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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP0l- 00707R000200110025 -6 SECRET 871 GSlAF e 1 i I Ecuador J uiy 1973 r NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY P SECRET NO PUREIGN DISSEM 3-211 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP0l- 00707R000200110025 -6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110025 -6 3_ WARNING The NIS is National Intelligence and may not be re- leased or shown to representatives of any foreign govern ment or international body except by specific outhorizatiot, of the Director of Central IntePigence in accordance with the provisions of National Security Council Intelligence Di- rective No. 1. For NIS containing unclassified material, however, the portions so marked may be made available for official pur- poses to foreign nationals and nongoverrment personnel provided no attribution is made to National Intelligence or the National Intelligence Survey. Subsections and prop hits are individually classified according to content. Classificotion /control designo- tions are: (U/ OU) Unclassified /For Official Us Only (C) Confidential (S) Secret .r APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110025 -6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110025 -6 ECUADOR CONTENTS Tits, chanter sunersedea Ac armed /orres coverage to the Gotteral 5arvey dated September 1968. A. Defense establishment 1 1. Military history 4 2. Command structure 4 E. joint activities 7 1. Military manpower and morale 7 2. Strength trends 8 3. Training S 4. Military budget 9 5. Economic support and logistics 10 SecHas No Foaescrt Mssrm APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110025 -6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110025 -6 C. Army 1. Organization 2. Strength, compnsition, and disposition 3. Training 4. Logistics 5. Army aviation D. Navy 1. Organization 2. Strength, comlosition, and disposition Page 10 3. Training 12 4. Logistics 12 5, Marine corps 13 6. Naval air arm 15 E. Air force 16 1. Organization 16 2. Strength, composition, and disposition 17 3. Training 19 4. Logistics FIGURES Pa ge Fig. 1 National defense organization (chart) 6 Fig. 2 Armed forces strength trends table) 8 Fig. 3 Army organization chart) 11 Fig 4 French A \1X -13 light tank photo) 13 Fig, 5 New Panhard ANIL -243 annored cars photo) 1:4 Fig. 0 Army conscript receiving land title photo) 15 31 Fig. 7 Navy organizltion (chart) Fig. S Navy flagship 25 de Julio photo Fig. 9 Air force organization (chart) Fig, 10 Air force EAC lf'7 Strikemaster air- craft (photo) Fife. 11 FR -9 Mcteor aircraft (photo) Page 20 21 21 21 9 22 23 25 25 Page 18 20 22 '4 24 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110025 -6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110025 -6 Z Armed 'forces A. Defense establishment The Ecuadorean Anned Forces. ,Ove total 21,813 men, rank ronsidenih1% ixlow those of the adjaeent cmuntries of C:tilombia and Perm in size, equipment. and general effectiveness. 'rite 17,000 -man army is primarily a lightly armed forcr having 69 light tank., 38 other armored vehicles, and 52 howitzers (65 to l0i mm). The navy, which has 3, HR) rncn, including :380 marines, ba sys its strength on seven combat ships and 10 patrol craft, including three West German built fast patrol boats. The Air force h as 1.665 men and 91 aircraft. Of These, 32 are combat aircraft, among which are 28 jets. In times of emergency, the 7,050 -roan National Civil Police, normally under the Minister of Government and Police, comes under the control of the Minister of National Defense, and the 9-Wman Customs Police, normally under the M mister of Fiuunce, comes under t vn of the Army Commander. (5) The mission of these forces, as stated in the 1945 Constitution. is to "preserve the national sovereignty, defend the integrity and independence of the R mud guarantee [tic execution of the articles in the C onstitutinu and the laws." Although the armed l owt are relatively Ion� in effectiveness compam.l with Similar units in the armed forces of neighh.,ring countries, officer training is excellent, and ,.misted peruiunel are well disciplined and inured to hardship. The major problems ure that alx half the perumnel are I- ycaratnscript,, much of the materiel is old and poorly maintained. ille logistics system is poor, and the country is dependent upon foreign souTm for materiel, including amnunlition. Moreover, during '...'':.iSae-.�sT �n: APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110025 -6 Air force S-55 Sikorsky helicopter APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110025 -6 1960 -61 and 1970-72, tumor capable senior military officers were retired by President Velasco ltaarra, and this practice has crippled the military leadcrmhip and thus the effectiveness of the armed form, During 1970-72 alouc he retired over Wit of trite army colonels, filling key mililary posts with officers chosen for personal 'm alty.,to hits regardless of their skill or effectiveness. Armed forces capabilities are farther hindered by a chrolde shortage of funds that h:r; prevented any major purchases of new equipmetll since World War 11. The- government renewed its efforts to update and nlotderrlive the armed forces through equipment ptireli scs iri 11:170 and 1971, however. Anticipated oil revenues also should allow a major ntoderrtii, tion of the materiel inventory. (C) Ecteador's di;saiisfactiou over a hoaudary settlement with Peru is cYrnsidered to be the ollly potential source of arined confliel with a neighboring country. I lislorically, fear of au invasion by superior Peruvian forces has L'aElse [l ;euador to keep three of its six brigade's at the so utherir zone of tile cotatiry ]n internal security, the armed forces area effective in controlling urban disorders and in olicrations against smalI guerrilla bands, although they would be ineffective if Confronted with the unlikelyclinting ellcy of widespread guerrilla action. They became particularly aware of the importance of training for internal secarit+ ati a result of the uilian disorders beginning in 19-39 in cYEnnecti'on with the Inter- American Conference panned for Quito. Sinn: that lime, tire. armed forces have devoted considerable attention to iutemal security, particularly in urban areas. The arloy is more effective th:111 the lxilive in controlling urhan dis6rde:rs and fretitiently is given this resimnsibility when there :ire serious problems. it has rtxveived training and erperiencx� in riot control and is very alert to d4-vc* Io,:ing urban threats, 'rite navy, also, is oce:asiorially involved and has created a mariner hattidion for internal security, especially at Couvitquil. The army has 'devoted attention to the threat of guerrilla insurgency, creating foul special securih' detachnien!s of ;llxtul 42 to oleos each, deployed at atrutegic hicutions Ili the interior for quick use against rural insurgents anti against s:tkxoteun in th important petnticum.arcas of the Oriente region in t c neirtlicast: In.adrlitiun; the urmy Ilas a 3Wrnan rapid reaction forec'availulslc for- trerislxort by the air force to vontrad security crises develapitig anvivIiere in the ct untrv:' These ,forces have Ewen suecec+fnl I crmtrolling few, insurgclil attcrnpts that have lotto made but those movements have hcei I i weak used bare been unaltle .to gr in the support aF the rural ixopulatIon, wldch As _relativcly," suspicioil of: all .2 oulsiders. There has 'been no a live rural insurgency since 1962, bnl the rnilitary (.10110 lilies to give Considerable attention to the 1xite.ntial thteal..(G) As 1xlrt of its cimevrn with iulcrna laccti;t}' and :ES u c'tmtributiin to national development. the arnwd forces devote- Imnsiderable effort toward civic action. Major army projects inciudv-' madbuilding into the interior by the army s two engineer lxittalions, conlrrnrnity development pmjecls the army's two civic acliort ltaltalious, iul the training of sonic 400 conscript personnel per year in agricuklur4 and frontier settlement undt;r tire. Itrcigrarn. of the ariov's milital'y Agrarian 'Training [rage. The navy uses its floating repair shop to perform ini:ror machine wort:. welding. ciectriorki repair, and other smims in small cons lil towels that lack sholsifaciiities. it controls Tremsportcs Navierms lsctuilvrianos ('THANSNAVr), organized in early 1972 kinder a Septeinber 1971 decree.:uid, through that ccrrnpany, rnaliages a new mixed capital shipping; company established 14 September 1972 -11c l7ota Petrigera l t teuturiurru (F LOPEC). FLOI'ls'C is to transport half of tits petroleum brought by pipeline front e astern Eellad'tr to tim Pacific. 'rite rtatiy is to provide officers to Cc>rrurt:uul the shills owned or leased by FLOPEC. The air force for many years has operatcKl etod Staffed a domestic cominercH airline, Transport" Acrem Militares Ecuatorionos (TAV1 providing service to remote areas not profitable for, or serve by regular commerical airlines. It al,%o supervises an intcnlatiolial comincroal airline, Compania Ecuatoriuna tie; Aviocion, acquired by the goveriirticnt in August 1972; Iwth airlines have been niergvd in the single (mixed Capital Aviation Conlpmry of Ecuador, 525e of whose shares are owned by the government tllntugh TAM E. 11olh they navy and air farce provide medical resent and medical service to outlying Areas that would otherwise not rec'cive any medical care. 'rite training of tiiilitary regular and vooscript perseannel alms assures the existence of a stational txxtl of technically qualified personnel, Wilt), opm iele.�asc front military service, collitribute inte ileotiAly and econoniically to. 1 national development. (C) Ecuador is a member of [lie Organization of American :States .anif of the Inter= Atliehmirt Defeitt Iiiruel" which .plans for ;tlie joint defense of the Western I It is a signatory pf the Inter- American Treaty of Reciproce.d Assistance (Bit) Treaty) of 1917, under munch it assumes tilt' obligation to support other American states threatened by aggression. In :19 1, Ecuador" signets the ,Caraca's ftcsoltttion,:. Hltich: dcclarcd that `tlic domination or contwiA of iin American state by tile interriational APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110025 -6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110025 -6 fit? APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110025 -6 Co llinlllnst nlovelliellt Constitutes a threat to the loilitar� reserve sysle.n ill 1971 -77, three Colotnbi ;Ills hemisphere alldmiloires hater- Amerium cousllltatiorl. (two oil 19 70-71 and an additional officer ill IJ72) k 4 The armed forces havc displayed al willillgiless to giving trainhilg ill canine corps and military police supptlrt these agreements, Until 1972. the military tevimiques. two limp %iliall officers advising the collsislenlll'si {led will' tile U.S. position on. Cuba. For 111slitnte of Advanced National Studies (slnve 197 2). example, lit 1962 the military leaders forced leftist two Chilean officers advising the Army Advanced Ptbsidclit Curlos Julio Arosemena to break diplomatic School (since 1973), and a F&rich officer advishkg the relaliolis with the 0 1batl Goverillllent. Ulxtn cotlt11bg amity on the m;tintemmee of its new French tanks and to 1XI'ver .ill 196 the military junta outlawed the vehicle-, (1972 -73). The United States supplied Colm omisl hlTtw Will arreSted many leftists, To sigoflficant amounts of assistance almost all as grant preclude rank- .Ind -file suppx>'rt of colmilllnism alllti- aid, surf contribulev.l toward ilnprovcmellt ill the Cotnrrl.lillist doctrine has been hide led in Ifle initial organization. training, and equipment elf the armed V training of all nev personnel since the mid- I9.Ws. In forces. (S) laid 1972, the utililary government voted in the UAS lit September 1969, Ecuador deuounced the 1952 ill favor of the Peruvian- sl resolution which mutl.:11 defeltse assisiarice agreement, slid the navy, would h=ave permitted each Ilu[ian to establish army, and air forge mission agreements of 19.10, 19.14, relations with Cuba if it so desired. Eviiadors vole, and 1940, reslx,clively. and lcsked for a single however. was motivated by its desire to maintain a agreetilcot to replace them. Friction hud existed sine-, revolutionary, linage' for inlenwl lxllilicuY eYlusidcr :e- [lie 19a0's over Ecuadorean seizures of U.S. puns lxnits lions rather than by its desire to renew relaliam with fishing inside F.cuaid or s claimed 24111 -mile territorial Culxt. Exuador supporls international arms control waters. The limblein asskime:d critical proportions agmenients and has ratified the uucicar itrinprolifera- begintii ig ill mid January 1971, when Ecuador began tion lrealy. (S) to seize and injimse sizable fine -.ou imprecedcntedly Foreign millilary missions have exercised ;let large plumbers of U.S. tuna boats. The first of 51 imptalant influence on the EXisadorean forces. The Fcoadurcim seizure's during It)71 occurred tin I1 first foreign tlffil rs who assisted ill training the January. There were only two seizures in IWO, )xltil ill E Army curer frown France ill th e 1890's. A Februart Oil 12 January 1971 :ill anlemin to) t he Cl.ilcan military training mission served in Iknililor U.S. Foreign lti1ilitary Sales (I'MS) Acl waseilacted. It from 1899 unlit W orld War 1, french a t d vlsers. serve direct the suspe of FNIS-tran t a ny with the airforce Aviation Se hool until 1922, and all c'tlllntrl seizing a U.S. fishing boat beyond 12 mile$. Ita l ian military mission Served fmm 1922 unt (lie from its toasts. Tile.' Smix 'iisioll was to remaill in effect beginiliug 0CW0rld War H. Sitic% that tinge, the For 1'2 inunths from the date of [lie last seizure unless Ultit0d States hus exercised the -predominuul wuived b th U.S. President., kcuadir seize two influence. As a result of a 1910 agreemelit, a.U.S. Iklats, one ou 15 Jariuilryand'one mi 17 Jarmury, and naval mud a military aviation mission served ill ime IS January 1971 the U; 5: suspended niiiilary sales Ecuador after early 1941. Undcr a 1942 agreement, tai Ecuador. The Fcuutlorean Co�ernmeitt .:actcd liv [lie Uriketl States established air !rises oil the reiltiesting the withdrawal of the. U.S. MilitarvCrotlp, Galapagos Islands SAin mi the mainland for which amw was iilactivated on 5 protection of (lie Panama Ca nal. lit 1944 a U. S. S[ IICC` th t Cf mi li ution o U.S. rnilit ,..Iles a I td military lllissi6n, w as: assigned to Ecuador, and small irlterruption iIF. U.S: training pnigrams, U .S. it lllilellCe a of U.S. rnilitam inqu provided him deA rlecl. E cuador had re l i Cd .la rg e l y on the U ;S. un Loid- Leus a r id, l ater, under other aid for rniiterie ,ealtholagh ill 1970 It pu rc ch as e d US-$1.,5 programs Etuadcir was' the. first L.aiin 'American 'million of. iilateriel from third. countries. With the Country to sigi the Military `-Assistance Pmgriinl_ suspension of U.S.: stiles,' Ecuador again is acquiring ring or1.2- Fehruaq 1952.- This agreement items frJ v third awntrics [a.replacY its delerioraiting provided the basis for the `cnnlumiug iikduntry U.S inventory. fntlude transport and preseilce,;of tllc U S :A :rev, :Nuvv,'Arid A fighter aircraft from the United. Kingdom; tanks missions ind for: militury assistdtice to the coolntrv. rmored. cars, and'hclkitpfers frown France; munitions The c were the :ori training``rnpssions cxcrpt 'fora froiil .IklpGium slid three: fast putml lit;tts` fro 11 :11'csl n uilwrof small training twills from other ernantrics CC'r_many.% :TlIe Soviet Unitin: reportedly tried to sell a smuil Chileain mission `'lit; the Army` Watr College:_' 'materiel to Ecuiidor irr Fehruurv-Mvrelr 1.971, but_the during 1956 -fit; an Israelp adviser Seri` agriculturlll in ilptarj did not uccept the offer. a o3[1 October 1972: trciining fnim the catty l9ws, an Isrricli iit#vlser_nrt the the iiclvicts: retxirletlly crfferr'ti.;.Ecuadctr' substantial fit? APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110025 -6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110025 -6 grant military aid, but this offer, if, still outstanding, also probably will be rejected. (S) Ecuador has partiepated regularlylin UNITAS, the arnnual combined U.S. -Latin American naval exercises, but largely because of the dispute with the United States over offshore fishing rights, the Ecuadorean Government in 1971, 1972, and 1973 decided against particpation. (S) I. Military history (S) The Ecuadorean Army and Navy grew out of the forces that fought for independence from Spain during 1809 -22. Subsequently they formed part of [l ie forces of Gran Colombia until Ecuador gained its independence from that entity in 1830. A military academy was first established in 18M but was later closed. (The present milita academy was founded in- 1899 by Cloy Alfaro, considered by Ecuador its greatest military leader.) The Naval Academy was established in Guayaquil in 1.553, and the Air Force Aviation School was created' in 1921. Generally the military forces have performed, poorly in war_ They were involved in a number of indecisive clashes with the forces of Colombia and Peru during 1845 -60, primarily Over border disputes. The only full -scale military confrontation in the 201h century was with Peru over a boundary demarcation. After a number of border clashes, Pciu invaded Ecuador and inflicted a humiliating acfeat in July 1941 on the ve.-y inferior Ecuadiircan forces. Ironically, Ecuador's chief military glory also stems from that war, when, in the naval Battle of Jambeli, an Ecuadorean gunboat, the Abdon Calderon, or 26 July 1941 fought and crippled the much larger Peruvian destroyer Almirante Villar. As a result of the war,.Ecuador was forced to concede to Peru nearly half the tenritory to, which it has laid claim since independence, losing its direct access to the Amazon River. The urrrted forces occasionally intervened in the government during turbulent political periods in the 19th and early 20th centuries, b ut they gene rally have sought to avoid such action. The 192fi lL awof Military Status and Promotions for Officers, designed to free the `armed forces fmm political pressures, encouraged the .military to become more professionally oriented. However,* 'military" men occasionally have felt .compelled to intervene in. :governmental affairs because of their responsibility to "guarantee the execution of the articles in the Constitution." On 28 May 1944,. the military ousted President Carlos Arroyo del Rio, for rigging his successor's election and allowed the installation of Jose Maria Velasco lWrra the most Popular contender, who had been excluded from the .election. On 24 August 1947, the military ousted Velasco lbarra but relinquished power to civilian rule within a month. In succecding years, military men several' times took decisive action to forestall threatened coups. In 1961 the }'.unsuccessfully tried to forestall a Congressional coup, -mu ncuvered by ultraleftist Vice President Carlos Julio Arosemena, that ousted President Velasco Ibarra from his fourth term and permitted Arosemena to become President. 1he military leaders endured his adical policies 'and disgraceful public behavior until 1963, when ;)is toleration of a threat of developing Communist guerrilla w and terrorism, together uith the c haotic dom{.'iiticsituation, forced their interrintion. A military junta.govcmed for a ycaii and attempted to institute administrative rued fiscal reforms, enacting an agrarian rc`form law,' improving the investment climate, and preparing- a lo6g -range rlGvelopment program. Despite 'their good intentions few actual reforms were accomplished, when the junta sought to collect higher business taxes to compensate for a failing economy, business interests refused. Political opposition leaders, labor leaders, radical students, and businessmen united to force [lie junta from office. From 1966 to 1972, tho military remained in the background, although in 1.970 they encouraged again President Velasco lbarra to assume dictatorial powers when Congressional intransigence paralyzed govern- ment .operations. However, when Velasco seemed unable to prevent radical leftist Assiid Bucarvrn, the most popular contender from running in the mid 1972 .election, the military ousted Velasco on 15 February 1972. The new government of, Gen. Guillermo Rodriguez Lura has espoused a policy of economic development, elimination of corruption, and social improvements. It established the institute of Advanced National Studies to assist in the planning and formulation of national policy. Military officers now hold most of the high administrative positions in the, national and provincial governments and the presidencies of two mixed capital corporations. 2. Command structure (C) The President of the Republic, by the 1945 Constitution, is the Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces and is responsible for public order. and the external security of the nation He is supported by two committees ---the National Security Council and the National Defense Board (Figure 1)_ The the largest a most influential i f the thice services, and army officers. hold the largest number of important: govemrent positions, 4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDPOl- 00707R000200110025 -6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110025 -6 r ro to dvit- Ti le National Security Council advises the President on external and internal security and plans and coordinates security measures throughout the government.-It is headed by the President, has the Minister of National Defense us Vice President of the Council, and also includes all other Cabinet ministers, tlae three service commanders as members of the Joint Command of the Armed Forces, [lie President of the Economic Planning and Coordination Board, the President of the Foreign Trade and Integration Institute, and the President of the Monetary Board. The Secretary Ceneral of the National Security Council, u senior military officer, ,advises the President on security affairs. The Secretariat Ceneral includes four functional divisions, for planning and coordination. The National Security Council also supervises the senior national agencies concerned with intelligence, mobilization (tin be activated), and civi) defense (to be activated), as well as the Institute of Advanced National Studies. The council originally was created by the military junta thatgovemed during 1963.66. It was fairly active during that period, but seldom met thereafter and had little influence during President Velasco lbarra's 1968 -72 term. It is now active ugain. The National Defense Board administers the nonbudgetary Special Accounts of 'the defense establishment. The board consists of the Minister of National Defense, the Minister of Government and Police, the Minister of Foreign Affairs, a representative of the Consultative Staff of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Minister of Finance, the Assistant Comptroller General, the General Manager of the Central Bank, the President of the Supreme Court, a delegate from the Office of-the Cardinal, the members of the Joint Command of the Armes! Forces, and [lie Chief of the Joint Staff of the Armed Forces. When the military assumed power in February 1972, a Council of Government' consisting of one representative from each of the three services. was formed.. This council, responsible for advising tike President on legislation and for investigating cases of govemmental graft, wus phased out the following: Novembci and replaced by a legislative commission of five civilian lawyers. The exercises control _over the _military establishment through the Minister. of Notional Defense: The,. minister normally is a civilian taut: presently is a retired army general:.. The.%b:secretary National Defense, who assists the Minister of Notional Defense, is traditionally a military officer. The minister and subsecretary have a small vxeculive staff of five departments and rely on the armed forces Joint Staff f6f most staff support. The minister directs the armed forces through the Joint Command of the Armen Forces. He also chairs the National Council of Merchant. Marine and Ports, established in September 1970 as the highest level advisory body on policy matters concerning ports, The Joint Command of the Armed Forces is a co rporate bod consisting of t he three service commanders. The service commander who is senior in rank is designated as Chief of the Joint Command, a largely honorary position, which includes membership an tlae foreign Relations Consultative Board (advisory body to the President) and on the Directorate of the Ecuadorean State Petroleum Corporation. The Chief of the Joint Command of the Armed Forces theoretically exercises command over the three services but, in actuality, has no authority over the individual service commanders. The Joint Command was established in May 1971 to replace the overall command position of the Chief of the Armed Forces Cen.eral' Staff. The Joint Command of the Armed Forces aW tine President, the Minister of National Defense, am) the National Security Council on security matters, coordinates joint military operations, and reviews the plans and programs of the three services, including their budget submissions. It also supervises the security forces assigned to protect high government Quito. The. Joint Command is supported' by -the Joint Staff and through that body, exercises (command over the Point- service Military MedicaT: (The Armed Forces Military Hospital; at Quito, however, is un the command of the logistics Department (D -1V) of the Army General Staff:) 'Cher .Joint staff always: has been_ somewhat ineffective because of a lack of training, funds,. and interest but the military government that came to power,in February, 1972 has shown greater interest in the stuff and, reportedly plans to increase its icsponsibilities; The joint, Staff is headed bythe Chief cif the Joint'" Staff; and consists of `four .numbered directorates and. three other sections. The.individual service rommandcrs exercise: the rear command uu* diotity' for their respective se .es and have considerable _autonomy: in internal service matters. Howover. ;President Rodriguez,' an army brigadier:genaial .who. has.rcmained: in active duty status, plays a fairly ,active role in all' important military matters,.particulady in the .army. a. kii' S11bd 'hWkk'iY(Afl'L1':Yk iverrinlental pcis'ttions since the liberal. exenapltion iolicy. A'p -mou is exenipt if lie is an 15 FArtiury 1972 Military. con have 'dense( only soli, is enrolled iti a higher cd oic ationai ap>iplicuIions for early retiremeit to incmusc d I instiltrtinn* or is the major 5txppcticr of his Family. in the navy, .verse officer co 4s is already depfcicd by Conscripts purticipalting ill the Ecuadorean Militury A u,, high r att riti ot i ra te. The Army. and air farce off cer inust' fill gnirmnaent lint Agrariian Conscription progr in for I year rec'Cive a vorpx also positions, the document- tVcrtifyi:ly, fulfillment of the ntilit service APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110025 -6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110025 -6 obligation. To he exempt, students culled by the draft are required to prove their enrollment in an educational institution and, thereafter, to demonstrate .regular attendance in piemilitary courses if these are offered by their schools. Students enrolled under a premilitary trn:ning program attend it half day of military classo each Saturday. moming during their final year of high school and continue this training in [lie university. The course culminates in two month sessions of intensive Ironing with it rc;ular army unit at the end of the 3d and 4th years ioi,s warfare capability. *ith its'smdll marine battalion, Although it has some ships equipped with the necessary weapons and sbnur for suoce sf al antisubmarine warfare (A5W) operations, training is so infrequent that overall ASWreapahility is Very boor: The navy is capable of cpntcolling ltlr country's APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110025 -6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110025 -6 fisheries and lite port facilities_ It lacks training, equipment, and persmtnel to perform adequate coastal surveillance and intercept operations under combat oxnditions. Major pmblerms include the small size of the service; old equiprnestl. carious officer shudagrs :is a result of the requirement for navy officers to share the burden of government administration; frequent reassiguntents of key personnel: inadequate training afloat; shortages of [land weapoiis and ship arrtament and equipment; dependence upon foreign sources for supply, particularly ships and weapons; and Inadequate maintenance rocedures. (C) I. orpnization (C) The Ecuadorean Navy is theoretically etx4lual to the army and air force under the Joint Command of the Arnted Forces, Tile naval forces are headed by the Commander of the Navy (Figure 7), who has both operational and administrative control over the forces afloat and the shore establishment. Directty str[xordinate to the commander is a Navy General Staff of five numbered departments and five other staff sections. Command lines extend from the Commander of the Navy, iu Quilo, to the Naval Squadron Commander, the three Naval bone Commandants, the Cure mander Of the marine corps (Naval Infantry Battalion), the Director of Supply and Material, the Director of Naval Personnel, the Commandant of lite Naval War College, and the Director of Merchant Marine and of lite littoral. The Commander of the Navy, through the Director of Maritime Affairs, also supervises TRANSNAVE (Transportes Navitrox Ecuatorianos- Ecuadorean Naval 'Transport). The president of its gov -ruing board, whip is also the Commander of the First Naval lame and, in this capacity, reports to the Commmunder of the Navy. Tile Naval Squadron is based at Guayaquil, Ecuador's principal port and the main navy base. The squadron includes the Destroyer Division, a Mortar Torpedo Boat Division (formed in 1971), and an Auxiliaries Division. The First Naval 7aone, with headquarters in Guayaquil, encompasses most of the navv's shore facilities, including the main base, at Guayaquil; and two secondary [lasts, one at Sam Lorenzo (on the Columbian losrdtr) and tlke other at Salinas. Beginning In the fall of 1970, the navy established si amall detachments at the coastal ports of Manta, Esmeraldas, Ruenfuerte, and Puerto Bolivar. I! reportedly has purrs far establishing at least two Other detachments. The First Naval Zone also has a POW Launch Division and an Auxiliaries Divisor. The marine corps is husrd in the First Naval7aone. In rnid -1972 the rrarioe corps was planning to station a 52 -man detachment at the oil port of Baiao, ,scar Esmeraldas, to provide security for tine Texaco -Gulf facilities. The Second Naval Zone, with headquarters in San Cristobal, comprises the Galapagos Islands, which are wholly administered by the navy It includes the naval base at Sun Cristobal, a naval air facility at Seymour, three naval detachments stationed at Isabela, Santa Cruz, and Isla Santa Maria (also known as Floreana island), and art auxiliaries division_ It serves primarily as a port control authority and has no combat craft. The Third Naval 7Aone, established by decree in May 1972, has its headquarters at Coca (also known as Puerto de Orellana), in eastent Ecuador. It reportedly has authority over all naval activity on rivers within lite Ecuadorean lxlyders io they oil -rich area cast of the Andes Mountains. It is not known what vessels, if any, have been assigned to this new vine. The Directontte of Supply and Material, based at Guayaquil, maintains the Navas Shipyard, the Supply Center, the Combustibles and Ammunition Depot, the Medical Center, and the Office of Reserve Ships, The Directorate of Naval Personnel controls the Naval Academy and the Recruit Training School, both at Salinas; the Specialist School, split between Salin and Guayaquil; and the Welfare Service, which looks out fo the welfare of naval personnel. The Directorate of Merchant Marine and of tike Littoral is respxnssible for port captains and for registering ships in the merchant marine. It also directs the Naval Oceanographic Institute, in Gtiay;iquil. This institute, created by decree in )uiv 1972, replaced the Hydmgraphie and Meteorological Semite and has ]Wert given expanded responsibilities for oeensio- graphic studies, Using the hydrographic -ship Orion, it collects data for cltarts of the coast and harbors. It also has begun a series of studies of the phyiical, chemical, geological, and biological characteristics of the ocean. TRANSNAVE is an independent body reporting thrrltlgh the Director of Maritime Affairs to the Commander of the Navy. Established in curly 1972, it is under the directorship of a seven member board whose president is the Commandant of Cite First Naval Zone. Its primrw missions art to provide the government with vvmrne rctial o cean transport capability, including the transport of .half of Ecuador's exporled oil and the provision of maritime 'transportation to the Galapagos Islands. In the latter function, TRANSNAVE will supplement rite transport service available to the Galapagos performed by one auxiliary craft assigned to the Second Nava) Zone. TRANSNAVE. thus, will enable the navy to earn extra 17 ....r.....a. coca. e sa5l- arf.`.h....r. :MxwNtiFasKr, APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110025 -6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110025 -6 s a `.YSt ba "1 Y 7Q x 0 z tt V i K h x b 8 C. 2 yy /V A APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110025 -6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110025 -6 in '0I?W and will give additional sea expericice t o naval officers aid crews. zNavp cYmmoiications were rated as good us recvntly 197n in a joitit exercise, bill the eoqui pilluit has been poorly mainlainxi, particularly since the navy lost its primary seiuree of spatrc parts when U.S, military Inatcriel support wits slsspelided ill January 1971. SN'Orul phase of At proctaemenJt progrtrn whose goal is a total of 12 PTF's. Tt craft, similar to the three FI'F's provided by the I -r. l.tterrren %I'crff shipyard in 1971, relxirtedly will be armed with the MM -38 Isxoeel surface -to- surface: missile and are to be delivered in 1976 -78. 111 Deceniber 1972 [lie. navy reportedly wiltiested that tlk. United Kingdon). I. ranee, {'1aly. unl West Cerrnamy Ile itsked to subiiit ten itich,ditig prick salad av:i[ahihty, Oil either two �100 6110- standardAon coastal submarines or two) :50- 100 -ton small sihmarines. The Ekitadorean Navy has a total of 3,130 personnel, including a 580 -inau inarike battalion. Thera arc 2-50 officers and 2,900 enllsled Incra (plus 123 nnidshipinen). of all the naval per'l onrtel, 4055' g;cnerally are assigned afloat Nlost txrs