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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110022 -9 SECRET 13A /GS /SCI I, I 3 i f S f S East Gee August 1973 NATIONAL INT 0 SECRET NO FORFIGN DISSEM APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110022 -9 l. is 1. W..I NI& 11^ 'u s j WARNING The NIS is National Intelligence and may not be re- leased or shown to representatives of any foreign govern- ment or international body except by specific authorization of the Director of Central Intelligence in cccordance with the provisions of National Security Council Intelligence Di- rective No. 1. For NIS containing unclassified material, however, the portions so marked may be made available fcm official pur- poses to foreign nationals an.] nongovernment personnel provided no attribution is made to National Intelligence or the National Intelligence Survey. Subsections and graphics are individually classified according to content. Classification /control designa- tions are: (U /OU) Unclassified /For Official Use Only (C) Confidential (S) Secret APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110022 -9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110022 -9 r CONTENTS This chapter supersedes the scientific coverage in the General Survey dated February 1970. A. (General 1 B. Organization, planning, and financing of research 2 C. Scientific education, manpower, and facilities 5 D. Major research fields 6 1. Air, ground, and naval weapons 6 2. Biological and chemical warfare 8 3. Atomic energy 9 4. Electronics 10 5. Medical sciences, including veterinary medicine 12 I CONTENTS This chapter supersedes the scientific coverage in the General Survey dated February 1970. A. (General 1 B. Organization, planning, and financing of research 2 C. Scientific education, manpower, and facilities 5 D. Major research fields 6 1. Air, ground, and naval weapons 6 2. Biological and chemical warfare 8 3. Atomic energy 9 4. Electronics 10 5. Medical sciences, including veterinary medicine 12 SECRET No FonmrN DISSEM 1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110022 -9 rnnurn .:r- Sr,- r.,,,c t ?s -?r..r 9aaA'ne.r7`; "JLK",++++.a, ._.......f....aaxa.rrm+n+.a. ac:-ssr. a w.. r+. sc-. vr. m. ma. w.--....__.... .x..a- rn +a.r.^^t._':rr'C "9"_''-.'f:'Y`>'^.'.�a t r Page 6. Other sciences 13 a. Chemistry and metallurgy 13 b. Physics and mathematics 15 c. Astrophysical sciences 17 (1) Astronomy, upper atmosphere, and space sciences 17 FIGURES Page (2) Meteorology 17 (3) Terrestrial geophysics and geology 18 (4) Geodesy 18 (5) Hydrology and hydraulics 19 (6) Oceanography 19 Page Page Fig. 1 Organization of scientific and technical Fig. 4 Reactor hall and nuclear power reactor research (chart) 3 at Rheinsberg atomic powerplant (photos) 10 Fig. 2 Modular automatic map compilation Fig. 5 Oceanographic research ship, Professor system (photo) 7 Albrecht Penck (photo) 20 Fig. 6 Oceanographic survey ship, Meteor Fig. 3 Tank launched scissors bridge, BLG -60 photo) photo) 7 Fig. 7 Sites of scientific activity map) 21 E ii APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP0l- 00707R000200110022 -9 Sri 0ni.m 1e &Nm 4 C Science A. General (S) The quality of East German scientific research is good in fields which it has emphasized and supported. In overall technical competence East Germany ranks with the best among the Eastern European countries. When compared with the West German scientific effort, the country lags significantly in basic research but is nearly on a par in applied research and industrial technology. In general, research is still hampered by government restrictions, a lack of equipment, and the loss of scientific technical manpower suffered in the 1950's. The constant reforms and reorganizations of the inner structures within scientific organizations, key personnel replacements, and rigid controls of scientists and technologists at all levels have resulted in low morale and distrust among dedicated scientists in the country. Despite losses of large numbers of scientists and engineers who defected before the erection of the Berlin wall, however, the personnel situation at research institutes is relatively good. Before World War I Germany was considered the leading country in the world with respect to overall scientific accomplishments and capabilities. The scientific community enjoyed unusually good support from the govemment, and the country in general was oriented toward science and technology, providing a good environment for research in all branches of science. The outstanding achievements of German scientists in all important fields of science, as shown by the large number of Nobel prize winners, served to lend prestige to and stimulate interest in scientific research in Germany. Several factors contributed to the decline in Germany's relative position in the scientific world, including the unfavorable intellectual climate prevailing during the period of National Socialism and the rapid growth of science in other countries. During the period when the country was under Nazi rule, many prominent scientists left Germany, and emphasis was placed on military research and development. The scientific effort was affected seriously not only by the destruction during World War II of many universities, technical schools, research institutes, and laboratories but also by the Soviet occupation following the war. Much laboratory equipment was removed, and many scientists, engineers, and technicians were deported to the U. S. S. R. Research and development activities are oriented toward the economic needs of the country and requirements of the U.S.S.R. ,mast Germany plays a leading role after the Soviet Union in the Council for Economic Mutual Assistance (CEMA). The planned economy of the country retards progress in some technical fields as research becomes more and more adjusted to industrial production. Although the official position regarding support to basic research has vacillated, such research appears to be declining, while applied research is increasing in importance. As a result of Soviet pressure, scientific relations between East and West Germany have been very limited. At least up until 1972, the Government has discouraged East German scientists from belonging to West German scientific societies and has applied pressure to force scientists to resign their memberships 1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110022 -9 t in various professional and scientific societies in West Germany. During 1969 the government discontinued cooperation with West Germany in the publication of Chemisches Zentralblatt, the German chemical abstracts, which for many years had been an outstanding example of a highly successful joint effort by East and West German chemists. What influence the recent thaw between East and West Germany will have on scientific relations is unclear at this time. East German authorities recognize that the country is unable to conduct a comprehensive program of research in all fields of science and technology but must enter into cooperative scientific agreements with other countries. In 1968 East Germany and the Soviet Union signed an agreement providing for direct consultation between specialists of the two countries on long -range plans for the development of science and technology. Other agreements provide for the exchange of literature, scientific personnel, and new technical methods. At times the situation has been one sided, with the Soviets dominating the exchange, imposing work programs on East Germany, and exploiting the results obtained. During the past 15 years, 8,000 East German specialists were trained or have engaged in joint research investigations and studies in the U.S.S.R., and approximately 4,000 Soviet scientists had visited or spent some time in joint research activities in East Germany. East Germany has also entered into agreements for scientific and technical cooperation with Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, and other Communist countries. There is some evidence that the East Germans are reluctant to provide research results to other Eastern European countries in fulfillment of the agreements. East Germany has observer status in the United Nations and is a member of the specialized U.N. agency UNESCO. It participates in assistance programs in the less developed countries by extending credit, developing industries, and providing technical assistance and technicians. The country is a member of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research at Dubna in the Soviet Union and of other worldwide Communist organizations. It also is a member of the International Astronomical Union, the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) of the, International Council of Scientific Union, and the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics. B. Organization, planning, and financing of research (S) Although the East German organization for science and technology has undergone many changes since World War 1I, the structure has become more stable in recent years. Some internal reorganization appears to be continuing, however, within the major scientific bodies. The trend has been toward stronger governmental domination over research and development. Scientific affairs are controlled and financed entirely by the government, which in turn is under the control of the Communist party. The executive power of the government is vested in the Council of Ministers. The central agency of the Council of Ministers for the planning and management of the national economy is the State Planning Commission. The major responsibility for organization and planning of research is borne by this commission and its subordinate organization, the Council for Research and Development in Natural Sciences and Technology, usually referred to as the Research Council (FR). The State Planning Commission also directs international cooperation in science and technology (Figure 1). The FR is the highest scientific planning organization in the country and acts for the Council of Ministers in an advisory and coordinating capacity on research and development of concern to the economy. It was established in 1957 to introduce scientific and technical research results in all branches of industry. The FR has control of research resources, the training of researchers and their utilization, and the expansion of existing facilities. It is assisted in its advisory function by central working groups, which determine priority areas for research and are responsible for formulating research and development plans and programs in a specific area of science and technology. A special commission of the FIR coordi^ates and directs research on long -range problems and provides the means of collaboration with other Communist countries. The Ministry for Science and Technology is the administrative arm of the FR. This function was held by the State Secretariat for Research and Development until its replacement by the ministry in July 1967. The ministry is responsible for the execution of the research and development plan, primarily by providing financial assistance to scientific and technical institutes and other research installations. It has jurisdiction over the general direction of research and the areas of emphasis and may assign projects to individual institutes, including those under the Academy of Sciences of the German Democratic Republic (Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR� AW), East Berlin. The miristry coordinates the work of the FR's central working groups and also coordinates the activities and reviews reports of the N N. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110022 -9 Jnnorncrnc. 6 i Socialist Unity Party Central Committee I Sate Planning Commission C ouncil of Min isters Presidium Council. for Research and Development In Natural Sciences and Technology (FR) Ministries I National U ht Defense Industry Agriculture, Forestry, Education Health Science and Technology Academy and the of Sciences of the GDR (AW) Foodstuffs I I I Industry I WB for Technical Universities, Council for Central Production of Schools I Higher Planning and Institute for I 6 Sections Armaments Technical Coordination Information and I (UNIMAG) Agricultural Schools, of Medial Documentation I Resea ch Research Council Medial Sciences L_ I Academia, and Other Research Associations German Specialized of the AW Academy of Colleges VVB's Agricultural Subordination Sciences Coordination VEB's Industrial Medial Research Research Research Research Research Basic and Applied Institutes Institutes Institutes Institutes Institutes Research Institutes FIGURE 1. Organization of scientific and technical research (S) many advisory councils which have been established throughout the research and development sector at the management level. The regime is continuing its efforts to align research and development more closely with economic requirements. In the mid- 1960's the role of governmental ministries in research and development was strengthened when various "people -owned enterprises" (VEB's) were placed under appropriate ministries. The VEB's operate numerous industrial research and development laboratories and are grouped by type of industry into associations of people -owned enterprises (VVB's). The VVB's maintain about 100 industrial research institutes, constituting about 10% of the country's industrial research, development, design, and construction installations. In every industrial concern there is a new technology committee, the tasks of which are to monitor production rates, promote research and ri development activities, and arrange for interchange of technical information. All scientific workers and technicians within the industrial enterprises are required to cooperate with the committee, which in turn cooperates with the research centers of the VVB's. The main research organization is the AW. Formerly the German Academy of Sciences (DAW), it was renamed in October 1972; the statute and all rights and duties of the academy remained unchanged. The AW has a number of permanent advisory commissions under its presidium and operates almost 100 research installations grouped under six sections. The institut :s are organized into research associations, such as the Research Association of the Natural Scientific, Technological, and Medical Institutes, which establish priority for A W's research and assign to appropriate institutes the research projects placed with AW by other governmental agencies on a contractual basis. These associations work closely with the FR. The 3 a APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110022 -9 a i AW has made an effort to induce industrial establishments to conduct as much of their own research as possible so the AW institutes can concentrate on pure research. The AW is concerned also with personnel assignments and foreign travel for scientists and engages in research agreements with academies of sciences of other Soviet -bloc countries. It has about 20 national committees which are affiliated with international organizations. A reorganization of the academy has been underway since May 1068 with the objectives of making it an economical self supporting organization, obtaining better government control over the academy, and consolidating small institutes with related missions. In 1970 the Leipzig branch was reorganized. Its projects concerning fundamental research were transferred to institutes of universities and replaced with industrial and applied research work. There are several other scientific academies, The German Academy of Agricultural Sciences in Berlin, with 33 research institutes, is subordinate to the Agricultural Council. The institutes are grouped into six sections dealing with general agricultural research, studies of plants and seeds, and agrochemical research. The Saxon Academy of Sciences in Leipzig and the Leopold Caroline German Academy of Naturalists in Halle maintain libraries and publish journals but do not engage in scientific and technological research in their own institutes. Their members, however, are active in several institutes of the AW. Four academies promote medical sciences: the Medical Academies in Erfurt and Magdeburg; Carl Gustav Carus Medical Academy in Dresden; and the German Academy of Advanced Medical Training in Berlin- Lichtenberg. Military research is under the VVB for Production of Armaments (UNIMAG), which is responsible to the Chief of the Armament and Technology Directorate in the Ministry for National Defense. Medical research is carried out in institutes under the Ministry for Health and in medical higher schools under the State Secretariat for Higher Education. An important part of the scientific research, particularly basic research, is conducted in the universities and higher technical schools which have university standing and in the many large research institutes affiliated with the universities. Major research projects are assigned to individual faculties and institutes by the State Secretariat for Universities and Higher Technical Sch )ols on the recommendation of the FR. In each higher educational institution there is a prorector who is responsible for supervising research contracts negotiated between industrial enterprises and the institutes of the universities; some 4 of these institutes work almost exclusively for large VEB's which finance the contractual research and provide the research equipment. The Friedrich Schiller University, for example, works closely with the Carl Zeiss Works in establishing a closely related curriculum and research program in instrument design and production. Scientific and technical research and development function under long -range research plans and annual working plans. The plan for national research is one of four sections incorporated in the New Technology Plan, which is part of the national economic plan. The directives for research and development are drafted by the FR with assistance from the Ministry for Science and Technology, amended by the State Planning Commission, and approved by the Council of Ministers. East German research planning has been influenced by directives of CEMA, which in theory directs work throughout the East European countries under the overall control of the U.S.S.R. Each country is assigned responsibility for research in certain areas, and under CEMA the Academies of Science of all of the member countries have working agreements for broad exchanges of personnel and information on research and development. CEMA has established a Central Research Council in Karl- Marx Stadt to coordinate research efforts among the member countries. In practice, there has been some reluctance on the part of the East Germans to divulge technical information to other Eastern European countries. Only meager information is available concerning expenditures by East German industry, scientific academies, and universities for research and development, and the reporting is ambiguous. In general, research appears to be adequately financed with about 1.3 -1.5% of the gross national product allocated for research purposes. The shortage of personnel limits the amount East Germany is able to spend on research; the country apparently has been unable to utilize efficiently an increase greater than DME 100 million annually. Part of the funds provided by the government to higher educational institutions is used for research, but a major portion of the support of research in the higher educational institutions and in the institutes of the AW is derived from contracts with industrial enterprises. The Ministry for Science and Technology is assumed to be responsible for the allocation and approval of funds for research and development projects. During 1966 more than DME 2.3 billion reportedly were allocated to research and development centers. Of this amount, about 90% was allocated for research and development in industry, 4' APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110022 -9 r yxwF t .CC rq- +as9?m:- n r.'.^-- v y+ rr ...t.....� .-r r. ^.o.,cyy