermal (kWt) aqueous homogeneous reactor which went int operation in 1957; the DR e2, a .5- meg awatt thermal (VTWO high flux, tank -tvive reactor, which went into operation in 1953; and the 1)R -3, a 10 -MWt high flux, materials- tuslirlg reactor that went into uperation in 1960. Research al the 111so Rescamii Establishment is divided into fundamental research, research concerning reactor technology, and 'other technologi- cal research, such as physics, chemistry, medicine, biology, gcolop,y, metailturgy, and The fuel elements prograrn includes tesiing of design va riables, process development, irradiation conditions and p ostirradiadon examination. In addition to using their o w n test facilities, the Riso lesearch Establ shment utilizes the Holden reactor in Norway and the Kahl reactor in Hies[ Gerrrlanv. Test elements and fall =size filer elements are manufactured by the Itiso laboratories in collaboration with the Eisinor Shipbuilding and Engineering Company of Denmark. Although Denmark has no ininicdiate plans to construct nuclear po wer reactors, there have b een discussions regarding the construction of 500 megawatt electric (MWe) nuclear power stations in the late 197(fs, and five sites in the Jutland and Fyn areas have heen studied for this purpose. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110017 -5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110017 -5 Denmark has fit) domestic ura nium deposits; h owevcr, the Daces have been actively exploring for uranium in Greenland. Tentatively delrnsits iliere are estimated to contain 3,000 to 6,000 tuns of uranium and 15.W0 tons of tlturierni, but th^ low grade of the ore and the r of the deposits do not make them economically exploitable at the current, market prices. No commercial mining is taking; place. Detuuark is ;active in international atomic energy aff airs and has agreenicnts for peace uses of atomic energy with the U.K. and the U.S.S.R. (The U.S. Danish bilateral atomic energy agreement expired o0 24 July 1973. It is also a member of the International Atomie Energy Agency (IAEA), the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN), EURATO14l, and numerous other international organiretious. 4. Electronics (S) Danish research in communications and electronics deals primarily with lasers and computers, with relatively 1 ?1ile research in other electronic fields. The 11.1). Oersted institute at Copcnliagen, the most important of four facilities, is concerned primarily with gas lasers and have built operational CO: lichurii- neon, argon, and c.tritniiim s;rpnr devices. Also, some basic research has been conducted in the areas of diffraction and (lie parameters of laser cavity design. A few students have done theses work on lasers. e.g., Raman spectroscopy with helitun -neon and second harmonic studies using polassiuni diplousphate (KDP) crystc,ls. Sonic of the optical components also are made there, principally laser mirrors and other optical components; some are made f or a German company. The laser research apparently is for spectroscopy studies and is supported by the Danish State Science Federation, w hich is similar to tlae U.S. National Science .Foundution. There appears to be little interest in the optical communications aspect of electro optics. Two organizations involved in the Danish optical and electro optical work are the Copenhagen University and the Tichnical University of Denmark. The Institute of Physics of Arlim 'University is heavily engaged in basic msearch on semiconductors. The institute appears to be extremely well funded, and the caliber of its persouncl and cguulity or its equipment are high. The laboratory of Electro- magnetic Theory of the Technical University of Denmark does some theoretical work on antenna arrays and -nIid= state, microwave devices. The Aw&my of Technical Sciences constricted the first Da nish c the DASK; in 1951 and in 150 produceSthe GEIR for the Banish Geodetic 1"Wttite, Copenhagen. The CIER is the first conipvA a of purely Danish origin and is a fully transistorized. mediurn- sized, general -m irpose machine. Regnecenlraten, a cx)mpany located in CA)p enliag;crc, produced llte RC40M, a g;e.:cral- purpose digital computer until 1Sr73, wheat production of central iroces cra scd. The eompany now intends to import NOVA tninicomprters from the Massa- chusetts- based Data Gcnerd, Inc. Regnecentrafen purchases the nmessary software and poeriphcrai equipment from U.S. and European mail to fact coil assembles and sells complcl' cmpulErs sysleins in Europe and the U.S.S.R., the jolter receives the hulk of, the Lomlxmy business. 'file duality of computer research in Danish universities lia,s improved conside since 1908. Computer act.ivitirs are centralized tinder the direction of Datacc2114 Copenhagen, which .a as founded by the g overrunent in cooperation with local governmental authorities throughout Denmark Tile center is equipped Nvilh large computers of U.S. manufacture and provides economical data processing; facilities. The Danish telmommunications and electronics industry, which includes radar, is full c apab le of prodming required quantities for the armed forges as Weil as considerable aruounts for worldwide export. Military radio comina pica tions equipment produced includes fixed, mobile, vehicular, and portable types and is based primarily on U.S. supplied grant aid furnished in the early 1960'5. Other clectrooic- equipment produced includes artillery ranging .radar ;a uniquety constructed navigational radar, a manpack infantry patrol radar that was developed under [xuitract of [lie Ministry of Defense, a long range acquisition radar, and a surveillance and fire. control radar. Eleetronic training devices have been produced, suc as a simulator of coinmuniieatians satellite, used by ESRO for checking ground equipment. Denmark produces no optical or p':,hotographic materiel of military value and army requirements are satisfied entirely through imports. Native sources of arrr:y materiel are not known blot probably correspond with those for the civilian rnarkel, in which the united States, West Cermany, Japa.a, and t United Kingdom are the maim suppliers. No infrared indieriel is produced in Denmark. SuWantia) investments have been made in Swiss detection devices, as Weil as sighting, observation, and night- driving devices manufactured by various NATO countries. 5.1VIedical sciences (5) Danish biomedical research is cqual in quality to that of he mtast advanced western Yiations. Volume of a APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110017 -5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110017 -5 productiou is relatively small, however, because of limited resources, finances, and m anlxlwer. Support is derived from the government. private sources, and elsewhere, iocluding NVI10 and the United States. tialicatl training is excVllenl, and teaching persontarl are: selected for research potential as well as for leachltog :ability. Denmark has considerable Arength ill bioehcmistry and molecular hiology, and these disciplines are employed in other areas of biomedical rcrt arch. Nutritional biochemistry recvivcs special :attention. Current hasie wfuk inchides study taf the inolectilar properties of isoenzymes to determine specific functions and the bi6chemical nature of their reactive sites, the scqucucc of slaps in t1L aVtivitV of enzymes, the owtalmlisnl of fatly acids and yitanilIts, iplelileling induced deficiency, inicntdeterminalion of e nzyme inhibitors, chemical Inotlifi Cal ioils 43f various groups in enzymes, and irnnumophoretic statues of v e getable protein. Important centers for this research include the Chemical Section of the Cartsberg Laboratory, they Department of Wei heniislry and iillltrition of the: Technic Ui6versity of Dc the l astitutes of Molecular Biology iii Arhus and Odense, an tilt A li, and C unit's of the Biocllenticaal Institute: cif Copenhagen University. The Insti #elte for Biolec }finical Research wid Devel Copenhagen, all indepe or- gunizution associated with the Academy of Technical ScicraMS, is xn important center for studies oat food llyg ilme and nutritic-nal assay and oil the C unalysis of f 43tael tyro ;cirri, fats, and Carbohydrates. ,Microbiological research b excellent, Scientists at t1C Institu of Medical Niterobiclogy of'Copenhagen University are doing impreAve Work orl the epidemiology of various staphylococci and 4311 chemical classif'icatioll and phage typing of niicniorgani5ins. Other contributions incladc high calilm virus research, development of inicroscopie techniques for fine stagily of alrtibodics, Ilse 43 CIvelTu rn43bility characteristics to identify baicteriul strains which cause intestinal f iftetioris, and a culture hank collection that ran among the foremost in the world, The State Scrurn Institute in Copcnaage.n has enjrr }'Cel international prestige. It has a staff of �100 seigsniists and 1,.100 assistalits to rapport its voluminous funduanental and applied work in bucteriology, mycology, p- mozoology, virology, immunology, vaeviue production blood f ractiouat ion, llormonrs, biological standardization, biochemistry, biophysics, biostalistics, aqd epidentieflogy. me high reputation of Olanish micmbiological' LOMINICnIV is attested b y the; fact that t he country has all International 1'sscheridhia Center, an International I uboralory for Moiogieal Standards, an International Reference Center for BCC. a WHO Ref erence Regional Laboratory for Enterovirnses, a 1'110 National Influenza Center, a W110 Serological Reference Center, a %VIIO Neisseria Center, and a 11'1;0 Virus Collaborating Laboratory for Trachoma. Fundamental and :�finical work ill radiobiology includes the chenlical and pharmaceutical aslxxts of Flioisotolie therapy, the use of hydrogen and cleaterium to investigate liar sevoltdury and tertiary structures of protein, and the inflncncc of X -rays, Ilrenatal, and perina.'nl factors ou infant development. Pharmacologists are investigating tale use of psychotropic agents in drug whabilitation studies, development of antibiotics front plants, and trials of .1 caries prevention agent. The Royal Danish School of I'harnmey in Copenhagen provides strong research orientation in educ:atiorl and appears to be the leader in pharniaccidicatl education throughout Scandinavia. Biomedical engineering is a dv ancit {g� especially ill the production of an apparatus for renal dialysis, fond quality control. and air helputinn control. Very precise instrtaments are being developed to support re search i:l rtluiecidar biology. pic Danish Inslititte of Protein Chemistry has developed inslrnlneolation for s4ld- phase research 43n protein synthesis. ii is contributing basic stutlies oil automatic sequence determination cif amino acids ilk proteins. Physiologists have contributed� authoritative studies of the Climates of closed environments and exhibit a gotxl understanding of the nature of the heart heat and its relation to the stresses of deep sea diving. A ptilsating ultrasonnd device liar been developed for diagnosis of cardiovascular disease. 6. other sciences a. Chemistry a wl metallurgy (C) Denmark is moderately active in chemical research, and the work is of good gnalit ;r_ 'The level of calxibility in chemistry is somewhat lower than that of Sweden, but is higher than that of Norway. Most of talc research effort iscarried out in universities and is much stronger in foridaniental than in applied chemical research, The greatest strength s in physical organic chemistry, synthetic organic Chemistry, and bio- chemistry. Industrial organic and inorganic research is of little aignifieuii e, and the chemical teviinology used by chemical plants is almost entirely imported. Copenhagen University is outstanding in physical organic chemistry. Pnifessur Bak has for many tears APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110017 -5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110017 -5 z been involved in research on dc- t ofmining the molecular structure a, organic compounds through the use of infrared nlicrowav rotation, and proton magnetic resonance spectra, and through the study of isolopieal!y labeled compounds. Others at Copen- hage,n University are doing research in hydrogen Bonding, organic plintocheinical reactions, zinc] llle mechanism of organic r eactions involvnig rearrange tnents, Mass spectroscopy and nuclear rnagrielic tesonaaioce studies are condileted by capuble staffs at this university and at Arhus University. The work at the latter institution has stressed organic phosphorm arid sulfur cimpounds. Organic chemical research, includitt;; syrithetic a;;rk, is strong. Particular attelitiou has beete givell to organic sulfur coiup ounds. Alexaoder Scnning, at Arlins. University, has worked extensively ore the synthesis of sulfides, su}fenylation reactions, thiocarhoml compounds, and trichloromcthylthio compounds, some of which are of interest as fungicides. Dr. Kai A. Jensen, Copenhagen University, has long becli reC*10gniied for his outs �anding work oil organic sulfur and seleni! :,n compounds, including thin- and seleno -acids and heterocyclic 5- membered ring aomrmurids containing sulfur or selenium and nitrogen. Another prominent, investigator in the field of organic sulfur compxotitids is Profr..sor Antlers Kjaer, formerly at the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University loot presently at the Technical Univerr of Denmark. He has worked for many years on isolhiocyanates and' other naturally occurring products, such as g1licnsitio Considerable work has'been done on esters and other derivatives at.thc Tec lliica; University of De The Royal Danish School of Pharmacy does work tore natural products and nn the synthesis of phalrm4cologicaally active compounds. There is considerable interest in electrochemistry. The work at Copionhagen Upiversity by Vernon" D. Parker, and associates deals with ancAe processes and anodic oxidation of o:; snit c- ompounds- Electro- chemiWI research at the Tedinical University. of Denmark includes work on solid state and' liquid- AMC, ion selective electrodes.' Interest in general physical chemistry, as diffcrenliiated from physi I organic chemistry, is rather limited. 'There is: some rescarrll: on the -1 c }emtstry. of hi gh polymers ut the Technical;University. pf. ,Denmark. In inorganic chemistry, work is in progress on metal cbmplcxes:and on_soil chemistry. mochernistry is an. important field: of rescarcn activity. At' Copenhagen University, thin 66chemical research is very'diversilied, including FCC Olt studics`on' enzymes, insulin, lipid svilthesis, ethanol nietabolisnt in the liver, and urinary pigments. Varied studies at Arhus University include work oil binding of hilirubin to hurnaii sertuu albumin, kidney fnraction, and insulin. The Carlsberg l.;iboratory does research on Proteins and enryntes. Very little isdonc in nictallurgical research. Lacking such resiiurcee as iron and metal arcs and coal, and, although the duality of its work is good, the scope aid depth of the effort is far helow that of Sweden, tiie Netherlands, and Norway. Limited research is dome in narrow specialized fields, such ;as handling and fabricating nucle;ir fuel elements and the general area of corrosion and electrochemistry. The Datees are ;nvestigatilig fracture: inechaauic.. fuel elements cladding, dimensional changes in fuels and cladding during irradiation, and the development of ii:iproved cladding allnvs at the Viso Research E51ablishrnetrt under the direction of Niels IIansrn. Dr. F. Kit uth- Winterfeldt, an authotityoil cornision and electrochernistry, directs research at the Technical University of Denmark. Research includes corrosion studies on various metals and alloys, including !.Unless steels, and tin welding prov sses. The Danish Corrosion Cider and tit! banish Central Welding loctitiiXconduck research for industry ern a nonprofit contractual basis. The Only industrial concern tindertnking. metallurgical research is the Northem Cable Wire Works; work includes tiro- patination of copper and staid ics of the toughness and maehina bility of leaded brasses, !r. Physics and mathematics (S) Approximately 70% of the physics research in Denmark is divided equally bcVvicen solid -state and the nuclear sciences. Iii the latter, rcieurch includes studies in high energy, low energy and experimental work, .tinclear- radiation .effects on materials, and [lie applications of nuclear crergy for.peacefu} purposes. Tile. remaining-efforts. are devoted =to subbranches of optics, plasrrtu, ae oubitici, a nd spectresMipY. The majority of solid stute physics research is done at the 1'echnictal'.Univershy of Denmark, Copenhagen University, the Rise. Rixca;ch Establishment, and A University. T he researcli laboratories of the Technical University of Denmark am maffcd with about 30 }iig }t competent solid-state physicists. Some outstanding experimental Nvork is being done by WE. Christensen, who. has developed a reputation on gathering zbncemed :with the photoemission 11 spectru of gold, silver, and rhodium, and Their relations to band structures; 1N: It. Samuclsen and his associates have bz cn pursuing in.eresting: research nn APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110017 -5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110017 -5 methods of microwave -aided tunneling which leads to production of superconducting tunnel diodes. Other advanced projects at the university involve gcnnvnium and silicon senticonductors, studies of characteristics ixrtaining to cadmium- seleniurn laser crystals, and parameters of antiferromagnctic materials. About 90 highly qualified solid -state researchers at Copenhagen University Flo work of a basic nature. The concentrated effort at the university appears to be in theories and fundamentals associated with magnetic structures. Magnetic studies are s1read over the areas of magnetoelastic interactions, magnetic properties of semiconductor compounds, spin lifetimes of magnetic alloys, energy spectra, geometric effects, photomulti- pliers, particle detectors, and J,oseplison junctions. The facilities at the Riso Research Establishment involve radiation effects on the structures of alloys, radiation detection, and�ncutnin diffraction Wsociated with the various alloys used in reactor desiy,rt. The solid -state physics laboratory at Arhus University conducis researr..'h in semiconductor materials, raJi detector devices, and sputtering processes of pure metals. H, R. Nielsen and P. Olesen, who are associated with Copenhagen University, are internationally known for their research in high energy physics, They have emphasized hadron interactions and are highly regarded for their work dealing with the staling of distributions in high energy hadron collision;'.. X Koba, at Copenhagen University, ha; been quite active also in high- energy nuclear physics research and has recently contributed results from an advanced study of hudrunic production. High- energy physicists at Arhus University direct their efforts to studies dealing with pion -pion interactions and pion nucleon scatterig. Recent activities at the Nvrdita research facility involve studies of dynamical models for meson and- baryon resonances, and ;single -pion photo productions, as they relate to higherbtlry6ocoliplings. The low- energy aspect of nuclear physics research is pursued by many Danish universities and it-search lab4ratorics. Most of tie research in optics is pursued at the kultoratory for Technical Optics of the ATV. The activities involve the .design of imaging systems tof ,yM Tfc technical personnel have `been adept in using: computer programs for the design of opticati systeins thus enabling them to develop highly accurate tole --.cope and inicrophoto systems. Danish opti s' inlists have beam well known for their invOly' cinent' i.n the large` telescoE'e for the Europeap Southoin Observatory in Chile, where the optical. 10 system was modified to use ultraviolet glasses instead of quartz for its corrective elements Denmark has several expert acousticians and well eq uipped facilities for sonic research at the Acoustical Laboratory of the ATV. The laboratory carries out research and testing of acoustical materials, construction, a"id equipment. It participate� extensively in iritl'.rnatioti st andardization within the aconoical field. Industry is Involved a lso in a research The es ecucitt instrument firm of Bruel Kjaer has been conn ected w ith industrial research on studiis of acoustic intensity generated by sonic impulses and has made an anahig anal of acoustic shocks. The Danes are well advanced in maA types of spectroscopy, as evidenced by their use of spectroscopic systems as a research tool. Research is pursued in molecular and neutron spectroscopy, and high- quality work is done ii't visible and near infrared spectroscopy. By using their knowledge of nuclear spectroscopy, physicists at 0)penhagen University have furthered their studies of excited states in isotopic reactions. Denmark has a long standing reputation for good mathematical research, dating to the first half of this century with the work of Niels and tlaroh' litrhr. Recent emphasis has dealt primarily with analysis, numerical methods, probability and statistics, and algebra. Important mathematical centers in Denmark are at Arhus University, Copenhagen University, and the Technical University of Denmark. .Arhus is strong in fields such as algebra and analysis, especially function analysi% Copenhagen in statistics, and the Technical University of Denmark in numerical methods. These universities frequently have visiting mathematicians from the United States, and mathemaiicians fermi Denmark often make extended pmfessio6 visits to American universities. About one fifth of the mathcniutical publications by Danish authors appeared in U.S. ioumals. during 'the past 2 years. West Germany. rance, the United iKingdom, and occasionally'un. East European country published Danish- authored papers also. c. As8mgvophg cal acierieea (L) Research in astronomv is very limited in Denmark. Copenhagen University has two astronomical L'icilitics. Onc, its original observatory in Copenhagen, has engaged in astrophysical research and in cometary. and- planetary astronomy, and the second, a more modern observatory at Brorfelde, Tollose, has eYiipliasiaed photometry and photoelectric speetra- scopy.' The Ole Romer Observatory at Ole Romers. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110017 -5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110017 -5 Creeziland (7s ociated with Arhus University), dues research in meteors, theoretical ;astrophysics, .rid variable stars. 'There are also a few private astronor '-,cal observatories in Denmark. Research is conducted by the Danish Space Research Institute and by the Ionospheric L.aWralory of tiie Dcauish Mcteowlogical institute. Rath (lie inst'.,oite and the labaralory are hwated at Lyagby and art! associated with [he 1 *vchrical University of Denmark. Denmark is a inember of ESI10 and expects to bccxu le a inember of the incipient Euroixoau Spade Agency (ESA). Ionospheric and inagnelosplicric experiments )lave been crrnducted aloard ESho satellites and sounding rockets. Denmark also is a member of the Scandinavian Santee Research Organization, and since the early Ib60's hus e4mperated, principally with Norway and the U.S. National Aeronnutics and Sluacw Adntinia- ration, in sounding rocket ionospheric. research. Before early 1970 Denmark established a rocket luunching range at Sondre Slromfjord, Cre_enland. 'The Danish Space Research Institute has aim) .:nude cosmic ray %ladies almiard balloons flown fnin Narsars%tiarl, near the southem lip of Greenland. in addition. Denmark has had a space tracking and telemetry monitoring station at Rude Skuv, near Copeil!sugen. The lorlospherie Lahoralory has geophysical obseavaturics at three locations in Green #�nd where polar cap ionosi:herie rev arch is "inducted, and �all -sky cimcra abrorul observations have been made at the Godhavn and Narsaresuaq observatories. Scisrnoliagical research is conducted by the Danish Gemletic Institute. it maintainsa seismological station in Copenhagen and three stations in Greenland. All are participating stations in the World -Wide: Network of Standard Seismographs of the U.S. Ce>:ist and Survey. 'rhe Danish Geological Survey, Copenhagen, is reportedly primarily academically oriented. Ilowever, in 1970 it was engaged in studying lice economic aspects of hirge uranium ore deposits in Greenland. The work was in conjunction with the physicui exploration of these and associated deposits of other minerals being conducted by [lie Riso Research Establishment. The Danish Meteorological Institute, in Charlotten- lund, is licaded by Dr. Karl U. Andersen and is responsible for providing all weather services except civil aviation forecasting. By lute 1972 the large network of meteorological stations had grown to nearly OW in Denman:, 5 in the Faeroe Islands, amt 60 in Greenland. Eight of the 600 are participating irrthe fnternationui llydrologirxil Decade (I1113), which ends in 1977, anothc7 20 operate nearly all year as lightning counters, and the others operate as climatic and synoptic stations. The purchase of equipment for Ilse with Americans meteorological satellites and the establishment of a cimiputer division in 1971 within the institute should greatly enhance Dall0l capabililic-c in such activities as slorm warnings, extended period forecasting, ship routing, and weather resca rcl s. The Danish Nieteomlol ;ical institute is engaged in die metcoroingy- rela.!'..ed fields of sounding roekeit experirnentalioo and ionospheric research in Greenland. The geographic position of Greenland offers a fav!SrnUja p4atform for investigation irtlo the polar cap ionosphere, and the institute considers sue[i invesligalious necessary. Ceomagnutic surveys and auroral studies are conducted by the Danish Meteorological Institute. Several geornagnetic; surveys for the west coast of Greenland anu also one for Denmark itself are contributions to the World Magnetic Survey P;mljecl. Ccoxielic research and development have been directed toward the dmproventent and expansion of tri wgiilation and leveling and increasing the number of giavinietric stations, Denmark participates in geodetic satellite programs within the Western European Sub Commission for ,lrtificial Satellites and has cooperated with the Unites! States on similar programs. The Danish Geodetic Instiiiste is the center for all geodetic and gravinietric resrsirch and has a relatively free hand o determining imlicy. instruction in gemlesy is availaLle at the Copenhagen University and the Technical University of Denmark. Danish scientists are using modern instruments and technique% 0 solve their geodetic pniblems. Most of the instruments are of foreign design. Ile earcli in triangulation and leveling has primarily been routine and is devoid of any significant developments. Horizontal surveys have led to new connection networks with Sweden and West Germany. A revised and densified network has been established an the Faeroe Islands, and sevemel ne:tHorks have been established in Creenland for geodetic and geological purposes. Considerable time and effort [save been devoted fo data, pnwessing problems dealing with gevntetrie geodesy and investigaitious concerning the method of least squares. As a member 'o the Nordic CeWetie Commission, Denmark has patticipated in projecta conceming stellar triangulation, distance mcusumment, land Uplift, geoid investigation, *and treatment of g"etic observations with electronic computers. Leveling' activity has resulted in contributions to the United European I .Aweling 11 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110017 -5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110017 -5 S rcri sr Network and tht North"est European Lowland Level-ng. lutt rnational work ha+ also included con(ributions to rtxent crimal movenreilts a.1d tnvestigatforts of rneart sea level and of secular rnovenients between sea and land. Activity in gravimetry has iucllyded inland sicrxevs to extend t lie existi rig gravity net and to investigate the correlation lx -tween gravity anomalic-s and station heights. Gravity measurements at sea were established in interior banish waters as the f'-wt part of a detailed survey of the Dac;ish ccmtinzinal shelf. Extensive theoretical research has been carried out in dynamic geode-,y. i enniark has an active interest in hydrologic and hytfniulie research, Gild althocrgl; the progrnris are 'luall, they are diverse. Most of [lie research is perfarnied at the Hydraulic Lij)oratory of the 'rechnical University 4 DenniaA and at the Ilrstiti le of Applied Hydranlics of the Academy 9f 'l'echnita: Sciences. The Hydraulic Laboratory has modern facilities, including computers, and speeializes in the study of density currents, hydmdynarnits, sediment transportation, groundwater flow, hydrology, and 911'eio109y. Research inolvcs theoretical studies, hydraulic model investigations, and field inves- ligations. The Institute of Applied Hydraulics speciali..ts pritnur:ly on zoastal and estuary problems and works closely with, the academic and research staff of Ilse Coastal Engineering Lahoralory of the 'I'echnicuI University of Denmark. The Ceological Institute, also of the university, is sriall and is mostly interested ire the geology of Denmark acid Grcenlmkn particularly Its it relates to water supply and natural resource utilirltiou. Danish hydrologists and hydraulic engineers are active in international scientific organizations and conferences, and they participate in technical Commiltees on flow through porous media, fluvial hydraulics, 'hydraulic machinery antr equipment. cavitation, maritime hydraulics, and resources systems. i u"WY (1/00) A9wtzviAT3ox DA-41311 Coastal engineering, rescarch compares faonibl) with that of other small European countries. 'i'hc Coastal Engineering Laboratory of the 'Technical University of Denmark perfurins most of the L01' t=cl rescarc'rh and has wave tatiks, uscillatilig water flow tunnels, and scale nrodels for requiring simulaled share and sea conditions. Stutia�s have beers undertaken on the stability of underwater drilling platforms, wave forces on liAllthotiscs, and harbor constrtiction. Other major projects have dealt villa littoril sand drift, tide effects on sediments. fortxts oil breakwaters, and groin protection of shoreiines. h xperirnents using radioa'r.tivc isotopes far investigat- ing littoral drift have been conducted. Denmark has a long tradition of research in fisheries acid octiarlogrtphy, and until appeox'sniately two dcc:ides ago it was one of the most prornineat European countries uuderlakirig work in lheu- sciences, However, because of a lack of funding acid resources it, support the present highly complex and sophisticated surveys, the status of Denniark has declined. Neverthelesi. it is very active in prorm;iir,g international cooperation with other countries in (weasiographic rrsearvh, fisheries resear h. hvdrtr- graphic expeditions, and in the exchange of oceanographic infonnation. The perniancni scc- retariat of the International Council for the Exploration cif th:- Sea (ICES) is located at Charlottenlund. Denmark is a nlcniher of the tnteigovenunental Uceanographie Coininission of UNESCO, the Northeast Atlantic fisheries Coinntis- slon, and the International Comrnissior: for tiie Northwest Atlantic Fisheries. The most inilwrtant� Danish oceanographic facility is the fishery and Marine Research institute of the Ministry of fisheries at Charlottenlund. Other organizations conducting niarine scientific research are the Institute of Physical Oceartograpliy of Copenhagen University and the Coastal Engineering Laboratory of the Technical University tf (lenniark. The National Council for Oecanogriphy coordinates the oceanographic activities of these organizations. APIi.......... AWrnrnergkamraiaeianen.. ATV.......... .4 kademid for da rekniski ridenskaber. VTr Danmark*, leknrak- oidsnrkapefipe Farskninyarnd STVF... Srarensraknisk- cidrnakapdigePon;t.... ENGLlxlt Atomic Energy Commisatou Academy of Toelinical Sciences Da" Couacit for Scientific and Indus- trial Research Gorer.nment Fund for Scientific and Industrial Research 12 NO FOREi GN Dl$SE I ftCR Fa' APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110017 -5