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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110018 -4 CONFIDENTIAL 7/GSIMG n Denmark March 1974 NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY 0 CGANDEHTIAL APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110018 -4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110018 -4 NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY PUBLICATIONS The basic unit of the NIS is the General Survey, which is now published in a bound -by- chapter format so that topics of greater per- ishability con be updated on an individual basis. These chapters Country Profile, The Society, Government and Politics, The Economy, Military Geog- raphy, Transportation and Telecommunications, Armed Forces, Science, ano Intelligence and Security, provide the primary NIS coverage. Some chapters, particularly Science and Intelligence and Security, tFat are not pertinent to all countries, are produced selectively. For small countries requiring only minimal NIS treatment, the General Survey coverage may be bound into one volume. Supplementing the General Survey is the NIS Basic Intelligence Fact book, a ready reference publication that semiannually updates key stn tistical data found in the Survey. An unclassified edition of the factbook omits some details on the economy, tha defense forces, and the intelligence and security organizations. Although detailed sections on many topics were part of the NIS Program, production of these sections has been phased out. Those pre- viously produced will continue to be available as long as the major portion of the study is considered valid. A quarterly listing of all active NIS units is .published in the Inventory of Available NIS Publications, which is also bound into the concurrent classified Factbook. The Inventory lists all N:S units by area name and number and includes class firation and date of issue; it thus facilitates the ordering of NIS units as well as their filing, cataloging}, and utilization. Initial dissemination, additional copies of NIS units, or separate chapters of the General Surveys can be obtained directly or through liaison channels from the Central Intelligence Agency. Tha General Survey is prepared for the NIS by the Central In,',eHigence Agency oral they Defense Intelligence Agency under the general direction of the NIS Committee. it is coordinated, edited, published, and dissemi- nated by the Central Intelligence Agency. %VAMNI \C: ThSs dwumwnt (ontains ineorfnation oefectinq the notlpnoI defens@ of the United States within the cretteinp of 1111@ 1e, wtioase 793 and 794 of tt+e VS (Art@. m amended. Tss fronsrnission ar mr*totion of as (Ont"is to or roseipt by an unovthori =wd person is prohibited by tow. CLASSIFIED eY A"MI, EXEMPT FROM Gt'IttERAI DECtASS1Ff. CATION SCHEOULE OF E. O. 11652 EXE7KMON CATEGORIES 59 411, (2), (3). DECLASSIFIED ONLY ON APPRgVAt Cr THE DIRFCTOR OF CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110018 -4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110018 -4 WARNING The NIS is National Intelligence and may not be re- leased or shown to representatives of any foreign govern- ment or international body except Hy specific authorization of the Director of Central Intelligence in accordance with the provisions of National Security Council Intelligence Di- rective No. 1. For NIS containing unclassified material, however, the portions so marked may be made available for official pur- poses to foreign nationals and nongovernment personnel provided no attribution is made to National Intelligence or the National Intelligence Survey. Subsections and graphics are individually classified according to content. Classification /control designa- tiolls are: (U /OU) Unclassified /For OfFcial Use Only (C) Confidential (S) Secret APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110018 -4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP0l- 00707R000200110018 -4 This chapter l as hecn prepared for the NIS by the Defense Intelligence, At enci�. Research tuav mob stantially completed by January I974.- APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP0l- 00707R000200110018 -4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110018 -4 Al M CONTENTS This rhapfer supr.rsedes thr military grorraphir rneerage iir thr CeS,cra Survey load 31t.rch WS. A. Location and descriptim 1. Topography 3 2. Climate B. Mi irtV ge re g i ons 8 1. Do;mark 9 2. Facroc Islands 10 C. atrntegic area D. Intcm-ni routes 12 L. Approachcs 1.1 1. Land 13 2. Sca 1.1 3, Air IS APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: 6IA- RDP01- 00707R000200110018 -4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110018 -4 FIGURES T APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110018 -4 Page Page Fig. 1 Location and comparative areas Fig. 14 Farm buildings in central jutland (map) I (photo),.......... 6 Fig. 2 Cultivated plains of central Jutland Fig. 11 Modern office building in Copen- (photo) 2 hagen (photo) Fig. Flat iarmland on southeni Boriiholm Fig. 12 Large hospital in Copenhagen (photo) 2 (photo) 7 Fig. 4 5trcam in southern jutWid (photo) 2 Fig. 13 Village in Facroe Islands (photo) 11 Fig. 5, Drainage canal in cast central Jutland Fig, A Cliffed coast in Facroc Islands .(photo) 4 (photo) Fig. 6 Cultivated fields in eastern Jutland Fig. 15 Copenhagen (photo) 12 (photo) �1 Fig. 16 Large airfield near Copenhagen Fig. 7 Heath plains in Kest- central jutland (photo) 13 (photo) 5 Erik. 17 Rugged cliffs along northern jfitland Fig.. 8 Dune grass in northern Jutland coast (photo) 14 (photo) S Fig. 18 Variations of climatic elements Fig. 9 Village in sonthwestcrn Jutland (map and graphs) jollows 16 (photo) 6 Fig. 19 Military geographic factors (titap) do T APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110018 -4 APPRO FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110018 -4 Milit3*117, Geo ra y K4 t A., '.C' E r sasw e�74 FIGURE 1. location and con parattve areas (ulou). A Le>ratiort and dCscriptit>n (U /Oltl) Dcurll:erk iuls an area of apprusiril:llely' 16, 61M syelare miles. about onc�h:df dw size of Maine� J'igure D cousistitig of a peninsula and nnrnertaus 11. \�lore Ih:ln two thirds of the (()(.it land area of islands. l is localed between West Gerilluety and ilie 1)viullurk is in the )iltl:tnd peninsula: '111e retimiriim SeWJ(.hll.lVjal) l ?Cllil154J1a :llld sevar Ille Baltle Sea tmie third is Co tillil +scd o applmilllotely,50.1 islands from the North Sea More 141). Imm 1),ommirk: a uld isletsi Iw( of Illest. isl.l :Ids. sjaelliuld anti l'vil, lniiitary fomvs Could will rol. nloveuu�nt betwee rl the 6)11111risc Ilearly 7iW of Ilw island :ire�a, Th 1vtlglll of liallit= Sea uuti lilt Athintic (iceall flliri ilgh Ill tiu't-e 1)emmirk 110rtll S01011; is dW..,ul 2141 aliles. :Intl the Icngr1115: C.1, blocked straits of the Dilliblk imixiulilrn cast -rest estentc CN(Ilnding Borllhniln. k .l rellillul:l;cr (Lille l3aeH, Slone li:Terlt;und'I'llrSe nrtdl. about 1511 mifes. '1 lxlpul:llion, about :3.INti,t?Ul is I'he l-':a,roe Islands, reptusentinl; of fives times that of iMaiue the land ill tliv NIS elrva, ate in the North rllanlie I'hl Miewe. Iaauds bam�c a hild area of 510 sclua ;lbont b 23 nailiical Iriil N ne)rthwem of Della uk. miles, divided :uuoiig about 20 isiaink 'They Ilave a 111.1" 611111111 IlorIl1 -SMIth extent of :Illmit 70 miles and a `1 r mn:,rk'isulml 111e j:tlland 1w�nir,sstla, the arlitl.eul 'Allids. 111ati111tn11 710rthe'ISt� ulUthvCSt o xteltl :elf :Ibllnl .+Ei :Cud the� WAIl l uf.linndlr,lm, 1 laerra, Hljmd, sir,� cesutch-11tsl by miles. I'!14 itlplllilliull is :Ibrill 4t1.41t1ii. I)r,surerk Iml ary u mlaid,irnlne,u.. Gre c�ttl utd. a f[IIl esrdrr ?i cahnimkimlive. tlivikima tsl De'nssruk, vowpria�c NIS fii; and il. 17ilusin asi� in .latsslr tnilly uuG-v. uulllieal tuilr o,rc pl:urs fields arc bcsnlercrd by atone fcnihs. IvinK plains (Figure �l): no stream is more than 100 Grains; iticludi ig barley, oats. rve, alid wheat. are the rnilcs En. Icnglh;` iist streams am less lhau GO fici: most t'a #ensircly, planted a roes. I'orr4N Ire e{ my aide., mill iu:iliy :ire less than 30 feel; only a few are distributed iii aunt of till couutn; rbarkc�tl.risticaII% ac More lhau f}(} feet Wide. nulsth' lie-or the innutlls, rnollltlts. #:onifc'rous er};rrrn plantations. Streams are mainly less than 3.S feet (lt'a p, but in their mainly sprats, lire +tjlr about half of the forest area lower cours,'s areas nrrlelt as fi'to 1[} fret deeli, Thu alld ptedomiTtale Ill nmtherll .1111! western Jl1 #Cole x,11( {l't1:a; 1 1!i C:ISterll Jgtan( is tile hiltj;l tit :Ned Iar};f'rt. IiHla[Ilf':!f deCl dlIU113 forests aftll plantations, ehll`fly StfC:tiTl 11! I)t'r1n1:![lt ll ]s more than {l( fret Wide an(} W bel'l'h all[! 1,{)fill� oak, pCl'( 111 L`aS #Cell Jutland tit 10 fl'Ct deep (lnlr iu its 1a,rrr i'o!I -1 1 llil'strealil }tali :clad oa late 1sl:nldS: 1'!IL' (iel'11 111(11i5 filrCtitS aYl' ill leaf a c {cpth Of 3 feet or h'sti 111 the t1i11)eC StrLt(' }ll'S. Lt }Tet1e n April and flrtrTl[er. Meadows nlYmup' Only meanders (1t R111!ll a t)t7r)fl [lfaMll'd, Fll'aily flat 'alh'y sr itall. lreaS. Il(!s{ CYfr1llll(! ill' allHlk4trea111s.111(1iaCillllil} Tor diul�tilla -s mf lilaty mime we the IN of mum-s: ild t e 1plap I:ikcs :1ild IhIgSi. NIarN' 111C:1doNa have ili -e ll eslahlis }tt�(l A 111r. idol IPf 111. OL11111�r. h% providing arlifici;al drainage, .especially ire the 3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110018 -4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110018 -4 I f, Ir �rrst nreas of. sontlnce:st Jtttlund. plugs, al'o comptrising only sttl:tll areas: consist of a thiek. soggy corer of ,mosses. Heath, consisting,of lout evergreen sh roil IS. is rntist widely diAriblited ill uortlucrii ;ltd %vslvrrl Jtrtlartd (Figure i Liar�, tufted gr4isscs >r�dge:s cLilil J sp iny shriths e- ,ni prisv till s parac vegetation in the bell rif atld dunis alotl; the nurHtrrn ::reel tyt- .le�rn Coasts of Jttl land (I "igure S). �1'l1C, sails of Dcrmuuk art� chiefly s;uitly and d: -eft. I rk adclilioti, there. are e�f:ty mils of considerthle extent. The grnrtnd in illost of 1)cnnl:trk is prey:iditigly %%e or enlist during; Noyeiniter litroitgh April; for short I)Vriods during; this tirlie it is Fran -erg :uid ono.. e,tycrcd, The ground is. jtruyailkigly inoist or drr, with ocrasioti;sl wvt -,pdis. thirius, Nhy thrMik"li Outokm lit two goller:i[, we ;ts hrnrt yen. the state� of the grotilld Varies little t1jronghotit the ear �in they sand dent. arras of wirrow coastal plains, chiefly in .yesterit jatlaad, tlut groorid is mostly dry wid never frozen. :sitcl itt t1w trnirsh, peat bog, ;Litd ltn�adou� art�as, the ground is mostly wet, and setft, it is frozen {onl ttear the surfuee) se venal tiler tilai*tly in 1- it, periods. during J ;ittu ;srs� tfi ;onglt XLtrcil. Noj ;lresof.. slxnlg; ;ini[ hi "hit' coinptre�ssifile helow the surf;te�e :et Lill tinit's. 'I'hc Set tlertionI jtatlerts of Den inzirk is charietcriied ley ntinierous rural villages and farnlsteaels ;tee[ :t Fe�a I:trt;e urhatl (1-titers. '1'1i rural yillagcs arc most ntirncroet.; in eastc�rti Jtithitit] ;utd the Inrgvr islonds zi nc] sre of two general fornis ;t round or oy ;tl tvIx�;uitd a linear type. The former is c�haac�terived by Itnildkngs eltrstered around alt open shay� or gfCCn :Lilt[ is 1tn� Ill tttinnni it! Sl ;u Iland, l alster, anti ]tart of eastcnt Jullaitd; orclinurily thrrt� arc several winding strvets FIGURE 6 A mosaic of small cultivated fields interspersed at random with diminutive dense forests (background) constitute the 16ndseope of qt Of Pop APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDP01-00707R000200110018-4 1! evergreen shrub, I to 3, feet high, with roots that may pene� Irate the earth -to depths of 8 feet. These heath plains are interrupted by areas of sparse !grass. (U/OU) 'CD APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDP01 -00707R000200110018-4 7M '4 �i..� 0.I Cdr.. .trtts. t M.. radiatitig-Arorn the grvell. '11tv linviir type is Slibstwiti.11IN' built. N I Q, t INWC :!It 01(l- SCV601k With Clubravivtind by buildings sifung along Illesides of .1 narrow winding streets and closely Spacp(l one- and single road and occurs ofiell in Fyll. Moll. Loilaild. two- I story houses. New Sectiolls haVe.. illultistury Mid solitheasivirnalld 11ortile.morn J11(hilld. Buildittgs lipartillealts alld lligll-rise office I)t1ildittes (Figure 11), ill the villages ;tic low and generally elf Mick or stucco large cortinivrcial and insfitiltioll"il bilild;119" (I. illid tilliber constnictimi, U'lith steel). gabled. the or 12) are 1\ o f jljoSt Ill.kill Ltrlmii e�tilers. All major. SlAe roofs (Figture 9). hidividual farinstealls are iowlls: .11`40 C0111tected by loextensive rowl and railroml n +i tler(itis VVI�II ill Whvrv.vIll;ktvs are numerous. netorli a deine nvLwork of secon(hiq Reads affords CoilArilelion is usimlly htick or plaster a od I i 111ber; occv%s to AITIOSI '.Ill Vill-.,LgVS, 'l he jittland liviiiiisilla newer farilish-ads are eshicco (Figiate 10), Stonv []]d Illv.islallds ax i tit ervotittected by ferrics tit long is a conimoti cotisirtictioil, ivatefi'. oil Bornholill. 1 brid gVs. ft.W lafgc! Urban vewers.tre oil [lit larger i ill 'I'll V Faeroe islands consist of deeply eastern j utland. [it midition., 11wry are iliany small di%sected hills alld illuillitaills. Duel) U-SImped valley's porB, inarkel towirs, and towns al transportation Cut collipl e Wy I I' hillds.. 'I'llese small s jtlilctioll% of icrlllillals: 'I'llere is a islands are block NeVerii missive s with Sheer Rick Sides aild ill lowllS ill l)0FllIC.lSt SiM M%r C'0l)ellIl.LgVll and 111 Cast Flat tolm, glacial Elebris alld otitcroll (4 another groill) livat tile straits. h0wven Fyit acid k-drock awl boiliden LrC WIM11011. 'I'lle Upland ju"hirld. D'a1ii4p tirkite (vjiters are uo1llj),LC11V. ',111d surfaces of the larger islands nit cut by.dvel�, 4r, wk FIGURE 8. The sand dunes along the northern coast (shown here) and the. western coast of Jutland are *a Portia 1 stabilized* by low natural growth of coarse,. sharp- edged tufted grosses and sedges. The eirosses commonly occur i n clumps surrounded by bore sand, MOU) x- APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDP01 -00707R000200110018-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110018 -4 4. ac F- atop F,iGURE 9. This rural vl�lage in southwestern Jutland is the oval type, and small greert. spaces �nterspersed among the houses are common. The houses are clustered and generally have.two to three stories. (C) FIGURE 11. Commercial building construe.ion in the large urban areas shows o trend toward skyscrapers. This combination office building and hotel is on the outer fringes of the con merc �ai area of Copenhagen. (C) Itighest elevotioit in tltc islands is?,,591 Ivel. Slolx�sarr tnore thatt :311rs in tlimly p1;,c�es. Lowlands gc.sivrally :trc aYmfittetl is n:urnc' areas ltcint ru flit� hilt -4or highlands and Lilt sea :uul arc small. 1)rairr3gi- featteres on the Favrov laatld> tan:isi.etif sided volle" and have sharp pointed lmaks and uurtterrttts sruall strenins and lakes. Nlot l sirvatos arr CT,Lggy cull rttuinttaius {�xteeitliug si.vural Itrtuthrrd 5111urt attd "wilt flerwirtg and plirtt>;e te%�e�r tiev steep feel aitove the geueroI surface". Elvvalions it re edges (if the upkil(k inter c"im;ll fiords and sounds. \o l erte�r,tlly he itweett I.I]IHl;tltd lAIM feet. hurt attnterents stre;ill is enure Ih:ut ill feel svitle and all are shallow, lu iks aTc rttare dean 2.0M fet.l :tltort� sr ;t le%�el; 'flue 'Che� rocky or ;ere hotiItler filled. FIGURE 10. IndivWual farmsteads r t such as sown here in central Jutland house the majority of the rural population of Denmark. The bulld- :f ir:gs generally are well can strvcted. (C) Il APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110018 -4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110018 -4 �rrsi\ Isar ..a essur tJ [lt